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Mountain Life & Work vol. 13 no. 4 January, 1938 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv13n40138 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 13 no. 4 January, 1938 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky January, 1938 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. M O U NTAI N~ L'I FE WORK THE RURAL ARTS EXHIBITION CLEMENTINE DOUGLAS ADVENTURES IN RECREATION', FRANH H. SMITH VARDV` COMMIJNITY SCHOOL CHESTER Fo LEONARD, JANUARY, 113 V0LUM8 RIII NUMMBR 4 MOUNTAIN, LIFE A," WORK AS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY AT BEREA, KENTUCKY, IN THE INTEREST OF FELLOWSHIP AND MUTUAL UNDERSTAND;IITG BETWEEN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE BEST OF THE NATION. IN 'THIS ISSUE JANUARY - ^ John A. S pelman 111 1 ADVENTURES IN RECREATION Frank H. Smith- 2 I VARDY COMMUNITY SCHOOL Chester F. Leonard 4 THE RURAL ARTS .EXHI$~ITION . , . Clementine Douglas 8 VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE INSTITUTE ' ' ' - ' Glyn A. Mortis THE TRENDS AND FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN KENTUCKY Leo M. Chamberlain THE TRENDS AND FUTURE OF PRIVATE MOUNTAIN SECONDARY SCHOOLS , Leo. K. Pritchett 'THE TENNESSEE CONFERENCE 1VFIAT.~THEY ARE DOING THE REVIEWING STAND EDITORIALS INDEX TO VOLUME X111 Frank C. Foster 27 29 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XIII JANUARY, 1938 NUMBER 4 i `~ctliLtct7tj John A. Sjrelrnnn 111 Courtes) of Pine Mountain Scttlemrnt Srhoal Page 2 MouNwoN Lint AND Worth January, 1938 ADVENTURES IN RECREATION DRANK On October 1, 1937, I took up my abode at the hospital Club House at the Robinson Experiment Station, Quicksand, Kentucky, as a staff member of the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Kentucky. The action of the University in establishing a recreational headquarters for eastern Kentucky is entirely in harmony with social trends in rural America. The Agricultural Extension Service has contributed significant services not only of an agricultural character but also in arts and crafts, and adult education. The story of this movement is full of inspiration and romance. The 4-H Clubs, for example, have probably done more than any other organization to emphasize these memorable words of Glenn Frank: "Agriculture is a life as well as a livelihood. There is poetry as well as production on a farm. Art can help us to preserve the poetry while we are battling with the economics of farming." The present regional plan of recreation in eastern Kentucky has grown out of the Itinerant Service of the Conference of Southern Mountains Workers, begun in 1933. Richard M. Seaman is at present the leader of this itinerant Service which has supplemented recreational activities in schools and community centers within the Conference. Athletics have not been sponsored by the itinerant Service, as schools and colleges frequently employ trained leaders in sport and physical education. Folk ganies, folk singing, story-telling, traditional, games, shepherds pipes, puppetry, and dramatics have been the stock-in-trade of the itinerant leaders. Music and dramatics not infrequently are included in a school program. The itinerant leader can, however, bring new material in these fields. My experiences of the past three months have been rich and varied. In order to meet regular appointments at fifteen centers, I have traveled over three thousand miles in all kinds of weather. The schedule has been a joy and sometimes a despair. As a salesman of recreation I have been ice-bound and nearly snow-bound. My car brakes have frozen and my battery has failed me. I have enjoyed teaching a sword dance in the new and beautiful Recreation Hall at Hindman; I have led singing games at schools without indoor facilities H. SMITH for active recreation. But when it rains or snows one can lead singing, tell stories, or teach woodcarving. At Hyden we baptised with play the unfinished stone school building. In Owsley County Philip Grimwood drove Mr. Punch and his kinfolk over tile worst roads in the United States. On November 20 at the Robinson Experiment Station we held the first regional Play Day. In spite of icy roads 130 people from three counties gathered in Cooper Hall. Chester Bower of the University of Louisville brought a party of visitors who were enthusiastic about the joy it was to watch and to participate. The program was one of singing games, folk dances, a wood-carving exhibit and a Punch and Judy show. The happiest spirit prevailed. Circles moved gaily over the floor of the vast building. The rough walls and wooden pillars, the great iron stove, the corn and fruit in the rear-all helped to create a suitable atmosphere. One realized how these old folk dances from American pioneer days, from Scandinavia and from "merrie" England had in past centuries been enjoyed in similar surroundings. One could not but recall what the late E. O. R obinson had told a group of us a few years ago upon his return from a visit to Switzerland and other places in Europe. He spoke of the native culture of those countries being revealed in such things as garden terraces and songs and dances. It was his dream that similar spontaneous joy might blossom in eastern Kentucky. Wood-carving is a hobby which instantly appeals to people in the mountains. Like other crafts, it is a sort of insurance against old age. The mother of a Perry County school teacher displays a skill rare among new whittlers. Perhaps her training as a mother has given her the patience of an artist, has predisposed her to love creating works of beauty. In seven wood-carving classes I have enrolled over a hundred pupils. Some whittlers at first despaired of making "anything pretty." Yet over a hundred creditable carvings were on exhibition at the Play Day. These simple creations were another reminder that hobbies should be a normal feature of school life. Such is the case at the Breathitt County High School where the eager ,January, 1938 happiness of boys and girls in pottery and drawing-like that of my whittlers-has been a joy to see during my travels in eastern Kentucky. The appeal of puppets to people of all ages is remarkable. Something of the primitive attitude to magic seems to be suggested by children at a puppet show. A strange excitement captures the puppet audience. The illusion of puppet and marionette performances is in the lively acceptance of the dolls as actual characters. I recall that at the end of a Tony Sarg performance of Doctor Faustus an operator stepped upon the marionette stage. The illusion of the show was shockingly illustrated by my first impression that a giant from some strange and mythical world had suddenly appeared. Then gradually he shrank until I regained normal perspective and the dramatic characters again were simply dolls. The Punch and Judy show which I have presented to about 120 audiences in the mountains creates speculation. The other day in Wolfe County girls crowded around the stage. One said triumphantly, "I know what makes them workelectricity." The little folks in the audience are not so critical; in their innocent way they frequently believe that it is simply the dolls doing everything. This is as natural as believing in Santa Claus or in fairies-a charming lack of distinction between real and imaginary worlds. What does it signify that Punch, Judy, the Ghost, the Hangman, and their associates are only dolls? Mr. Punch once trod the Italian stage. But is that the point? A clown is a character, not a person. When I was a boy in England I went into raptures over two clowns called August and SeptembeÃ‚Â°. The fact that these characters were impersonated by mere human beings only tended to elevate the human race. And so, as in the domain of classical literature, these immortal personalities are more real than men and women. Numerous allusions have been made already to singing games and folk dances. It is my observation that these constitute the most hopeful feature of the entire recreational movement. The bodily movement is natural to energetic youth. Something in human nature makes rhythmical movement satisfying. The happy and wholesome association of young men and women in folk dances is likewise a prime reason for their introduction. Some high school students in Breathitt County MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK were asked recently by their English teacher to write their opinion of singing games and folk dances. The few selected quotations below are among the best written. The association with other boys and girls helps us to overcome shyness and makes us want to know each ether better. It gives us a time when we can feel rhythm in ourselves and a time when we can be graceful. There is always some good at the bottom of everything though we may not se: the good at first. In some of the games we have to keep time and this has taught me something I need. To take directions without any further help is hard, unless we use our brains, but I feel that I have gotten some practice in following directions. As a whole I think recreation hour is something that is needed very much here and that Mr. Smith has helped to break the ice between the students and that they associate more and in a friendly way. N. G. Playing games in the right manner tends to make a person, young or old, have a lighter step. Learning the skipping games, or the ones with a little step, helps give grace, assurance and poise. Aside from the instruction or help we get from the instruction or help we get from Recreation it is good clean fun. M. S. I think that this particular type of recreation is suitable and a help to boys and girls of our age. It relieves the mind from the daily studies and makes you look forward to each time of play. Playing games together improves the manners of all boys and girls and makes them just a little nicer. Playing games, running, skipping, and singing almost all the same time improves the thinking, and develops the mind and causes us to think quicker. E. G. To me the experience that I have had of just watching Mr. Smith has been a great help to the school. It has been both exercise and joy to those with whom he has worked. It seems as if at any time you listen you can hear some one humming a tune which he has taught. And I feel quite sure that this will help each of us in the future. L. J. A certain amount of play helps to break the monotony of the day, teaches cooperation, and develops in an individual the desire to be social and to follow in the footsteps of Christ by keeping the Golden Rule in all cur play. The time spent in these happy hours of play vill always be valuable to me. R. C. ~,i I have enjoyed learning the several folk dances that Mr. Smith has taught us. I appreciate the people of other lands better, as I seem to know and understand them better. In other words these games have sort of made us closer together. Now it seems that the world is not such a big place after all. Another thing about these folk dances is that when they are done correctly there is beauty and rhythm in the figures. I feel that the exercise that I have had from this play is the small est part that I have gained from it. H. McI. Pagc 4 \towrnt,\ itrr w!) yw'or,lc i.mu.lryÃ‚Â°. 19;8 In this brief descriptive article it is not possibl% to tell of the co-operation of inai\-idi,lal schools and community centers. May 1 thank collectively heads, teachers, students, county agents and a home demonstration agent for unfailing encouragement in complex situations? A word from Marjorie , Patten's "Arts Workshop of Rural America" may furnish an appropriate conclusion: "The Agricultural Extension Service did not originate the axis prc.tranl. In the wry' earliest dava, as ne7gnbor h.7od ii Fe developed in rural America farmers often tact to exchange ideas on cattle, marketing, and crops. Records tell it,-, also of s7~cllin~; bees acC:C'.171pac11\'illg t:7CSC lartllCrS' d1SCt11S1Ulls; Of Singing s%hrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ols, dcbarin; and home talent performances. ~~11L1S, Social a i7Cl O.y'1C.tiltLil-al t!7teTCStS gt'CA' SICK !,v side and the two date hack to our oldest Iimc!-icw organization." hARDY COMAIUNITY SCHOOL 1.-P IiSTZ Iz. I". 1 The Vardy Connnunity School is situated on a long, narro~,' road, far from the rail:r:~ad in Han--cock County, Tennessee. The county has no rail ,. road, no telephone, and no telegraph !]'lie. Until recently the road to STardy was aln7ost impassable during part of the year. under the leadership of the Department of Town and Country Life, Presbyterian Church, U. S. f'i., the Community School was built by the people of the community for the use of the community and any others who might wish to take advantage of the opportunities offered. The people gave sixty thousand feet of lumber and did all the building. No (_-ontractor, architect, mason, plumber, carpenter, or electrician, was brought in to do the work. 'Today the plant is equipped with most of the modern conveniences needed, including fire protection. running water, and electricity for lights and power furnished by our owl generators. Niol;ey for the project was furnished by a church in Rntllew1od, New jersey. From the heginning our purpose has been to help children to develop rightly in body, mind, and spirit. VJe know, then, that they' will con duct themselves, wherever they may go, so that they will grow in favor with God and man. This purpose includes guidance in their adjust7nents to the economic, social, religious, recreational, and educational life of the community. Therefore this school does not seek to "stack cords" of items, facts, or dates, into the child mind. WC encourage judgment and making right choices even though at times the results may conflict with the ideas of the teachers. Beginning with the first day of school; discipline EON AlsD LS 717aC1c as natural as pO5sIb1C, Dt!rin ; play and work, cooperati!7n and fairness toct\vccn pupils a lid t~ach;=l-s arc forteÃ‚Â°red. The only rule announced the first day of the term is: "Play fair"---in school, c,n tl7e play-ground, and on the road. As necessity arises, definite laws arc ma;lc and carefully explained. -'Pull ishmel7t, a ftcr due ~varning dey:encis upon the law broken and what led up to the breaking of that law;. `.)ft,-n that which :,e_ms at first report to be a deliberate infraction of rules is mc-rely a case of misjudgn;ent. Proper discipline iOllUv.',`, ill the Ulle CaSC as a p'ttnlshn7e!7t for 1a`,\' brcal:ing; ai;cl for the other, as a guidins; les,cn. if buil!liu,:;s or couipmCl7t arc misused, clyaninl-I and repairill;; are required. l f .eitisllt7css and short- si:;htedness in work. or play take place, the natl.tra 1 loss of prigilc~;es and coveted opportunities rÃ¢â‚¬Â¢,uirs. There arc no -hango\wrs"; when tile chid has w:ct his c;hls~;atiun that ;yam is closed. Child!mo arc frequently left for a iew minutes to gc7~:crn tllcnlse,,w-es. The teacher, arc not de aei\cd; thilys happen at such tin7es that would not c7ccur when the teacher is present. Yet pupil opin ion has ""Is period of actual exercise and if mistakes 11nvc :1ccn made they call be correctcl. Teacl\crs do not slip al:out to ` 'catch- children Ill wrong cio ing, aacl tile pupils arc cncoura CIICOLIr,1!.1Cd to act accord inglv. F:ac child is treated as a groÃ¢â‚¬Â¢,ving, li\ in!; i lndl6iU(tl, and 1G t70nCYCd and 1'CapcCtcCl is a pCr._ sollali:y. As one parent said, "lit our school the LCa.Cllf~rs are good to Ch(.'. children and the c'nild-cil Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.voulcl stw at school day and flight; but when the tcacltcr st~eal:.s the boy's and girls know he n7c:7ns busine:;s." Since: our scalool is for the con7munity, ,?atl:7)~, 1)38 the worl; alld play center .bound community Ilitcrests and nc~cis. -he p1lc ettuipn;e,lt has a definite pur pose, T WO trolleys of different Length and speed proz-idc s;religthelling of the 1in16s, Increase of chest cÃ‚Â°iwpatl;;ion, and net too strcnelous intcresting exercise. Sill ;ic rope swim;: dcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢~ clop grace and coordinated muscle control. Tllc ball ground teaches fair play, honesty, and skill. Dope jumping ;,;ttrovcs "timin:;" ability and coordination. Pitching horse dices -idds to shall in handling muscles. Scc-saw's de;-clop the sen,e of balance fcr the younger children. Helne-making classes prepare children for their f uture homes. Vhe cooking taught is not fancier costly. Ã‚Â°~~c use Mostly foods produced on our ow-n farms and those that people of our economic Coll ditic~u Can afford to buy. I!,qai;.ment in the. schccll !;urlien Is of -lie sit:,rIc.,t and best at lo-v,, price,;. ell classes, the pupils use tiIOSC thinÃ‚Â°S that they ~.-i11 be able to have in their osvn homes. JcVv'ihII~ CIIItCYS arOUitO the 11(311!e ilC(:Cl:i: I' atch111g, darning, rn;ndin;; Hand and machine work; making clotl;lng for the baby, other children, and adults. Anyone who cotllptetcs the work can pIan, CTCt, all(; ScVd arty l?:'.CCSS9.ry gari11C:117S fOr the c17tirc f,.milv. Child care and feedim:, proper diets, house , l~ccpim:, and simple nttr.sih~, arc also practiced. We emphasize thÃ‚Â° foDlishnrss of using parÃ‚Â°nt m~di_ cities and going to "cheap" doctors. Our own clinics help prnellt that practice of former times. In the shop, work v,'ith knife, saw, and plane leads to the malting of toys, home conccniences, furniture, and the repair and construction of build ings. tldthough this is an element try sc?look our manual training department mare than pays for itself. Boys from this department have repaired and repainted tile school; have prepared roams for classes, erected needed buildings, put in locust steps oil inclines, and repaired c;lttipment. Each year, also, pupils are allowed to take home certain articles that they have made. Our pupils come from homes Njhere there are few books, papers, or magazines. ^L"heir background of ~,;rvrld l;no~.