You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Mountain Life & Work vol. 16 no. 4 Winter, 1941 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv16n40141 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 16 no. 4 Winter, 1941 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Winter, 1941 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. MOUNTAIN Li FE - WORK (r)N TOP OF GUNTER MOUNTAIN WIX.SON EVANS ALEXANDRIA-=A COOPERATIVE COMMUNITV OLLIE IMAJE PARKER WINTER, 1"4! !''Ã¢â‚¬Â¢LuZ4ls XVI NQN1LIM 4 MOUNTAIN LIEF AND WORK ORGAN OF THE CONFERENCE OP SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS IS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY AT BEREA, KENTUCKY, IN THE INTEREST OF FELLOWSHIP AND MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE BEST OF THE NATION. Editor __________________ Helen H. Dingman Associate Editor _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Orrin L. Keener Contributing Editors Olive D. Campbell John P. McConnell Marshall E. Vaughn John Tigers Arthur T. McCormack James .Still 1N THIS ISSUE COME TO KNOXVILLE! ON TOP OF GUNTER :MOUNTAIN ALEXANDRIA-A COOPERATIVE COMMUNITY "THE FARMER CAN'T HAVE TOO MUCH ENCOURAGEMENT" KENTUCKY MOUNTAINS THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS-THEIR CURRENT PROBLEMS AND FUTURE HOPE AREAS OF ISOLATION ANNOUNCEMENTS ASHEVILLE COLLEGE: A HERITAGE AND A HOPE SECOND NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HANDICRAFTS WHAT TO READ INDEX TO VOLUME XVI -Wilson Evans -Ohio Mae Parker 6 -Clarence F. Falk 10 -Harvey K. Meiier 13 -Marshall R. haavghrr I ~# -Luther M. Ambrose is 2' -Frank C. Forte: 2 3 -Bonnie Willis Ford 26 29 SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 PLR YEAR, 30 CENTS PLR COPT. ISSUED SPRING, SUMhtI:R, FALL, WINTFv Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Kentucky, as second class mail matter ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, BEREA, KENTUCKY MO LTNTAIN_ __LIFE AND WORK VOLUME 16 WINTER, 1941 COME For many years now mountain workers have been gathering in Knoxville for an annual conference. There is quite a group of persons who from the time they entered this fellowship have hardly missed a session. The personnel ranges from the veterans of a quarter-century, who in a marvellous way have kept their minds open to changing conditions, to the more or less recent recruits, who are bringing dedicated youth and enthusiasm to the ever perplexing problems. Going to Knoxville means meeting and visiting with friends; talking on common problems in little intimate groups; coming out of the familiar setting of one's own task to take a larger view, to get new ideas and to chart new directions. Very recently in Gerald Heard's book, The Creed o f Christ, I came across these challenging words, "supple, free and open in spirit." How necessary it is if we are still to grow, if we of the older generation are to have understanding and authority with bewildered youth, that we do not become to much institutionalized, too set m academic and conventional patterns. Through the year our different committees meet for interchange of ideas, but the Knoxville Conference is the one time of year that all the workers who are eager for stimulating contacts gather for forty-eight hours of concentrated and cooperative thinking upon the mountain situation. For that reason it is most important that we gather with minds and spirit "supple, free and open," so that we are ready to make the changes in program which changing conditions demand. The emphasis this year is on a folk or people's movement: how to make our schools, churches and organizations community-centered, how to TO KNOXVILLE! March 4-6, 1941 NUMBER 4 use our leadership more wisely to motivate the men and women of our neighborhoods and parishes to wake up to their problems and to their responsibility in the solution of them. In addition to the general sessions on Wednesday the Conference will be divided into three working groups to discuss the school as a community center, the church as a vital organization of the people, and cooperatives for our mountain area. As guest speakers and consultants we have secured men of wide and practical experience in these three fields. Mr. C. B. Loomis is Executive Secretary of the Greenville County Council for Community Development, Greenville, South Carolina, and brings to us tested approaches and the inspiration of achievement in community organization. Dr. Rockwell Smith, who is a graduate of Boston University School of Thcolow and has his doctorate in agriculture, is going to do field work for the American Country Life Association in the South. It will be helpful both to him and to us to have him join our fellowship and to bring his experience to bear upon the church problems of our area. The Rev. George Nell from Effingham, Illinois, is a leader in the cooperative movement and has a thrilling story to tell about the development of study club, and cooperatives in his parish. Programs will be mailed before the middle of February. If you wish to come and are not sure that your name is on the mailing list, be sure to write to the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, Berea, Kentucky, for information. The meetings are open to all who are interested. H. I-I. D. Page I MOUNTAIN Lrne AND WORK Winter, 1941 ON TOP OF GUNTER MOUNTAIN" WILSON EVANS The educational program of any school should be so organized and conducted that it is most effective and efficient in dealing with the peculiar problems and difficulties of the people making up the community served by that school. Therefore, it is of primary importance that the teachers and administrators of any school understand the people, and become well acquainted with the natural and human resources of the community. I feel that my discussion of our school program should be prefaced by a few remarks about our community, school and people. The Kate Duncan Smith D.A.R. School is located at Grant, on top of Gunter Mountain, in Marshall County, Alabama. The mountain seems to have been the victim of some force of nature which sliced off its upper half, leaving a relatively level plateau about twenty miles long and five or six miles wide. The land is sandy, shallow, and its productivity has become low because of improper usage and care. The area is rather thickly populated for a rural section. The people are all natives of this country and all descendants of the early pioneers. They are of good stock but have been greatly retarded in their development because of the almost complete isolation which they suffered until about fifteen years ago. The Gunter Mountain area was known as the "black spot" of the county because of the lawlessness and disorder which existed there. The conditions of the community were such that the Alabama Daughters of the American Revolution selected it as the place most greatly in need of the "school for mountain boys and girls" which they proposed to build. That was fifteen years ago. Since that time there has been unbelievable progress on Gunter Mountain, and each year we are able to make greater strides forward as a result of the work done in previous years. The Kate Duncan Smith School is a regular public school in every way except that the buildings and grounds are owned and controlled by the Daughters of the American Revolution. The An address given at the Alabama Association of Secondary School Principals, Montgomery, Alabama, while Mr. Evans was principal of the Kate Duncan Smith D.A.R. School. D. A. R. Board of Trustees also reserves the right to select the principal. In every other way our school is conducted according to the rules and regulations of the State and County Boards of Education. We have a consolidated elementary and high school, serving an area of slightly more than one hundred square miles and having an enrollment of over five hundred pupils. Only about one hundred and fifty of these are in the upper six grades, a fact which clearly indicates the high "mortality rate," which occurs largely in the junior High School Division. Our students come from small, overcrowded homes, and hardly any of them have the comforts and conveniences which most of us believe to be so essential to our well-being. Most of them have little or no reading material in their homes. Many of them suffer from malnutrition. Forty percent, or more, have hookworm. A very high percentage of them have bad teeth, tonsils and eyes. They are of normal intelligence, very cooperative, and anxious to improve themselves and their community as much as possible. There is a feeling among our teaching force that we are trying to do something more than the average public school, because we are thinking and working in terms of the development of an entire community rather than just teaching what is to be found between the covers of the required text boobs. We feel it is our duty to help all the peoble on Gunter Mountain find a healthier, happier, more successful and satisfying way of life. We are thoroughly in accord with the idea that the curriculum is not a body of subject matter to be memorized and recited, but it is a series of experiences, both in and out of school, as a result of which the child's personality is continually modified. Therefore we feel that the educational program of the Kate Duncan Smith D. A. R. School