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Mountain Life & Work vol. 15 no. 3 October, 1939 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv15n31039 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 15 no. 3 October, 1939 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky October, 1939 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. mouNTAIN LIFE WORK FROM MOUNTAIN TO PLAIN T. B. COWAN '"LITTLE CLAUS AWOKE . . . " JACOB LANGE OCTOBER, 1939 VOLUME NUMBER 3 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK IS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY AT BEREA, KENTUCKY, IN THE INTEREST OF FELLOWSHIP AND MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE REST OIL' THE NATION. Editor ________ ,Associate Editor _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ Helen H. Dingman ____________ Orrin L. Keener IN THIS ISSUE EDITORIAL FROM MOUNTAIN TO PLAIN WHAT HOT LUNCHES DO FOR MOUNTAIN SCHOOL CHILDREN "LITTLE CLAUS AWOKE . . ." FUNERAL NOTES, poem GROUPING OUR CHURCHES FOR ACTION NiCODEMUS, a play AUTUMN, linoleum cut BIRTHDAY PARTY NEWS NOTES THE REVIEWING STAND Contributing Editors Olive D. Campbell John P. McConnell Marshall E. Vaughn John Tigert Arthur T. McCormack T. B. Cowan 2 A1 va W. Taylor 5 Jacob Lange 8 Don West 14 Aaron H. Raking 15 Katherine Griswold 17 John .A. Spelrrzan 111 20 21 23 32 SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 PER YEAR, 30 CENTS PER COPY. ISSUED JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Kentucky, as second class mail matter ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, BEREA, KENTUCKY MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME 15 THINKING THROUGH OCTOBER, 1939 EDITORIA L Any people who have been bombarded with appeals to safeguard the health of themselves and their children by using vitaminized soap, vitaminized cough drops, or vitaminized cigarettes; or who have been the targets of any of the other absurdities that have cluttered up the airways and pages "f periodical advertising since Americans learned the fine art of propaganda during the first war to make the world safe for democracy (or hypocrisy, or something)-well, such a people ought to be immune to whatever type of propaganda the warring nations of Europe or selfish interests in the United States might devise in an attempt to befuddle our thinking in 1939. But can we be sure that we are immune? Evidently there are those who think we are not; for already we are being subjected to air-attacks of emotion-rousing half-truths in the garb of "realistic thinking." The war of words is onand it does concern us. As in 1914-18, truth is the first casualty of the conflict in Europe. The fight over revision of the neutrality law is a case in point. In a recent radio address a former candidate for the presidency of the United States urged the necessity for repealing the arms embargo. The reason he gave was that such revision would safeguard us against the dangers involved in carrying food and raw materials to the warring nations in American-manned, American-owned vessels. That was a "good reason" but it was not the "real reason"; for the danger he pointed out could be avoided by the reenactment and extension of the Cash-and-Carry Law, without lifting the arms embargo. Whatever the purpose of this radio speaker's advocacy of repealing the embargo may You cannot hold a man down in the ditch without getting into it yourself and holding him. -Booker T. Washingto NUMBER 3 have been, it was hidden from his listeners. He may have urged support of the President's policy in order to help England and Prance defeat Hitler; or to increase the profits of munitions makers; or to stimulate industry, thereby averting a recession and minimizing the chances of a Democratic defeat in the national elections in 1940; or for some other reason better than any or all of these. What it was, his hearers could only surmise. The danger of propaganda, says the sociologist, "lies in the fact that the purpose is hidden, and the information is presented as though it were a fair and complete statement of the case." How can we guard against propaganda? One thing all of us can do is to ask, as we read or as we listen: who is saying this and on what authority? Has he up-to-date facts, and is he giving all of them? Has he some bias, some "ax to grind," some ulterior motive? Furthermore, we can be on our guard against any appeal based on fear or hate or prejudice. Then there is available the help of the Institute for Propaganda Analysis,v which puts out publications "to help the intelligent citizens detect and analyse propaganda." Let us strive to think straight and to think through. Human lives, social well-being, and the forward march of our own democracy depend up on the ability of millions of Americans to get the truth and upon their willingness to be guided by it in personal living and in all human relationships including international affairs. Never was it more important for us to follow the behest of the great teacher who said, "Seek the truth, and the truth shall make you free." Only so can we hope to free ourselves from prejudice and propaganda, and from the terrible cost of trooping in their train. O. L. K. " 40 Fast 496 Street, New York City The Sermon on the Mount begins with the geographical statement that Jesus "went up into a mountain . . . and he opened his mouth and taught . . . ." He taught from a mountain and his teaching matched and overmatched the mountain in its rugged grandeur, its strength, and its beauty. The mountain becomes the symbol of his teaching. Mountain-like, his teaching towers above our earthly level. His most adverse critics have never challenged this point. They have questioned the practicality of his teaching but never its elevation. It has spacious, expanding horizons. It challenges us to spiritual mountaineering even while its faroff shining heights discover to us the flabbiness of our moral stamina. Thus a geographical accident becomes a symbol of his sermon and of our moral plight. But the sermon which begins on a mountain does not end in a halo but with the statement: "When he was come down from the mountain great multitudes followed him." He teaches from a mountain. He comes down from the mountain to the plain. 1t is a movement freighted with significance. How will he who voiced sublime truths and lofty insights into the way of God and man fare on the plain of every-day living? Will he live his mountain teaching amid the everydayness of life? How w*If the teacher of the Mount fare in the midst of the multitude? Will he keep his right to teach by the way he confronts the realities of the common life? So many of us fail here when we come from our mountain moments to the plain, and this very common failing is a revelation of our need for more than a sermon that challenges our moral idealism. Here is a mere man who dares to enter the mountain of a pulpit, or he stands before a class and teaches, or he is a student doing some intellectual mountaineering, but within the hour he will be down on the plain of everyday living-a man among the multitude. What then? That is a testing movement. Many a minister, many a teacher, many a student, many a worshipper has lost the Ã‚Â°- A sermon delivered at the Union Church, Berea, Ken tucky. MOUNTAIN Lire AND WORK FROM x.10 UNTAIN T 0 PLAIN ~~ T. B. COWAN October, 1939 spirit of the mountain when he gets into the ways of the multitude. Many have a strange sense of lostness which cannot relate mountain teachings to happenings seen in the plain, recorded in newspapers, broadcast over the air. They arc cursed with fragmentary minds. John Keats has a stabbing word about persons who are lions in the pulpit and Iambs in drawing rooms. And Robert Lynd refers to the religion of diarist Pepys as "being nothing but a creaking pair of Sunday shoes on the feet of a pagan." Visiting the Mount of Worship on Sunday is no guarantee that on the week-day plain we live by the ideals of justice and love while the rest of the world does not. Creaking Sunday shoes on the feet of pagans is the religion of the Pharisee, which is as prevalent as the incompetency of students who come from the mount of education and reveal, according to an English wit, "a want of knowledge that must be the result of years of study." Many teachers have come down from the mountain-top of thought and it has been their undoing. They have been majestic on the mount and pigmies in the plain. Emerson, the Buddha of Concord, on the mount of his teaching says, "I love humanity"; but on the plain he says, "I hate men." Leo Tolstcy discourses eloquently from the mount of his teaching but there is a marked unconcern for his own children on the plain of home living. Shelley skims the top of Mount Parnassus on the wings of poetry but on the plain among the multitude he is quite another man. Jesus comes down from the mountain to the multitudes. Will the Master on the Mount reveal a like competency an the plain? In the ways of thought he is no less than revolutionary, but will he be reactionary on the plain? To lightly answer yes reveals a common misunderstanding of the height of his mountain teaching and the depth of the plain. He comes from the mountain to the plain and the descent is tremendous. From truths more lasting than the Mount, from thinking God's thoughts after Him, to squalor, poverty, disease, death. The recordings following the Sermon on the Mount tell of the plight of a leper, a suffering servant, a October, 1939 MOUNTAIN Lire AND WORK Page 3 mother sick in a disciple's home, and the masses afflicted, tormented, demon-driven. Such is the world to which he came down from the Mount. We can understand the transition by way of our own experiences. Here we are in Berea with its churches, its chapel, its schools and colleges. In their classrooms students live with the great in the realm of prose and poetry. By means of the sacrament of words they break intellectual bread with the wise and taste the poured-out lives of great masters. They share the gloom and glory of the remembered memories we call history. They live amid the assembled intellectual and moral glory of the world. Library and laboratory open up new worlds for them, and they have far-off hints of what Plato meant when he said, "Wonder is the beginning of wisdom." And here is chapel, and church, where the broken insights of campus and class-rooms and city streets are gathered up into the sovereign meaning which Christ brings to life. A mountain experience, a rich asceticism cut off from the world, made possible by so many sacrifices. We can leave it all by this or that road which stretches into our Southland and there we see as Christ must have seen in his land the tremendous difference between mountain and plain. Here in our Southland are shacks that by all the ingenuity of love can never be made into homes. Here are children prematurely aged by the things that were denied them in childhood. Here are eroded lands: 97,000,000 acres out of the nation's 150,000,000 are in the South. Pellagra follows the poverty line. Tenant farming is on the increase. The lowest land values in tenant-operated farms are in the South. The average gross income per farm in 1929 was $186. Here is a region where the per capita income for 1937 was $314. Here is a region with a bi-racial school system which must teach the largest proportion of children of school age on the smallest income in the nation. Here is a land rich in natural resources which suffers from a deficiency in all the things by which social scientists measure economic welfare. Figures? Statistics? Yes! But, says Bertrand Russell, "no man is educated who is not moved emotionally by statistics." v This means that academic mountaineers and dwellers on the mount of his sermon must come down to the plain and see behind the figures and behind the Beatitudes, suffering men, women and children existing in a land whose fundamental religion offers a romantic heaven in the future for a realistic present hell. The Church in the South is dying today of pre-millenial fancies on a mistcovered Mount of Ascension. The Church in the South has a marked faith in God and Christ but it is purely religious without ethical content. It lacks social vision and passion, and by its failure to judge the orders of men by Christ's mountain insights it gives priestly sanction to things as they are. So factory plantations flourish for their owners as agrarian plantations flourished for the masters of chattel slaves. Churches play up to men in the South but seldom stand up to them. Religion is a comfort but seldom the contradiction of the Cross. On such a plain as the Southland with its suffering, its sorrow, its struggles for power, its rising demands for money to buy back dearly from the Northeast the natural resources it sells so cheaply, Christ's gospel must be vindicated. On the plain of the Southland with its tragedy of want and woe, in the "richest poorhouse in the world," the Christ of the Mount must carne, move in mercy among its multitudes, white and black, move on in overturning power to the cleansing of its temple, and by his supreme sacrifice reveal the pity and the power of God. We as Christians dare not accept anything less than the test of the plain for our mountain faith. And yet we are so helpless on the plain. Why is it that the Church in the South and elsewhere is so helpless on the plain? There is this to be said-neither the conduct of men nor the Church is ever any better than their mountain sources of information and inspiration. If our doings on the plain are commentary on our mountain experiences, then we need to assay a more rugged intellectual and spiritual mountaineering. So Christ teaches us in word and deed. Examine the records of his strenuous selfgiving and you find it is ever preceded by a sojourn on the mount of communion with God. From the high heights of meditation he came to serve. The light gained in high thinking and the deep ploughing of prayer became for him the energy of sacrificial service when he faced the needs of people on the level of the plain. From the heights he came to the depths and there vindicated his gospel. Page 4 b1ouN rn1N Ln o; To beep company with him on the heights is to come to the terribly realistic knowledge that our service on the plain is ineffective because it is caught in the vicious circle of self-love. Paul speaks in mountain language when he says, "I delight in the law of God after the inward man," but hard on this follows the earth cry, "But there is a law in my members that wars against the law that is in my mind . . . O wretched man that I am. Who shall deliver me from the body of this death." The Sermon on the Mount is no more than a moralistic mocking challenge unless we become conscious of the tension that exists between the mountain and the plain. On the Mount he says, "Forgive those who despitefully use you," but we cannot do that on the plain unless his mountain life and his mountain sacrifice break our hearts in contrition for their sins and we sec that all men in the plain stand in need of the divine forgiveness. The Beatitudes are in reality "blessings of judgment" which help us to see that the plight of the plain is born of our moral impotence and the corruption of sin. Only from the heights can we clearly see the sinful depths of the plain. It is on the mount that we learn the secret of grace which can say, "I live on the plain, yet not I but the Christ of the Mount who liveth in me." It is on the mount of study that we really see our suffering Southland. There the lowest human being on the plain has a right to the advantages of the noblest, but that can never be until national freight differentials which operate unjustly against the South are changed, until a long range agricultural program is set in motion, until adequate health facilities are established, until education is strengthened, until labor is accorded a fair treatment, until our very imperfect national distribution is changed to serve men rather than mammon, until the Church realizes, as Schweitzer says, that "a good conscience is an invention of the devil." These are immediate changes needed as seen from the mount of blessing, which by the very grandeur of its height condemns our iniquities on the plain, reveals our moral flabbiness that builds cheaply in human terms on the quickrunning sands of injustice, unbrotherliness, hate and greed. Life on the plain must be built on the rock-like foundations of justice and love, not as ideals but as the practical politics of His Kingdom. But how can these things be save by God's grace, which ANO WORK October, 1989 ever descends to the plain and empowers men to translate eternal moments on the Mount into the temporal facts of justice and ethical goodwill oil the plain. That is the message of him who is the event in time which gives meaning to the events in the plain. He is the pivotal point overtowcring all, which declares that only that which is above and beyond the plain can redeem the plain. The Sermon Oil the Mount is an inept idealism which increases selfrighteousness, or the despair of impotence, unless we sec towering above it the mount called Calvary which smites our sins even while it saves us, which