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,'leclge is tltcrefore very limited. To overcome that handicap, n,Ã‚Â°ws is received daily by radio. In the teaching of Bible, health, geot;ratlhy, and history, we use films and slides several periods each week. At present we mvn about 4300 slides, many of titan colored, all carc 1'fOUN~I~T1N LI'' ~ ,LNn `Nr01,1'~ i~uliY classified and indexed. I\ metropolitan Nlttsmnl of iÃ¢â‚¬Â¢;zttiral History very kindly provides our films. After careful experimentation, we are US- si!ellT fill;ls because they allow us to use the vocabulary than our children can understand and to connect up that which is being seen with prey , ions kncwlcagc and c`ipcriencc. c 1,,. "~_, ~, ,; _ started a small community museum, baginnitl~; with fossils from our own hills and vallcy, Indian relics from old camping grounds ncarba, ne:;ts and a collection of woods from the forest:, ii-i:p)cm~,nts and important old papers given by the oiL,ar people. To these are being added cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢;'nibits at;d objects obtained as gifts froth industries and f rinds or collected by teachers as they travcl. !!I all =; racks we use "ark books, the best that c an f in d. !'vcii the beginners learn to take pride in th% L,eautlÃ‚Â° of tllcir work. Fur them handv;crlc and dcvclc;,~m~nt of expression are most important. I=e~inr:in~ with the fourth grade level ., ",rG use the milt sYSiCt11. 111 aY1Tni11eClC and lallguage, this allows the teacher to check carefully the "Ã¢â‚¬Â¢orl: of each child; to a11aw the ones who master the unit to ads ante; and to help the others by mcann of ether work to overcome those parts that ar_not thoroughly understood. !n laistori,' once `col1raphy, the units are prepared to meet the needs of the pupils of this community. We begin at home with the geology of our mountain, ridge, and valley. We study our Indian traditions and le ;ends. Then we are ready for our o,,1-ti immediate ancestors. Being close to tile \\lilderll,`ss Trail and Old Carter Valley, and having, old -Indian callipin; sites on farms in the comnlunitw, the tc:ache:s can make this part of the work very interesting. We do net "drill" or "hammer" dates Into the heads of the boys and girls. All dates, events, and names arc presented on ch arts placed on the walls; these outlines arc "absorbed" 1v pupils interested in history as, in relaying from study, they allow their eyes to v'ander about the room. For those who care nothin;; about such things, their time may be used t1 better advantayc on something else. During class time and tests jee tell children to make use of anything that the teacher leas allowed to remain in sihT. We do not wish our children to feel that ~the\Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ are cheating if they glance from their aapcr ~,iÃ¢â‚¬Â¢llile writing. In history and geography, current ma~;ar.ines are used more than texthooks. Page 6 MOUNTAIN DIE AND WORK January, 1938 One way to make history interesting is to take a cross cutting of a large tree and learn what took place during the years that tree was growing. Another method is to get the family history as far back as possible, then connect "book" history with the lives of those people listed. In geography each group of units is arranged to emphasize one central geographical prnaaciple. For example, the unit on North America stresses the influence of natural resources; South America, the influence of natural climate, etc. As far as we are concerned, Vardy is the center of the world and we travel from that center everywhere. Road maps, time-tables, bus schedules, boat-sailings, globes, maps, and the National Geographic Magazines are more important and up-to-date than any text-book that we can find. Of course many supplementary books suited to the needs of the pupil are used. In the third and fourth grades we teach the pupils how to find what they need and how to use it. And much note-taking is practiced so that they will know what is of importance and what is not worth saving. At first this work is rather crude, but we have been surprised at the ability of some children in learning how to sift material. Our teachers do not "give" pupils answers in any subject. The child is helped to find the right material and then is required to work it out for himself. If he finds that impossible, several reference text-books are placed in his hands and from them he works out each step of a similar problem. All reference books are kept close at hand. They are classified according to the vocabulary and the ability of the pupils. The teacher makes sure that the right books are found and that the pupil does his own work. We wish the students to learn how to use their tools and where to find them; then if facts and items are forgotten, they are the more easily refound. One pupil who went to another school wrote back: "The work is easier here, because they tell us just what to do." Another pupil, on finishing the grade work, was admitted into a neighboring high school and said: "We are having the same kind of work here that we had at Vardy." Having been helped to work for themselves, our pupils are not afraid to tackle new work. Above the third grade our work is arranged in departments. Each teacher specializes in his own particular subjects. This gives him an opportun ity for self improvement. Also, the teacher can follow the advancement of a pupil through the different grades, thus keeping him going as rapidly as possible, and recognizing also when he has reached the limit of his abilities. Occasionally this results in giving the child a period of "rest" in a subject until he "grows" to the level of the next step. Or it may lead to the child carrying advanced work in one group of classes and retarded work in another. All children are not alike and we believe that they should be allowed to advance as they develop along their particular lines. This brings up the question about grading. There are no set grades in this work. The child may go forward as rapidly or as slowly as may be necessary. He is not held back because others in the class are slower. And he is not dragged along so rapidly that he does not understand what he is doing. There is no shame in being slower than another. The rating at the end of the term is an average of the work accomplished during that period of time. Thus every child can see that he has made some advancement, even though it may be but a little. No child is required to go back and take a book over because he has failed in it. Each unit is mastered before it is laid aside. If the pupil does not understand at first, new material is offered in an entirely different way until there is no question about what it means. This eliminates monotony and builds up a background for the next step. Many of our people do not go away to high school. Therefore our purpose is to teach as much as possible in our own elementary work. Pupils who have the ability and the desire to go away to other schools are given the opportunity. But we are here to do all we can for those who will go no higher. So we balance our work as much as possible to be a foundation for life after school days are over. To get the best results in school pupils must be well and happy. Our first efforts along this line were with the playground. Then followed work for the detection and treatment of goiter. Although this is a goiter endemic region, children in our school today show few signs of the trouble. Before we took over this work, many goiters were in evidence. We are finding, also, that nervousness and lack of control are not so prevalent. Discipline January, 1938 problems are not so hard to handle. The elimination of hook-worm has worked out under controlled conditions. Clinics for immunization against diphtheria, typhoid, small-pox, and like diseases, are held regularly. A general health examination is part of our program. For a balanced diet to aid children who have not the right kinds of food, or who do not get enough food, we are now providing a supplementary luncheon for the entire school in the home-making room each day. This accomplishes several purposes. It improves the health of the children; trains them in the art of eating together as they should; and gives practice to each child in waiting on table and working in the kitchen. One result not planned is worth the trouble of the entire project: we find now that instead of gulping food down and running out to play the children are eating slowly and taking their time about starting their play. When asked how he liked the luncheon period, one boy replied: "How do I like it? I feel like I'm company every day." Our school is improving each year. We know that, because our enrollment is getting smaller. When this school was first opened, pupils stayed with us until they were eighteen to twenty years of age. Now they finish at the time they should. Our pupils are accepted with high rating in accredited high schools in Kentucky and North Carolina as well as our own state. When we opened our community library several years ago, only a few people could read enough, or cared enough, to use the books. Last year over seventeen hundred books were loaned to people of the community, besides many magazines. Our people are interested in world events and are trying to advance in their own standards of living. Because of the work of the elementary school, parents and some who had finished our elementary school work began asking if we could not have some kind of work for the grown folks. As a yIOUN'CAIN LIFE AND WORK result, for several years we conducted an adult night school of sane weeks duration in which we considered community problems, studied farming methods, government, and health measures; with the aid of slides, we took a trip around the world. We have now modified the plan so the work can be continued during the entire school session. Once a week our "community night" accomplishes the same purpose but holds the interest throughout eight months of the year. This year we have had our farm agent with us. We have studied several problems that seemed important to us, and during the last weeps we intend having an advanced course in physiology and health, using slides and charts for the work. Each week some object talk is given or films are shown as in the day school. In connection with the adult work, the Berea Extension Group has most kindly aided us by coming for several sessions once a year, providing us contact with people from other places and with other interests, and giving us some very interesting experiences. This year the group seemed to fit especially into our program with their fine music, talks on conservation and travel, and their desire to tell us about the work accomplished by cooperation among the people of small communities. Our Sunday night worship service is part of our educational system. With slides we carry on a regular order of service including songs, prayers, and talks. One group of visitors expressed their appreciation of one of the meetings in these words: "We wish every community could have a service like that. People would know more what Jesus meant when He was talking to people. With the beautiful pictures we felt that Jesus was talking directly to us." The/ Vardy Community School was built by the people of the community for the use of the community. The opportunities are offered to all who will accept, and most of the people are making use of all that they can and are appreciating what is offered. Page 3 ylouwnm L11 11 AND WORK January, 1938 THE R URAL AR T5' EXHIBITION CLEMENTINE DOUGLAS Pronounced "the finest and most significant display of the rural arts of America ever shown," and even "the most beautiful display of rural arts ever held in any country," the exhibition held in November in Washington celebrated the SeventyFifth Anniversary of the founding of the United States Department of Agriculture. In assembling handicrafts of country people who live in the rural regions scattered widely throughout the United States, the Department of Agriculture brought together for the first time an exhibition national in scope. M. L. Wilson, Under-Secretary of the Department of Agriculture, in his "Statement Concerning Country Arts" as published in the Catalogue of the Exhibition, says, "The rural arts and crafts have long been ignored and underestimated. They have not been given the attention that they deserve. The present exhibit has been assembled to show just what these country arts are. Once they are really known, they will be appreciated and the too general neglect of them will end. This is the people's art. It is born of utility. Art here means doing well something that needs to be done. The examples included in this exhibit are products of the skill and taste of rural craftsmen applied generally to native materials . . . . . It is possible that a greater value should be attached to human values represented in these country arts than in many things impressively demonstrated in statistical tables. Obviously, human values are the ultimate criteria by which a campaign against Japanese beetles, or an inquiry into corn and cotton prices must ultimately be judged. We have been too much inclined, however, to look askance upon attempts to deal directly with human values. The time has come when such human values as those represented by the items included in this exhibit are frankly recognized as worthy of our direct concern." This was an exhibition of objects gathered from every state, territory and possession of the United States, reflecting the rural arts of our country, that is, an exhibition of those things which country people make for their own use, or for others, better than they need be made for utility's sake alone. The arts shown consisted largely of handicrafts, although a few examples of painting, sculpture and architecture were included. Of those other arts which characterise the cultural life and work of Rural America-music, drama, literature and the dance, music was represented by a delightful evening of American Folk Music in the Department of Agriculture Auditorium. To this a symphony orchestra, a chorus and a folk song group all contributed their services. To quote Charles Seebger's statement, "The music of a people consists, in tire main, of music which the average man makes for himself. Upon this basis rest the more elaborate structures of popular, symphonic, and operatic music." With the exception of music, the exhibition featured mainly the things which country people make with their hands, supplemented by an extraordinarily beautiful collection of eighty enlarged photographs, picturing the rural scene and rural work. Although the painter is a very vital part of that large group of artists who record their reactions to our rural environment, there was not space to make possible an adequate showing of both paintings and handicrafts; his work was not, for this reason, a part of the exhibition. The finely proportioned patio, over eighty feet Long, in the Administration Building of the Department of Agriculture, with its graceful fountain in the center, and one big arch serving as the only entrance, was converted into a beautiful art gallery. Its inside walls, fifteen feet high, served as a perfect background for tire handicrafts, while its outside walls formed a gallery for the large photographs of rural scents. Across from the entrance arch, straight ahead beyond the fountain, hung the central feature of the exhibition, the thirteen-foot-square hooked rug, a glowing cxamplÃ‚Â° of folk art with its design of plants, flowers, and birds against a black background. With the exception of this beautiful rug, over a century old, and of an antique quilt, tire oldest dated quilt in America, all of the two, thousand and more examples of work shown were contemporary. Flanking this rug were tall standards holding shelves for the display, on one side of January, 1938 baskets, and on the other of glass and pewter. In the right end of the room was a pair of hand hammered aluminum doors, using agricultural motifs, framed by an open cabinet holding a most colorful display of pottery. Opposite this pottery cabinet, over in the left end of the room, stood the Wayside Stand, a charming example of a small and comparatively inexpensive roadside market. With its picket fence and bricked yard, this well designed stand, filled with vegetables, jellies, jams, honey, baskets of fruit, bunches of herbs, and strings of corn and of peppers furnished a delightful rural note. This note was further emphasized by the decorative use of the great American plants, corn, cotton, wheat, and tobacco, the last having been brought to full bloom for the occasion. There were strings of yellow braided seed corn, Indian corn, red peppers, bamboo and tropical fruits, all important in "rooting the exhibition in the soil from which it drew its interest, its vitality, and its inspiration." Running almost around the room was a shelf about waist-high and thirty inches wide, and in front of it another, barely raised from the floor and narrower, on which were placed the small furniture, rugs, baskets, etc. Groupings of some of the smaller textiles hung on the wall between these shelves, the large textiles on the higher walls. One special feature of interest was the collection of objects made from the corn plant, both stalk and shucks, articles ranging from corn stalk fiddles to wall hangings. Seeing the many corn shuck dolls in this exhibit, it was interesting to recall that the American Indians were making dolls from this plant before America was discovered. The exhibit included examples of spinning; weaving; natural dyed yarns and fabrics; rugswoven, braided, and sewn; whittling and carving; pottery; glass; musical instruments; ship models; brooms; tin, copper, iron, pewter and silver work, and enamel; semi-precious stones cut, polished, and set; corn husk articles; small furniture; leather work; and many objects made from various rural materials such as feathers, grasses, seeds, cones, etc. All these were arranged, not as arbitrary divisions, but rather as one large harmonious picture with articles placed wherever their form, color, or texture contributed most to the beauty of the whole. As one newspaper reporter wrote, "In addition to the intrinsic loveliness of the separate articles, MOUNTAIN LIPF_ AND WORK there is an overwhelming effect of beauty as you enter this Exhibition. This is due to the ability of Mr. Allen Eaton to combine colors and texture with wonderful effect, as well as to his genius in the selection and arrangement