must be of such a nature that it will bring about more comfortable homes, better prepared and more nourishing foods, healthier people, improved farming practices, an enjoyable and constructive use of leisure time, and a better educated and more civic-minded citizenry. It must product a community of Christian people living happily Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN Lrnr. AND WORK Page 3 together, according to the real principles of Christianity and democracy. With this idea in mind we have left the beaten path of public school education and are trying to prepare our students for happy and successful living on Gunter Mountain rather than for college entrance. We feel we are obligated to do this because 90 percent of our students will probably spend the rest of their lives on Gunter Mountain, while not more than two or tht ee percent are likely to go to college. We arc certain it is our duty to do all we can to help the ninety percent, and we feel quite sure our "medicine" will not stunt or destroy the intellectual possibilities of the college prospects. At the end of my first year at the Kate Duncan Smith School both students and teachers were invited to suggest changes which they felt would improve our school program. Several suggestions came in and were discussed with the teachers. As a result some interesting and worthwhile changes have been made in our curriculum. In no case, however, has a teacher been forced to make a change against his will, for it is felt that any program of improvement must have the whole-hearted support of the people who are responsible for its execution. Some administrative changes seemed desirable. The length of class periods was changed from forty-five minutes to one hour. This was done for the purpose of giving teachers greater opportunities to help students improve their study habits and learning abilities, by devoting a part of each class period to supervised study and work with individual problems. The number of classes was cut down to four. Each student now has four classes each day, one in each of the general fields of English, mathematics, natural science and social studies. These classes have been broadened in scope so as to include the pertinent material of the subjects dropped. During three years of the high school work, mathematics and natural sciences give way to vocational agriculture and home economics. Realizing the educational value of club work, the school is sponsoring a club program which is interesting and which seems to be getting good results. In addition to the clubs with voluntary membership, there arc four clubs, namely: Athletic, Dramatic, Folk, and Nature, in which membership is required: each student chooses one of the four clubs for eight weeks and then each member is asked to change to one of the other clubs. In this way every student is a member of each club in the course of a year. Some changes have been made in our classroom programs. We have cut out the technical courses of chemistry and physics and are offering in their places a course called senior science. In this course we are trying to teach the simple but very important chemistry and physics a farmer and his wife need to know in order to run a farm and home properly. Our senior science course attempts to thoroughly acquaint the students with the social and economic phases of production and consumption of goods on the farm with the hope that they will become better buyers, sellers and consumers. Our social science course for the junior and Senior years has been one of unusual interest and great value. Instead of spending most of our time on the economics and sociology of New Yore City, Washington, D.C., or other such places, we arc trying to teach our students all we can about the history of Alabama and the economic and sociological conditions of our own state, county and community. We used the National Emergency Council's Report on Economic Conditions of the South as our main source of materials. Our students have corresponded with students in other sections of Alabama and exchanged important bits of local history with them. Some of the students have interviewed elderly people of our county and community and secured facts which were not generally known. For example, after being in Grant two years ago 1 had been unable to discover why the place had been so named. Upon being asked this question, an old gray-bearded man immediately replied, "Why yes I know! One of them thar damned Yankees moved up here in the year 1868 and just started calling the place after the new president." Our students have had an unusual interest in the people who have served and are now serving our state. We have just completed a study of Alabama government that has dealt with the functions of the several departments. Important information has been obtained from the department heads who sent us printed materials and personal letters. For example, the State Highway Depart Page 4 MoutvrntN Lit L AND WORK Winter, 1941 meet sent us copies of the "Alabama Highway Code" and "Rules of the Road." Upon request from the members of the class, a highway patrolman met with them and discussed the problems of the highway today. We are now studying the duties of the various departments of Marshall County Government. We are particularly interested in how the following officials get their jobs, the sources and amounts of their salaries, and as much as possible about their duties and responsibilities: Tax Assessor; Tax Collector; Farm Agent; Farm Security Administrator; County Welfare Worker; Judge of Probate Court; Circuit Clerk; County Solicitor; Circuit judge; Judge of Chancery; Sheriff; County Superintendent of Education; County Health Officer; County Commissioner; and others. Committees are selected to collect data and work out questionnaires on such topics as taxes, crime and education. Department head officials are then asked to meet with the class and answer the questions, which are given to them in advance. A heated discussion recently arose in class on the subject of tax equalization. The committee on taxes went to the county seat, examined assessment sheets and gathered other material and then reported to the class on the results of their investigation. It had been discovered that one local farmer had listed his farm at seven hundred and fifty dollars but it was known that he had recently asked a prospective buyer four thousand dollars for it. The class then decided unanimously that tax equalization would be a good thing. Later we were pleased to see that the Legislature passed a bill designed to equalize taxation. The tax collector met with the class while the tax unit was being studied. Our most recent official visitor was the sheriff. He met and discussed with the class the crime situation in the county. In one semester our Senior Class visited three other high schools in Marshall County and presented a program to each of the school assemblies. The program consisted of interesting, factual material on the social, economic, educational, religious and health conditions now existing in Alabama. The programs were well received and our students profited greatly from the experiences. At the beginning of the present school year an Opportunity Class was organized. I am going to quote to you the first and last paragraphs of an article about this class. The Opportunity Class at the Kate Duncan Smith D. A. R. School was organized for the purpose of providing an interesting and functional educational program for a group of students who were not making satisfactory progress in their regular classes. It is made up of twenty-nine girls and boys ranging in age from thirteen to twenty. The members come from the fifth, sixth and seventh grades. An effort was made to make the pupils feel that it was a privilege to become members of the class in which they would be given the help they needed. Most of them realized they were unable to do the work in their regular classes and were glad to have an opportunity to get the foundation which they lacked. The results which have been achieved in the Opportunity Class are encouraging. All except five members of the class are regular in attendance. They all seem to be happier since they are doing work which they can understand and which interests them. They are experiencing some measure of success, probably for the first time in their school lives. This is having a very wholesome effect upon their lives in school and also at home. Opportunity Classes are not considered a solution to all the difficulties faced by the schools today. However, it does seem quite evident that the methods and procedures which have been used in this class are sound, and will improve the work in any school where they can be put into practice. We, who are in charge of the policies of the school, are certain that the success of our efforts is dependent upon improvements which will have to be made on the farms and in the homes of our people. Our Vocational Agriculture and Home Economics departments arc having great success in promoting these improvements. The school sponsors adult education classes, and at all times we try to cooperate fully with the federal, state and county agencies in the promotion of the welfare Winter, 1941 of the community. Through the cooperation of all, -great progress is being made. The farmers are