reveals the destruction which follows our sins, and the truth that God's mercy and grace arc revealed in the postponement of utter destruction and the premise of a new and happier life which may be ours if we build repcntingly on the rock, Christ Jesus. We need the mountain to make the plait mcalingful and endurable. Plain living without high thinking becomes a wcarls(I'llic monotony. Ever we need the age-long wisdom c;I' the Church about God and man and Christ to give meaning to every bit of fractional knc;wledge (,li the plain. hvcr the Church needs to live under the shadow of the Mount that sets before us His grace and our guilt. Always we need the plain to interpret the mountain. The mount of blessing can become a veritable ivory tower unless we think historically, and to think historically means revolutionary thinking from Christ and by Christ without the hint of an apologetic cough as one confronts the readings of life from Plato to Marx and beyond. The Church has thought metaphysically with a great indebtedness to Greek thought, but now it needs to think horizontally, which is to say historically, and tap the foundation sources of its Hebrew heritage, which thinks of God as the Lord of history. Christian historical interpretation is contemporary orientation through Christ in living issues. Only a few prophetic souls in the Church are turning from metaphysical musings on the Mount to think historically in the plain with Christ as the eternal center o f reference for all their thought. The Church in the South needs to stop its vain babblings about the number of the Beasts in Revelations, needs to cease making of the Book a jigsaw puzzle and of prayer a petition in the slot machine, and hear this truth-that Christ does not Qcteber, 1939 stay on the Mount but descends to the plain. He is to be found today not merely in a Book but at the growing points where the fight for justice waxes fiercest and where men, women and children cry out for remedial help. Only as the Church thinks historically can she out-think the world. Only as the Church comes from the heights to the depths can she outlive the world. Only as the Church dies redemptively can she outdic the cults of war, stateolatry, every form of political tnessianism, and every form of social utopianism that declares that the manipulation of eccmcmic conditions is the one secret of human fulfillment. Only as the Church in the South thinks historically can she bring a Christian solution to natural wastage and human woe, to economic, political and racial problems surcharged with hate. We can never know the meaning of the love spoken of on the Mount until we confront the dark realities of our worldcruelty, exploitation, waste, and the beast-like struggle for prestige, pelf and power. Our mountain-born intentions can never change a situation in tine plain. Intention without action changes nothing. Change is the inevitable outcome of action. To discover if our mountain ideas are true we must act on them. Such is the clear-eyed realism of Jesus who came clown from the mountain to the plain to confront the oppressors of the poor, declaring that God is not only a God of judgment but a God of mercy whose very mercy is seen when the mountains of exploitation and deceit which pride builds fall upon it and conceal it from the wrath of His holy love. Our task is not to build tabernacles on mountains but to come down from our mounts of worship with him to wage a ceaseless warfare against injustice in the plain, so that this wasted Southland of ours shall know the meaning of his mountain teaching in a redeemed soil and redeemed souls, in a redeemed system unmarred by pellagra, preventible suffering, preventible sorrow and preventiblc poverty. We must come from our mounts of blessing to suffer and sacrifice on the plain, even as he did, to bring about an order of life in which it will be possible for men to believe in God, an order in which the truths uttered on the Mount are not at such variance with life on the plain that they seem but a baseless and romantic dream. Language must ever be translated into life, and MOUNTAIN LnE AND WORK the Word-made-flesh empowers for that by redeeming us from selfishness, illuminating our intellects, clarifying our judgments, strengthening our wills, and gathering up our lives into a life-anddcath devotion to God's Kingdom, which is here and yet forever coming. And to show us what that means, he unites the mountain word with service in the plain. "Blessed are the poor in spirit," he says on the Mount, and on the plain he meets the terrors of life with a serene yet questing soul. "Blessed are they that mourn," and his interpretation of that on the plain is his redemptive helpfulness. "Blessed are the meek," and the word becomes flesh on the plain in terms of great-mindedness. "Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness," and on the plain he translates that in the whole set of a life which says, "My meat and my drink is to do the will of Him that sent me." "Blessed are the merciful," and the mountain word stands in the white light of forgiveness as he whispers to a confused woman on the plain, "Neither do d condemn thee, go and sin no more." "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see God," and on the plain amidst the mud and scum of things he sees the great God lending His glory to a lily of the field or looking at him in great appeal through the eyes of a little child. "Blessed are the peacemakers," and this mountain word is part of the soul of his gospel on the plain; peace between God and man, and man and man, through the reconciliation of the children with their Father. "Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake" and "Blessed are ye when men shall revile you,"-and these mountain words are gathered up in his prayer from the Cross, "Father, forgive them." Christ's test for our religion is neither in the height it gains nor the far-stretching view it surveys but in the strength and power with which it descends to the plain. The serviceable must interpret the reflective. Man's work must interpret his worship. Intellectual being must be wedded to ethical doing, the redeeming word with the redeeming deed, the Sermon on the Mount with our service on the plain. This is the message of the Word-made-flesh. It is the only message of wrath and mercy that can save our Southland, our nation, our world, for it sets before us in our sins the attaining of the unattainable by the grace of God. Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 What Hot Lunches Do for Mountain School Children ALVA W. Save the Children Fund experimented during the past winter (1938-39) with twenty mountain schools selected carefully to represent the three mountain states of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia, to see what a program making it possible for every child to attend school and have a midday hot lunch would do for school attendance, improved health and increased learning capacity. Of the twenty schools selected, nineteen were in the poorer districts, and sixteen of them oneteacher schools. They were called Demonstration Schools, as the object was to demonstrate what this program would do for a mountain school where there was much poverty. Save the Children Fund supplied shoes and clothing for any child who could not attend school for lack of them, thus making it possible for every child in the school district to attend. The teacher cooperated by visiting the homes whenever the child's attendance fell down and endeavored to secure the cooperation of the parents in seeing that he came to school regularly. Cod liver oil was supplied for those who needed it. The cooperation of the county nurse, where there was one, was obtained in every case. The children were weighed at the beginning and at the close of the hot-lunch program. The teacher kept grades in arithmetic and spelling for the same period. These two studies were selected for the learning test because in them grading is mare objective and more accurate. The Save the Children Fund also supplied books for supplementary study where the children were not able to buy the standard texts, and furnished the schools with small libraries. Small sums were provided for such equipment as could not be obtained otherwise. The teacher cooperated further by holding parents' meetings in the schoolhouse, giving health instruction, supervising play and managing the hot lunch program. The total enrollment in these twenty schools was 783. Attendance Record The attendance record in all the schools in the counties where these demonstration schools were located runs at from 70 to 75 per cent of the en TAYLOR rollment. In the twenty schools under the demonstration program it was raised to 96 per cent, a gain of 26.5 per cent over last year. Six of the schools doubled the average attendance and one raised it by 150 per cent. This would seem to prove that even the poorest of the mountain families will send their children to school if that is made possible by making conditions approximately equal to those in city schools. Gains in Weight The time covered by the hot lunch program varied from two to five months, but most of the schools had hot lunches for about ten weeks during the cold winter months. The average gain in weight for the 783 children for this average of ten weeks was 7.16 per cent. The normal gain for a group of school children should be about 1 per cent per month. Thus it will be seen that the gain here was almost three times that of schools where children do not suffer from malnutrition. The smallest gain was in a two-room school in a community where the need was least of any of the twenty schools selected and where the lunch program was conducted most of the school year. In this school the gain was 3.7 per cent, or about the normal gain of well-fed children. In another school where there was much poverty, and as a consequence much malnutrition when the school lunch program began, the gain over a five months period was 13.7 per cent. In another school, on the top of a mountain where there was much poverty, the gain for the entire school was 9 per cent during the first month of the hot lunch program. Certain pupils suffering from gross malnutrition gained as much as 20 per cent in three months. In one school nineteen girls weighing an average of 70 pounds at the beginning of the lunch program gained 4.6 per cent in two months, and seventeen boys weighing 69 pounds gained 5.4 per cent. In another school the children in the first three grades gained 9 per cent by the end of five months; twenty-seven of those suffering from malnutrition gained 16 per cent in weight. The benefits of a well balanced hot lunch once per day is thus seen to have had a phenomenal effect upon the weight Ccto'ber, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIPS AND WORK Page 7 and the consequent health of children suffering from malnutrition. Gains in 1 earning The gains in grades for all the children covered by the hot lunch program averaged 11/z points on the A, B, C, D system of grading. The grades of a number went up from D to B and A, an increase of two or three points. The following samples may be given: Age Gain in Weight (pounds) H 6 13 10 14 13 14 12 These are samples of the more remarkable cases, given to show that there was a distinct correlation between gains in weight and health and in learning capacity. In three schools where a close record of ages, grades and gains in weight were kept for each pupil, 80 of the 229 gained two points or mare in their grades. The gains in weight averaged from three to five times the normal gain of 1 per cent per month. Community Cooperation Cooperation of the county superintendent of schools, the school supervisors and the teachers was made a precondition to the choosing of any school for the demonstration program, and in every one of the twenty cases it was most heartily given. The teacher, of course, was the key to the program. The results were uniformly good. Many of the schools were able to have meetings of the parents from time to time in the schoolhouse. A number of the buildings were repaired for the first time through such cooperation. Children were enlisted for the care of buildings and grounds at several of the schools. Help for the preparing of the hot school lunch was given in some cases by the WPA, in others by the NYA and nearly every school received some food from the Surplus Commodities Corporation. Where this outside help could not be obtained, mothers of the children took turn about preparing the lunch, or the older girls in the school did it under the teacher's direction. 7 6 15 10 15 9 Points gained in 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 The Save the Children Fund provided only such food as could not be sent by the homes or donated by others in the county. In a few cases extra rooms were provided by the school authorities or by the patrons; at other schools the teacher found a way to prepare the food on a flat-top stove in the school room. Nothing was more gratifying than the resourcefulness of the teachers in preparing the lunch and carrying cut the full program. Incidental Results In one school which had been compelled to close a number of winters for lack of attendance, the average attendance under the demonstration program was increased from twelve the previous year to thirty-two this last year. Further, the teacher this year reports more than fifty in attendance, with a number of families sending their children from bordering districts and in two or three cases moving into this district to give their children the benefits of the demonstration school program. In another school where the attendance had gone down in previous years to an average of ten, it would have been maintained 100 per cent under the demonstration program but for the fact that one family could not be persuaded to send the children regularly. This school met in a church, with most of the children sitting en benches or three in a two-seat desk, until the Save the Children Fund with the cooperation of the local authorities remedied the situation somewhat. The enrollment at the beginning of this year's school was up to seventy-two as compared with fiftyfive year before last, and the school board has provided an extra teacher. Two teachers trying to teach seventytwo children in a one-room church furnishes an illustration of the handicaps under which many devoted teachers in these mountains have to work. Another school, one of the most remote, up in the edge of the Smoky Mountains, drew first prize in its county for its program of sanitation. At another, in the remotest of the mountain counties where these schools were located, the teacher was given some tools by the Save the Children Fund and led his children to build bookcases, tables, and other school equipment; to level off a playground from the steep mountain side; and put out shrubs. He is now leading them and their fathers in putting a stone foundation under the schoolhouse. Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 Discipline Improved All the teachers report that discipline has been much easier and order much better than ever before. One teacher with thirty years' experience was transferred to a school where discipline was very difficult. He says, "I took a paddle and started business, but with the help of this program I have never had to use the paddle. My school has been orderly, the pupils have learned as well as they did in the town school where I formerly taught, and the whole community is learning cooperation centering about the school program." The teacher of another school reports that a new boy whose family had moved into the district came to him recently with the query, "Teacher, when you goin' to begin whuppin'?" The teacher explained to him that they had banished the switch from this school with their new program, because the children had all played the game with one another and with their teacher. In another case, a little lad who had been caught filching from other children's lunches stopped immediately when the hot lunch program stayed his hunger. An il lustration of the increased morale of the children was given in one school where, in order to keep up their attendance record when one of the children got hurt, the boys borrowed a wheel barrow and brought him to school. Other instances of this sort could be given. Conclusion This experiment of Save the Children Fund, applied largely to remote one-room mountain schools where poverty is great, gives cause for great satisfaction to both the school authorities and the Save the Children Fund. Undertaken as an experiment in only a score of schools during the past year, and carried out for most of them only through the winter months, the hot lunch program shows results gratifying enough to warrant the Save the Children Fund's attempting it this coming winter in from eighty to one hundred schools. The experience gained from the past year's experiments should make the program of the coming year an even better demonstration of what can be done in the poorest mountain district when the means for doing it are provided. "LITTLE CLAUS AWOKE JACOB LANGE (An address presented at the annual meeting of the American Country Life Association at State College, Pennsylvania, September 1, 1939, and printed by the courtesy of the Association and Rtrrrrl Aruerhm.) Denmark and the United States are apparently extremely different in almost every way. My country an ancient kingdom of more than a thousand years standing; yours a comparatively young republic. The Danes a homogeneous people, entirely of Scandinavian blood and practically of one creed; your people a nation amalgamated of innumerable races, representing almost all confessions under the sun. Mine a country of the very smallest, devoid of natural resources and valuable raw material, surrounded by powerful neighbors; yours an empire with unlimited wealth in store within its boundaries, in splendid isolation behind oceans. And yet, in spite of all this, it always strikes me more strongly with every new visit that these two peoples show distinctive features of extraordinary likeness: both are fundamentally and absolutely democratic and at the same time wideawake and progressive in mind, and consequently able to understand and influence each other. America has influenced Europe ever since the time when Columbus and Leif the Lucky set foot on her southern and northern shores. The influence has been manyfold, not only material but also spiritual. I shall only mention the names of William Penn, the father of this state, and Henry George, her most renowned son in modern times. Since the world war this influence has been quite overwhelming. I can characterize it briefly by saying that before the war we Europeans said "Europe and America," while now we arc learning to say "America and Europe." But in this modern influence rural America has no part. It is an influence made up of widely divergent elements: Hollywood, Harlem, Fifth Avenue, Wall Street, Detroit and Chicago. The influence of America before the war, though less con October, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIFE, AND WORK spicuous, was of a deeper character and chiefly originated in her rural life. The American farmer was a pioneer, a conqueror. America to our mind was the great boundless farming world, ready to feed the hungry millions of Europe from her endless belt of wheat fields, stretching from the valley of the Red River to Missouri, from North Dakota to Tennessee. And on her free land the European agricultural labourer, who for ages had been toiling on land appropriated by others, found that homestead which to him meant independence and liberty, hard earned, to be sure, but therefore only the more highly appreciated. The Irish and Scotch rack-rented peasant and crofter, the Russian serf, the Scandinavian quasi-landless peasant, disinherited immigrants from many lands: all did gather strength, Antaeus-like, when setting foot on American soil. And their brothers, left behind in the old countries, heard rumors about the success of the immigrants (not much of their failures) and began to straighten their stooping backs and lift up their bent heads to new aspirations: Why not gain for ourselves and our children a homestead at home like what the home-seekers have found on the other side of the Atlantic? Thus, for all these landless people, the first ray of hope for an existence not at the very verge of poverty was a reflection from America's boundless yellow grain fields. The small man's new orientation was an occidentation. The evolution here briefly depicted also influenced rural Denmark, even if our agrarian conditions were not so bad as in some of the countries just mentioned, and the emigration therefore not quite so great. In fact, it is one of the manifold roots from which have sprung the Denmark of today, some features of which have attracted your attention and which it is my task to depict and explain to you this evening in the hope that I may thereby add my mite to the amelioration of the life of that rural America to which we owe a debt of gratitude for incitements to our democratic evolution. The decline of the countryside is a drama often performed on the theater of the world. The free Italian peasants who were the bed-rock of ancient Rome gradually were transformed into villanisoon contemptuously dubbed villains! Great estates swallowed up their land and the city became allimportant. Centuries later the free peasantry of Page 9 more northern countries also became tenants, metayers or bondsmen, and what was termed the fourth estate sank into oblivion. Finally in England, in the age preceding the industrial revolution, the independent yeomanry became extinct, tenants and agricultural labourers taking their place under the great manorial lords. And even in the Drench Revolution, although it revived peasant propricrtorship, it was the third estate (the citizens), not the f ourth, which became supreme and put its stamp on the future of the country. And now even here in the United States a somewhat similar process is casting its shadows over the countryside. The greatest farming world hitherto known is gradually transformed into a land of commercial cities and manufacturing towns, while the countrypopulation has a declining tendency and renters are supplanting those home-owning farmers who have not already been swallowed up by great bonanza farms. Parallel with this social-economic evolution everywhere, but perhaps more conspicuously in America where the transformation is a more modern phenomenon than in older countries, runs a growing feeling of the spiritual and personal supremacy of the town over the country, and an increasing spread of an inferiority-complex amongst the country=bred. Rude and rustic are becoming synonyms, while civilization and urbanity are epithets attached to the population of civitas and urbs. This feeling of inferiority is aggravated in a time when the exorbitant use of cosmetics parades as "body-culture," and dyed fingernails are looked upon as a truer sign of superior culture than nails with a bit of mother earth under their edge. When on a murky night the lonely farmer stands outside his home, he may discern in one direction or another a slight illumination of the sky near the horizon. He knows that this is the reflection of the lights of a distant town, and instinctively it attracts him as the flame attracts the moth. It is not merely the cinema, the glaringly illuminated streets, etc., that draw the country population to the cities. The attraction springs far more from a feeling of desolation and dreariness as compared with what looks like a higher, brighter existence, a life of richer, more enlightened activity, a more really human world. Under the in Page 10 MOUNrAIN LrnL AND WORK October, 1939 fluence of this state of mind the rural population dwindles, even in the most fertile agricultural states. The farmer's wife on the solitary prarie farm dreams of a town life without her daily routine of tedious work, a kitchen with running water, hot and cold, next at hand an electric stove, and superior schooling for her growing children. The school mistress in the lonely one-room schoolhouse is constantly looking forward from Monday to Friday to a weekend trip in her little car to town, dreaming dreams of a preferment that will take her to an urban community, be it ever so small. To live on Main Street to her is high-life compared to her life on a dirt road far away. No wonder that her pupils will think and dream the same dream and turn their backs to the farm whenever possible. And the lonely farmer dreams and conjectures in a similar way, swept away by the same current. Land-speculation does the rest. In boom-times farmers will sell their land at an exorbitant price and go to town to live in a villa as independent gentlemen; their successors, burdened with exorbitant mortgages, often struggle in vain against adversity and in hard times go broke and likewise drift into town, to swell the tide of the unemployed. It is this growing danger ahead which claims the attention of the clear-sighted sociologist all over the world and which is the raison d'etre of this Association. Some years ago an American author wrote a book which he called The City, the Hope of Democracy. The same view is held in almost every European country. Is there then no hope for democracy outside the city? The remarkable fact which I am going to dwell upon is that although of course the universal tendency-the drift into the city-is also felt in my little home-country, the evolution with us has a different character. As long as I can remember, the country has been the stronghold of democracy; the farming world, not retrograde but progressive; the countryside, not lying in the dark, far away from the main roads of new ideas and ideals, but in the currents of inspiring and elevating movements. Prom my childhood I have seen the broad host of farmers standing as the central and leading body of militant democracy, the citizens of the towns mostly lagging behind. The small and i iddle *zed farmers more than fifty years ago li -sl organized along cooperative lines for production and sale in the world market. New and fertile ideas in education germinated and took root in the country while the city was still a stony ground for them. Adult education in the form of folksclioels had already sprung up all over the countryside by the middle of the 60's. 1n the 80's, rational body-culture and training by means of modern gymnastics caused gymnasiums to be erected in almost every parish, while the metropolis as yet knew nothing but the old-fashioned military drill. How all this has come about is a long story which 1 shall try to compress into a few remarks, depicting its main lines. It is always more easy to save a man out of a quickmire if his head and arms are still above the surface, than to drag out the totally drowned. The Danish peasantry some 150 years ago were certainly lying low, but the peasant never was a serf like his Prussian or Russian fellow-sufferer. Absolute monarchy in Denmark never allowed the landed aristocracy to swallow up the independent farms and "join acre to acre that they might dwell alone in the land." In 1788, a year before the outbreak of the French Revolution, a series of farreaching laws were enacted liberating the peasant from his bondage to the manorial district, instituting peasant-proprietorship instead of life-tenancy, and doing away with the burdensome socagc. How fast the advances-materially and socially-of the peasantry in the following generation were, may be judged by the fact that the great Constitutional Reform of 1849, which ended absolute monarchy, made manhood-suffrage (including even the landless agricultural labourer) the foundation-stone of the new constitution, while in England the farm labourer was disfranchised two generations longer. About the same time the introduction of free trade in England opened up the world market for our farm-products, thus stimulating progressive and intensive farming. This rapid rise of the peasant-farmer is the background for his lively interest in the new educational ideas. Having become a proprietor and having, so to speak, taken his future in his own hands, education, not only vocational but also spiritual, was October, 1939 MOUNTAIN Lire AND WORK Page 11 his most ardent need. The folk school became the chief means for satisfying this want. Grundtvig, poet, priest, seer, sage and national inspirer, was the first to fathom the needs of the people which had to be satisfied if the new times, times of constitutional self-government, should become times of real home-rule and freedom. A great admirer of Anglo-Saxon thrift, energy, and independence, he had, at about the age of forty, lived for some time at Oxford-and not in vain. He saw that what Oxford and Cambridge in ages past had signified for aristocratic England-the meeting place and educational seminary for her future rulers-a popular high-school, open to the aspiring and public-minded youth of all classes, could become to democratic Denmark. However, times were not ripe for this grand idea. But Grundtvig's younger friends went out into the country to try to realize on a smaller and more homely scale the same idea. In the broad country-population of which the peasant farmers were the main body, they found a large class of people who had just set out on a strenuous upward march toward better conditions and who were longing for light over their future. Thus the folkschools came into existence: homely colleges where twenty to a hundred young men, mostly farmers' sons (later on also young girls from the same homes) assembled to live together for a winter or some summer-months; to listen to tutors gifted with the faculty of inspiring the plain man's son with love of his country and interest in his daily work, and of awakening in his soul a yearning towards true enlightening and the widening of his horizon to a fuller insight into the life of his people. The folk-schools first were few and far between. But after the disastrous war with Prussia and Austria in 1864, when Denmark lay bleeding after the amputation of Slesvig, a strong feeling sprang up among patriotic minded men all over the country for the recov;.ry of the nation. "What was lost by the sword must be regained by the plough" was their watchword. Aforestation of barren hills. reclamation of heathland and swamps, etc., took place on a large scale. But it was also felt that just as the fields of Denmark had become too limited to allow any part to be waste, so the people of Denmark had become too small to allow any mind, even the most homely, to retrain uncul tivated and unenlightened. This feeling greatly stimulated the folk-school movement, so that in the course of the 60's and 70's, new schools of more or less varied stamp sprang up. During the sixty years that have elapsed since this inaugural period, the folk schools have been like a tree with manifold ramifications, the boughs extending in many directions, still all tasting of the root. The folk-schools originally were nonvocational; there were lectures on history (secular, often also church history), particularly the history cf the Danish people from the most ancient times till the present day. Danish literature and poetry were the main subjects. Communal singing everywhere played a prominent part; the folk-school songbook of the present day numbers over 700 songs of all kinds. Of course the three R's were also taught, for although illiteracy has been practically unknown in Denmark for the last four generations, the pupils needed very much a polishing up in these subjects after having exchanged the classroom for the field some six to ten years before. But soon agricultural schools and schools for handicrafts, especially in the building trade, sprang up, to be followed later on by special schools for future managers of cooperative butter and cheese factories, schools for domestic economy and household work, schools for future nurses, etc. All these vocational schools, however, bore the folkschool stamp: pupils and teachers living and dining together, communal singing opening each lesson, and lectures on history, sociology and economics being often given. Besides, a good many of the vocational students were former folk-school pupils, propagating the tradition. Another extension of this manifold educational work is the staff of experts in agriculture and domestic economics who now are attached to the farmers' and the country-wives' associations as advisers, and who often at the same time act as tutors at some school or other. Originally most of the folk-schools were private institutions owned by the head-master. But as the schools have grown and become large and costly undertakings, there has been a tendency to make them what we call "self-owning institutions," generally with a board supervising their financial affairs. This board may be elected by a society of former pupils, by local or provincial farmers' Pale 1' unions, or by some similar body. It elects the principal or warden but leaves to him a very free and wide scope for his activities. Although the state gives support by a yearly grant to each school (and bursaries to the poorer pupils), it interferes but very little in their affairs; curriculum or scope of work is left to the head-master and his board, state-supervision being rather a formality. Thus uniformity is avoided and personality to a large extent sets its stamp on the individual school. The schools are therefore not local affairs. In a small country like Denmark, distance signifies but little and the pupils often come from distant parts, thus forming a kind of representation of the whole people and creating what might be called a national atmosphere. The direct influence of the folk-school on the life of the country-side depends, however, to a large extent on the fact that the students very rarely use the school as a steppingstone to other more remunerative occupations and positions in town, but go back to their daily work, becoming farmers, builders, housewives like their neighbors, but better equipped, not only for their own craft but for taking part in the life of the community, educationally, politically and otherwise. Just as the individual cells of an organism make possible the life of the whole, so real democracy is only possible where the interest in the life of the people, its