of each individual group. Beautiful as the individual pieces are, much of their hidden color and light might have been lost without Mr. Eaton's dramatic effects. I feel about this exhibition as I do about a symphony concert, thankful for the hope and inspiration that it brings." The catalogue is itself, in a sense, a rural art product, having been designed by Frederic W. Goudy, whose workshop and type foundry up the Hudson is in an ancient grist mill used for generations to grind the corn of the neighborhood in what is still a farming community. Illustrated with reproductions of some of the lovely photographs hung in the exhibit and of some of the handicrafts displayed, this catalogue is worthy of its part in the whole. Mr. Eaton states in the catalogue that "although credit cannot be given to all the many individuals and agencies who have made the exhibition possible, it should be said that without The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, The Southern Highlanders, Inc., and The New Hampshire League of Arts and Crafts it could not have been undertaken." Open from November 14 through December 5, the Exhibition was attended by more than twenty thousand visitors, and enthusiastic visitors they were, too. The President spent one evening there and his appreciation was keen; Mrs. Roosevelt made three visits, and Secretary and Mrs. Wallace returned five times. Indicative of the interest created is the splendid publicity given by the press: a full page, illustrated, in the New York Sunday Times Magazine, with several other articles in the Times, an illustrated feature article in the Christian Science Monitor, in the Washington Post, the Washington Evening Star, the Herald and Times, and many others. In the Congressional Record of November 27 is printed the speech of Mr. Tobey from New Hampshire commending the Rural Arts Exhibition to all members of Congress and their families and urging their attendance because "these exhibits have social implications that are far reaching," and "because you will find there real inspiration, and witness an exhibition that is very worth while to this nation of ours." Page 10 MOUNTAIN LirE AND WORK January, 1938 To quote once more from the catalogue, "The time will come when every kind of work will be judged by two measurements: one by the product itself, as is now done, the other by the effect on the producer. When that time comes the handicrafts will be given a much more important place in our plan of living than they now have, for unquestionably they possess values which are not generally recognized. These values are best known to the people who practice them but the under standing is growing and rural people are doing much to advance this program which is mainly one of education." "This Rural Arts Exhibition was assembled in the hope that it would say something about art and beauty and life which could not so convincingly be said in words." We believe truly that it has said this, and in so beautiful and convincing a way as to have its influence extend far into the future. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE INSTITUTE GLYN A. MORRIS The problem of providing vocational training and guidance for rural youth is not receiving the attention or study which it is increasingly needing. Notable among those who are working on the problem is the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth (formerly the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance), whose president, Dr. O. Latham Hatcher, served as the technical supervisor for the Pine Mountain Guidance Institute held at Pine Mountain Settlement School from August 25th to 28th. This Institute provided for the meeting of local citizens, school teachers from remote elementary schools of the area, and older students with leaders of state and government departments who are in a position to bring light and practical help to the problem. Among the leaders who represented the non-local organizations were Dr. Louise Stanley, Chief of the Bureau of Home Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Dr. Bruce L. Melvin, Principal Research Supervisor for Works Progress Administration; Mrs. Iris C. Walker, representing the Consumer's Council, U. S. Department of Agriculture; Dr. R. E. Jaggers, Director Teacher Training and Certification, State Department of Education, Frankfort, Kentucky; Dr. J. D. Williams, College of Education, University of Kentucky; and Mr. Otis C. Arms, State Supervisor of Educational Aid, National Youth Administration. The Institute centered around the problem as it affects the Appalachian area. A discussion of the problems of the rural in- and out-of-school youth revealed that only one out of four goes beyond the eighth grade. Therefore the burden of adequate training for life rests on the elementary school.. With the limited training which is now given, youth leave school to make a very meager living on the already overcrowded farm areas or to drift to the cities. Dr. Melvin, who has studied the quantitative problem of rural youth, particularly in relation to migration from rural areas to urban centers, revealed the intensity and scope of the poor adjustments being made and of the human waste and exploitation of youth through lack of guidance. Without opportunity for a satisfactory rural life they lose hope, and moving to the city, they lend themselves easily to drifting, blind alley occupations, and exploitation. Dr. Stanley presented the problem as it relates to girls going into domestic service and the possibilities in the domestic field alone if training and placement service are pro vided. Other aspects of the problem were illus I trated by the several C.C.C. Educational Advisors present, who brought attention to the difficulty involved in helping the boys in the short period of training allowed them, so that they make a contribution to their home communities when they re turn. The service available to rural youth seems to be in inverse ratio to the need. Their lack of information about occupational trends makes the problem difficult even for those trained to give counseling service. The Junior Placement Centers which are expected to serve rural youth are often so far away that use of them is a physical impossibility; the situation is further aggravated by the January, 1938 MOUNTAIN Ltrt: AND WORK Page 11 fact that in remote rural areas there is no knowledge among youth of such facilities. It was brought out that many rural youth could be absorbed in gainful employment both in rural and urban areas if they were properly trained for the work that needs to be done. Mr. Amis reported that 91 per cent of the youth employed on N.Y.A. projects have had no vocational training, and 88 per cent of the youth employed on N.Y.A. projects have had no occupational experience. On the other hand, it is a common practice in rural areas to seek in urban centers the people needed to do skilled work in rural communities. In any approach to this problem, there is need for concerted attack along economic, social and cultural lines. The continued vitality of rural life depends upon the conservation of human values. In the sessions of the Institute attention was directed to several projects already under way which reveal some possible methods of solution. 1. Mrs. Marie Turner, Superintendent of the Breathitt County School system, gave, through a representative, illustrations of how guidance had brought about changes in both curriculum and method, making a more practical training possible, w'th I I vocational tryout experiences. Working throughout the entire County, the guidance philosophy, with the helpful cooperation of the University of Kentucky, has brought considerable revision in curriculum and has directed attention to the need for providing rural youth with training and expert counsel regarding occupations. Annville Institute and Pine Mountain Settlement School indicated the changes which had taken place in their curricula with the coming of guidance. (1) Impractical courses have been dropped and practical piles added. Emphasis is placed on life instead of books, on boys and girls instead of subject matter. The curriculum has become a flexible instrument constantly adjustable to the needs of each individual, with college entrance requirements and subject matter, as such, receiving emphasis proportionate to their importance in the total picture. For the present it was suggested that an itinerant counselor, serving both public schools and C.C.C. 1. The Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth was used as consultant in the Breathitt County, Pine Mountain Settlement School, and Annvillc guidance programs, and as far as the writer knows, is the most thorough and resourceful service of this kind available. Camps might bring about some badly needed guidance service. 2. Itinerant teaching of home-making. This practical method of bringing home-making to the many out-of-school girls, and the possibility of bringing it to elementary schools in rural areas was illustrated by the work being done at Homeplace, Ary, Perry County, Kentucky, under the supervision of Miss Lula Hale. Hiring kitchens in the homes for regular weekly classes, the Homeplace workers bring Home Economics to far away places in the setting where it is needed and will be used. This has led to the suggestion by Dr. Louise Stanley that the nine schools within the vicinity of fine Mountain Settlement School be provided with the service of an itinerant Home Economics teacher to test further the practicability of such a plan for public schools. This service might be secured through the use of federal funds now available, and would specifically provide for badly needed but neglected experimentation in rural teaching. Such training should not be limited to home making, however, but should include agriculture, mechanics and similar practical subjects. In brief, the findings of the Institute revealed the need for the following things; where possible, these findings were sent to the responsible agencies. 1. The development of a state-wide guidance program and the promotion of guidance in relation to the education of teachers. 2. More vocational training in the elementary school, similar to that provided for high schools through Smith-Hughes teachers, with use of federal funds for equipment as well as teachers. 3. Extension of training in practical things to out-of-school youth. 4. Allotment of funds on the basis of needs. 5. Greater freedom for local units in determining what should be taught, how much should be taught, as well as other relevant points of organization. 6. The need for the democratic organization of the various localities into groups for the study of local problems and means of solution, using such organized facilities as are already available. 7. The need for a study of potential occupational possibilities-which could with very little effort be developed-and of occupational trends. Following the Pine Mountain Institute, another Page 12 MouN I-AIN LI] o: AND WORK January, 1938 Institute under the sponsorship of the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth was held in Washington on November 1 st to 3rd. There the problems brought out at the Pine Mountain Institute were brought to the attention of a larger group of Fed oral Govcrmocnt officials. Rural leaders, several of whom had attended the Pine Mountain Institttte, interpreted the problems and revealed the gaps in the scrvi,~c alr;adv being proviclcd by fcdcral agcmics. The Trends and Future of Higher Education in Kentucky LEO M. CHAMBERLAIN (Paper read at Educational Conference, Berea, KerctrrckY, on A'owernher 17, !9-37.) While the interests of this group arc centered pi ily on the future of the mountainous area rimari of southeastern Kentucky, I have elected to discuss the topic assigned me from the standpoint of the state as a whole. I do this because I believe the problem of higher education, both public and private, is a state problem and that its future can be properly charted only as we view it in that light. Every institution in the state, irrespective of its methods of support, its affiliation, or its peculiar objective, must be considered in evaluating the facilities available to those young men and women of Kentucky seeking opportunities for advanced education. At the risk, perhaps, of citing some facts with which you are already familiar, I should like first to characterize rather briefly the present facilities for higher education in the state. During the current school year forty-three different institutions are carrying forward one or more types of work above the high school level. Forty of these institutions serve white students and three arc operated for young men and women of the Negro race. Six of the forty schools for white students are publicly supported-the four teachers' colleges and the University by the state, and the University of Louisville by the city. The remaining thirty-four institutions for white students include nine four-year colleges, seventeen junior colleges,, five theological .seminaries, and three specialized institutions--one a college of commerce, one a law school, and one a college of pharmacy. All of these are private schools, with perhaps a single exception. One junior college is partially supported by a city tax and might be described as a municipal institution. The colleges for Negroes include two four-year schools, one supported by the state and one by the City of Louisville, and a junior college also financed by the state. Scvcn of the thirty-four private colleges of Kentucky arc advertised as non-denominational, eight are affiliated with the Roman Catholic church, six are Methodist, six Baptist, four Presbyterian and three Disciples of Christ. State support for higher education in Kentucky was relatively slow in making its appearance, 1878 marking the first year of operation of the University of Kentucky as a separate institution. This was almost one hundred years after the establishment of the first state university in the United States. Kentucky State Industrial College was established in 1886, two of the teachers colleges in 1907, West K.entuckv Industrial College received its first state support in 1910, and the two young teachers' colleges were opened as late as 1923. The University of Louisville, generally recognized as the oldest municipal college in the United States, was established approximately a hundred years ago. Six of the four-year liberal arts colleges now operating in Kentucky were established before 1878, one of them as much as a hundred years before. Likewise six institutions now operating as junior colleges were opened prior to the establishment of the University of Kentucky as a separate institution. Upon these institutions and other private schools that have since ceased operation Kentucky depended during its first hundred years of statehood for the education of its young men and women. To them we must give credit for the development of the sentime?it that made our publicly supported institutions possible. In addition to our state colleges and universities, the years since 1878 have witnessed the establishment of three four-year colleges and eleven junior colleges. January, 1933 MoUN rnm I,irr AND WORK Page 13 Since 1930, when I first participated in the work of the committee on accreditation, four junior colleges have ceased operation, and three schools of similar character have been established. Enrollment figures for the first semester of this school year indicate fairly well the extent and distribution of the service rendered by our fortythree institutions of higher learning. However, it should be noted that year enrollments, including summer sessions, would alter the picture materially. As reported recently to Dean Boyd of the University of Kentucky, there are at present 17,167 full-time and part-time resident students attending institutions of higher learning in Kentucky. Approximately 21 per cent of this total are attending nine four-year colleges of liberal arts with all' average attendance of slightly more than four hundred. Twenty per cent, or a little more, are attending the University of Kentucky, 19 per cent are found in the four teachers colleges, about 15 per cent in the University of Louisville, 11 per cent in seventeen junior colleges, with an average enrollment of about 113 each, 5 per cent in the three institutions for Negroes, and about 4 per cent in three specialized schools of commerce, law and pharmacy. For the entire state the growth in enrollment ever last year is 187 students, or an increase of about i per cent. Does this last figure mean that enrollments in institutions of higher learning in the state have approximately reached their peak, and that the future will bring only slight increases if any? I doubt that this is the case. Much will depend on the philosophy of higher education that we consciously or otherwise develop, on the extent to which higher education is popularized, on economic conditions, and on competition from institutions in neighboring states and in other parts of the country. Recently I heard the prediction made that college enrollments in this state would probably not increase further after the next ten or fifteen years. When 1 consider the present and potential enrollments of the American secondary school and the rather clear trend toward the concept of unlimited educational opportunity, 1 doubt that this will be the case. However, until we can come to some agreement as to what higher education is to be and for whom it is to be provided, predictions are little better than uesses. On this apparent lack of a well-defined' philosophy of higher education, ! .shall comment later in this taper. With the future of higher education in this state in mind, we may well seek to know how the facilities that have just been described compare with the opportunities for collegiate education offered in other states. On this point there is little objective evidence, as comparisons between the states are extremely difficult to make. A few years ago we attempted such an evaluation in the Bureau of School Service, and while the resulting indexes were not so reliable as we should like, they furnish a rough estimate of Kentucky's performance as compared with other states. In this