building terraces to conserve the soil. They are rotating their crops and using more fertilizer than ever before. Winter cover crops are becoming the rule rather than the exception. Scrub stock is giving way to pure-bred. Fruit trees are being sprayed and pruned for the first time. Great improvements have also been made in the homes. Better ones are now being built and old ones are being made more livable as the result of adult education classes and of instruction received by the students in their regular school work. Useful pieces of furniture have been made and installed in their homes by our boys. The girls have made curtains, painted their kitchens, hung pictures on the walls and started flower gardens around their homes. A large number of good mattresses have been made by the mothers in our community during the past year. Better methods of cooking, canning and preserving foods have been introduced into the homes and are being practiced by the homemakers. Our people are becoming increasingly aware of the many possibilities of making their homes more attractive and comfortable. One factor that constantly stands in the way of progress in many schools and communities is the lack of medical care and health instruction. Our people live ten to fifteen miles from a doctor. This distance makes it financially impossible for them to have doctors except in cases of absolute necessity. Health instruction in the homes has been entirely lacking. In the school it has been insufficient and ineffective. Last year we were very fortunate in having added to our teaching personnel an experienced and well-trained public health nurse. Her work during the past year has been extremely interesting and helpful. It has been MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 her major purpose at all times to teach the people to take better care of themselves in their own homes. She has done a great deal of visiting in the homes of our students and parents. She has set up six health centers in different parts of the community and has organized a Health Club at each center. These clubs meet once a month and discuss the health problems of their families and the community. The nurse also has three classes of high school girls which she meets once each week and discusses with them their personal, family and community health problems, always searching for ways and means to improve unsatisfactory conditions. Another phase of her work has been with the teachers and students in the school. Under her guidance simple physical examinations of all the students have been made. Health improvement programs have been organized and carried out in the classrooms and other areas of school life. Our students are becoming more health conscious and we are looking for great improvements to be made in the health conditions of our school and community. There have been many other things done in our school and community which we consider improvements but which cannot be easily described. It is also very difficult to describe or appraise the results of the changes in our educational program. We can see very readily that our students, teachers and parents have better attitudes towards the school. Our students are showing more initiative, greater cooperation, and greater desire for self and community improvement. They are reading much more than ever before, and are becoming increasingly aware of local, national and world conditions. As a whole they are much happier because the school is being conducted for them, and they know it. This is as it should be. All schools should be conducted for the students-first, last and always. Page 6 Our ten year community program began when a grandson of the founder came to look for the grave of his grandfather and found it overgrown with weeds, the tombstone having been broken and used in building a garage foundation. He was somewhat stirred and talked to one of the village i councilen offering to give a bronze tablet in memory of his grandfather, Alexander Devilbis, if the community would supply a monument to put it on. The councilman later presented the offer at the Farmers' Institute and proposed that the community make amends for the neglect of the grave, and use the ceremony of unveiling the monument as a nucleus for the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of the village. Alexandria, twenty-five miles northeast of Columbus, Ohio, had a population of 450 in 1930, the year of its centennial, and the 1940 census shows no increase. When the people of the community speak of Alexandria, however, no one thinks of the village alone but of the Alexandria community, which occupies a territory six miles square and has a population of 2000. Its boundaries are defined by the centralized school bus routes. It is a farming community with dairying and stock-raising as specialities. No one is very rich; in fact, most of the people work hard for a living. In the village there is no industry which employs a group of laborers, although in the past it has had grist mills, distilleries, brick plants, a clock factory, a whetstone plant, and "rope walk" or halter factory. There are a school of three hundred twenty pupils with six grades in the elementary school, and a first grade high school which is a member of the North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges. There is opportunity for many high school graduates to go on with training, for Alexandria has within a radius of sixty miles eight colleges and universities. The high school building is the center of all community activity, and its equipment and library are used by all. The Churches are Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Wesleyan Methodist, and Primitive Baptist. The community has above the average number of lodges and clubs. VlouNI AIN Liru AND WORK ALEXANDRIA---A CY)OPERATIVE COMMUNITY OLLIE MAE PARKER Winter, 1941 Months before the centennial was to come off a committee of eighteen was chosen from the entire community for the purpose of staging a three day celebration. The school superintendent, who was also mayor of the village, was chairman. One aim of the committee was to have assigned to every man, woman, and child in the community some part in the Centennial. Another aim was that no person should fill more than one important position. Their slogan was, "Working together we work wonders." The members of this committee organized sub-committees which had charge of particular phases of the festival. Myers Y. Cooper, governor of Ohio, gave the address when the founder's monument was unveiled, and many descendants of Alexander Devilbis came from far away states to witness the ceremony in honor of the founder and his wife. A beautiful parade showed a century of progress in transportation, implements, inventions, costumes, and customs, from the Indians on foot and the covered wagon to the most modern auto. The securing of these vehicles and the appropriate costumes to use with them gave a liberal education in history to those who worked this project. A house was opened which was furnished with one thousand historical relics that had been collected by a large committee from the cellars and attics of the community. The first night a rollicking home talent play was given and a small fee charged. Sunday the churches held home-coming programs followed by a community dinner and a program in which citizens of former days who had attained some public distinction were heard. The historical pageant, written and directed locally, was especially outstanding in this community idea. It is not easy for a small rural neighborhood to stage a dramatic feature using over two hundred characters. But it went over big. The cast was chosen from every part of the community. Many participated who had never before had anything to do in local events. The pageant told the story of the "Racoon Trail," the old Indian road, now the busy Newark-Delaware Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN Lirr. AND WORK Page 7 pike, which runs through the heart (if the villa,c. I I An old-fashioned street dance concluded the Centennial. The financing of such a celebration was a problem. No concessions such as street shows, corn gambling, and merrygo-rounds were allowed. There were some money contributions; the receipts of the play helped; a tent where food and soft drinks were sold gave considerable profit; and an old well-sweep erected in front of the antique house to give local color and from which lemonade was served netted ninety dollars. A substantial surplus remained and this was set aside for the publishing of a history of the community, which was written from material collected by a committee of citizens. During the three days more than five thousand visitors came and many said "How can you do it?" The one word which answers the question is "Cooperation." Its meaning is found in the verse: "It aint the individual Nor the army as a whole But the everlasting plugging Of every blooming soul." The Centennial was an important achievement because in it something happened to the people. They learned how to work together as individuals and as organized groups, they discovered neÃ¢â‚¬Â¢., talent and resources that they did not know could exist, and they became aware of community needs which should be served. In other words, it made them community conscious. At the beginning someone