history, its institutions and its future is wideawake in the homes and minor communities. There only a real government by the people and for the people becomes a living reality. When the Grundtvigian educators went out to teach the people, and more especially the peasantry, they worked under the impression that they ploughed the field to its full depth. This, however, to a certain extent was a delusion. Their pupils mainly came from the peasant-proprietor homes, a broad strata of society sufficiently above the poverty line to take an interest in things over and beyond the problem of keeping the wolf from the door. But below that strata were the smallholders (the "one-horse farmers") and the landless labourers who in fact outnumbered the peasantproprietors (the farmers with one to three teams). However, the time for the lowly ones was drawing near. About 1390 an agrarian development took place which resulted in more intensive cultivation and the rapid growth of dairy-farming, The. more MourrImN Lu n AND WoRx October, 1939 outstanding smallholders-some of whom had also found their way to the folk-school-clearly perceived that now the time was ripe for the smallholder to become a real farmer, living by working his own land, however narrow his fields, and not being ;bliged to work most of his time on the manorial farm or for the larger peasant-prc;prietor. "Little Claus" (of Hans Christian Andersen lore) awoke to ask himself why he should net go ahead and say "Whoah, all my horses" like "Big Claus." More intensive cultivation, however, dots not suffice if the products can not he properly marketed. Fortunately, however, the extensive cooperation in production and sale which began at the same epoch was made to comprise not only peasant-proprietors but also the one-horse man-nay, even the one-cow man living out of the way so that the milkcart had to make a long detour to fetch the milk of his lonely cow. This is a story by itself which I can only briefly recapitulate. Up to the 80's of last century, the large farmers on the manorial farms and what in England is termed the squirocracy, were the dominant factors in Danish agriculture, their land being the best cultivated, their farm-products fetching higher prices, "manorial butter" being quoted five cents higher than "peasant butter." The peasant farmers when going in for rational dairy-farming soon perceived that by pooling their milk for butter and cheese-making at a central factory they could eliminate this difference, and by doing this on a cooperative basis they could secure the full profit for themselves. In a few years this cooperation was extended to bacon-factories, cooperative sale of eggs, purchase of artificial manure, etc., and all these cooperatives by and by became consolidated on a national basis. Now all this took place at a time when the peasant farmer was a leading factor in the strife for political emancipation of the people then being waged against the supremacy of the Upper House, dominated by the squirocracy, the landed nobility and their retainers. The peasant-farmer, even the relatively wealthy one, was therefore a staunch opponent to the influence in politics of "Broadacres" and the big landed proprietor. This explains why, when tackling the problem of creating their cooperatives, they established them on a strictly democratic foundation: one man one vote, even if the one had only one or two, and the other AND W ORK October, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIFE more than twenty cows in his byre. Thus the new cooperative movement came to include the small man-and to him it was of even more paramount importance than to the middle-sized farmer who, if necessary, could do without any cooperation at all. But the great majority of the smallholders, even under conditions of intensive cultivation, had too little land, and then there were the landless and quasi-landless labourers, their sons and daughters. The smallholders' granges which rapidly sprang up and widened into provincial organizations (cooperating nationally) therefore had naturally as a main plank in their platform the solution of the land-problem. I cannot refrain in this place from briefly mentioning the influence at this epoch of your great countryman Henry George, whose powerful indication of the people's right to the land of their country has found an open ear with the leaders of the smallholders' broad advancing host in Denmark. Free trade and land-values taxation was cn their banner from the very first, and gave their movement a wider scope and a more universal character, causing it to be not without political results. First of these were a general land-valuation of a rational character, which serves as foundation for a democratic land-values taxation (in town and country), and a legislation for subdivision of the large estates for the creation of settlements of small farmers, numbering up to fifty small properties, held on land-values terms directly under the state. Although the leaders of the smallholders movement visualized a democratic evolution, gradually replacing the big farms cultivated by hired hands with home-farms worked by the owner and members of his family, they also perceived that such a state could not be attained simply by cutting up the big landed estates-if the future small farmers were not up to their work and if their sons and daughters did not get an education that would fit them for their task and far taking their share in the public life of the people. To the rising peasantry of the 70's and 80's the folk-school had been an armory and a spiritual store-house equipping them for their "fighting and working" advance, economically, socially and politically. Some few of the leading smallholders had experienced the same and had inspired their page 13 followers with a belief in the folk-school idea, which resulted in an active interest for building such schools strong enough to ensure success. Even if the organizations were at that time rather small and poor, smallholders' schools were built. Some of you who have visited Denmark may have seen the school where I for many years was warder. and which was built by an organization numbering only about 3000 members, although it cost about $25,000, a large sum in 1908, especially to people who looked upon a quarter as a large coin. From such schools as these, young men and women go out to create the new homes. Thus gradual transformation of the countryside still goes on, if not very rapidly, at least on a secure footing. Every year in every section of the country new smallholdings are springing up on the land of large farms. The bulk of the Danish agricultural exports mere and more arc the products of the one- or two-team farms; the number of experts working for the small farmers' organizations constantly increases; the smallholders' annual provincial meetings attract the attention of the press, and secretaries of state make it a point to attend. Even if the larger peasant proprietors by a kind of contra-effect have become more conservative, this evolution is behind the evolution of the modern Danish democratic and cooperative commonwealth. In the fight for genuinely democratic institutions (during the last decade of the nineteenth century), the medium sized peasant proprietors made up the main body of the democratic host which about 1900 carried the day. The "new deal" which is to create an even more democratic Denmark is politically under the lead of a labourparty of moderate socialistic stamp (made up mostly of the manual labourers of the industrial town) and of a radical liberal party, the main body of which are the smaller peasants, the smallholders and their next-door neighbors, the builders, smiths, etc., of the villages. This combination is staunchly liberal and antimilitaristic. Denmark, therefore, although in a dangerous position as next-dear neighbor to Germany and lying between the North Sea and the Baltic, has the smallest army, comparatively speaking, and the least heavy military budget of any country in the world, putting her trust in a policy of equal good will to all and a fair and favorable treatment of the small Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 foreign element (less than one per cent) within her borders. This is in strictest accord with the policy of trust which characterizes our treatment of matters of public welfare: to support by grants from the treasury all private undertakings worthy of note, under condition that the private society or organization run the first pecuniary risk. This principle is illustrated in the common school. There is an elaborate system of public schools of all types through the country. But if a circle of families want to found a private school and run it on new pedagogical principles, the state will grant it a yearly sum proportionate to its grant to the public school run by the local authorities. This principle even is upheld with regard to the schools which the small but rather aggressive German Nazistic minority in Slesvig communities puts up next to the public schools. Thus by a sound competition, stagnation and monotonous uniformity are avoided and personal liberty given free scope in a modern state. In economic matters we in a like manner have built a ramified and extensive system of cooperation for production and sale on a foundation of independent small-scale farming and gardening, thus combining state-wide organization with personal liberty and initiative. The further we advance in these directions the better shall we be able to avoid the stereotype and uniformity of a totalitarian state-socialism, and withstand the deadly embrace of the tentacles of capitalistic mammoth concerns, which in many countries are reducing the democratic constitution to a mere figure-head on the ship of state and instituting a new and dangerous economic and spiritual bondage. . Don West ~Repr,ntea by courtevy of ftrmvrt-1k'eclminster) We're burying part of him to-day in Hickory-Grove Church Yard We can't put him all here, For his grave Spreads over a few rocky acres That he lovedWhere peach blossoms bloom And cotton stalks speckle the ground On a Georgia Hill . . . Forty years he's been digging And plowing himself under Along these cotton rows. Mast of my Dad is there Where the grass grows And cockle-burrs bristle Now that he's gone . . . We're covering him in March Days When seeds sprout. And I think next Autumn At picking time The white-speckled stalks Will be my old Dad Bursting out . . . October, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 Grouping Our Churches for Action AARON H. RAPKING (The following article has appeared in the Pastor's Journal of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is here reprinted with slight modifications made by the author. Ed.) In large sections of rural America we have stepped up the possibility of travel at least ten times. It is easier to turn the switch in the car than it was to harness and unharness horses. Does this have any significance for oar churches? School programs, shopping and marketing activities, and health and leisure-time facilities are planned in terms of our modern modes of travel. Too often, however, in our church programs we are still ambling along in horse-and-buggy fashion. The time is opportune now for us, as church people, to give serious consideration to the advisability of grouping our churches in the light of the changes that have taken and are taking place. The consolidation of schools and many other factors are greatly enlarging community areas. A common trade and commercialized recreational center may serve a territory with a radius of from ten to forty miles and with a population of from one thousand to ten thousand persons. Group Ministry A major world trend is toward larger group action. In our town and country communities and neighborhoods many behavior patterns have faded and others have taken or are taking their place. The individual will always be the first unit in the plan of God in the process of redemption, but it is clear that the individual must be saved in his relationships. An individualistic ministry alone is quite inadequate in grappling with organized crime and with neighborhood, community and world tendencies toward the secularization of life. Because of this strong tendency, ministers need to think, live, work and pray in terms of the redemption of communities as well as individuals, in terms of the whole and not just a segment of life. There are currents and trends that help or hinder the growth and development of personalities in a given area. In many town and country communities that have the same major trade, recreation, and educational centers, there are from three to ten ministers and from twelve to twenty-four or more churches. I believe it will become an established policy to appoint and elect ministers for a recognized natural area with the understanding that, while they will do the work of good ministers of Jesus Christ in their respective churches, they will also work with each other in studying, planning and promoting activities designed to come to grips with the problems, needs, and opportunities of the people of the entire area, and, by so doing, help to bring Kingdom ideals and attitudos into the total life of the area. One minister in the group might be strong in evangelism, another in dealing with young people, while the speciality of a third might be promoting the redemptive process through Christian education. These ministers would meet at least twice a month, and, with a map of the territory before them, study, pray and plan to promote those projects and to deal with those problems the solution of which would mean most to the building of the Kingdom of God in the territory immediately concerned and in the world. Church Fellowship Council As there is need for ministers to work together in a natural arena, so them ;s need for churches to join hands and hearts and work together to combat evil, and to promote, strengthen and make more effective the program of the churches in the building of the Kingdom. A Church Fellowship Council may be established by electing one man, one woman, and one young person under twentyfour years of age from each church in the natural community. The ministers in charge of the churches are also members of the council. The council elects officers and appoints committees. One of the first steps such a Council takes is to secure a good road or other map of the area and draw a line around the territory that naturally belongs together. A second step might well be to list the assets and liabilities and to start making surveys and gathering information that will help the Council get as clear a picture as possible of the problems and opportunities with which the in d'duals, groups, and especially church groups ivi 6 are confronted in their efforts to achieve more of the abundant life. In every area there is musical talent that is dormant. It should be encouraged to express itself through the churches. All sorts of groups and ab I *de the church are doing this, while enc es outsi 1 1 1 many of our choirless churches are failing to chal lenge the people to develop and express their mu sical talent. In fact, politicians, commercial agencies, schools, civic clubs, granges, night clubs and other organizations show more of an appre ciation of the power of music to mould behavior patterns than do many of our churches. Councils should appoint the strongest music committee available and make definite plans to organize junior and senior choirs, choruses and other musi cal activities in the churches and communities. These activities should include the holding of com munity and area music festivals during the year. In every church and community, committees should be appointed to challenge the people to express themselves by participating in one-act plays, pageantry and drama. This is an opportune time to present such a challenge, for many people are becoming dissatisfied with the vulgar and degrading emphasis of commercial recreational agencies, and would welcome and join heartily in the promotion of wholesome, expressional, soulbuilding, leisure-time activities. Neighborhood tournaments should be held in preparation for area tournaments, for which the largest church, school, or other auditorium in the area would be made available. Then, too, Church Fellowship Councils should appoint a committee on recreation whose duty it would be to make a survey of the needs and opportunities for promoting wholesome recreation through the churches in the area. Our negative attitude in the matter of recreation and our tendency to turn the handling of our leisure-time activities over to commercialized interests is one reason why so many of our young people drop out of our churches, leaving them stranded and quite ineffective in the community. The Council could advantageously promote soft ball, volley ball, tennis, horseshoe pitching and other tournaments. Why not think in terms of field days during the MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 year, with recreation plans for winter and summer months looking toward round-ups in the .spring and the latter part of summer? Certainly every Church Fellowship Council would appoint the strongest