study two rankings were obtained for each state, the first, a composite picture of the services rendered by both public and private schools in terms of the need for the service, and the second a picture of the effort put forth in terms of the ability of the state to support higher education. On the first of these composite measures, the state of Kentucky assumed the rank customarily given it in measures of educational performance, that is, about thirtyseventh. On the measures of effort in terms of ability there was less uniformity, but with the average rank about twelve. Recognizing the chances for errors in these measures, I would go no farther than to say that the state is somewhere near the last quarter when its performance is measured in terms of its need, and somewhere near the first quarter when its effort is measured in terms of its ability. Does this mean that the state can justifiably extend its facilities for higher education? Perhaps it does. But it means also that we are now putting forth more than the average effort in the promotion of higher education, and that we must, therefore, so plan our program that we shall secure the largest measure of return on each unit of investment. Economy must of necessity be the watchword. Improvement in our facilities for higher education must come largely through planned coordination and emphasis on quality rather than through a hit or miss process of multiplying curricula and institutions. With the question of quality raised, I should like to consider briefly the status of accreditation in this state, since it is through this instrumentality that the quality of an institution is advertised, though in some cases, perhaps, not with the full measure of justice that should prevail. All state-supported institutions for white students in Kentucky are members of the Association Wage 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 of Colleges and Secondary Schools of the Southern States. In the same category are the University of Louisville, five of the four-year liberal arts colleges, and seven of the junior colleges. Three additional liberal arts colleges are on the non-member list of the Association, and Kentucky State Industrial College is approved as a Class B institution, with full credit for its four years of work recognized. The remaining institutions of the state, with the exception of certain ones little affected by accreditation or the lack of it, are subject to inspections and ratings by the Committee on Accredited Relations of the University of Kentucky. This group includes two four-year colleges, ten junior colleges for white students, and West Kentucky Industrial College for Negroes. The responsibility vested in the Committee on Accreditation is an important one. Evaluations of the quality of an institution's work are difficult to make and criticisms are certain to arise whatever the decisions rendered. If the Committee tends to be severe in the application of its standards, the University may be accused of using its authority in this work to stifle competition and to prevent desirable expansion of the system of higher education. Leniency, on the other hand, may suggest that the University, as the head of the public school system, is failing in its duty by not insisting on higher standards. The intention of the Committee, I assure you, is to seek and find the most accurate methods of evaluating the work of these institutions and to make its ratings in terms of the best inter: sts of the state as a whole and of the particular youth who are likely to attend them. Until 1930 the institutions were usually accredited on the basis of visits by members of the Committee and the filing of the customary blanks. At that time the Committee changed its procedure and asked the Bureau of School Service of the College of Education to make careful studies of the various institutions as a basis for accreditation. The first of these investigations covered fifteen of the junior colleges of the state. The report took the form of a comparative study of the institutions, and the procedure was in many respects sI Har to that recently adopted by the North mi Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. Since the original report was made there have been approximately eleven similar studies of individual institutions. It is on the basis of these rather comprehensive surveys that the work of the Committee has been based since 1930. Last year, with the cooperation of the Kentucky Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, the Committee sought to improve its procedures further by the experimental use of objective tests in certain institutions. The object of this experiment was to determine whether or not it may be possible to base accreditation, in part at least, on the actual product of the school as reflected in the test results and thereby reduce the emphasis that has been given to material and external aspects, even in the improved survey technique of recent years. While it is too early yet to draw any definite conclusions from this experimental testing, it seems probable that it is a step in the right direction. Of this much we can be certain. Even in the junior college malting the poorest showing on the tests, there are individual students whose scores are above the ac erage of the sophomore students at the University. To deprive a junior college of accreditation on its generally poor showing is to take away from these able students opportunities that they should have. Many have suggested that individual rather than institutional accreditation would be the proper solution to problems of this character. From the student's standpoint this is no doubt true. There is the question, on the other hand, of the extent to which the state or an endowed institution can gamble with its resources in giving all students from an inferior school a chance to continue their college work in an effort to avoid injustice to the few who arc actually capable of and prepared for advanced study. It would seem that the arguments for so-called individual accreditation lose much of their force when viewed in the light of the attending economic and administrative difficulties, unless we could agree to base the admission of each individual on academic and personality measures, irrespective of the accreditation of the institution. All this procedure would be fraught with certain dangers, particularly for the state-supported institution. To this point 1 have kept on rather solid ground by confining my discussion principally to existing conditions in Kentucky. I shall try in the remaining time to express certain opinions on the subject actually assigned me-the trends and future of higher education in the state. Obviously I can cover only a few aspects of this topic. January, 1938 It would seem that much of our difficulty in arriving at solutions to problems of admission, curricula, and the further coordination and development of higher education is occasioned by our lack of any clearly defined and accepted philosophy of higher education, particularly at the junior college level. While the elementary and secondary school people may be at odds as to specific methods and procedures, they are reasonably well agreed about two fundamental pointsthey have defined rather well their general objectives and they know whom they are expected to serve. Those of us in higher education, on the other hand, are almost completely lacking in agreement on both of these issues. Bring together a dozen people engaged in various phases of higher education and you will almost always have exactly that many opinions as to what higher education should be and as to the group that it should serve. True, our passion for bigness and the wave of enthusiasm for democracy in education is ridly sweeping us in the direction of unlimited apt opportunities for all. This doctrine, however, is vigorously opposed in many quarters and in no case are we giving as much thought as we might to those who are paying the bill. If I were a heavy taxpayer and knew as much about educational problems as I think I know, I should want to point out certain facts and ask certain questions of school people. I should like to know, for example, why the period of general education can not be defined, and why the job of making citizens, if that is what general education is for, can not be completed within this specified time. Is it necessary that the upper limit of general education be continuously raised, even though we admit the increasing complexity of the world in which we live? Once it was held that an eighth-grade education would suffice to make a responsible and intelligent citizen. Then we decided that the task could not be completed in that time, and demanded that universal education be extended through the high school period. Now again we say that twelve years is not enough; we should have at least two more years to complete the job, and in addition an extensive program of adult education. Some would suggest even that two years of college work will not permit the satisfactory completion of general education. The following quotation from a recent issue of the Journal of Higher Education illustrates this point of view: "Who really believes that it is possible for one to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 complete a good general education by the end of the Junior College? Why should students actively interested in the broad range of culture and human affairs give up the colleges to the specialists just as the wealth of many fields is opened to view? If society considers a modicum of general education essential, why should it not encourage students to get the greatest possible amount?" As a taxpayer I should ask when this is to end and why school people can not accept a contract for this task of general education and then complete the work within the time specified. Is there a point at which general education should end and at which selective education for leadership should begin, and if so, where is this point? Perhaps if we could find solutions to these problems, we would then be in a position to answer questions as to who should attend college and what types of curricula should be offered in our institutions of higher learning. As yet, however, we seem to be badly confused, particularly about the purposes and characteristics of education at the late secondary and early college levels. Until we can define rather clearly the objectives of education at these upper levels, the trends and future of higher education in Kentucky, and elsewhere, will be difficult if not impossible to predict. However, I venture to suggest that the movement toward unlimited educational opportunities through the junior college level has gone too far to be halted even if we felt it desirable to do this. Consequently my predictions as to future trends in higher education are laid down on the assumption that we will gradually place fewer and fewer restrictions in the way of any or all who have completed a secondary school program and who wish to continue their study in a college or university. If this becomes our working philosophy, it should and probably will mean certain significant developments, particularly with respect to admissions, lover division curricula, and the expansion of facilities to care for growing enrollments. In terms of admissions this developing philosophy will, perhaps, mean eventually that graduation from an approved high school will mean automatic admission to publicly supported colleges and universities in much the same way that the completion of an elementary school program now secures admission to the high school. The private schools would not necessarily have to follow in this way, but it is probable that they would be forced into some such position by competition. Page 16 Our approach to this extreme in admissions will be gradual, of course. As an intermediate step, I presume we shall reduce the emphasis now being placed on required subjects and particular patterns of work, at the same time centering our attention on measureable characteristics of individual students which have been shown to be the real determinants of college success. At present the implication of our researches would seem to be that the most important of these determinants are a degree of social and emotional maturity and stability, a minimum degree of native intelligence or scholastic aptitude, good scholastic attitudes and habits, reading ability, and the ability to express oneself effectively in written and oral English. How much difficulty publicly supported institutions will encounter when they attempt to substitute such qualitative measures for our present quantitative requirements it is difficult to say. Certainly there will be some opposition. As our lower division population increases and becomes less selective, we shall be forced into fundamental changes in our curricula. Already it is becoming apparent that our highly departmentalized courses are poorly suited to the needs of a large proportion of our freshman and sophomore students and to the purposes of general education. Just what direction these curricular changes will take or exactly what they will mean in terms of administrative organization, none of us can say as yet. However, developments at the University of Chicago, Minnesota, Florida and, here in our state, at the University of Louisville and Berea College, are indicative of the general trend in curricular organization. In closing, I should like to comment briefly on the problem of higher education in the particular area in which this group is interested. Such suggestions as I shall make are offered with a full realization of the splendid work that certain institutions have done in this region. Nowhere in America has service to education been more unselfish and nowhere has there been a more sincere effort to adapt educational content and method to the needs of the young men and women served. The record of Berea and other institutions, now firmly established and effectively operated, speaks for the past. The future, I think, will be equally successful if full recognition is given to changes in economic and social conditions and in educational needs. MOUNTAIN Lii-E AND WORK January, 1938 In the past, and perhaps to some extent now, the educational problems of the Kentucky mountains have been peculiar, primarily because of a combination of low economic status and isolation. Individual poverty, of course, is no special attribute of this area or any other. Unfortunately, we find it almost everywhere. The educational problem arises not so much out of the poverty of a particular individual or individuals, as from the low income level of the entire region. In a city, children whose parents are in direst poverty may sill attend a well equipped school manned by ca ti I I p able teachers. In an isolated region of sparse population and a common low income level, this opportunity is denied. The problem of isolation is rapidly being eliminated as paved roads, the automobile, the newspaper, and the radio bring communities together. Wise educational planning will lend encouragement to this development. Recognizing that my knowledge of the mountain region is somewhat limited, I yet offer the suggestion that the future should see less emphasis on the educational problems of peculiar sections or regions and greater emphasis on the common problems of the state and nation. I am in doubt about any philosophy or practice which encourages the education and customs of the mountain people to turn back upon themselves. The solution is no longer in that direction. Educationally, Kentucky has no more serious problem than its provincialism and its sectional competition. In its virile, rugged and natively intelligent stock, the mountain area has material that the lowlands and cities need. The lowlands and the cities, on the other hand, have or can provide the environmental conditions that are essential for the development of the manhood and womanhood of the mountains into effective state and national citizenship. The day of economic, social, or educational self-sufficiency is past and the problem of isolation will rapidly solve itself under the right type of stimulation. The economic problem must also be solved by viewing it in a larger way. Unaided, the mountain counties of Kentucky will never find it possible to provide an effective educational system. Additional state support and federal aid would seem to offer the only solution to the proper development of elementary and secondary schools in such areas. With respect to higher education, the needs of southeastern Kentucky are difficult to define. Do January, 1938 MOUNTAIN Llrr AND WORK Page 17 we need more junior colleges or four-year institutions in this section, and if so, under what auspices? The rapid spread of the junior college movement in the United States has suggested to many people that Kentucky needs and will eventually have an extensive system of such schools. Many have pointed to the rapid growth in the number of junior colleges as justification for the establishment or maintenance of private institutions of this character in eastern Kentucky and elsewhere in the state. 'What they fail to recognize is that the greater part of the growth at the junior college level has been in publicly supported institutions, and that further developments in this direction should be taken not as encouragement, but instead as a warning. It is my opinion that the development of an extensive system of public junior colleges will do to private education at that level precisely what the growth of the American high school has done and is now doing to the private secondary school. For my ewn part, I doubt that Kentucky has any serious need for additional institutions of higher learning, either publicly or privately supported. This opinion is based to some extent on objective evidence. If additional publicly supported institutions are to be set up, we must justify them on the grounds of greater opportunity, greater efficiency, and greater economy. I doubt that this can be done. At the present time, a mature graduate student is working under my direction on a study designed to discover the need, if any, for publicly supported junior colleges in this state. In general his plan is to establish certain criteria that would ensure the greater opportunity, efficiency, and economy mentioned above, and to apply these criteria to different communities and regions of the state. On the question of what these criteria should be, we have considerable e'deiice and expert opinion. Our tentative out vi line indicates that they should include: 1. A minimum number of students as reflected in population data and high school enrollments. 