had suggested that we must expect to live together after the Centennial was over, and that we must conduct it so that we might live happily afterwards. Everyone marveled at the lack of friction experienced. Encouraged by the success of the Centennial project the leaders proposed organizing a community council for the purpose of pioneering for the future welfare of the community. In the winter following, a small group met and a community council was organized to study the problems and needs of the community, to suggest activities and programs which should be promoted by individuals or collectively by groups. The council was to serve as a clearing house for information about community events. Its specific aim was to further through cooperative enterprise any plan for com munity betterment. The personnel of the council, as now constituted, includes: the superintendent of schools, the mayor of the village, resident pastor of each local church, superintendent of each Sunday School, president of Farmers' Institute, master and lecturer of Grange, president of P. T. A., director of vocational agriculture, county agricultural agent, county home demonstration agent, cashier of bank, president of township beard of trustees, president of township school board, representatives of student council, representatives of young people's organizations of churches, any other persons interested in community welfare who may care to participate. The council meets three times a year. At their first meeting they listed a number of projects as needs of the community, such as uniting of churches; rural electrification, a beautification project, adult education, recreation facilities, library facilities, and better school conditions. A11 available agencies were then enlisted to help in the promotion of these projects. The rural sociology and adult education departments of Ohio State University have worked continuously with the c'L b ounci Other progressive educators have given advice and guidance. The county agricultural agent and home demonstration agent arc present a~ nearly all council meetings. Ten years have passed and here arc some of the accomplishments of the community council: I. Our churches have had hard work to maintain separate organizations, and union of the two villa, I e churches seemed desirable. The head of the Federated Council of Churches of Ohio was called upon for advice. Although union seemed ideal it did not seem practical. However, there have been union Sunday evening services during several years, union morning services during the seven Sundays before Easter, community communion service on Easter, and union Christmas programs. In many ways the council has helped to promote harmonious religious influence. 2. During an evening spent on rural electrification, experts presented the possibilities of farm power. There were immediate results and now electric current is rapidly finding its way to many of our farm homes. 3. A community calendar of events was made following a careful survey of activities, which showed eighty meetings of various kinds every Page month in addition to outside-of-school and athletic events. This calendar prevents conflict of dates in scheduling events, and has somewhat reduced the number of meetings. On a neat bulletin board erected in the business part of the village a program of permanent events is published and another of weekly features. 4. The beautification project changed an unsightly common to a civic center which is a pride of the community. A landscape architect of Ohio State University was called to advise a longtime plant'n, program. Many shrubs and flowers have I n 0 been planted by the citizens. 5. This community organized some of the first federal emergency classes in adult education in the county-classes in agriculture, art, English, shorthand, typing, accounting, orchestra, chorus, physical education, first aid, and home economics. At one time. 186 men and women met regularly cnce a week for two-hour sessions. Through these classes talent in music, art, literature, and dramatics was discovered. Business men were interested in the commercial courses. The chief benefit was that it made popular the projection of the learning process beyond the traditional formal school years. 6. Memorial Day services on May 30, with a very unique decoration of graves, have developed into a home coming afternoon for people who have once lived in the community. 7. The community has a fine library of three thousand volumes, and a circulation of one thousand a month. The board of education appointed a board of seven library trustees; thus books could be made available to all people, and county funds from the property tax could be available for the purchase of books. Through volunteer service its operation has outgrown the one room in which it started, and popular subscription has paid for a house and lot in the civic center for its new home. 8. A community playground has been established for children to have supervised play during summer months. 9. An ugly ravine back of the high school was filled, graded and sodded, for a beautiful athletic field. 10. Groups of men and women play such games as volley ball and basket ball one night a week in the high school gymnasium. MOUNTAIN Llr'1; AND WORK Winter, 1941 11. During the winter there are men's forums for discussion of national and international questions, discussion groups of men and women for considering problems of producer and consumer, sale of farm products, the use of substitutes and sI ilar topics, and "hash" sessions for young mi 1 people on Sunday night after church. 12. Play days have been put on at Hallowe'en to substitute for the rowdyism that is often associated with that day. There are tournaments in tennis, volley ball, outdoor basketball, tenniquoit, horseshoes, box hockey, and shuffleboard. There were many track events and fun-provoking novelty stunts, parades depicting sports and recreation facilities, football games, and a community dance in the evening. In this way destructive pranks have been warded off. The business men have given groups the chance to decorate their windows in Bon Arm or tempera instead of soap or paraffin. Some windows have been very beautiful. 13. Neighborhood parties in six sections included games for the whole group, games for small groups, dramatics, debates, and light refreshment such as popcorn or apples. Not until midnight could fathers be dragged away from a game with neighbors, persuaded to take up sleeping children, and wend their way to their own firesides. 14. A hobby night was held in the high school building, but instead of having hobby exhibits there were interest groups. The various groups sang folk songs, played folk games, knitted or crocheted, played traditional games, worked puzzles, examined new books, engaged in choric speaking, or danced. 15. Community parties have been held in the high school gymnasium several times a year. 16. Surveys have been made of every home, to list the forms of recreation in which the members of the home are interested, what musical instruments are played in each home, and who might play well enough to help in a community orchestra. 17. A community orchestra and a chorus offer young people a chance to continue in musical activities after they leave high school. 18. In 1935 a "Rural Dramatics Festival," said to be the first of its kind in the Middle West, included five neighborhood one-act plays with Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN Lire AND WORK Page 9 coaches and actors selected from designated areas, and with barns, garages, and homes utilized for places to practice; one three-act play, with an effort to get away from the "Uncle Ruben" type of play that has been too popular in rural communities; a parade which used hundreds of people not always adaptable to more difficult roles; three oneact plays given by the Grange, the Camp Fire girls and the 4-H Clubs; the marionette "Corncob Theatre" whose stage, puppets and intricate sets were made by a group working under a farmer as a leader; and Gilbert and Sullivan's "Trial by ,Jury," which utilized singers from seventeen to eighty years in age. 19. In February, 1940, a committee of five was appointed by the president of the community council to make a general plan for a three day celebration. They decided that since the Centennial reviewed the past and the Dramatics Festival clung strictly to the present this 1940 event should be called a "Futurama" meaning a view of the future. Chairmen were selected by this committee for finance, law and order, exhibits, church program, courtesy ramble, home-coming, parade, operetta, party, pageant, decoration, refreshments, properties, publicity, folk dancing, beautification, and games. From then on until the Futurama came off at Labor Day the community was busy. Every night in the week the schoolhouse was opened for groups who were working or planning. The parade committee designed and made miniature floats and by July first the entire parade was displayed on a long table. It showed the phases of our community life which are foundations of a real democracy. The exhibit showed the new things in science which will make living more comfortable and happier for the farmer of reasonable means. The operetta was Gilbert and Sullivan's "Mikado," directed and sung by local