possible committee on Christian education; such a committee would study, undergird and strengthen the whole process of Christian education through the churches in the area by promoting leadership training courses, group seminars, community forums on civic problems, and daily vacation church schools, always in the interest of helping individuals grow and develop as they make their best possible contribution toward building the Kingdom of God. Every Council should appoint a youth committee that would make plans for establishing or making available camping facilities in the area. Why not plan for intermediate and youth camps and camps for mothers and church leaders, when groups would come together to get better acquainted by studying, worshiping and playing together? The experiences at these camps would prove a great blessing to many of our people by helping them get a clearer picture of the possibilities of making a very real contribution toward Kingdom building. The time is here when serious consideration needs to be given to the matter of helping boys and girls and men and women take definite steps toward becoming vitally acquainted with Jesus Christ as their personal Savior. Every Council should appoint a committee to study, plan and promote a program of evangelism broad enough to take in the whole of life, and definite enough to help boys and girls, men and women, into personal vital relationship with Jesus Christ. In this matter we are failing as a church. Not until we learn this, the greatest of all arts, and become what our fathers termed "a builder of souls," will we be able to do much more than be on the defensive as a church. Battles are not won by being on the defensive. The time is here to challenge our people in a great offensive against the horrible soul- and nation-destroying liquor traffic, the corruption and lust for power in our political activities, the problem of helping our millions of disadvantaged people in our large industrial centers and in many of our rural sections. We need to become Christian crusaders, with a note of cer October, 1939 tainty ringing in our souls that Christ is able to save and save to the uttermost. Other committees might be appointed as the meeting of other needs becomes evident. Grouping our churches, cooperation among groups of ministers, and the organization of Church Fellowship Councils to tackle some common tasks and meet some common needs can be big factors in getting more of the spirit of Christian fellowship and MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 1 7 vision into the thinking of an entire area. We need to develop a spirit of comradeship and solidarity by planning, working, singing, playing and worshiping together. As we bring about this kind of cooperation and comradeship among our churches, we will be preparing ourselves for intelligent and effective cooperation with other agencies in the interest of Christianizing more of life and in the building of the Kingdom of God in the nation and in the world. NI CODEMUS KATHERINE GRISWOLD Scenes from the life o f Nicodemus and his wife, Susanna. Susanna Is it thou, my husband, who lost enter? Nicodemus Aye, Susanna. David. If it should prove he is of royal blood, there may be those beside myself will listen to his words! Susanna None but the rabble, think I. They're swayed by anyone who will insult their betters. What spurious words spoke he today against the high court of Jerusalem? Nicodemus He had a strange expression. Try as I will, 1 cannot rid me of it. He held within his hand a cup, all bright and polished, saying, so that all might hear: "Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within ye are full of greed and covetousness. Thou blind Pharisees, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside may be clean also." Susanna Why didst thou stay to listen to such words? Nicodemus Even as I started to depart, he shouted other things, and some I felt were meant especially for me. "Ye tithe mint, anise and cummin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law-justice, mercy and faith." Susanna How canst thou cringe at that? Is it not the law of Moses to bear gladly to the Temple one tenth of all that thou dust get?-God knows that I could oft have spent it otherwise-a mantle new, or earrings. Thy wife cloth covet beauty and adornment Susanna When thou speakest so low that I can scarcely hear thee, and lookest like a day far spent, I know at once where thou bast been. Nicodemus Dost thou, Susanna? Susanna Aye, thou needest not tell me, Thou bast been listening to that babbler again. Nicodemus if thou meanst the Carpenter of Nazareth, thou halt well surmised. Susanna The clay we wed, I thought thee a clever man, Nicodemus. Thou writ an apt pupil of the Rabbi Gamaliel, and I was proud of thee. Even greater was my joy when thou writ elected to the Sanhedrin. Through all the years since then have men listened to thy words, heeded throe opinion. But of late thy mind bast weakened; no longer bast thou a thought of throe own. Only dost thou hang upon the words of this worthless one, this peasant. Nicodemus I grant, Susanna, the circumstance is strange, that one of humble birth should hold me so. Yet there are those who say he's from the loins of Page, 18 Nicodemus It was not that. It was the words "justice" and "mercy" which fell so heavily upon mine ears. The widow that I put from her home because she failed to pay the rent. Susanna O foolish man! Now do I knew indeed thy mind and will do soften. She bath not paid the rent for lo, these many months. If I had not reminded thee so often of thy negligence, thou wouldst not yet have set a time for her departure. Nicodemus That was not all. Susanna Then tell it all. I cannot think what worse he might have said. Nicodemus As he was speaking and the crowd had gathered round, there rose a murmur and confusion in the street. "Make way, make way," one cried. An avenue opened amid the crowd and there appeared some of my fellow Pharisees, dragging a woman. I knew at once it was a famous harlot of the city and I wondered what they meant to do. "Look here," they shouted, "we have found this woman in adultery. 'Tis true that Moses said to stone her, but we have brought the case to thee." There followed the most dreadful stillness that I have ever known! I edged a little closer only to find the silence more intense. I saw Jesus then, writing upon the ground. He never moved nor looked up, but said these words with a final ring I shall never forget, "He that is without sin, cast the first stone." Ah, Susanna, I looked at my own soul, and knew that he could find sin there. Then I heard a stone drop, another, and another. I scarcely dared look up, lest he should see in me the g'It I felt. But I heard or felt the men passing ul 0 me on their way out. Finally I heard Jesus ad dress the woman: "Where are they, throe accusers? Are there none left to condemn thee?" She answer ed, "No man, Lord." Then he replied, "Neither do I condemn thee; go thy way and sin no more." Susanna Little did I suppose that such a virtuous man as thou, Nicodemus, could be so moved by an adulteress. They say that this man Jesus eats with publicans and sinners. The next thing I shall hear is that thou hast dined with those beneath a MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 good man's notice. Nicodemus I had no thought of dining. But Susanna, I am attra:;ted to the man! I know not why, buz I should like to talk with him. Perhaps if once I spoke with him alone, his charm for me would vanish, and I could go about my way, sanely, as you think. Susanna It may be so, but I should be ashamed to have men find thee in his company. To think that thou, a member of the highest court, should seek out as a friend, a common carpenter of Galilee. Nicodemus He is no common carpenter, and I must see him, now, tonight. I cannot sleep until I find what moves him to such words! Susanna Go, then, and may the night air bring thee greater wisdom! (Music Nearer the Cross, my heart can say, I am coming nearer, Nearer the Cross from day to day, I am coming nearer.) Susanna How now, dost thou still stumble in as a thief? Didst not the night air clear thy mind? Nicodemus Ah, no. My visit made me more perplexed. He said I must be born again. Susanna Be born again! If ever an absurdity was spoken -be born again! Did he behold thy stature, Nicodemus? Thou standest taller than any man within the court. Be born again, indeed. How can a man be born again when he is old? Wilt thou enter again into thy mother's womb? Nicodemus I think he meant not so. Somehow I feel he meant that I must change my way, my thoughts, perhaps my purposes. For all he says, the man seems not to think upon himself, but only on his mission. He says he faces death, and yet he seems to have no fear. Would I might think as fearlessly as he! Susanna Think, think, what dost thou do but think? What hast thou ever done? Thy hand bast done October, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK _ Page 19 naught that would earn a living wage. Thou ponderest over this and that. If thou hadst ploughed a furrow or even laid thee out an house, thy mind might not be tempted thus to wander into new and foolish ways. Come, eat. The time draws near when thou must meet with the Sanhedrin. (Music Nearer the Christian mercy seat, I am coming nearer, Feasting my soul on manna sweet, I am coming nearer.) Susanna Ah, Nicodemus, thou lookest more weary than ever, if that be possible. Did the members of the Sanhedrin bid thee depart? Nicodemus Say it so, if thou wilt. I fear my days with them are over. demus! I blame them not. Susanna Thou art so foolish, Nico Ncodemus Perhaps. Yet they' stand for justice. What must a law court do but see that all are treated with the fairness and consideration that judges would for their own selves require? Susanna And do they not so stand? Nicodemus Nay, I never thought of it before, but now I know that always has our action been influenced by our own desires and prejudices. Today they sent for Jesus, saying he should answer for the charges he had made against them. I resolved then I would be firm, for was I not a member of the Court? I felt the men beside me stiffen, their hands clench, even as they waited. In that hour I knew I could not be one to condemn him. All that I had ever heard him say was true, about those very men, and about me. The soldiers came back shamefacedly. The high priest addressed them with indignation: "Why have ye not brought him?" One of them came forward and spoke in a tone I had never heard a soldier use: "Never man spake like this man." Thou shouldst have heard the commotion, Susanna! I thought for once that the soldiers themselves were going to be beaten. Annas shouted, "Are ye also deceived!" I thought he gave something of a side glance toward me. "Have any of the rulers or the Pharisees believed on him? But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed." It was my tune to speak then, and I spoke, Susanna. I said, "Doth our law judge any man except to hear him and know what he doeth?" 1 was glad I said it, too. It seemed to give me new strength, although I have always tried to stand for justice. You should have heard them then. You would have thought they had never known or even seen me before! They turned on me as one man. For a minute the soldiers and even Jesus of Nazareth were forgotten. I was the offender, the blunderer! "Art thou also of Galilee?" they mocked. "Search and see, for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet." Strangely enough, neither their tone, their words, nor their attitude moved me. I wondered, then, how 1 could have remained with them for so long. Susanna, 1 know now that 1 love that man Jesus more than all the law and the prophets. Susanna I still think that thou art a fool, Nicodemus, but there must be something to a man who could grip thee like that. I would that I might see him, just to note the measure of thy foolishness. ( Music Nearer the place where thou has died Nearer the fountain's crimson tide, Nearer my Savior's wounded side, I am coming nearer, I am coming, nearer.) Susanna Here are spices, Nicodemus. Take all we have; it's little enough. Never did I suppose that I would send thee on such an errand! Thou sayest that Joseph of Arimathea is putting the body in his tomb. His garden is a lovely spot! Would that my body might someday rest in a place as fair. Joseph's another fool, but I love him for it. We're all fools but this dream will soon be over. Sometimes I wish we might forget it, but we never shall. It's done something to us. It was thy foolishness that brought us to this pass-and now we face the end!-Or do we?-Sometimes I feel it is a beginning for usperhaps for all men-of something better! Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 ~uEumrz John A. S pel nann Ill C:ctobcr, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BIRTHDAY PARTY On October 6 the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild celebrated the tenth anniversary of its founding at Penland, North Carolina, in keeping with an invitation and a promise made at the first meeting in 1929. In response to the roll call by President O. J. Mattil, representatives from twenty-one Craft Centers (including six of the original eight charter members), five Individual Craftsmen and five Friends came forward one by one to place their candles on the huge birthday cake in recognition of their responsibility as members. Miss Evelyn Bishop, Miss Clementine Douglas and Miss Lucy Morgan, all members of the organizing group, in addition to some eighty other friends and craft people were present to help celebrate and to enjoy a slice of the cake. Miss Douglas (The Spinning Wheel, Asheville, North Carolina) gave a brief reminiscence of the first meeting around the fireplace in her craft house December 28, 1929, telling of their hopes for the new Guild and of their dreams for the future. Miss Morgan (Penland Weavers and Potters), hostess, told of Penland's particular pride and happiness in being able to fulfil the promise of their invitation in the newly completed Edward F. Worst Craft House. She expressed the hope that the twentieth anniversary might likewise be celebrated at Penland. "We want you all to come back!" she said. Up to the time of the meeting it had been hoped that the long-time friend and adviser, Mr. Allen H. Eaton, of the Department of Surveys of the Russell Sage Foundation, might come to help celebrate. Mr. Eaton's book Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands tells the story of the development of the Guild and gives a thorough resume of the various craft developments in the Southern Highlands up to the date of publication. Miss Morgan placed a candle for Mr. Eaton on the cake, saying as she did so, "He will be thinking of us, and, after all, we have to do the work!" Particular enthusiasm marked the greetings from~~ Miss Frances Goodrich, life member of the Guild and founder of the Allanstand Cottage Industries, ~~ '~~ who originated the Allanstand Store which was`; '1' I later given to the Guild as a marketing center. Page 21 Mrs. Agues Loeffler, manager of the Allanstand, responded for Miss Goodrich and placed a candle for her on the cake. In the article directly following this report, Miss Goodrich herself writes of her recollections of the early days and of her aims in organizing and promoting what has proved to be a solid foundation on which the Guild is continuing to build. 