2. The ability of the community or region to support the junior college, when consideration is given to capital outlay, requirements and necessary current expenditures. 3. Freedom from competition as determined by the location of other effective schools and the area of influence of a public junior college. 4. Guarantees that the establishment of a junior college will not prevent or endanger the maintenance of a standard elementary and high school program as reflected in the tax rate for this program, length of term, teachers' salaries, and accreditation. While it is too early to say definitely what the application of these criteria will show, I venture the prediction that there will not be more than two or three communities or areas, if any, that will qualify. If this is the case, it would .mean that, viewed from the standpoint of the state at large, we have little or no real need for additional public institutions of higher learning. This is hardly equivalent to saying that there would be no valid reasons for the establishment of additional private schools, but it would seem to imply that. To those who will argue that new private schools are needed in order to insure opportunity fer remoter areas at reduced cost or in order to provide an educational opportunity within a particular denominational environment, I would offer this suggestion: May it not be better for a church group or a charitable organization interested in giving increased opportunities to worthy boys and girls to use the money that would be required to establish or maintain an average or inferior institution, to provide scholarships for carefully selected individuals either at fully approved public schools or at similarly recognized institutions supported by a particular agency or denomination. The number served would no doubt be fewer but the social and educational gain would, I believe, be greater in the long run. Perhaps this suggestion is based on too little knowledge of private education and of conditions prevailing in the mountains, but I offer it for your consideration. In conclusion, I would point out that through its entire history Kentucky has maintained an enviable record in higher education in spite of its limited resources. 1 believe we shall continue this record into the future. However, our relatively low economic status requires that we obtain the largest educational return on each unit of investment, whether that investment is made by the state or by a private agency. For the accomplishment of this end, we must place our emphasis on large-scale planning, coordination, and quality of .service. MOUNTAIN Lit G AND WORK January, 1938 The Trends and Future of Private Mountain Secondary Schools LEO K. PRITCHETT (Ahrid,,,,orl front address at tN Frf"r-rrtio"nl Co"fcro"ro, Let me say at the beginning that I do not consider myself an authority on the trends and future of private mountain schools. As a matter of fact, the more 1 study this subject, the less 1 feel 1 knew about it. I am quite positive, however, about one thing, namely that the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers is taking a step in the right direction in trying to find out what is taking place in private mountain schools and where these schools are headed. By cooperation and concerted action many of our schools may be saved from possible institutional death. A study of the trends in and the future of private schools in the Southern Mountain area would mean an investigation into trends of private elementary schools, private high schools, private junior colleges and private senior colleges. Adequate investigations could not be made on such an inclusive scale; therefore I have decided to delimit the subject. Eliminating private elementary schools, grammar schools, and senior college, I shall include only private institutions on the secondary level, that is, only private high schools and junior colleges. In the preparation of this paper my first effort was to find out what investigations had been made of the private secondary schools in the Southern Mountain area, but very little material was available. Realizing that Dr. Dcak S. Campbell of George Peabody College for Teachers is interested in our mountain problems, I wrote to him to find out if any comprehensive survey had been made to indicate the growth and development in this field. His report was that, so far as he knew, there were no comprehensive surveys of recent date. He suggested, however, a study of the proceedings of the Southern Association for the past ten years, and also indicated that the annual reports of various departments of education represented in the area might be of some value. I regret that I was unable to pursue these two avenues of invcstir;ation, because I am confident that positive trends could be discovered from them. However, two articles which appeared in the July, 1937 issue of llsluu i?lr, North (,nroli"n, Nnt ent(mr 23, 1937) Mountain Life and Work contribute to this study -one, a "Report of the Southern Mountain Educational Commission" by Dr. Hermann N. Morse, and the other, "Changing Mountain Schools" by nr. Frank C. Poster. There may be other studies available about which 1 have no information. Since the material discovered was rather meager, a questionnaire survey was made of the secondary schools in the Southern Mountain area in order to find out what trends, if any, are evident today. Dr. Morse, in his report of the Educational Commission, says that there has been a decided decrease in the number of private schools, with a siUnificant movement from lower to higher academic levels as public schools took over the elementary work and with an increasing emphasis on accreditation. As facilities for public education on the secondary level become available, certain private schools have specialized as community centers, experimental schools and the like. According to Dr. Morse, many private schools lack either the money and personnel or the interest and point of view necessary if they are to meet satisfactorily the local community needs in education of adults and of the submarginal groups, educationally speaking, and in solving community problems. Th; Commission's finding, Dr. Morse stated, are tentative, not final conclusions. They give, however, a picture of present conditions and trends. Dr. Frank C. Foster in his article, "Changing Mountain Schools," presents an interpretation of fifty-five statements from representative schools. His questionnaire called for information regarding aims, conditions influencing the planning of the schools, changes of the last decade, and cooperation with other agencies; three questions dealt with pupil participation. As Dr. Foster points out, the nature of the questions and the information received make a statistical summary difficult. The follc;wing observations, however, may be gathered from his survey: first, that the schools aimed to satisfy some need; second, education is reaching higher levels; third, the quality of work within the schools is improving; fourth, the schools re January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 porting "recognized the great importance of roads, changing standards, contact with the outside world, and at the same time the advance and adjustment of programs so as to meet these conditl OIl S." In order to get additional information in regard to trends of the high schools and junior colleges in the Southern Mountains, I sent a questionnaire to 103 schools in the area. The basis of selection was made from the 1929 edition of South. ern Mountain Schools, published by the Russell Sage Foundation, which, though out of date because of changes made in the institutions since it was issued, is the only source of information that could be obtained. Thirtyeight schools, or 37 per cent of the total number, responded to the questionnaire. Of these, five had discontinued their school work, two had only elementary departments, one institution happened to be a senior college, and one a folk school; therefore reports of only 29 institutions were used. Grouped according to academic levels, these included: junior colleges, 2; high schools, 6; high school and junior college, 6; elementary and high school, 13; elementary, high school, and college, 1; high school and college, 1. The following states were represented: North Carolina with 7 schools reporting; Kentucky with 8; Tennessee, 8; Virginia, 2; Alabama, 2; South Carolina, 1-making a total of 8 states. Introductory to the two main parts of the questionnaire was a general question as to the purposes and objectives of the individual institution. The replies submitted by the reporting schools were of such nature as to make accurate cataloging impossible, as was to be expected. The following purposes and objectives are fairly representative: "education for Christian character and underprivileged mountain high school pupils"; "to supplement public school facilities"; "to give education to mountain youth who are unable to go out of the mountains for an education"; "to develop a happy, contented rural civilization"; "training for good citizenship anywhere and giving vocational training." The questionnaire proper was divided into two divisions: First, objective data, and second, subjective data. The objective division called for: first, courses dropped from the curriculum since 1927; second, courses added to the curriculum since 1927; third, causes which influenced the decision to drop or add courses to the curriculum. Under this heading, six causes were suggested: (1) local need; (2) student demand (adding course); (3) insufficient demand by students (dropping course); (4) accrediting agency; (5) general curriculum revision because of present emphasis in education; (6) influence of Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. And a blank was left for the institution to report any other influential cause. At least 56 courses were dropped by the institutions reporting, and at least 120 added. For convenience a general grouping of these has been made, together with such tentative conclusions and interpretations as may be drawn. Ten educational courses on the secondary level were dropped, apparently as state requirement for cification were raised; 15 courses *li education ertl 1 1 1 1 were added, due evidently to the fact that in some states, particularly Tennessee and Kentucky, the teachers' certificate requirements are such that the junior colleges can well afford to offer such courses. There is a definite trend on the part of institutions to eliminate Latin from their curricula, 9 having dropped it. This, however, is not unusual when the practice is so widespread. One junior college added an elementary Latin course. The explanation for this may be found in the fact that Latin had been practically, if not entirely, eliminated from the high school curriculum in the state in which that junior college is located. In 1936 one high school dropped French and added Latin. As for modern languages, it seems that institutions, both high schools and junior colleges, are either dropping or adding courses, depending upon the students' need for languages for admission to college. French was dropped by 5 and added by 3; Spanish dropped by 3 and added by 2; German dropped by 1 and added by 2. One institution dropped French and later replaced it; some institutions dropped one language only to add another in its place. In the field of History and Civics, 7 courses were eliminated and 7 added. The trend here seems to be toward changing the nature of the courses offered. Dropped were courses in Ancient History, Medieval European History, Europe Since 1914, Trade Civics, I?conomic History, and a course known as "Smalltown." Those added include Current History, World History, Problems Page 20 Mouwrnnsr Lire AND WORK January, 1935 of World Democracy, Vocational Civics, Government, American History, and Modern European History. Offerings in Mathematics have nut changed greatly, perhaps indicating the strong influence of preparatory training. Five courses were dropped and 6 added; Solid Geometry was dropped by 5 institutions and added by 1. Others dropped were Commercial arithmetic, by 3; Algebra by 2; Freshman Mathematics by 1; and Mathematical Analysis, by 1. Added were Calculus, by 2; General Mathematics, by 2; College A1g,~bra, 1; Trigonometry, 1; and Business Arithmetic, 1. In the past ten years Science has been given considerably more emphasis than formerly. Pour courses were dropped and 11 added. Three schools eliminated Geography and 1 added it. Others eliminated, were, respectively, Chemistry, Physics, and General Science. Physics was added by 4; other additions were Zoology, Botany, Physiology, Astronomy, Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, Organic Chemistry, General Chemistry, Household Physics, and Advanced Biology. The two sciences most frequently offered are Physics and Biology, with Chemistry a close third. The institutions included in the report arc definitely placing more emphasis on English than heretofore. The study brought out the fact that only 1 course in English was dropped, whereas 9 were addÃ‚Â°d. Not only is English r~~eiving more emphasis, but there is an effort to make the teaching of the subject more practical. Among the 8 courses added were Public Speaking, journalism, industrial English, Content of Literature, and Creative Writing. In the field of Religion only 4 courses were dropped, while 8 were added. One institution added a course in Homiletics in 1931 and dropped it in 1934. A general course in Bible was added by 4 schools; others offered courses in History of Christian Church, Life and Letters of Paul, Old Testament Prophets, Apostolic Age, Prophets of Israel, and Principles of Christian Education. The most outstanding curriculum trend indicated by the .study was in the field of industrial Arts. Seventeen courses were added, while only 3 were dropped. Those dropped were mechanical drawing, weaving and rug-making, and manual training. Four schools have added printing; 3, advanced woodworking; 2, mechanics. Advanced sheet metal work, welding, upholstering, and homecraft have been added by one school cash. Three schools have added advanced courses in woodfinishing, radio and electrical work, weaving, manual training, mechanical drawing, shopwork, auto mechanics, building construction. Something of the offerings in the field of Industrial Arts is indicated by the following figures. Four schools offered a course in General Manual Training. Courses offered by at least 3 institutions include shopwork, auto mechanics, mechanical drawing, building construction, woodfinishing, advanced sheet metal work, welding, upholstering, homccraft, machine lathe, and wrought iron. Two schools have offered radio and electrical work, and two, weaving. Them has been a distinct enrichment in the field of Industrial Arts by the schools reporting. In the field of Home Economics, 2 schools dropped a general course, and 1 dropped a course in Home Nursing. Fight courses were added. One institution reported that it has added a department of Home Economics since 1931. Four schools offered a general course in this field; 3 offered a course in Home Nursing; each of the following courses was offered by at least one institution; Home Living, Home Problems, Home Economics for Men, Survey Course in Home Economics, Home Management, and House Planning. Six schools indicated that there was a need to add a general course in Agriculture to their curricula. Three added a course in Poultry Raising in 1935. Other courses added in this field were Animal Husbandry, Dairying, Field Crops, and Horticulture. A Business Department was added by 9 institutions. Others added scattered courses in the business field, such as typing, shorthand, business science, and a course in the use of the cumptometer. Shorthand was dropped by two schools, and a course in Commercial Law and Business Management by one. Four institutions reported that they had added a course in General Sociology, while one has added a course in Rural Sociology-all since 1934. One school has added a course in Political and Social Geography. A course in Occupations has been offered by three. Two institutions added Hygiem to their curricula. General Psychology was JA uary, 1933 IN40LJN rnm 1,11 1, AND Woao Page21 added to the curricula of two, in 1937, and one ;:tided a course in Child Psychology. `there were other scattered offerings dropped or added. Dropped were, Expression, by 2; History of Music, by 1 ;Aesthetics, by 1 ; a course in Leadership, by 1. Six added a course in Music. Five added a course in Applied Arts. Other scattered courses added were Philosophy, Ethics, Physical Education, Guidance, and Restaurant Management. Now let us glance at the causes which influenced decisions to drop or add courses. Many of the schools checked more than one item in the suggested list of causes, thereby in di:ating that there was more than one cause for a specific change in many cases. Briefly the results were as follows: (1) Local need was checked by 19; (2) student demand (For adding a course), 16; (3) insufficient demand by students (dropping a course), 11; (4) accrediting agency, 6; (5) general curriculum revision because of present emphasis in education, 21; (6) influence of Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, 1. Other causes given were, lack of funds, need of students desiring to transfer to fouryear institutions, effort to round out general curriculum, the need for occupational guidance, needs of students for practical homemaking and earning a living, and an attempt to fill the need of higher education when college is impossible. Another section of part one of the questionnaire related to curriculum emphasis in the institution. The three items under this heading were checked as