talent entirely. The pageant which used more than two hundred performers was written and directed by the superintendent of schools. Over one hundred participated in a folk dancing program showing some of the cultures that are present in the community. The community party was almost larger than the high school building could hold. Over six table games, round hundred spent the evening in and square dancing. An outstanding feature was the union church service in which all four churches participated. The singing was done by a union choir and five ministers helped in the program. The crowd more than filled the church and a sound system carried the sermon to people seated on the lawn. It was a sample of what we look forward to in the future. None of the projects promoted by the council are for the making of money, the aim of the council is that each shall simply break even. Citizens offer to stand back of the financial end of each phase but so far we have had a small margin in each financial report. Just now a cold storage locker system for Alexandria is being discussed and committees are working on what it will cost, where it shall be built, how many will buy stock and rent lockers, and have we a man who can run it satisfactorily. In the last council meeting the superintendent of schools asked the community to consider buying a sound-picture machine for the school. What are some of the indirect results of Alexandria's ten-year program? It has made Alexandria a better community in which to live; moreover, it has given the people a training in democratic living. They have learned that responsibility and cooperation are needed in a community of which they can be proud. They have had a glimpse of what they can accomplish by working together and they realize a power in themselves before unknown. Leaders are being trained, so that it is hoped that the ones who have been active for ten years may act as advisers in the next project and that younger people will take their places. An appreciation has been developed which has probably saved many valuable things, such as historical relics, art, books, and curios in general, from destruction or from the hands of dealers. Cooperative research, publication, and pageantry have preserved our rich historical background and made it familiar to all. Success in playgrounds, beautification, festivals, play days, adult classes, and the library, have shown the value of working cooperatively, so that now the council seems to have become well Page 10 established in community confidence as a valuable means toward future ends. Neighborhood gatherings emphasize cultural as well as social interests and stress especially the virtue of homemade recreation facilities. Alexandria is not a model community but more of an experimental one in which an enthusiastic people carry on, and growth is steady and natural m an evolving social order. Individuals are happy for having a part in a program which recognizes them for whatsoever talent they have. A continuous reconstruction of experience has supplanted the traditional order among both youth and adults. Cooperation and democratic spirit are paramount. The council claims that the same thing can be MOUNTAIN LIFE, AND WORK Winter, 1941 done by any community where people work together. There is an important place for every individual in a community program. Ten-talent individuals will furnish leadership, but no person should be left out. To be happy, people must be enlightened and cooperative. Contest and competition must be overcome by cooperation. The success of such a program depends upon what such a program is doing to the individual in giving him a wellcentered, broad experience in a community which offers chances for individual achievement and group cooperation. As long as so many are interested in broadening the interests of the community, they will not become narrower. As the year 1941 opens Alexandria "can face the future, now that she has proved the past." `The Farmer Can't Have Too Much Encouragement CLARENCE F. FALK "I've raised my family and now I do so want to help in my community. So much needs to be done, and I think this Study Club idea is the very way to start." A thin, drawn, little woman of sixty in severe black dress was speaking to another member of a group that was crowded into the Consumers Cooperative Store at Berea, Kentucky. This group was the Study Club section of the 1941 Berea Opportunity School, brought together by the Adult Education Cooperative Project of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. Farmers, wood carvers, ministers, community and NYA workers, rural teachers, housewives, a nurse, a carpenter, and a merchant-twenty-four in all, from eighteen to sixty years of age, gathered from Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina to attend an intensive week of leadership-training in adult education for cooperative action. Some had come as leaders of existing Study Clubs. There were, for example, four members from Big Lick, Tennessee, where cooperative study and action among the farmers have in the short space of two years' time resulted in the purchase of farm machinery and supplies at considerable savings, in better stock-breeding and soil-building practices, in the construction and operation of a community stock-dipping vat and saw mill, and in the development of new cash crops. Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, was represented by six leaders from as many study clubs-four of which are studying credit unions, one engaged in operating a consumers cooperative store, and the other in reaping the savings from a cooperatively owned combine. Brasstown, North Carolina, home of the ,John C. Campbell Folk School, contributed able leadership to the discussions of the week's course. From many points within a radius of three hundred miles this earnest group had trekked to Berea, a center of opportunity to the Southern Highlands for three generations. Mornings were spent, under the leadership of Mr. C. C. Hann, director of the Adult Education Cooperative Project, in a discussion of the cooperative movement as a democratic contribution to the solution of our economic problems. Credit unions received special study in the afternoon. Then there were classes in agriculture, covering the study of soils, landscaping, home food supplies, 1941 MOUNTAIN Lirw. AND WORK 1'agc 11 C) K I; H potatoes, dairying, livestock, and poultry. One interested farmer learned for the first time that the successful breeding of turkeys necessitated their being kept off the ground. Others reveled in the sheer joy of creating things of wood, metal, clay and thread. Some Opportunity School students had their first introduction to the Cooperative Movement. One evening in one of the Foundation School dormitories I interrupted a conversation between an Opportunity School member and a Foundation School student. After a momentary pause, the former spoke, "Maybe he can tell us about that loanin' business?" Not clear as to his question I had to prod him at length until it suddenly came to me-"Oh, you mean the credit union!" Yes, that was it. To this seventeen year old Kentucky farmer boy, the discussion on cooperatives had been totally foreign. Apparently, however, it had been intriguing enough to stimulate conversation with his new dormitory acquaintance. Thus, quietly, a new way of living is pushing out its roots. The reactions of the Study Club members to the week's experience at Berea hold promise of ripe fruit. One woman goes back to Wilder, Tennessee, intent upon stimulating study that will lead to the organization of a Buying Club. Two young men from Alpine, Tennessee, sec the economic and cultural need for study among their farming neighbors and arc resolved to initiate such a program. The farm superintendent of the Pleasant Hill Academy (Tennessee) states with a conviction based on local experience and first-hand study of the Denmark cooperatives: "There is no limit to what the common man can do when he discovers that he is able to thinly and work out his own problems." To the question put by Miss Dingman at a closing tea as to whether the Adult Education Cooperative Project should continue, a humble farmer of middle age raised a firm answer-"The farmer can't have too much encouragement." "You think, then, this work should continue?" "Yes!" That same farmer attributed the proverbial individualism of his neighbor to a lack of education. "If the plain farmer, like me, could of had an education we wouldn't be so afraid of trying to cooperate." That man, with an incomplete grammar school education, had thae week been a college student-and felt at home! To him the possibility of cooperation had now become a definite co mÃ‚Â°iction. Perhaps the words of a young minister in the group best expressed the general sentiment: "f'vÃ‚Â°c discovered what is necessary for the success of cooperation; it's got to be a religion with you." Page 12 MOUNTAIN Lm F AND WORK Winter, 1941 Mr. Theo L. Vaughan, Kentucky representative of the United States Department of Agriculture, came before the group and stressed his interest in the study-club technique on two counts: first, because of its emphasis upon the dignity of man in an hour when the state is seeking in ever widening spheres to deny it; and second, because it provides a vital element in any sound