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢rom the handful of eight centers and schools of the charter membership, the Guild has grown during the ten years interval to include thirty craft centers and as many individual craftsmen, representing through the neighborhood work and craft development in outlying communities an aggregate of many more individuals than the membership total of sixty suggests. At the schools, students are trained in crafts and through them earn the education which opens up their futures. In the centers, neighborhood groups and individual craft producers are coordinated and assisted in developing their wares to an artistic and marketable standard. Individual craftsmen, many of whom are working in various centers or communities or have built up shops of their own, create new ways, express their ideas, and offer to the public an array of articles which is earning well-deserved fame. All of these craft articles are exhibited and marketed more especially through the Guild store, the Allanstand, located in Asheville, North Carolina, as well as in various craft shops throughout the area. The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild is ex tending its service and affecting the tastes, stand ards, and living of an ever-widening group. It was organized "to bring about cooperation among the agencies and individuals interested in con serving and developing the handicrafts in the Southern Mountains." It strives constantly to "raise and maintain standards of design and crafts manship and to encourage individual expression." Being concerned with buying and selling and with earning a livelihood, it also sets as a guiding aim the "study of costs of production, competition, ,,,the and other problems concerned with the practical survival and development of crafts. That the Guild has survived ten years of problems, worries, and work with a more than trebled mem Page 22 bership bears witness to the need and worth of the organization as well as to the soundness of its program. -ELIZABETH G. BARNLS In looking back for the beginnings of the Allanstand enterprise one is apt to think of that gift of the old brown coverlet in 1895 which led to the making of such woven pieces as a business venture. In reality the germ idea in my own mind has an older history. When or where the little girl that was myself saw a power-loom, I cannot tell, but it was one of her puzzles, thought over all by herself, how the threads of the warp could be so hung as to pass each other and open each way for the shuttle: a puzzle which roused in her mind a curiosity unappeased for many years. A few months before coming to western North Carolina, a sample of home-woven linsey came to my hand, a scrap from a dress worn by a schoolgirl in Buncombe County. It was of a vivid green, evidently the product of diamond dye, but it was precious in my eyes; the old puzzle came up with the old fascination, and when I did reach Asheville my first drive into the country was in search of a loom, ostensibly to sketch. One was found, though it was not threaded up, and the sketch was made. After that, in the stress of affairs, the question lay dormant. The needs of the children for schooling and fun were too insistent for indulging in what seemed to me just a fad of my own. However, what is to be will be, and here we MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 come to 1895 and the coverlet of chestnut-oak dye. It came just when it was needed, that the neighbor women might have the pennies and the delight that the work was to bring to them. Thinking back, I have been glad and am glad that we lead so little to do with. There was no thought of a subsidy; what was necessary for a start in equipment and materials had to be furnished from what I myself could spare, supplemented by gifts not large, from friends who liked the idea. Therefore we kept to essentials and were satisfied with a small beginning. But from the very first I had always the hope that the acorn would grow into a lusty oak. Such an enterprise would be worthless, I knew, unless it could soon be upon a paying basis. If it could reach this, as it soon did, why not in time something large and worthy, helping not only the women of one valley, but the people of the Southern Mountains! This is the vision I saw. To what extent it has been realized you know. Was it any wonder that in the formation of our Guild I saw the working out of a dream? Or that Allanstand was given into its hands for this very working out? To my mind the end has not yet been reached of what this union of forces for which the Allanstand Cottage Industries and the Allanstand Shop stand, may grow into; for it is a union not of material works and ways alone but of heart and mind. Pray God the vision be fulfilled. -FRANCES L. GOODRICH Assume to dictate to his judgment, or to command his action, or to mark him as one to be shunned and despised, and he will retreat within himself, close all the avenues to his head and heart; and though your cause be naked truth itself, transformed to the heaviest lance, harder than steel, and sharper than steel can be made, and though you throw it with more than Herculean force and precision, you shall no more be able to pierce him than to penetrate the hard shell of a tortoise with a rye straw. Such is man, and so must he be understood by those who would lead him. -Abraham Lincoln October, 1939 MOUNTAIN L11-)=', AND WORK -NEWS NOTES0000 Son Succeeds Father at Berea Following the retirement of Dr. William J. Hutchins from Berea College, Dr. Francis S. Hutchins has taken over the presidency. In September Dr. Hutchins the younger, with his wife and child, reached America from China. Since it was impossible for him to arrive for the opening of school, Dr. Hutchins the elder started the institution on its year's work; and for a little the two presidents have both been present there, and in cooperation. That such a joint arrangement was suitable and natural is only one of many delightful things about the son's so succeeding the father. There will be a formal inauguration of the new president on November 25; but a more intimate and, to many Bereans, perhaps really more significant ceremony took place one day in chapel. Dr. William Hutchins presented the college seal to Dr. Francis Hutchins and introduced him to the assembly as president of Berea College. Three brief, impressively beautiful addresses were made on this occasion, by Mr. C. N. Manning, trustee; the re t1 1 'dent; the new president, accepting the ring presi seal. President Francis S. Hutchins bears the degrees of B.A., Oberlin; M.A., Yale; LL.D., Lake Forest. He has for a number of years been American director of Yale-in-China, acting cooperatively with a Chinese director. This record, like his name, speaks of harmony with the Berea cause and tradition and of fitness for Berea's administration. Pikeville College Jubilee Pikeville College, a Presbyterian junior college at Pikeville, Kentucky, celebrated its golden jubilee on October 12, and at the same time honored one of its early presidents, Dr. James F. Record, who served for twenty-nine years. A set of singing chimes, identical to those in the Will Rogers Memorial Tower in Oklahoma, were dedicated to the memory of Dr. Record. These chimes were given by alumni of the school. Started in a single building as the Pikeville Collegiate Institute in 1889, this co-educational institution now enrolls about 500 students and holds property worth nearly a million dollars. Dr. H. M. Crooks has been president since the fall of 1938. Page Christmas Folk Dance School A second Christmas vacation Folk Dance School will be held at Berea College, Berea, Kentucky, December 26-31. Miss May Gadd, director of the English Folk Dance and Song Society of America, will again head up the teaching staff of the vacation school. Emphasis will be placed upon English country, morris and sword dances, and there will be folk singing to which all members of the school will be asked to contribute. Accommodations, which are being furnished by Boone Tavern at a very special rate, beard, and tuition will amount to a total of $14 for the five days. Those wishing to secure registration blanks and further information arc asked to write to the office of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, Berea, Kentucky. Mountain Folk Festival 1940 The Mountain Folk Festival committee announces the following list of songs and dances which it is hoped all prospective participants in the 1940 Festival will learn. Details regarding the fifth Festival, to be held March 3-5, in Knoxville, Tennessee, will be announced in the January issue. 1. American Play Party Games Across the Hall Jubilee Jump Josie Old Dan Tucker Sourwood Mountain (See Singing Games from the South, Cooper ative Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. 25c) 2. English and American Country Dances Piper's Fancy Steamboat Soldier's Joy The Tempest (See Twelve Traditional Dances, English Folk Dance and Song Society of America, 15 East 40th Street, New York City. 51.50.) If All the World Were Paper Sellenger's Round (H. W. Gray Co., 159 East 48th Street, New York City. 25c each.) 3. Danish Crested Hen Roselil Weaving Page 24 MouNrnrN Line AND Worth October, 1939 (See Singing Games Old and New, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, North Carolina. 25c) Hatter (Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, Berea, Kentucky. Directions only, free.) Grand March. Records for the dances may be obtained from the Gramaphone Shop, 18 East 40th Street, New York City, and the New York Band Instrument Co. 111 East 14th Street, as follows: 88732 The Tempest $1.50 Gramaphone Shop Thady You Gander B8684 Steam-Boat $1.50 Gramaphone Shop We Won't Go Home till Morning 5734 Sellengers Round $1.50 Gramaphone Black Nag 1 f All the World Were Paper 20449-B The Hatter $.75 New York Band Little Man in a Fix Instrument Co. 20592-B Soldiers joy $.75 New York Band Lady of the Lake Instrument Co. The folk songs which all participants are asked to learn are: The Keeper I Had a Sister Sally On the Top of Old Smoky Green Grow the Rushes, O! The Lover's Quest The Happy Plowman These may all be found in joyful Singing, obtainable from the Cooperative Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. Shop YOUTH GUIDANCE INSTITUTE AT HARLAN A second Youth Guidance Institute was held at Pine Mountain, Kentucky, during the week of August 20th. Sponsored by the Harlan County Planning Council, the Harlan Kiwanis Club, the County School System, various Parent-Teacher Associations and the Pine Mountain Settlement School, it brought together local leaders, all county elementary teachers in the seven-month schools, state and national leaders. Included among these were Barry Bingham, president and publisher of the Courier-Journal and Louisville Times; Dr. R. B. Cunliffe, president of the National Vocational Guidance Association; Leonard M. Miller, Director of Guidance in Rockland County, New York; Howard W. Oxley, Director of Education CCC, United States Office of Education; Dr. C. L. Shartle of the United States Employment Service; H. H. I-3ansbrough, Jr., Field Supervisor of the Kentucky State Employment Service; Merton Oyler, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky; and Robert K. Salyers, State Youth Administrator, National Youth Administration. In seeking to find out as much as possible about the needs of Harlan County youth and to plan action in the light of these needs, the Institute considered local manifestations of general mountain problems such as the high percentage of children (80 to 90 per cent) who do not get beyond eighth grade, and the failure of the school to provide any vocational training for this group. The morning sessions were, for the most part, concerned with youth problems from the point of view of the school. At the outset definition of the purpose of education was evolved and agreed upon by the entire group, that purpose being to "develop individuals into happy, useful, thinking citizens" through provisions for health, for general education, for vocational adjustment and training (through experience), for training in the use of leisure time, into the development of character and personality. The Institute moved on logically to the necessity for continuously studying and understanding the individual as basic to any well adjusted school program, then to the counseling aspect of guidance and of learning how to direct the child's development through a number of constructive activities. Teachers spent considerable time in art and woodworking, both of which would be useful in a rural elementary school program; and in particular they developed a model home unit, including house, furnishings, and grounds. A suggestive one-room school was set up which included the following activities in respective corners: art, reading, woodworking, and a kitchen-the equipment for all of which cost less than twenty dollars. During the teachers' workshop period, another group of local leaders studied the needs of outof-school youth, and ways of bringing the com October, 1939 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK munity's resources to bear on this problem. Much discussion centered around the lack of training and the lack of knowledge of vocational possibilities and guidance as responsible for the plight of a considerable number of out-ofschool youth. During the afternoon a program of recreation and leisure-time activities gave opportunity for further training in the use of leisure time. The evening sessions centered around the community's part in providing guidance for both in- and out-of-school youth in terms of health, recreation, and vocational guidance. Findings were evolved through general and special sessions and from teachers' recommendations. On the basis of these findings, and in keeping with the purpose of the Institute to bring about direct action, the following results have so far been effected: 1. Efforts arc being made by the Harlan County Planning Council, Harlan Kiwanis Club, and others to secure a junior Consultation and Placement Service and, with the cooperation of the United States Employment Service, to conduct in the near future an occupational survey of the county. 2. The teachers voted unanimously to adopt a student autobiographical record form, as a beginning of more systematic record keeping, and many planned to use personality rating forms and home and parent records'. 3. Special supervision in guidance is to be pro vided for the teachers by the County Superintendent together with the provision for regular meeiings at strategic points for clearance en guidance problems. 4. In cooperation with high-school principals, elementary teachers are to be allowed to use their respective shop facilities for training at regular times. 5. Plains are under way for increasing facilities for the use of tools and home-making equipment in the rural schools. At the time of writing this report several teachers were already making use of such equipment. It is hoped that the Institute may also have contributed some helpful data on the possibilities of short intensive institutes for rural teachers in the immediate regions of their work. -G.A.M. I jb1y Antobiogrrr[n); Home curl Parent Record prepared by the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth, Grace-American Building, Richmond, Virginia. Page 25 CUMBERLAND PLATEAU CONFERENCE The Rural Community Conference of the Upper Cumberland Plateau area held its annual meeting at Pleasant Hill, Friday and Saturday, August 25-26. The Conference, which has for many years has been studying the problems and possibilities of its region and seeking to inspire and assist communities to develop rich rural life, had as its topic: "How can the people of our rural communities find and develop their own resources?" Most attention was given to what is happening where groups of local people get together to study their own situations frankly and fearlessly and try to find resources that they can develop for the enrichment of their lives. The chief leader of the Conference was Mr. lalsworth Smith, of Bcrca, Kentucky, who has made a thorough study of the remarkable development that is taking place in Nova Scotia. Under the auspices of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, with headquarters at Berea, Mr. Smith is seeking to adapt this promising technique to the region of the Southern Highlands. A year's experience seems to indicate that it has as large possibilities here as in Nova Scotia. The Friday morning session, at which Mr. Smith carefully explained the local study group method and then led a long discussion about it, was an inspiring occasion. Then and at numerous other times during the Conference a growing faith was expressed that the people of our rural communities have it in them to solve their own problems and build a glad and satisfying rural life; that the new rural life that the region and nation need is going to come from the people themselves and not from the top down. Leaders and specialists, it was insisted, would have to learn to serve as helpers when and as the people feel the need of them. At the Friday night session there was an earnest consideration of the part the church and religion ought to have in this developing rural life. It was felt that the rural church ought to awake to its great responsibilities and opportunities for leadership in a movement that seems likely eventually to transform rural America. The Saturday morning session, when people from a considerable number of communities told of what is being accomplished in their neighbor I Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK October, 1939 hoods through study and group action, was perhaps the high point of the meeting. Personal accounts were heard from Allardt, Alpine, Big Lick, Blue Springs, Pleasant Hill, Ravenscroft, and Wilder. One community which has made a practice of studying its problems and possibilities over a long period of years, has worked together to select and develop the right crops, has learned to market successfully almost anything it has to sell and to buy together to great advantage. Another community, with no economic resource except the land, had two study clubs meeting this past winter. As a beginning of a solution to their problems, they worked out ways to pool resources and buy the farm machinery that no one farmer could afford to buy but that the whole community urgently needed. They look forward to years of further development of this cooperation. The Friday afternoon session of the Conference was given over to the important subject: "What the public health service can mean to the developing life of our region." Dr. Price H. Duff, Director of the Upper Cumberland District Health Department Number Two, with headquarters at Crossville, made a very clear presentation of the fine work the public health service is doing in this area. Dr. H. A. Sauberli, Director of the Upper Cumberland District Health