follows: terminal courses, 7; preparatory courses, 9; about equally divided between terminal and preparatory courses, 17. Other answers as to emphasis included the following: (1) We emphasize general education. (2) The trend is distinctly away from terminal courses of a general cultural value, so far as students are concerned. Language and unified courses for freshmen do not attract students. They want to get a job or go to a four-year institution. (3) As a community school primarily, our emphasis is on terminal courses, but as an accredited public school receiving a grant from the county, our work follows the standards set up by the stag; within this framework our emphasis is directed toward the community and a more abundant rural life. The trend toward terminal courses in education is seen in the decided development in the Industrial Arts field, in the increased number of offerings in Home Economics, in the addition of Business Deparnnents by a number of institutions, and by the demand for and increased offerings in Agriculture. Data compiled for item five in the questionnaire, "demonstrated interest in the life problems (home, church, recreation, labor, health, etc.) of local territory by your institution since 1927," was enlightening. Twenty-four institutions reported an increase in demonstrated interest in lift problems in the local territory of the institution since 1927. Five institutions said that it was the same; no institutions reported a decrease. The findings as to changes in curricula appear to bear out these statements. Not all schools reported on the last item which reads, "What percentage of your mountain students graduated remained in the mountains each year since 1927? However, a sufficient number reported so that wÃ‚Â° can gÃ‚Â°t an approximation of the number of mountain graduates who remained in the mountains. The approximate figures are: Fear Percent 1927 51 1928 54 1929 45 1930 57 1931 62 1932 55 There seems to be au increase since 1930 in the pcrccntag: of graduates remaining in the mountains. I do not know just how reliable the figures are because I daresay that in some instances they were given as mere guesses or approximations and institutional records were not gone into to find the percentage, but if we can draw any conclusion at all from the figures presented, it seems to be a very good percentage, in fact a higher percentage than 1 had anticipated when I began this investigation. It appears from previous studies in regard to the mobility of population that there is a tendency for individuals to go elsewhere and to move from the place of birth. Bean M. Schweickhard in his book Industrial Arts in Education says that the result of one study in regard to the mobility of population seemed to point "to an increasing tendency for the individual to leave the place of his birth and boyhood by the time he becomes an adult. And it may be expected that the tendency will increase still more rapidly by reason of our Year Percent 1933 56 1934 57 1935 62 1936 62 1937 62 Page 22 MOUNTAIN Lie AND Woos January, 1938 improving methods of transportation and communication." In this particular investigation which Schweickhard refers to, very close to 75 per cent of the fathers of ninth-grade boys were born in some other locality than that in which they then lived, and, he continues, practically the same could be said in regard to the mothers. Our situation here in the mountains may be different from that of one narrow locality. Although our students may not remain in the particular community in which they were born, yet if they remain somewhere in the mountains, we are still training them for mountain community leadership. In the second division of the questionnaire dealing with subjective data, 26 individuals reported that they believed that the private schools have a distinctive field of service in the mountains. The others did not report or did not hold this belief. Many institutions checked more than one item P under the question, "What is your opinion in regard to the future of institutions in the mountains?" Six said that the future of the private institutions was to provide opportunity for elementary education, 13 said that it was to provide opportunity for secondary education, 18 said that it was to provide opportunity for collegiate education, 20 individuals reported that the future of the private institutions was to experiment in freer educational methods outside the limitation of public school system, 25 reported that the future of these institutions was to train mountain community leaders. At least 15 other opinions as to the future of private institutions in the mountains were given. Summing up the tentative conclusions, it would appear from this study that more emphasis is being placed on English and English Expression, Religion, Science, on individual and social problems, and the strongest emphasis of them all is the trend in terminal courses with the offerings in industrial Arts, Home Economics, Business, and the field of Agriculture. Perhaps in order to emphasize an appreciation of the good, the beautiful and the true, music is again having its rightful place in the curricula of our institutions. During the past ten years these institutions have placed increasing emphasis on human problems, as evidenced by the addition of such courses as Psychology, Sociology, Economics, Philosophy, Human Geography, Guidance and Ethics, which arc definitely studies of human relationships. Now what about the future of our institutions? Since I am neither a prophet nor a son of a prophet, my remarks will be few. Twenty-six out of the 29 answering the questionnaire believe that there is a distinctive field of service for private institutions in the mountains. However, there seems to be some disagreement as to what the field is. The majority believe that it is to train mountain community leaders. Ranking next is the opinion that our schools should experiment in freer educational methods outside the public school system. Is there some uniform type of education which can be given for our entire mountain area which could be said to be distinctly preferable for the Southern Mountains? If you will allow me to give my own opinion and to give it very humbly, I do not believe that there is a single type of education which can be applied throughout the mountain area. I do believe, however, that there is a distinct field of service for our mountain institutions, but that each institution must work out its own salvation-not that we should have competitive effort, but rather a more abiding form of cooperation. 1 believe that the economic and social conditions of different mountain localities are different and therefore, if education is to meet community needs, the type of education must be different. Now I do not mean that there will not be similarities in educational offerings, because I believe that naturally there will be courses for expression and orientation of the student in the social, religious, physical, economic and political world in which he lives, but what I am referring to more than anything else is the total curricula content including terminal courses and the amount of active participation in community life by the institutions. I believe that the future of our private institutions lies primarily in giving to the student functional religious experience and in affording terminal education for the masses. Although we do not have time to go into the phases of practical Christianity in this paper, I am confident that we certainly know the value of practical Christianity in community participation. With one closing remark about Industrial Education, I shall conclude this report. A course in Manual Training is usually considered terminal but January, 193 N1ouN rnw L,trt: AND V`Olko Page 23 there is a vast difference between offering Manual Training in which the student may practice on a block of wood and teaching him to apply his skill in actual life situations. Perhaps this is a weakness in our vocational education today. Often projects are given that arc not linked up with everyday life; for example, a student may practice the making of some joint or the turning of a piece of wood on a lathe, and yet no connection in actual experience is made possible for the student to produce a useful article which can be enjoyed. Furthermore, granting that in some projects, the student does make a few useful articles, thereby getting training, the process is not complete until those articles are marketed in some way. The complete process gives to the student an actual life situation which he must have in order to adjust himself more adequately to the world in which he is living. Again, why should there not be in the future a coordination of terminal education with actual businesses or industries in the area served by an institution? For example, in Santa Ana, California, the Santa Ana Junior College is attempting to give the students vocational guidance and actual experience in business and industry. Santa Ana offers a trade training curriculum which includes courses in printing, tool-making, and machine-shops. Anc1, this is an interesting factor: journeymen of practical experience direct the work, and the program as a whole is being fostered by representatives of the tracts in the community. A two-year curriculum is also offered in retail store management leading to employment of students as buyers in branch stores and as department store managers, and proprietors of unit stores. And each week of study in the college is followed by a week of coordinated work, with pay, in cooperating stores. Santa Ana also offers a two-year terminal curri:ulum in engineering to prepare the student for such work as drafting, surveying, laboratory, chemistry, and other related vocations. It seems to me that such a coordination of education and industry could be worked out in some of our mountain localities even at the present time. Finally, whatever the future may hold for our institutions, the maximum amount of service rendcrcd to tsar territory swill depend upon the alertness of individual institutions to meet the changing conditions of the particular mountain territory which it serves. This can be done only through a consciousness of the need of institutional service to its constituents. Conference of Southern Mountain Workers Knoxville, Tennessee, March 8-Io 1'y c 24 MouN rntN Li] r AND Worth January,1933 THE TENNESSEE CONFERENCE FRANK C. FOSTER At the Morris conference the social and economic changes in the Tennessee mountains were discussed by Dr. W. T. Cole of the University of Tennessee. His observations were based on a study of the eight counties of the Blue Ridge and sixteen counties of the Cumberland or Highland Rim, using the 1930 census as the most recent source of reliable data. By comparing these with earlier figures he finds the population increasing more rapidly in the Blue Ridge with some increase in the Cumberland area. While the size of family is decreasing, it is still larger than for the nation as a whole, or the neighboring urban areas. Larger families, more poverty, less educational opportunity, and greater dependence seem to move on together in the Cumberland area. The recorded increase in birth-rate Dr. Cole interprets as being due to better reporting and greater efficiency in the Health Department; the decrease in infant mortality would be confirmed by other observations. The paper also called attention to the influence of the social security legislation which is particularly significant for regions of the Cumberland plateau where the percentage of dependence is abnormally high. What influence will this have on the children to whom the state I I I looks for the future? Two other forces of significance discussed were the increased tendency to produce the tilled crops, corn and tobacco, that bring cash; and the importance of the region as a vacation land. As for the first, the use of demonstration farms and agents is bringing about improvement. We have yet to see what the effect of the influx of tourists is to do to the attitudes and conduct of the people. For some strange reason nothing was said of the importance of industrialization. Yet as one sees the revolutionary effect of industries in such communities as Kingsport and Elizabethton, it is eMent that we have forces operating which will vi 1 1 1 1 change the whole character of these communities, making cities and suburban communities out of what were once mountain valleys. If the influence of the Tennessee Valley Authority program ap proaches its goal there will be other patterns of community life growing up about the new indus trial centers clustered about new foe al points of power and transportation. The second discussion of the conference was 1%:d by Commissioner W. A. Bass. With great skill he reviewed the progress that had been made in attaining the goals of Tennessee's eight-point educational program. Although the level of education is far from what the leaders desirÃ‚Â°_, definite advances have been recorded in the last legislature: the appropriations for the schools have been advanced from four to seven million dollars annually, qualifications for teachers have been raised, a minimum term of eight months is about to be established, the sum of one hundred thousand dollars has been set aside for the improvement of libraries in the elementary schools, fifty thousand dollars have been appropriated for improving instruction through supervision, and four hundred and fifty thousand dollars a year for transportation of elementary pupils. Commissioner Bass illustrated to the conference the fine way in which he and his staff work together in improving supervisory procedure. With R. Lee Thomas, elementary school supervisor for the state, the superintendent of Anderson County and the supervisor and the principal of the Morris School contributing from their experiences, it was evident that new ideas and practices were being carried out through the schools. Another approach mentionted was the construction of teaching units and aids in the curriculum seminar held each summer at Peabody College; teachers from all over the state join in working upon these bulletins. In a second seminar, on the improvement of teacher education, Tennessee teachers of education join with leaders from all over the South in dealing with the common problem in producing vital educational leadership. Although the commissioner had the characteristic concern with administrative procedure found in each discussion with state officials-improved attendance records, better buildings, better care in the use of the plants already in operation-there was genuine concern for the vital expÃ‚Â°riences within the schools. Tennessee has the adopted text system of determining instruction; at the same time the January, 1938 MOUNTAIN LrFn AND WORK Page 2 5 state is producing bulletins that provide a wide range of suggestion for freeing the schools from bookish study-andrecite cycles. When asked what he thought of the private schools Mr. Bass was quite frank in saying that they had stood in the way in some instances, kÃ‚Â°eping the communities from assuming the responsibilities that they should hw a taken. HÃ‚Â° did not favor having schools pauperize the regions through unnecessary philanthropies. As state supervisor of high schools he has first hand knowledge of the schools from Mountain City to Memphis. The conference was fortunate in dealing with a commissioner who knew his schools, his people, and the conference. The third session dealt with the contribution of the private school to secondary education. A review of nine studies summarized by Maurice Seay at the Kentucky conference was quoted, showing that experimentation was the most commonly observed service; others upon which there was some agreement were: to give religious and moral training; to replace the home; to care for public school misfits; to raise academic standards; and to prepare students for college. In the opinion of the Tennesseeans, exploration rather than experimentation characterized the service of these private schools, a process of seeking out, trying out servicÃ‚Â°s in order to meet needs. The idea of experimentation is more scientific, implying a more rigid control and formulation of purpose than is usually found in private schools. In the latter there is more often found a religious devotion to a cause; a service defined in terms of human need rather than abstract "truth." Undoubtedly much of their work has experimental value; however, it would be the academic experimentalist who would use that term in describing the program rather than the individuals and boards founding the schools. The "fruits" of a mission school are to be found in improved lives, better communities, finer cultural relations, rather than in tested procedures. A second characteristic of the private secondary school has been that of seeking to help those neglected by existing institutions. The impression that the private schools are attempting to compete with the public schools is due to an ignorance of their history. Most of them were established when there were no public schools. And they were promoted by people who wanted desperately to have an education for those who otherwise would be neglected. The sense of competition has arisen as the public school has advanced, while the private schools lingered, sometimes seeking new lines of service in the presence of an advancing public cdu:ation program. Other special types of service are found in what the schools offer in additional teachers, or sp:cial equipment which the missions contribute. A special type of teaching which deals inore directly with the spiritual and social needs of the community, such as a religious program or vocational curriculum, seeks to attain the improvement of folk life, increased appreciation of the beautiful, and the development of new skills. So we find an interest in the crafts, the folk dances, music, and all that leads to an appreciation for the cultural heritage of the mountains and through this building up an indigenous art and culture. A review of the splendid progress made by the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild is ample evidence of accomplishment. With the industrialization of the mountains another type of school is appearing which seeks to help the people understand the character of the social and economic forces affecting life in the mountains. Such a school as the Highland Folk School not only aims to teach an understanding of this life, but seeks to give the students some skill in organizing to meet the forces and to defend themselves against the influences which will limit their future happiness. In the fourth session Edwin E. White brought forth from the abundance of his study a program for a rich rural life. His Highland Heritage provides an excellent development of the ideas he introduced. Ten proposals were discussed. 