program of -rural planning. With three ringing sentences from an article by Dr. Coady Miss Dingman brought the first Study Club Short Course to a formal close. "Any plan for progress must take in all the people. The socalled common people, by virtue of their numbers, have a messianic role to be played in this drama of progress. They will kill us with their ignorance or save us by their enlightenment." Our report would be incomplete without mention of Miss Mary Dupuy's generous contribution, and that of other members of Berea's faculty. They whetted the desire of unlettered and learned alike by their appetizing dishes of the arts and sciences. In one short week "The Offer of the College" was extended to us To be at home in all lands and ages: to count Nature a familiar experience and Art an intimate friend: to gain a standard for the appreciation of other men's work and the criticism of your own: to carry the keys of the world's library in your pocket, and feel its resources behind you in whatever task you undertake: to make hosts of friends among the men of your own age who are to be leaders in all walks of life: to lose yourself in generous enthusiasms and cooperate with others for common ends: to learn manners from students who are gentlemen, and form character under professors who are Christians. For this great privilege we arc grateful both to the Conference and to Berea. Winter, 1941 MouN r,mN Luw AND WORK Page 13 Xmtur_kt~ ~omAat'nl HARVEY K. MEYER I look from wide-paned windows Across the blue grass swells, And see great oak-arms stretching Above the blue grass dells. But my heart is in the mountains The laurel has my soul, And when my heart is shattered The mountains make it whole. I look and see the looming Of the mountains' craggy crests, And see the corn-blades greening Upon their shaggy breasts. My heart's been in the mountains For many a pleasant year, And it will climb the hilltops Each spring to me more dear. I look and see the dogwood Above the limestone bloom, lend think of young love growing Where God gives growing room. My heart grows in the mountains: The rock-strewn tumbling streams Plow love right into laughter, And gladness into dreams. Page 14 MOUNTAIN Lirr ,ENO WORK Winter, 1941 The Southern Mountains--- Their Current Problems and Future Hole MARSHALL E. VAUGHN (A personal opinion growing out of experience and study) The greatest contribution the mountains have made to the United States is their people. The conditions under which they have fought for existence, for more than a century, is worthy of analysis because of the lesson taught to people far removed from such surroundings. It has been maintained, in some quarters, that the superior qualities of the dwellers in the lowlands and cities have enabled them to forge ahead of mountain people. This theory can be and has been exploded by the quality of spirit and the achievements of mountaineers in all quarters of the nation. It is authentically related that Silas Witt and Buck Blythe, two comfortable plantation neighbors from Virginia, went west to increase their fortunes, shortly after the first war for independence from England. They went down Powell's Valley, across the corner of Tennessee and, near Cumberland Gap, entered Kentucky. Tramping for more than an hundred miles past the Cumberland peaks they reached the outlook to the now famous Blue Grass region of Kentucky. These adventurous pioneers stopped and pitched camp. The stretches of lowlands covered with thick uncontrollable cane-brakes caused them to hesitate. Witt was a lover of out--cf-doors, wild life and hunting. He discovered cool, clear flowing springs in the mountains to the south of the heavy forested and cane-matted lowlands. Blythe, a farm-crop and livestock enthusiast, saw in the cane-covered level country the future of profitable farming. Witt, not so impressed by the wild bushy flat country, stayed by his firewood, hunting and cool springs. Their individual lives probably never touched again. This brief story is given merely to illustrate the contention that those who peopled the mountains were of the same blood and background as those who built the Blue Grass, large areas in Illinois, Missouri and regions to the western border of the American continent. The story is also told of a well known family of the mountains which headed west from North Carolina. When the wagon broke down and could not be repaired, this household group was stranded in the deep interior of the Cumberlands. They built cabins, began to clear the land, and the Combs family became a power in a dozen counties in Kentucky and Tennessee. One more look at the Witts and the Blythcs. Buck Blythe brought his family, a cousin and his family, and a small number of Negro slaves. During the following decades the Blythes and friends populated the richest area in Kentucky and became economically independent. The Witts stayed by the mountains, reared large families and gained very little of economic competence. As time passed, death took its toll: old-man Witt and Colonel Blythe passed on to their fathers. As the migration toward the west increased there were indiscriminate types of people settling in the valleys along the way. Among them were the land grabbers, timber traders seeking to profit by their discoveries in the mountains and then move on to other and more verdant areas. Timber destruction worked so fast and left cut-over lands in such unusable condition that chronic depression followed in its wake. Hunting waned with the destruction of the animals' natural habitat. Bear, deer and animals of "lesser fame" disappeared. By the time the best timber was practically gone, in so far as real market value was concerned, most of the tillable land in the valley had been "cleared" and plowed. The next move was to attack the "hopeless hillsides." The plowing was around the mountain to prevent erosion but the results were disappointing. The mountains were so precipitous that great furrows were frequently plowed to the bottom of the hills by mountain rains. These processes and others have been insidiously Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN Lil-E operating in the Southern Mountains for more than a half century. The only interest shown in them by most people on the outside was to strike a sharp bargain with native landowners and go away with the title to their choicest, though yet undeveloped, riches. When the minerals of the mountains were discovered, an occasional owner of the land would retain some of the royalty rights on their produc tI Occasionally a citizen of especially aggres on. I sive qualities would acquire a saw mill or get control of a large tract of land that would enable him to create a small fortune. Sometimes isolated individuals would venture into speculation. Some of them, it might be recalled, "outsmarted the furrir_ers" and got a fair share for themselves. But the vast majority of those who were the landholders in the mountains fifty years ago lost what minerals and timber they had and were left with a declining surface soil. I have talked with strong and stalwart men who were working in coal mines, at a moderate daily wage, on land that once belonged to their fathers. In 1935 I made a study of a few scattered lowincome agricultural and mining counties in West Virginia: The best estimate 1 could get from records in Washington and other sources was that approximately 80 percent of the wonderful timber of that state had been removed. (Within less than a hundred miles of Lexington, Kentucky, where this is being written, there is an area of more than 225,000 acres of cut-over mountain land on which a new timber crop is being grown under protection of the Forest Preserve division of the Federal Government.) With the timber largely gone, the mineral products in the possession of outside interests, and the tillable land reduced to less than 30 percent of the total acreage in most of the Southern Mountains, a serious problem has been created. The pertinent question now is-what can be done to improve the economic life of the people? Sturdiness of character, patriotism and loyalty to country have been demonstrated, over the years, by mountaineers. You hear little or nothing of the fact that in the war between the states from 1861 to 1865, the mountains, a part of the South, gave as large a percentage of its young men to fight for the preservation of the Union as any other area in the country. Would it be of any value to our democracy if the economic and social AND WORK Page IS conditions of a very large percentage of three and one half million citizens of the Southern Mountains could be made more secure? The usual reply to that question is another question more difficult to answer. What can be done to bring better living standards and greater security to the people of this area? That is a question that must be answered. The question is a challenge to three groups. First, to the mountain people themselves. They must make the first move toward finding a way out of the seemingly rather hopeless economic situation that lies before numerous communities in this vast area. The people must be taught to study the problems that are weighing them down-not with the view of establishing a superficial civilization that has victimized much of our modern life, but with the view of arriving at some program of