Department, with headquarters at Livingston, invited a large number of the professional staff of the two departments to the platform and led a round-table discussion on various health problems. There was a lively general discussion, with the Conference eager to know what could be done about such problems as too large families among those unable to provide for them, and how medical care can be provided for members of the lowest income groups. More than one hundred people registered at the Conference. They represented most of the counties of this region; a good many came also from farther away. The Department of Public Welfare was well represented, as were the Extension Service, the Save the Children Fund, and numerous other agencies that are rendering service in the area. Educators, ministers, and health and community workers played a large part in the meetmg. At the closing business session, the Cumberland Conference voted to ask the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers to keep Mr. Smith at work in our area of the mountains. It also rated a resolution expressing its distress that two communities in the region who could have had the medical care that they badly need have been prevented from receiving it by a ruling of the state board of medical examiners that bars graduates of European medical schools from practicing in Tennessee. These communities had made arrangements for refugee physicians to come and serve them. The communities were ready to provide living quarters and a very modest living. The Cumberland Plateau Conference addressed a letter to the state board of medical examiners expressing its conviction that fully qualified refugee physicians should be allowed to come and meet the needs of same of our rural communities that cannot secure medical care at present. For the ensuing year the Conference elected as officers: Eugene Smathers, Big Lick, President; P. B. Stephens, Jamestown, Vice-President; James D. Burton, Oakdale, Secretary-Treasurer. As addi tional members of the executive committee it elected Mrs. Hugo Gerrit of Allardt and Hassell Smith of Alpine. Howard Hubbell of Nashville was re-elected executive secretary. The Conference was entertained by Pleasant Hill Academy and Pleasant Hill Community Church. Many of those attending availed themselves of the opportunity to study the work of the Academy and the Uplands Sanatorium and a large number went on an espe cially planned visit to the interesting rehabilitation project at Ravenscroft. -E. E. W. Carvers' Convention From the John C. Campbell Folk School, at Brasstown, North Carolina, comes the following report: We feel we have made history with the first Carvers' Convention, Saturday, July 22, 1939. It was a beautiful clear day-not too warm. By eight o'clock, the carvers began coming from different directions, most of them with families and lunch boxes. We had labored all the day before on two exhibits which held groups spellbound as soon as they entered Keith House. The exhibit of local work was placed in the living room, occupying all available space from the high fireplace shelf, adorned by Ben Hall's full creche-a thing of beauty-to the tables and even the window sills. On one of the latter, a succession of mules, labeled 1931-39, October, 1939 MOUNTAIN LiYf. caused great amusement and comment, as did all the early work. Where we could, we showed carvers' first efforts along with samples of progressive steps to the present. Haden Hensley's (HH) geese formed one of the longest lines, and he and his wife spent much time studying each carver's work. All realized, perhaps for the first time, that they had rivals in ability and execution. The foreign exhibit was a very interesting contrast to the local one. There was work from Alaska, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, Russia, Oberammergau, Italy, India, Japan, China, Dutch Guiana (Bush-negro and Javanese carvings), Hindustan, and from Pleasant Hill, Tennessee. Many of the carvings were in color, and we had to confess that this lent a richness oat given by the polished native woods alone-not that we are contemplating change. Trips were arranged over the school farm to see the pastures, the hybrid corn experiment, poultry, reforestation plots, the shop, and the cows wallowing in soybeans and Sudan grass. Many of the women went to the kitchen, and to the store-room now partly filled with new canning of the summer. Groups of men pitched horseshoes, played croquet, or discussed common interests. At twelve we all gathered at the long tables behind the Museum, whither chairs and a mountain of lunch boxes had proceeded us. The school furnished a boiler of hot coffee, also buttermilk and orangeade. The meal was a merry one with many exchanges of food and comment. Some ninety people sat at the tables; others had not been able to stay. Probably in all there were about 125. Mrs. Campbell introduced the speakers. Miss Margaret A. Ambrose, Assistant Director of the Division of Extension in the University of Tennessee, gave the principal address, bringing out her important points and making all her connections in a most natural and delightful fashion. Miss Helen Cullens, one of her District Agents, followed. Then Louise Pitman gave a glimpse into early days of our craft department; Murray Martin also spoke, and from the carvers themselves, Russell Miller and W. T. Massey. Both the latter emphasized the friendship and joy which the carving had opened to them, and also the economic help. Their gratitude to the school was very heart-warming. -U. D. C. AND WORD Page 27 Penland Tenth Anniversary Session The Penland School of Handicrafts, Penland, North Carolina, closed its tenth annual summer session on August 26 with a total enrollment of over 100 students representing twenty-four states, the District of Columbia, Alaska, and four provinces of Canada. The courses were the longest in the school's history, extending over a period of nine weeks, and also the most successful. The type of instruction offered was of a very high .standard with outstanding teachers from various ports of the country as guest instructors. Edward F. Worst of Chicago made his tenth consecutive trip to Penland to conduct a three weeks' course in advanced weaving. Rupert Peters, Director of Visual Education in the public schools of Kansas City, spent his fifth summer at Penland and gave instruction in weaving over the entire nine weeks' period. Also present for the full nine weeks as a weaving instructor was Mrs. Margaret Bagman of Paulsbo, Washington, who with her son made the trip across the country by car. Mrs. Bcrgman, a Swedish woman, had much to offer in the way of new weaves and was a great addition to the school's faculty. The metal work and jewelry-making department was under the expert supervision of Mr. William Emerson Manner, of Bronxville, New York. Mr. Manner, a teacher in a Bronxville high school, is largely responsible for the revival of pewter making in this country, and it was through his interest and help that pewter was added to the Penland crafts about fifteen years ago. Much interest was shown in the fascinating craft of shoemaking, new to us, taught by Lincoln Mathews, of the Edward Mathews Guild of Weymouth, Massachusetts. This unique organization is devoted to the making by hand of exclusive and attractive, yet thoroughly comfortable footwear, and has attracted much favorable comment over a large part of the country. Perhaps one of its best recommendations is that it designs and makes shoes for the famous Sonja Heinie. Pottery and leather-work were taught by Miss Elizabeth Petrie, of New York City, a skilled and careful craftswoman. A popular c::urse in color and design was given by Mrs. Rose Baldwin, of Jacksonville, Florida, a graduate of Sophie Newcomb College and a long-time friend of Penland. Mrs. Janette Guy, of Tampa, Florida, gave an Page 23 MOUNTAIN LtrF: AND WORK October, 1939 interesting course in puppetry; Ruth Brennan, of the University of Tennessee, was present again to give instruction in corn shuckery, and a valuable new assistant was found in John Poore, of Mascot, Tennessee, who assisted in the teaching of metal work and in puppetry. These teachers, added to the regular Penland staff consisting of Lucy Morgan, weaving and general director, Mrs. Harriet Conley, flax spinning, Rufus Wyatt, assistant in pottery and metal work, John Morgan, instructor in basketry and assistant in shoe-making and metal work, Mrs. Grover Conley, dyeing and wool spinning, and Mr. Charlie Woody, chair seating, formed a well equipped and adequate faculty to take care of the large number of students who came from many professions to begin or increase a knowledge of crafts. In addition to those already mentioned, other fireside crafts such as card weaving, looper weaving, knots and braids, beadmaking, etc., were pursued by enthusiastic students in spare moments and far into the night. Acting on the theory of the old proverb that all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, opportunity was provided for recreation and entertainment. Several trips and picnics to nearby points of scenic interest were planned, and square dances were sponsored frequently by the Penland Community Club. Twice the entire Institute was invited to square dances at The Lake, an amusement place owned by Mr. S. T. Henry, of Spruce Pine, who has long been one of Penland's ardent boosters. Perhaps one of the most thoroughly gratifying experiences of the whole summer was the celebration on August 17 of the tenth anniversary of the Penland School of Handicrafts. Beginning at ten o'clock in the morning with a craftsman service in the chapel at the Appalachian School, conducted by Bishop Robert E. Gribbin, Rev. A. R. Rufus Morgan, and Rev. Peter W. Lambert, Jr., the entire day and evening were given over to a planned program of events. After the morning service, open house and exhibits of students' work were held until noon, when the people of the community and Spruce Pine neighbors joined Institute students and friends from a distance in a picnic dinner served in the newlyrenovated dining reom at T11e Pines. At three o'clock in the afternoon, a pageant depicting the history and development of the work at Penland was presented by young people of the community. Climaxing a happy day was the banquet in the evening honoring Mr. Worst and his ten years of service to Penland. Among the people who paid tribute to Mr. Worst on this occasion were representatives from Institutes of former years, Mr. S. T. Henry, toastmaster, Lucy Morgan, and Mrs. Anna Lalor Burdick of Washington, D. C., Federal Agent for Vocational Education for Women and Girls. Mr. Henry said that he expected Mr. Worst to continue coming to Penland for another ten years, and in his response, Mr. Worst 'lowed he might if there would be another birthday cake as handsome as the one he and Mrs. Worst cut and served to the guests. Cherokee Indian Fair A Cherokee Indian Fair and anniversary cclebratic,n was held at Cherokee, North Carolina, October 3-6 inclusive. First held in October, 1914, the fair was organized "to stimulate and en courage a greater interest in agriculture among the :ndians of the reservation and to create and foster among them a desire for better homes and better living conditions." At first "little more than a community fair," it has grown until this year prices were given fur nearly -I50 exhibits ranging from livestock and poultry through vegetables, canned products, flowers, needlework, and craft products. The judging of all displays was done by county and home demonstratii;n agents detailed by the State Extension Service. Mr. Clyde M. Blair, president of the Fair, was assisted by a group which included five directors of the original fair in 1914. In addition to agricultural, women's and craft exhibits, there were archery and blowgun contests, singing, spinning and square dance c;:mpetitions and a string bend contest. The baby show, Indian dances, Indian ball games and archery were also competitive. The Fair takes credit for assisting in the revival of native Cherokee arts and crafts, particularly pottery making, wood carving, and basketry, and for renewing interest in the mastery of archery and native dances. Student Writers' Summer Session A two weeks session for student writers, held under the auspices of the League of American -B.W.P. October, 193 NIOUNI~AIN I_IPL Writers, a nationally known organization with headquarters in New York City, was concluded at the Highland Folk School in Montcagle, Tennessee, on August 30. This Writing Session, held in reccignition of the deep interest of writers throughout the country in the modern literary clevclopmcnt of the South, enrolled students from many Southern states, and represented the first effort of the League to bring practical guidance in problems of craftsmanship to the young writers of the South. The school was conducted on a laboratory workshop basis with emphasis c:n the fundamental relations of m.f,dern literature to the world today. A limited number of scholarships was made available by ChI Delta I'hi, the Highlander Folk School, and the League ::f American Writers. Pinewoods Dance Asscmbly Each year at PincwQ::;ds Camp, Massachusetts, a group of 75 to 100 enthusiastic f;;lk dancers assemble for two weeks under the auspices of the English Folk Dance and Song Society of America. The camp is on Long Pond, one of the smaller beautiful Massachusetts lakes, and is only a few miles from the Atlantic seacoast. Two members of the staff of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, Frank H. Smith and John T. Morgan, attended this year. Others from the Southern Highlands were Miss Gertrude Cheney, of the Berea College faculty, Berea, Kentucky; Mr. Harry Cary, of the John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, North Carolina; Mr. Lynn Gault, of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville; and Mr. Richard Chase, now of Richmond, Virginia. At Pinewoods Camp instruction is given not only in English and American country dancing, but also in sword and morris, which are ceremonial dances of great antiquity. Each morning a short folk dance demonstration is given by the demonstration team. Each Thursday afternoon during the camp a public demonstration lasting for about one-anda-half hours takes place. This is attended by students at the camp and visitors from Cape Cod, Boston and other nearby points. Mr. Smith, Mr. Gault and Mr. Chase were members of the demonstration team this year. The camp director is Miss May Gadd. A special teacher this year was Mr. Kenneth Constable from the Cecil Sharp House, London, England. Page 29 Goitre Clinic at Homeplace On the 30th of September, Homeplace, in Perry Ceunty, Kentucky, held its most recent goitre clinic, with Dr. Howard Fischbach, of Cincinnati, serving as doctor in charge. Work with this clisease in Honneplacc has been very recent. Lulu M. Hale, director of the center, has sent us a letter about the work. "I noticed right after canning here the considerable number of eases, but have not been able to do anything until now. I,r. Howard 1'. Fischbach, of Cincinnati, is greatly interested in goitre, having dune much research about it. He offered to give us a clinic last spring, giving; time here and also at home fc;r surgical cases. An arrangement was made with the Booth Memorial Hospital in Covington, Kentucky, to take our people at a special rate, that rate to be met by the I?. O. Robinson Mountain Fund. The clinic was well attended and along this summer when he had time, I took to him about sixteen pcrple on wham he has operated successfully. "I)r. Fischbach's first objective has been goitre, which fact we advertised, but there have been a few persons who came with other ailments and he would not, of course, turn them away. "On the 30th there were some people here before the doctor could finish his breakfast. People streamed in until those registering them thought he could not possibly see any mere-I12 names before two o'clock!