1) Provision for food and the material foundations of living: while most of the people arc involved in the producing of food, much can be done to add to the variety of products and the quality of the crops. 2) Vocational training can be introduced help the people do better what they are already doing without sufficient instruction. 3) Care for the lands, particularly the timberlands, to preserve the trees and soil, is needed to conserve the heritage of the past and to lÃ‚Â°ave provisions for the future. to Page 26 Mouwr.aw Urt: ,ago WORK January, 1938 4) Education in the home arts and skills will benefit living conditions within the limitations of the present economy. 5) Community cooperation in promoting industries will bring increased cash income. 6) Social life may be improved through mare provision far community activities; pov: rty and isolation often kceP people from enjoying a fellowship they might learn to appreciatÃ‚Â° and enjoy. 7) Health facilities now suffer from concentration in distant centers; doctors are not near enough to the mountain people to be callÃ‚Â°d, nor can the people afford to pay thÃ‚Â° prices that lung distance trips cost. S) Recreation, a means of helping to promote a happy community, has been neglected. 9) Wholesome participation in civic affairs suggests another challenge "Politics" undoubtedly offers one of the most lively community interests of the mountains. Unfortunately the "good" people have not always used their influence in public affairs, or they have not transferred their goodness to such relationships. Certain it is that civic affairs need skill, knowledge and a sense of public well-being in order to command more respect from the people. 10) And last of all, inspiration. Here Mr. White interpreted the place that religion should have in providing a "lift" for life, giving people a faith that emancipates and elcv ates rather than one that depresses and invites despair and stolid submission to a life that might be improved. The agencies to meet these needs were discussed by George Gant, Chief of the Training Division of the Tennessee Valley Authority, who reviewed the experience of their division in training leaders. They first trained the workers on the job. Next there was an interest in the family which led to study and activity beyond the worker. Then there was an interest shown in advancing to places of larger responsibility. The classes which were formed for these workers were organized about an expressed interest in vocations, or other courses which they felt would help them in reaching some goal. In providing school facilities for the children of the workers, thÃ‚Â° Tennessee Valley Authority aided the stag, upon whom the burden far conducting the school fell. With the cooperation of the University of Tennessee and other educational advisors, a program was sponsored which would prove an example for other counties to observe. In the growth of this educational program the help of gov--riu-nont departments was used, m along this single agency an example of how other agencies can assist through their special contribution in bettering the life of the one community. In the fifth session Dr. Lester Wheeler faced the thorny question which arose at each coriE-rencc about the native ability of the mountain stock. He observed some influence toward deterioration through inbreeding, selective migration, and the lack of dev; opment due to isolation. He found that remote mountain children compare favorably with other :hildrcn in musical ability. In the specific tests of intelligence Dr. Wheeler found the children to be normal. The test scores showed the decline in intelligence as the years advanced, results that were similar to M. D. S. Hirsch's study in Kentucky, quoted at each conference. An analysis showed that Hirsch "did not make an environmental analysis of his data which affected the Intelligence rating of children"; Dr. Wheeler therefore concluded that the mountain children are normal at birth, but suffer from lack of opportunity. Ability for leadership is there. It needs educating. This education should be in terms of the needs of mountain life. Mountain agriculture should afford instruction in grazing, dairying, horticulture, care and preservation of forestry, gardening, farm and shop work, conservation of soil, poultry, and craftsmanship. In home economics would come cooking, child care, health, home planning, weaving, basketry and similar skills. Leaders should rec;ive their training through intern experience, dealing with the situations and people where they arc to work. The county agent, health unit, and demonstration farm have an important place in this program. The final discussion over the unique contribution of the private school was less conclusive than that on most of the other topics. Possibly this is due to the fact that the relationship is least well defined. For it was largely in the interests of defining this relationship that the Educational Commission was formed. Mr. C. E. Wright, representing President Warren of Carson-Newman College, mentioned the emphasis on the value of the individual, the motive of social service, the January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LmF AND WORK Page 27 power of personal religion, the importance of education in morals, and a sense of spiritual destiny. President C. C. Sherrod of East Tennessee State Teachers College, while leading a public institution, has an active interest in the educational program of his denomination, and has a personal background in privately sponsored schools. He spoke of the trend from private to public education as a national phenomenon. His own denomination has in its history established about eight hundred schools in the South, and yet today is continuing less than eighty. Dr. Sherrod spoke with genuine appreciation of the part private schools had played, yet recognized the fact that people of equal devotion to those in the religiously sponsored schools were giving themselv_-s to the public tax-supported schools. The excellent summary by Dr. Morse will be combined in his published report. One major WHAT THEY Recreation Hall on Gunter Mountain The Florence Hague Becker Recreation Hall was dedicated at Kate Duncan Smith D.A.R. School in Grant, Alabama, on OctobÃ‚Â°r 31. This unique building is made entirely of logs, with those in the wall upright. The auditorium will seat about a thousand people and there is a good stage. Building was done by the mountain men and boys under the direction of Mr. Augusta Alred. The school also boasts of a new water-tower built of native stone with a 5500 gallon capacity, a gift from a friend in Pennsylvania. Thirty-fifth AnnitcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rsary at Hiradrnan Hindman Settlement School celebrated its thirtyfifth anniversary this fall. Started in tents on a hillside, it has had a history of fires and struggles but has been rebuilt and kept going. Today it claims three hundred graduates, seventyfive percent of whom have been able to have some college work, and most of whom are now back working in Knott county and surrounding areas. Miss May Stone, one of the founders, still serves on the Executive Committee of the institution. Mountain Maternal Health League A live and healthy mother is most essential to the health and happiness of the entire family. The child's omission remains to be recorded: in none of th~_ conferences was attention given to the "schools to be studied." In the conferences leading up to the regional gatherings this assumÃ‚Â°d considerable interest. Representatives of the Commission visited the Carr Creek school with the committeÃ‚Â° of the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards. When it was observÃ‚Â°d how much time such a study involved, and it was recognized that all members of the Commission are involved in responsibilities in their own offices, the enthusiasm for studying other schools dÃ‚Â°clin_Ã‚Â°d. The interest has not been lost. There is the judgment, however, that such work must be done by some one or more individuals who have the time and training to study schools as a major business and not merely as a side issue. Schools are to be studied. It is to be hoped that the Conferen:e will succÃ‚Â°ed in finding a way to provide the means to carry on the research. ARE DOING mental and physical well-being depends a great deal on whether he has adequate care and security or not. If we are to concern ourselves about finding the best p'ble under which our I ossi conditions children may abound in health and happiness, should we not first find the mest possible conditions for healthy mothers and harmonious family life? How to attain that health and happiness for the whole family is not only a personal matter for parents and children; it is even more vitally a community problem, the solution of which is one of the necessary steps to the betterment of public health and of social and economic conditions. It was in the interest of finding even one answer to such questions that the Mountain Maternal Health League was formed. The work of this League has generously been made possible through a friend. Dr. Clarence J. Gamble, because of his wide experience in clinical research to find a suitable and scientific method whereby mothers may be taught how to conserve their own vigor and how to have healthier babies, and because of his deep inter:at in the people of the southern mountains. With the idea that a planned family should be the basis of a planned population, a health and sociological program on family planning, or, as we call it, child spacing, is being carried on. Under the supervision of Page 28 MOUNTAIN Lire AND Wont, Januarv, 1938 a medical advisory 'board and through qualified nurses, supplies of contraceptives and professional advice on childspacing are carried direct to isolated women in their own homes-women to whom, far one reason or another, the clinical facilities of the city are inaccessible. With the Berea center as headquarters for the League, work is carried on in Madison, Jackson and Rockcastle counties, and ne,v branches have been opened in the Harlan County coal fields and in Sevierville, Tennessee. During the year over 500 families hate been visited by our noesÃ‚Â°, Miss Lena Gilliam, and in November, 1937, there were 425 patients. This group includes mothers who mast need help to plan for their families and whose families will nest benefit by the protection of th: mothers' strength and resources. Prospects for finding full, healthy, and happy lives may bz better for them. Happy mothers represent thÃ‚Â° ideals which family spacing programs hope to realize. Prnland's Crafts House Penland's Edward I . Worst Crafts House has grown lustily within the last twelve months. Last summer we put a concrete door in the daylight side of th% basement, giving us a room ten by eighty feet on the south side of the building. With its many windows, it is one cf the cle~!riest parts of the house. We have put two partitions in this long roan, using one section far a gift shop during the summer, one far supplies of yarn during the Institute, and the other for classes in basketry. Cne of the students of the Spring Institute gave money for Mr. Worst's bedroom, and it was finished r and ready roe occupancy when he came in August. With its private bathroom this is the only finished room an the main floor, although all the house has constant hard use throughout the spring, summer and fall. Each year since the Institute stude:,ts planned the building, they hav,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢e given tcward its construction. The first year each gave a log, the cost cf which delivered on the site was `i,2.50. ThÃ‚Â° next year, 1934, each gave a window sash, the cost of which happened to be X2.50. In 1936 the crying need was for plumbing and though we used our imaginations and put our heads together r we could arrive at no romantic item or plumbing costing the prccedentcd 52.50. Nevertheless the students, nut to be Outdone by those of othÃ‚Â°r years, made their gifts toward plumbing. Then it was that we all began to bÃ‚Â°lieve in fairies, far one evening just as we were ass:mbling for supper, a Europeanmade car came driving up our hill bringing three strangers, a gentleman and two ladies, and since the nearest hotel was six miles away we asked them to have supper with us and spend the night, which they seemed very glad to do. After supper some one, locking very impressive, said, "Bo you know who that man is?" The response was, "I know his name is Mr. Blank-that's all I know." And then, "He is one of the Blanks of the Blank Plumbing Company!" We held cur breaths with wonder. As a result of the visit that Plumbing Company gave complete fixtures for three bathrooms. Encouraged by this gift one of the Penland students, who is a Professcr of EIc: rical Engineering, wrote to two other plumbing companies telling them what the f-lest had done and mentioning the fat that th-r: -"Ã¢â‚¬Â¢crc ocher plumbing needs. Thane two companies gave all the rest of the 1-lumbing n-,cdcd for at.r largz F,dÃ¢â‚¬Â¢,var-d i'. Worst Crafts House. WC d0 bC11CVC In fill-ICS! Csrrihl Dinr.rr fm tL1;ss G;xtrluioG The fall meÃ‚Â°ting of the Southern i~ighla c,d Hanclictaft Guild is always a social treat. Each one has been at a different handicraft center and from each we base carried away impressions and h.t;Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,py mcm;rics as unique and different as the individuals and surroc n dings which hwÃ¢â‚¬Â¢~ molded the character of these centers. 'The ci,eeting aL the !dlanst:;nd in Jctcbcr ;vas such an experience for us all, far the outstanding event was a dinner in honor of our beloved .Miss Frances Goodrich, to wham wl ate indcb~ed for the Allanstan d snap, and far much tmat mete words cannot express. Mr. and Mrs. hc,clf lÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ r as bast and hostess made it a proud and delightful occasion for us a11. There were seventy-six members present at the dinner, served in one of the large and pleasant dining rccms of the Cic.mg~ y'andcrbiit Hotel, and each one had brought as a gift to Miss Goodrich a representative piece of handiwork. Instead of after-dinner speeches r there was an after-dinner crafts show. Miss Goodrich, always happiest when she is sharing her jays with others, and glowing with her eternal youth, displayed each piece to us as shy umvrapped it. -lodging from the apylause and th: many oh's and ah's, we were appreciative craftsmen. Wh; n the Last piece had b_-,_,n put out, there was an exhibit on that long table that would have do lighted any laser of beauty and workmanship. It was an inspiration to us to see vhat our fellow m-mbors were doing. Many of the gifts were pieces that had been photographed for Mr. Luton's book, HetttJacra f t.s o f the Snttthertt l~i~l;!nt.rls. Perhaps because of this book, and because of the National Exhibition of Rural Arts that was soon to be held in Washington, this crafts party for Miss Good; ich had an added depth of meaning. Cloisttttas (it tbr John C. C:natyhcll Poll School To one who has 'ivied ::nd taught in the north, thÃ‚Â° winter session of the john C. Campbell Folk School is a revelation. I knew it to b-, an adventure in rural education and coop; ration- I found it as friendly as the ring of b'.uÃ‚Â° n r::untains ,~; hi: h encircle the \-all,--,. From the grace at breakfast, sung in a round before the sun has ris:n ab;vc the mountains, the daily lift of the t s:hcol is toucbea ;.lt,, t1_iz "xclt;:vc nt of fn. horizons. There arc so many` ncs.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ :,venues of thau:;ht and c-xp:ricnces in class, in work and in play. The Danish idea, 1 had Icarn-,d, was tc cnli"",nten and cnllccn tl,_~ minds L93S XLOL Nrntrr Lmn. AM) V'olcl: Page ?9 .:f the ri_ud.nts. I found that ? was more enlightened and enlivened than the boys and girls 1 had come to teach. Wen and women \\ ere th; y, rather, in experience, "n;l their :dventurcs, exploits and humor were contributions rich in value. L Sa\\' hJ\v ;1 lllOt?ntalll youth, C:lCll!ng :7114 learning r in class and on farm, can sec how to utilize his water, tilmbcr and his land to d:- best advanta:;c. He can see a nc;v future if he can start out with a few cows and cast in his lot \vit11 tile co:loerative. This winter ha is helping in the construction of a small laundry, learning by experience to dra\\Ã‚Â° his own plans, build his windows and doors, and by .ib!_ solve day to build a bar a or home for himself. The mountain maid eau sec bcfcre her the way to malts clean, practical and pretty her future home and nourish her lean \vith a wcll_chcsen meal. And tcgethcr both man and maid can folk dance and sing and use their leisure for fascinating (.rafts, carving, weaving or se~,iÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ing. "I sing behind the plough" runs the n,^tto of the Campbell school, words borrowed from a Danish folk song. It is the Christmas season and the great hall is full of Christmas greens. The near zero weather of the last \veelc evovc a light blanket of snow on tL~ mountains and the great \vatcr-Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.vÃ‚Â°hcel at millhousc crashed through the night against creeping icicles. But song pervades the air, the song of th a choicest carols, these native to the culture of the hills-those floating in from every land. An angel chorus of song rises upon the night against the brilliant stars. The Christmas play, or pageant, es at the heart of school life. As in Oberammergau, the students try to live the lives of these they inup,~rsomt:. 