action that offers hope and possibilities. The mountain people must be made to understand that the population of the area is increasing more rapidly than in more prosperous communities. Whereas the migration from the country to the city in the years from 1920 to 1930 showed an annual average of 600,000, the migration for the years 1932 to 1937 showed an annual average of less than 400,000. It has been estimated that 2,250,000 surplus people in the United States have either returned to or backed up on the farms since 1931. The 1935 farm census shows a much higher rate of increase in population, by births and by return from cities, in the mountains and submarginal areas outside the mountains, than in any economically sound agricultural community.During days of depression or low industrial activity, the stream of migrants from industrial centers to the little "up-right" farms in the mountains becomes large. There is always the inexpensive cottage or dad's old cabin that offers shelter until something else shows up. It must be understood that while this trekking (frequently by the hitch-hike method) is taking place back and forth between the mountains and outside work projects, there are many young men and women of fine intelligence going to school and acquiring higher education than the local country school can provide. Many large cities in the United States can boast of executives in business, leaders in schools, public welfare and the legal profession who hailed from the Southern Moun tams. It is also to the credit of many young men and women of the mountains that they have gone away for higher training and then returned to serve their communities. The question that must be studied is raised by the trekking group and by the thousands and thousands of plain, hardworking citizens who stay in the mountains year in and year out keeping the home fires burning. So the challenge is first to the educated and trained leaders who are native residents of the mountains and who have the background of affection and loyalty and the training of the modern educational system. This challenge includes all citizens of the mountains who have been less favored but whose pioneer spirit will lead them in any struggle toward freedom. Secondly, the challenge is to the nation-wide citizenship that is interested in the protection and the security of this great division of our nation that is keeping alive the pioneer spirit of the founders of our Republic. Many of these outside citizens are either the individuals or relatives of the individuals who made their fortunes in the mountains. Other outside citizens were born in the mountains, or their parents were. All of these groups by loyalty to tile foundation principles of our common country, by obligation to the mountains for the resources that helped to make the wealth of this great nation, or by blood relation to many thousands of handicapped mountaineers owe it to themselves to lend their influence in working out an economic program that will offer the dwellers of our beautiful hills a better standard of living. Thirdly, the challenge is jointly to the State and Federal governments. They have both rendered wonderful service to the mountains. Through the joint contribution of state and federal agencies splendid roads have been built throughout the mountains. Parks have been enlarged and improved which have given added employment, and opened the doors to recreation and enjoyment. The Federal Government through its agricultural field service has been doing much during the last twenty years in building farm programs in the mountains. Forestry is advancing at an unprecedented pace and should open a few avenues of approach to the economic problems that have all but submerged the population in MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1941 certain areas. The converting of vast areas of barren mountains and impoverished farm land into forest preserves will close many poor and undesirable homesteads. If the forestry program is enlarged, as it should be, and covers as large an area in certain sections of the Southern Mountains as the need demands, it will ultimately bring benefit to the region. It would mean the displacement of many families but of none that should remain. Many people would continue to live on forest land and many producing farms would remain as they are with the advantage of improved prices for their products due to the great changes. There should not be any disturbance of a producing farm. Any families removed should be advised and aided in getting a new location that offers hope for future living better than mere subsistence. The above picture seems to have a rather dark hue. There are those who would disagree with it and declare it to be exaggerated. It is not meant to be a panorama of the entire mountain region but represents rather accurately many communities in the Southern Mountains, some of them as large as a whole county. These are the communities that need special treatment. One encouraging fact about the security of many thousands of people in the Southern Mountains is the spreading of industrial labor, such as work in the coal mines, power projects and numerous small business enterprises. They have had the coal mines for many years but they were not as wide-spread as they are now. There are counties giving employment to as many as 1500 men in new coal mines that were not operated at all eight to ten years ago. The TVA system with its power and soil conservation authority is expected to attract industries. These coal mines and projects of the character of TVA are bright spots in the business life of the mountains even though they reach only a small part of the total population. A significant aspect of the industrial picture is that the workers in thriving small businesses as well as those in great chains of coal operations that reach thousands of working men have been living constantly in the shadow of insecurity. In case of death, frequently due to the hazards of the occupation, little or no planning had been made by employer or worker to care for the widow and Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN LiFE AND WORK Page 17 dependent children left behind. In case of old or more in some states, and as low as two, three or age and inability to hold a job in heavy occu- four in other states, is protected in his job for a pations, such as are mining and timbering, com- given number of weeks. If he loses his job through mon in the area, there was no provision for the no fault of his own, he applies for another one at old man who had given the best years of his life the employment office which is under the man to making fortunes for other people. This situation agement of the state agency. If the office organ was somewhat typical of the national problem ization is not able to find a suitable job in a when, in 1935, a national movement was started limited time, according to the law of the state, the that will become vital to both small and large qualified worker will be put on a weekly unem groups of workers in the Southern Mountains. ployment benefit while he and the office, both Light is beginning to shine on the future of the working to that end, find the job. industrial worker, not only in the Southern Moun- In addition to these insurance provisions that tams, but in every region of the nation. have been briefly outlined, there is the Old-Age When the Federal Social Security Act became Assistance program in which the State and Federal operative on January 1, 1937, there was started governments join in providing aid to needy old a program of security building that in the years people who have no income of their own. to come will mean much to the economic security This law does not reach every worker but, as of industrial workers. The experience of more has been stated in this discussion, due to the spread than two years working on the labor and wage of coal, oil, stone operations and a few other new records of millions of men and women throughout industrial activities in the mountains of Ken the country brought recommendations for many tucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee, North changes, and with the amendments to the Act Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama which became operative in January, 1940, we have the percentage of rural dwellers who will be able the greatest plan for old-age security and surviving to qualify for old-age insurance and unemploy dependents' benefits ever undertaken by any na- ment benefits, will be larger than that in any other tion. region in the eastern half of the United States. Under the Act, as amended, all workers in the Thousands of industrial workers in the mountains mountains cannot qualify, but every industrial live on one kind of a perpendicular farm or an worker, small or large business worker, office other and work in the mines. When they qualify worker, and many other workers may qualify for through wages and employment in industrial and old-age insurance. Not only does this new plan commercial activities, they may receive monthly protect the aged retired industrial and business checks from the Social Security funds just as full worker with monthly payments, but it also makes time factory workers in our industrial cities re payments to his wife if she has reached the specified