-so those coming after that were turned away. He finished with his last examination at one o'clock on Sunday morning (clinic was Saturday). With him was a registered technician who all the time ran blood counts, a trained nurse who helped him in the treatment room with examinations, a trained nurse who did urine analysis, and two secretaries who made records, and explained food charts to goitre patients. "Our first clinic was for goitre only. This time we invited goitre people who had not seen him and women who needed repair work after childbirth. Of course others came, too. There have been children with bad throat conditions, enlarged hearts, etc. Mast of the work has been done with adults, but there is a child of nine now in the hospital with some sort of an enlargement down under the sternum where it cannot be operated on. He is being kept for observation and treatment since he Page 30 Moues rnirr Lill-, AND WORK October, 1939 is about the only case on record of that type. About fifty per cent of those attending this last clinic will need surgical aid." "Just Another Nook on Cumberland" "Seemingly buried" somewhere between Coalmont and Tracy City in Grundy County, Tenncssec, the Altamont Pines, a Seventh Day Adventist center, has, for the past five years, been rendering a health and community service to Cumberland Plateau dwellers in its area. Braden N. Mulford, formerly at Fountain Head, Tennessee, writes of the conception and beginning of service as follows. "Many are the times, as teachers, nurses and workers at the Fountain Head Sanitarium and Rural Schaol, of Fountain Head, Tennessee, during our thirty years' connection with that institution, that we looked with Lunging eyes toward the Cumberland Plateau. Occasionally gyre loaded all that our automobile would hold of folks and eats, and nosed our machine toward the mountain, 125 miles to the base. "Ascending its rocky slopes over a hard-surfaced highway, we reached its top at an elevation of about 2000 feet. The scenic attraction that met our eyes filled our soul to the brim, and as we went here and there, following mountain roads and paths, we came upon numbers of the homes of the mountain people. Same were nestled down in the deepest recesses of the mountain, while others were on the higher, general level of the Plateau. The very simplicity of the people, with the grandeur of their surroundings, gave us a longing to live amongst them. "In the progress of the work at Fountain Head, a number of us felt that the leadership of the place would be better in younger and more technically trained hands. For this reason we asked our board to free us from that responsibility and let us find a nook where we could do a little more simple work. Our request was granted two years ago and Mrs. Mulford and I came directly to this mountain. Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Edmister and their three sons, formerly of Fountain Head, preceded us to the mountain by three years and had done a nice community work. Mrs. Edmister had done much nursing in the homes of the people, where she had saved lives and relieved much suffering. The nearest doctor was twenty miles away. "Due to the wonderful development of roads and schools on the Cumberland Plateau, the opportunities of the mountain people have been materially changed for the better. There are good public and high schools up and down this whole mountain, so far the present there is no need to open a school. But there is a definite need for something in the way of a simple place where the sick may be given a little better attention than can be administered in the average mountain home. We have quite nearly a virgin field for this work that we hope to do in this fine little nook on Cumberland's top." Recreation Leadership at Mission Summer Schools For two weeks in early June, amidst the abundant natural beauty of the North Carolina mountains near Asheville, an enthusiastic group of about sixty ministers, teachers and community workers gathered to study various areas of work "important to the service of the church in town and country fields." Here at Farm School, training leadership centered around a specific class in recreational leadership under John T. Morgan, itinerant recreation leader of the Conference of Southern Mountain \Xlorkers, which met for one hour each morning except Sunday during the two-week period. I n this class there was an even dozen of students, mostly women, who came from widespread areas, and included ministers, church school and young people's leaders, as well as district superintendents. We found there were quite different problems facing the loader in the development of an adequate group-play program on the great cotton prairies of the South, as contrasted with those of the Southern Highlands. Several individuals taught all of us a few of the games which in their own experiences with local folk had proven most successful. Some of the class learned new games from cur resource library and fixed each firmly in mind by teaching it. Time was given to a discussion of party programs and the inherent values of the old play-parties of America and folk games of the world. A mast worthwhile period for all concerned came with the group investigation and study of our library of source material. Par a two-week period in late June and early July a similar school far Presbyterian mission workers was held on the fine campus of the Allison-James School at Sante Fe, New Mexico. Here October, 1939 at an altitude of 7,000 feet, we were quickly short of wind and physically tired, so we had songs and several less active games. At Lincoln, Nebraska, on the broad flat expanses of the prairie, a state rural church workers' school was held a week in mid-June. Our stop at this Nebraska meeting was in the schedule on the way to Santo Fe from Swannanoa. During the course of all three schools, some experience in group recreation was provided. Also we had fun and satisfaction singing folk songs of many lands, as well as fine ageless hymns, led by several in our groups. Everywhere it has been true that the making and playing of sweet-toned pipes of bamboo or cane is a most popular leisure-time activity. At Farm School nearly thirty fine, accurately tuned instruments were completed and carried away proudly by their owners. In the Nebraska con ference many were eager to make pipes but the time was limited. At Allison-James a large num ber finished pipes and several learned to play simple melodies. Our Spanish-American friends were especially avid in their desire to make and own pipes. -J. T. M. Quicksand Fair and Festival MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK The annual fair at the Robinson Experiment Station in Quicksand, Kentucky was held September 28 and 29. Supplemented this year for the first time with folk games and folk singing, these. activities impressed a newcomer in the area as follows: "We enjoyed ourselves so thoroughly at the Quicksand Fair and Festival that I am pleased to write you of my impressions. From the many things, I have chosen to emphasize only a few. "The quiet pleasure which the participants so obviously had in the folk dancing was contagious. Theirs was a pleasure which came as a result of disciplined cooperation. The absence of unnecessary movements and individualistic Hairs permitted each dancer to become so much a part of the group that his pleasure was secured in group performance. I could think of no other kind of activity or recreational interest that would permit the individual to subordinate himself in such a way as to bring group satisfaction. The skill in performance was especially impressive, particularly in view of the fact that the groups came from widely separated schools. Such skill roots back in good teaching. Evidently the various school leaders have, themselves, a common interest as well as a remarkable teaching ability. Teaching ability was amply demonstrated in Franl~ Smith's leadership. He succeeded, as so few people do, in keeping himself in the background. At the same time, he had a distinctive control of the entire situation. "The singers and the listeners alike enjoyed the ballad singing contest. The contestants were participating, I felt, more for the love of singing than to carry on cultural tradition or because the singing of musical `antiques' had any historical significance. It was good to find that the old ballads were able to compete successfully with the contemporary kind of pseudo-mountain music. Did you notice and hear the old gentlemen, all tool dissipated, I'm afraid, singing some of the traditional songs and `patting' for a dance before the formal afternoon program began? A large group of the Fair visitors enjoyed the spontaneity and natural quality in his Bangs. "We will come again next year! -!3. K. McL." Spinning V'heel Moves During the first week in August, the Spinning Wheel, formerly at Beaver Lake in Asheville, North Carolina, moved five miles south of the city on the Hendersonville Highway, U.S. 25-W. Miss Clementine Douglas, owner and manager of the shop, writes, "The cabin salesroom is somewhat larger than before. It is Pclly Shepherd's old loghouse which we moved from near the French Broad River. The loom house, office and shipping room are in an adjoining building connected by a glassed in `possum trot' effect. We have a 250 foot frontage an the highway and a seven acre `backage' looking toward the Craggy Mountains and Mount Mitchell." Youth must be made to realize that the greatest happiness in life comes when he is doing work for which he is suited, whether the individual be a mechanic, a doctor, a farmer, a business man, a homemaker, or a teacher. -G. B. Newton Page 32 MouN rnmr Llrl: AND WORK October, 1939 THE REVIEWING Annual Report on Child Welfare for the Third Session o f the Advisory Committee on Social Questions, June 19, 1939. Child Welfare Centre, League of Nations. Summary of the Legislative and Administrati,ve Series o f l )oc umcrzt s o f the Child Wel f are In f orrrzatiorz Centre Published in /938. Child Welfare Centre, League of Nations. (Both of these arc distributed in the United States by Columbia University Press, New York.) The Annual Report on Child Welfare prepared by the Child Welfare Information Centre of the League of Nations contains a survey of the principal legislative and administrative measures adopted :r examined in 1937 in some thirty countries, with a view to improving and extending the protection afforded to the child, to mothers and the families. Considerable attention is given to child we!ttr. measures which have been and are being adopted in China, especially in the province of Kwang-si. Rather complete information on the United States and United Kingdom is presented. The reports on these countries emphasize the extensive movements which have taken place in these two countries toward the improvement of health and welfare of mothers and children. Certain excerpts show the tone of the population. For instance, the new Swiss Penal Code which will become effective in 1942 proposes that "Children (from 6 to 14 years of age) arc to be corrected by educational methods. Children who are morally neglected, depraved or in danger of becoming so, may be handed over to a trustworthy family or sent to an educative establishment." Sweden proposes prophylactic foods, as foods rich in vitamins and mineral substances, for its pregnant and nursing mothers and its pourer school children. Sweden now maintains state sub sidized school canteens at cafeterias in many com I munities. Information on the United States relates very largely to the child, maternal and health provisions of the Social Security Act, with which the readers of this magazine are well acquainted. STAND T'hcÃ‚Â° Summary is a resume of the progress of child welfare legislation in the different countries fur the year 1938. In at least nine countries, the protection of neglected and delinquent children has made fresh progress. The United Kingdom in 1938 invested local authorities with the right to close certain streets to traffic at certain hours in order that the children might utilize them fur playgrounds. The new legislation indicates an increasing tendency not to make any distinction between the protection of children and the protection of families. Volumes like these must be consulted to be apprcciatcd. The nature of them is such that it is not easy to reduce them to a summary. WILLIn1W E. CU11; C1RCLlv, LEFT! by Marion I-Iulcomb Skean. Homeplacc, Ary, Kentucky, 1939. 48 pp. 50c. Marion Skean is to be congratulated upon the appearance of an attractive and useful collection of dramatic folk games, singing games, and other forms of "folk-play of the Kentucky Mountains" entitled Circle Left! The small volume includes eight square dance figures collectively designated "Sugar on the Floor." These constituted the Homeplace demonstration in the spring of 1937 at the Mountain Folk Festival held at Knoxville. Mrs. Skean was well qualified to accomplish the important and by no means easy undertaking which has resulted in Circle Left! Her charming introduction, which she calls "To Begin With," is ample evidence of her sympathetic understanding of the play spirit, of children, and of folk life. Circle Left! does not claim to be a piece of historical research; it is a collection of usable recreational materials. The author, however, does touch on origins: "These games have been played for generations in this region. Same are familiar throughout the whole country; some are peculiar to this setting. Many of them are definitely of old English origin; others are pure American folk play." Circle Left! contains clear directions for playing the games. The melody of each singing game October, 1939 NiouNIrst,N Ltrt: wiVU Wean "Sugar on the Floor." The form of the booklet and the quaint design on the cover are attractive. The volume can be recommended to teachers, ministers, social workers, county agents, home demonstration agents, and recreation leaders. It is, incidentally, another piece of concrete evidence that the Southern Highlands has a rich, varied, and interesting background of culture. -FRANK H. SMITH A BOOK OF WORSHIP FOR VILLAGE CHURCHES by Edward K. Ziegler. New York, The Agricultural Missions Foundation, 1939. 1 30 pp. 25c. In this small but comprehensive worship manual, Mr. Ziegler has succeeded in giving to leaders of rural churches a profound and yet practical conception of Christian worship and its proper usage. His book is written primarily for the ministers and missionaries of India, but, because of its universal character, its use will not be confined to that country. Part one, which is concerned with a philosophy of worship, materials of worship and their use, the "how" of worship, and the atmosphere of worship will meet a long-felt need. Types of Christian worship which have developed in highly literate areas in this and other countries cannot meet the spiritual needs of illiterate villagers in India, America, or any other country. Such people need and must develop, with the assistance of trained and educated Christians, ways and methods o9 worship of their own, in order that the experiencr may mean much to them and that their minds mid lives may be shaped more lilts the Master's. Thi, they can do with the hr!p ~,f~ 4 Btrrsk ref It''mth:y for Tillage Cburche s. Part two outlines adtu:tl Orders of Service _uid Programs for Christian Festivals. The emphasis of the author upon the Church Year and the possi bilities for the development of Christian personality to be discovered there must not be overlooked: the proper observance of Christmas, the celebration of Easter, and other festivals that are common to India. Many of the Indian festivals, however, can be adapted for use in this country, as, for instance, the dedication of a village home, of a threshing floor, the harvest thanksgiving service and others. Mr. Ziegler's analysis of the various parts of the worship service and their relation to the whole will be appreciated by many leaders who are seeking earnestly to develop a significant service of worship for rural people. One does not hesitate to recommend unreservedly for use in the churches of the Southern Highlands this little book. It should enjoy a wide usage, and if it does, it should make a genuine contribution to the worship and life of those who find it an answer to their problem. X. K. ,,Ã‚Â°,ot;Ft; t"w~. Jh. OUR CONTRIB17TORS ELIZABETH G. BARNES is on the staff of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, at Berea, Kentucky. T. B. COWAN gave the address here printed while he was still pastor at the Third Presbyterian Church in Chattanooga. Since then he has moved to Norris, Tennesse, where he is minister in the Norris Religious Fellowship. Known to Southern Highlanders as the founder of the Allanstand Industries, FRANCES L. Goonxtc.rc tells something of the dream which preceded the organization of Allanstand and the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. KwÃ‚Â°rxEturrr GRISWOLD wrote "Nicodemus" for presentation by one of her classes at the Asheville (North Carolina) Normal and Teachers College, where she is instructor in religion. ,Jwcor LANGE speaks with authority on the part that folk high schools have played in Denmark, as he is the retired director of Husmandsskolen, a smallhnlders' folk high school at Odense, Denmark. On the side, Dr. I.angc h.,s fur ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,.~r, haen mw wi r.!ir most distinguished scholars in the study of mu,h rooms. AARON H. Rwrxovc is Superintendent of the Department of Town and Country Work of the Board of Home Missions and Church Extension of the M,rh odist Episcopal Church. With "Autumn," we reproduce the last of four linoleum blocks by JOHN A. SPELMAN III, Pine Mountain, Kentucky, made for our special use during 1939. The experiment of the Save the Children Fund with hat lunches in demonstration schools has interested u: ever since we heard of it over a year ago. ALVA W. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢hwYLOR, one of the two program chairman .for the Save the Children Fund, is well qualified to give u, the story of that experiment. DONALD L. WEST, long active on behalf of under privileged groups in the South, is at present director of the Department of Education and Young Peo ple's Activities in the interdenomination.il Chri,tian P~llavra,:, ;'.;,:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,fs ;rear ~re;hrl. O!7ii).