1lary polishÃ‚Â°s \vindows, Elizabeth washes dishes, Joseph cleans the born, the angels s\\Ã¢â‚¬Â¢acp the floors and tile si1cpherds wait on the \voodpile, all UÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ith carols on their lips. Ho\v natural it seems that the wisemen shou;d sin to the cattle they tend the melody written for thÃ¢â‚¬Â¢= bab_- in thÃ‚Â°_ manger. And the rehearsals arc in the same reverent earnestness. Kings bo\v their sturdy mountain backs in eastern prostration before the Kinv c` Kings; the shepherds being eggs and milk to th:e nwvbcr n b abc. The cherry tree of the old mcuntam ballad bov;s dc\vn its f:uit before the ind\velling holiness of the Virgin Wary. The mountain people from cove and creek come from afar to hear the angels sing. The greatest expcicnce of Chtistn;as is in the hearts of the yours:; nccplc, \-,,h(-, learning to unit-, ideal and real for rural betterment, sec at this season the heavens open, and bear in their souls and on tlv,-ir tongues the life of Christ \vllo came to bring a acv' life for all men. THE REVIEWING ARTS WORKSHOP OF RURAL AMFR!Ci1 ?e7arjorie Pam Colu;,nbia University Press, 1937 202 pees. ,51.50. The reading of The Arts Vor;shop of Rural .Ã¢â‚¬Â¢lrnerira is a memorable cxoericllcc. This work tells the story of homespun recreation, of rural :arts and crams in seven states of the Union, selected as representative of social trends in the United States. Even for one who knows somcthinl; of what has been loin on, the cumulative effect of this volume as a chronicle of recreational events and achievements is extraordinar\-. The discriminating reader may say of Miss fatten, "Methinks she loth protest too touch!" But since the hook comes from the Columbia University Press, and is a result of official research, a non-academic reader should probably offer a prays. of gratitude far Miss I'attcn's enthusiasm. A relatively lame amount of space is devoted to the story of rural play production and play writing. The exploits of the Carolina Playmakcrs, STAN D the Drama Festivals ef Wisconsin; the Little Conotrv 'hhcatre of North Dakota, are fully recorded. The two volumes of Wisconsin flays and the published works of the Carolina Playm aisers hardly seem to justify Miss Patten's superlatives. But perhaps one should not unduly base the significanc. of these praiscworthv do\~e1opments upon their published results. One of the most intriguinb chapters has the formidable title: "An Integrated Arts I'rol;ram in the tJnivcrsity of Colorado." Here is an unusual stc;ry oh friendly cooperation in the Univcrsitv. One reads: -Regardless of the departments in which they were reistercd, students sverc liven an opportunity to build `the show of the vear.' The best athletes became dancers. Students from the School of Journalism helped on the dialogue; students of history, sociology and art Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,vent in for research and were helpful in bringing out the special significance of authentic folk ways for speci tl bachgrounds. Students in the School Page 30 MOUNTAIN Lire: AND WORK January, 1938 of Music arranged the musical settings and composed many of the songs. A pit orchestra, a university band, and a glee club all played their parts. The Art Department was responsible for scenery, costumes, and posters." In a chapter entitled "Opera in Iowa" the author relates chiefly the story of the production of The Bohemian Girl; in another, "The Part that Music Plays," the reader is given additional insight into musical possibilities in rural communities. An. Iowa farm woman remarked, "We have no new linoleum on the kitchen floor but we have sung in opera." It is indeed inspiring to read of groups of singers and instrumentalists becoming participants in a vast fellowship of music in rural America. One is surprised that the accounts of folk dancing and handicrafts are so brief in comparison with Miss Patten's full treatment of rural dramatics. Mr. Allen Eaton's Handicrafts o f the Southern Highlands is evidence that much needs to be said about crafts. This reviewer holds the opinion that a more ample treatment of folk dance developments would have added materially to the value of Miss Patten's admirable volume. What forces have contributed to this remarkable rural arts revival that is taking place in America? While pointing out that the roots of these cultural resources lie in Colonial times, Miss Fatten ascribes great influence to the Agricultural Extension Service, established by the Federal Government in cooperation with state colleges, as an outcome of the Smith-Lever law of 1914. Frank H. Smith Handicrafts in the Southern Highlands, Bulletin of the Russell Sage Foundation Library, X145, New York, Russell Sage Foundation, October 1937, 1 Oc. This six-page bibliography has been compiled by Allen H. Eaton and will be of particular interest to those who have seen his new book, Handicrafts in the Southern Highlands. The titles include further bibliographies, a group of "titles furnishing historical and practical backgrounds on handicrafts in general," and an extensive list on special handicrafts such as basketry, coverlet-making, woodwork, work in clay, quilting and patchwork, spinning and weaving, whittling and c:.rving. PHYSICIANS AND MEDICAL CARE By Esther Lucille Brown. Nocc York.. Racssoll Sage Foun dation. 1937. 7Sc. This monograph is one of a series evaluating the status of certain professions in the United States. Of the series, two"The Professional Engineer," and "Nursing as a Profession"-were published last year together with a revision of the first publication of the series, "Social Work as a Profession," which appeared in 1935. These monographs contain much valuable material assembled from sources not available to the casual reader. Their purpose is to make a contribution not only to society but to the professions as well. The work is sponsored by the Russell Sage Foundation. This small volume presents a summary of much valuable research upon the various phases of medicine in our country at the present time. There is an adequate discussion of the evolution of medical education, of the medical school, of the work of the Council on Medical Education, of the content of the curriculum, of internships, and of the costs of medical education. The work of the American Medical Association with its eleven councils, bureaus or committees is reviev ed. This is followed by an able presentation oI questions pertaining to physicians in active practice and to the delivery of medical care. Reviews of significant studies of the highly controversial subjects point rather conclusively to the fact that slowly but surely thinking along lines of medical care is shifting in the direction of mass needs, and that sooner or later changes in the present set-up are bound to come. To those interested in this phase of our social welfare this book can be unhesitatingly recommended. Ruby Helen Payne, M.D. Six Folk Songs from the Southern Highlands, Recreation Service of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, Delaware, Ohio, The Cooperative Recreation Service, 1938, 5 cents a copy, $3 a hundred. This little booklet contains songs from Tennessee, North Carolina, and Kentucky, as well as a group of chanteys and singing games by Cecil Sharp. The titles are "Come All Young Ladies," "Cock Robin," "Farewell Sweet Jane," "I Had a Sister Sally," "The Nightingale," and "Two Magicians." .l.mury, 1935 NIOUN rnl Lll u. AND \Volh Page 31 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Helen H. Dingrnan William James Hzrtc%ins Orrin L. Keener CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Mrs. John C. Campbell Marshall E. Vaughn John 1'. McConnell Arthur T. McCormick John Tigert ___ Editor Counsellor Associate Editor Brasstown, N. C. Lexington, Ky. East Radford, Va. Louisville, Ky. Gainesville, Fla. ISSUED QUARTERLY-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBEii Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY OUR CONFERENCE SPEAKERS This year at the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers in Knoxville, Tennessee, March 8-10, we are fortunate to have some nationally known leaders in their particular fields. E. R. Bowen, General Secretary of the Cooperative League of America, will lead us in a discussion on the cooperative movement and the part we can all have in it. C. M. McConnell of Boston University will bring new ideas and fresh inspiration to our rural ministry. A special panel discussion of the problcms in the field and how they are being met by ministers working in the mountains will be a helpful feature in facing the church's responsibility today. Morris Mitchell of New College, New York, and the New College Community in Clarkesvillc, Georgia, will share his experience in new types of educational endeavor. Alva yU. Taylor, well known student of social and economic conditions in the South, has been asked to bring us up to date as educators and religious workers with our social responsibility. He is now working with Save the Children Fund as Educational Director. For the first time in our Mountain Workers Conference we are going to divide into groups to discuss 111 a more vital and intimate way our task. We hope you will come and make your contributions to our group thought and our group action. TH1? NOVEMBER EDUCATION MEETINGS As one step in the program of the Educational Commission three regional conferences were held on successive dates in November to discuss the educational problems of the particular areas. The one for Eastern Kentucky was held at Berea, for Eastern Tennessee at Norris, and for Western North Carolina at Asheville. Each conference followed the same general program with discussions centered around six topics: 1) .social and economic changes in the area; 2) trends in public education; 3) trends in private elementary and secondary education; 4) adult education; 5) colleges and training leadership for southern mountain areas; 6) new demands; next steps; schools to be studied. In this issue we are printing two papers read at the meetings, and a summary of the Tennessee conference. In the April issue we hope to present a summary by Dr. Hermann N. Morse of the three meetings as a whole. SONGS FOR THE FOLK FESTIVAL The Sir Folk? Sons just published by the Cooperative Recreation Service, has been prepared for the Recreation Service of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. It contains contributions from various centers that have in the past been represented at the Mountain Folk Festival and is suitable for use at the Festival. Therefore wdi groups expecting to come to the Folk Festival to be held April 4-5 at Berea College endeavor to learn the contents of this little collection. Just as we engage in folk games and dramatics for sheer enjoyment, so will we sing these delightful songs together. The books can be secured at 5 cents a copy from the Cooperative Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. 1',tgc 3? MOUNTAIN LInL AND WORK January, 1938 INDEX ZVICJL.TNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XIII An index of articles according to author and title supplemented by a partial subject index. ART De",ZhlrÃ‚Â°r of " North Carolina Pnttrr photograph, Doris Ulmann; X111:3 Oct '17 1, 1 Jrt"""rY L,tching, John 1. Spclm.tn III; XIIT:4 Jan '38 p I AKTICLL~ AND LITERATURE t1 Arlrrrrtnrr,v i" Rrrrr"tia" frank H. Smith XI11:4 fan '3R p 2 ilhhrtlnrhirr Sf r"lz:" g Margret Trotter X111:3 Oct '37 p 25 73 Boat lob i" tba Wcrlrl, Thc Robert F. Thomas XIIl:3 Oct '37 h 2 "Boil 1."rrri", " Marion Holcomb Skean X111:3 Oct '37 p 6 C: Campbell, Doak S. A S"mnrrrr) of Tba"glnts front t& Pa"r! L;ecrrsciou X111:2 ,lid '37 p 30 Campbell, Olive W. "Our Mountain A1"s" Nr" Boo/z o" llrr"dirr"(tc XIII:3 Oct '37 p 23 Relraanrct XI11:2 /"I '37 p 3 Satisfying Social Hunger X11T:1 Apr '37 p 29 Chamberlain, Leo bI. Tro"rl.c and P"t"rr of FIi,Zlarr lirl"c"tiarr in Krr!"rl,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢) XIII:4 Jan '33 p 12 C:h.r".ti"g Mountain Srbco1.~ Frank C. Foster XII1:2 jut '37, p IC, Clarl:c, 1)untont il Wrr_y of Arltrrrrrr far the Co"rrtr3 Chit rrla X111:3 Oct '37 p 12 )) Dingman, Helen H. /o%n C. C""r/~loell: lI Gro"t Prrsa""lity XIII:2 ,lul '37 p I L?ous;las, Clementine The Rrtrrrl Ails Eahibitian XIII:4 Jan '38 P 8 IJusseldcrp, Wilma van Rttr"I Saoi"I Work XIII:1 Apr '37, p IS f. I ,ttou, Ailcn II. II""rliwr"ftr i" O4atrnl"irr l,tfr X111:2 ,Jul'37 p 3l IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ hos:cr, Frank C. C;Lr"ragirt;; ola""t"i" Srhaohv XIII:2 ./ul '37 p 16 7'hr TrnurssrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢c Ca"frrr"rr XII1:4 Jan '38 p 24 (: C;Icnn, .john bl. /ab" C. C"r"frlrrll earl IN Carrforc"cc X111:2 Grafton, '37 1, 8 Graftnn, ,loan Rrlirf hid"irlrrtrrl: .YI"rih 1936 X111:1 Apr '37 p 1 H 11"",lior"fta lit Mountain Lifr Allen Eaton XI11;2 lul '37 p 31 IlutchinÃ¢â‚¬Â¢, William -(. Warren H. Wilson: lit Tiibioic X111:2 .lid '37 p 23 John C. C""rltGrll: A Grr"t Pcisoualil) Helen 11. Dingman x111:2 Jul '37 p I /oLr" C. C;hrll ""6f tbr Ca"frrr"or lobo M. Glenn XIIT:2 lid '37 p 8 lobo C. Can,pbcll Folk School Students Tf F"vt C/"as ,4T"Ir XIII:: Apr '37 p 19 L Leonard, Chester F.Vrtrrl) Co"rnrunity School XI11:4 Jan '38 p 4 VI \'or"tio"rtl Grrirl""or 1"stit"ta XTII:4 Jan '3R p Morrow, Bland r\4Ã‚Â°rl's Gro"r"; L'fr XIlI:I Apr '37 p 10 Morse, Hermann N. Wnrrrn ~ll. Wilson: Ire TriJ"!r XI11:2 (ul '37 p 23 N .\'rÃ‚Â°rl's Grotci"g Up Bland Morrc;w XIII:I Apr '37 p 10 O "O"r ablo""t"r" AE's" a\'r'" Book o" H"".lrrr"fl., Olive IJ. Campbell X111:3 Oct '37 p 28 P I'""ol L)wrrr.v.,ion: The Ir;t"rr of tbr 1'rir"tr Srrourlrtr) School xTII:z jut '37 p zo PI"y i" tbo So"thor" ,b1o""t"i"a Richard Vlorgan Seaman XIII:3 Oct '37 p 20 Pritchett, Leo K. 7'rr"rla ""rl t ulurr of Prir rrtr VTa""tri" Srroarl"ry Srboal.s XITI:4 J;n '33 p 18 Pro,grrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢v.cirr Erl"r'"tiau in fbr IvÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rrt"ok7~ 'Joitidailis Gkil A Morris X111:3 Oct '37 1) 8 R Rrb";Irlr"g " Crnrur""ify Samuel and Nola Vander 1le:r X111:3 Oct '37 p 17 Rclir f Liquidated: nlrrrrb 1936 Joan Grafton Xlll:l Apt '37 p I 1Zo(;art of tbr Sa"ther" VIa""t"irt 1;r1"o"I:o"rrl Ca"r"rissia" Hcr_ mane N. Morse X111:2 ,Jul '37 p 11 Rotro,hrct Olive D. Campbell XIIT:2 .Jul '37 p 3 Rirrr of I;"rtb James Still, XIIT:I Apr '37 p 9 R" r"I Ails Exhibition, Thc Clementine Doukl:-s X111:4 .lan '38 p 8 Rural Social Work Wilma can Dusscldorp X111:1 Apr '37 p IS S S"ticf)i",q Sori"I I1""grr Olive I. Campbell Xlll:l Apr '37 p 29 Sceman, Richard Morgan 1'I"y lit I& Soulhi,rn "ounlelin) X111:3 Oct '37 p 20 Skcan, K1amon Hclcomb "Book L"rui""' X111:3 Oct '37 p C, smith, Frank H. Adtuvrlrrrrs in RrcrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢"tia" XIll:4 Jan '38 p 2 So"u Goals far flro R"r"l Cbrrrc% Edwin F. \\'hitc X111:2 ,Jul '37 tÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ 2 5 Still, J; mes Rir rr of I:"rflr XIII:1 Apr '37 p `) S""rrr"r) of Thort,;lrte from the Pam'/ Divr",vaio", A Doak S. C-n,pbcll XIIT:2 Jul '37 p 30 T l ru"rserrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ Ca"frr-o"cr, Thc Frank C. Foster XIll:4 .Jan '38 p 24 TLtrt F"vt Clrrvs Milli, John C;. Campbell Yolk School Studci;-XIII:I Apr '37 p I.^Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ 1'hcmas, Robert F. The BrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢sl job i" t1c World X111:3 Oct '37 p 2 Trr"ds and P'uttrrr of Higher Grt"r"fia" in Kc"t"rhy Lc., 11. Chamberlain XII1:4 Jan '38 p 12 TrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rtr(s ""d Frrt"rr of 1'rir"tc Matt"t"i" Srra"rlrtrp Sr-hool.r I,co K. I'ritchctt X111:4 Jan '38 p 13 Trctter, Margret Ah(r"Irrchi" Stscaking X111:3 Oct '37 1-1, 25 `r Vandcr Meer, Samuel and Noln Rrlp"ildi"g it C01111)"Illit), X111:3 Oct '37 p 77 l'vrrl) Conrnruuit) School Chester 1. Leonard XIII:4 _/an '38 p 4 Vocational G"irt""cr I"atif"tr Glyn A. Morris XI11:4 -Jan '38 p 10 W Warren #i. Wilson: In Tribute Hermann N. Morse and William J. Hutchins X111:2 Jul '37 p 23 Way of Advance for the Country Church, A Dumont Clarks XIII:3 Oct '37 p 12 White, Edwin E. Some Goals for the Rural Church XIII:2 Jul '37 p, 25 BOOKS REVIEWED American Frontier Elisabeth Peck XIII:1 Apr '37 p 30 Arts Workshop, of Rural America, ,The Marjorie Patten XIII-.4 Jan '38 p 29 Curriculum Development Hollis L. Caswell and Doak S. Camp= bell XIII:3 Oct '37 p 30 Handicrafts in the Southern Highlands Russell Sage Foundation Bulletin No. 145 XIII:4 Jan '38 p 30 rl Highland Heritage Edwin E. White XIII:2 Jul '37 p 33 Hounds on the Mountain James Still XIII:3 Oct '37 p 31 Physicians and Medical Care Esther Lucille Brown XIII:4 Jan Ã¢â‚¬Â¢3g p 30 Rural Trends in Depression Years Edmund de S. Brunner and Irving Lorge XIII:3 Oct '37 p 30 Six Folk Songs ,from the Southern Highlands Recreation Service of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers XIII:4 Jan '38 p 30 Social Work Year Book, The Russell H. Kurtz, Editor XIII:1 Apr '37 p 31 Song Catcher in Southern Mountains, A Dorothy Scarborough XIII:1 '37 p 31 OUR CONTRIBUTORS JOHN A. tSPELMAN III, is an instructor at Pine Mountain Settlement School who has contributed before to the attractiveness of our magazine "with his sketches. ' FRANK H. SMITH is working with the Conference of 'Southern Mountain Workers, the University of Kentucky and Berea College in promoting leadership training for workers in recreation. CHESTER F. LEONARD directs the activities of V_ ardy Community Center at Sneedville, Tennessee. CLEMENTINE DOUGLAS represented the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild at the Rural Arts Exhibition in Washington, and in her own right is in charge of the Spinning Wheel, Asheville, North Carolina. GLYN A. MORRIS is director of the Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Kentucky. LEO M. CHAMBERLAIN is the Registrar at the University of Kentucky, Lexington. LEO K. PRITCHETT 18 at Lees-McRae College, Banner Elk, North Carolina, where he serves as both Dean and Registrar. FRANK C. FOSTER has recently left his position at Tusculum College in Greeneville, Tennessee, to become Dean of Education at the Asheville Normal and Teachers College, North Carolina.