ceived them upon retirement. age of 65. The old-age insurance provision of the Let me close this presentation of personal opin Act is not the limit of the benefits available to ion by repeating, in plain words, my already ex qualified workers who have met certain labor and pressed belief that the people of the mountains, wage requirements. The young worker, engaged in themselves, must be responsible for the initiation an occupation covered by the law, may have a of moves toward their economic liberation. I am wife and two or three children dependent upon his convinced by past experience that the Federal wages. In case of his death by accident or natural Government and most of the state governments causes, if he has met the minimum wage require- will go as far as is practicable and feasible in co nvents and has worked the minimum numbers of operating with the communities in the mountains months called for by the law, his widow and de- if they will move in the direction of hope and pendent children will receive monthly benefits promise. during the years of the children's dependency. If, to the governmental contributions of TVA, There are other provisions of the Social Security reforestation, agricultural service and social se Act that reach other groups of workers and for a curity, there is added the unreserved drive of the different purpose. Under the Act, a worker em- mountain people themselves, a way out for a ployed in the service of industries employing eight broader and more satisfying life will be found. Page 1 8 MOUNTAIN Leer AND WORK Winter, 1941 Forty years ago the Appalachian Mountains of the South was one vast, isolated region populated by a people who had very little contact with the rest of the world. Speech, social customs, religion, songs, all bore strong resemblances to those of the settling pioneers of a hundred years previous. William G. Frost called them "our contemporary ancestors." During the past forty years tremendous changes have taken place. Highways and railroads have been built. In, over these roads, have come automobiles, new customs, a new "slanguage," radios, popular songs, moving pictures; and out over them have gone our coal and our people. President William J. Hutchins, speaking once of a new highway being built into a mountain county, said with some evident intent at exaggeration, "The changes which will come to this county because of the road will be so tremendous that, in comparison, the creation of the earth was but a figment of the imagination." These changes have come. Because of the rapid increase in public secondary schools and in bus transportation, a great many church schools have been closed, especially those offering elementary and secondary work, and most church-supported colleges have discontinued their preparatory departments. Today a question commonly asked is, "Are private schools and community centers in these mountains justified in soliciting support outside the mountains on the plea of isolation and retardation?" The following study was suggested by what seems to the author to be a too rapid desertion of the area by private agencies and a too optimistic faith in the immediate elimination of isolation by good roads and consolidated schools. In order to have facts instead of impressions upon which to base conclusions, a study was made in the reports of the State Superintendent of Schools for Kentucky and of other statistical publications of the State Department of Education of those Kentucky counties which lie wholly or in part in the mountains. Also, a number of representative counties in Eastern Kentucky were visited AREAS OF ISOLATION LUTHER M. AMBROSE to study at first hand the educational conditions. A glance at Table No. 1 reveals that 34.6 percent of the youth of high school age of these counties are in high school. In 1930, 39 percent of the rural youth of the United States were in high school and 58 percent of urban youth. It should be noted also that there are in these counties 62,710 boys and girls from 14 to 17 who were not in high school. Some of these were doubtless still in the elementary school, but probably by far the majority were swelling the ranks of the unemployed, in the NYA training centers and in the CCC. This table might well guide the student of the mountains in his search for areas of educational isolation in Kentucky. Counties in which less than 20 percent of the high school age group are in high school need assistance. If it were possible to count all the young people who are away from home in schools such as Berea, Annville Institute, Stuart Robinson, Hazel Green, and others, some of the low percentages in the table might be a little higher; on the other hand, if the out-ofcounty students were subtracted from Madison county's total, her percentage doubtless would be reduced. Such counties as Casey, Clay, Clinton, Cumberland, Elliott, Jackson, Leslie, Magoffin, Menifee, Owsley, and Wolfe cannot at present provide adequate opportunities of high school education without financial assistance from some out side source-State, Federal Government, or private philanthropy. Of this list only two reported that they operated school buses and these two operated two and four buses respectively. In these eleven counties there were in 1939-40 a total of 16,321 high-school age youth, of whom 2,481 were in high school. This represents only 15.2 percent of those who have a right to an opportunity for education of some kind. Another measure of the educational adequacy of a county is its assessed value of taxable property per school child. Table No. II gives this data for the same counties listed in the previous table and gives in addition the rank of each county among the 44 mountain counties of Ken Census of White children school census 14-18 (19391940) Percent of H.S. age in High School No. High S. pupils transported (1938-39) ~ ~~~~~!..~'~~~~~~~~~~~r"rrrr-~rrr."x ~xG~G~'-~r7r~C~C~C)C~C~~rr~~~y n Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ o v,' O~ n ~ to ~ ~ DC rr m p A~ G ?~ ~-. " ~ o ' , i ~' County tD G a. ~ p ~ ~ ~Ã‚Â° o o ro y Ã‚Â°,C o ~~ ,~ .~ ~' o ~ x o d~ rÃ‚Â° p V O `~~O ~ n .~ p r ~ ~ ~ y;~x'~ N o ~ ~ .,,o rn ~ c or o ~. Ã‚Â°-' o . r o a. n. C O 17 ~z C) ro _ p rD C L.~ f, n ro C d O x G7 x C~ x G .-, I il c z '~ r j Z z rTI o y .-, .. -I c x d ~ ~~~7~7~~~ ~~~p~~~~~~r'.rrrrrrxx-x0 0 '~~t r" nCOn nn w w a~r~y n U OaJP~GOO~O~,~.~~Ipe~nSvP~a~.~~~~~~~~ ':r'nW~"P ~0~~-C: .~h"P .~~ ~~~-rQ-. ' s, O wC h ~ Sv ~ ~o -s ~" -s _t . (~ ~ iR 0 t~ r~ ~ ,.t O O ~ x' ~ ~o -s '~ --, O ~ yC ro f, ~ ~ ~ ,'z -' . ' Cou n ty n ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ co ~- "~ 17U Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ~' n ~,'Y n ~ f~ ~ `*, C"'~.,~ y~-r. v'' O w ~ rn ~ rD DS f''-r c ~ ~ "3 n Q-. u rt ~ p `C -rDS ~" ~s J O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rt. I rD N C ~ li fs. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢s O M G w ~ ~ N ~ ~ W 0~ N N ~ ~ W _~ W W '.W ~ V v0 O W W V .A ~ V O~ ~ V~ O~ V O~ ~ ~' ~ CJ~ N V N Cn Cn to W ~ 0111 N Gc N - O, N O VI ~ W ~ N W W N N O O~ lJ~ V O, v0 ~ W O, CW - W 0, ~ N ~ v0 v0 W VI ~ v0 W O, CO N O V N - V 4. O W O O N 4. - 00 W O O ~ O O N W cn N w w - Vn ..p 01 O O - ~ oc - N cn O vD v0 O v0 v0 O 00 cn to N N O v0 O O N O O~ O v0 O O N O Cn O - O O O1 - O M -P 4- O O 01 V In O O O O c.n O O N o0 Assessed value ~f taxable !property (ooo omitted) W V 4~.A C.n -P v0 N N W N Cn N Vn W 0, O~ ~-n -P O ~ W C, a, ~' V O, .J O ~ N V -Z~N W N Oo Cn V V N v0 N V~~ 00 a' -D IV - O' O ~A W hJ GI 00 O -oo V O" O IV O\ V -P O 00 ON W -;- 0~ N Oo V 4~-P v0 N V - V Go C-;- VV N jCh001 Census -P-!W:rj IJO- VI 01 1J-PW- J~tnsn:,ovOONIVNOCI O, ~tJ- Qwn~OV ',J C7, InGOr'-PCn-POCOl VO ~ 1938 to IJ O, N .-w0 cc W V W v0 00 O, CIO .-. V pw v0 W ~O V v0 Cn V -P N W 1.w0 O O 00 O\ Cn I..rj O -P 41 W Oo v0 O, I,.) I Assessed value of taxable W 'N O, 4~ -P oo O~ V v0 v0 00 C.n c.n V O, Cc -P ~ ~ r-Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ v0 V O N V VI O O W V W V -P v0 W O, W O1 -F- v0 W Ã¢â‚¬Â¢-Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Cn ~ ,C'~ p ~ co w W N W oc W - V ~ w V O W O, co N N W v0 -? Oo V - - O N W .F. - N -A ~ V - N l.n -P -P \O O, V N W property per V '~ O1 oo .-wD 41 N N W to Ov V N N V V GO 4- W oo OC Vw0 W V N N 01 00 V O ~- O N V O O, O, -P N V V :~j W ~ pupil Rank in 44 ~ N W W IV N N ~-' ~' W W N N - W - N ~` ~-' N W ~ ~' 4. N ~ -P. W -P N G~ N ~ W W 4. Cc V 110 O O~ W x V~ O~ -P W V w0 \O C7, ~ 00 W -P IV ~ O -P Un W N N ~' ~0 ~-' V ~ .-~ W V Cc Cr, O N N V~ O Ky. mountain U1 ~J' counties , _, .,_, ~ .~ ~ ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ Rank in 120 Iv O ~-` ~ oo v0 \C Cc ~ -41 ~ -41 - O v0 O Oc r' W O, W V ~D V OW O ~ V V v0 Ov N O~ 00 ~ O ~` O ~-' 00 ~ W O W O I I O N W V, W p -4~ W O W 0 \~D V w CI tJ ~.n N -P Cc - .y= CIO O, ~-Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ V O~ ;x O ~ ~ O ~ V cn Vr O -P ~ s W V O, -P ~ Ky. counties I MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1941 tucky and among the 120 counties in the state. Of this measure only seven counties ranked above the median county for the state; of these seven, five were border counties and three of them only partly mountainous. Just as these tables have been presented for the Kentucky mountain counties, so similar data could be compiled for the mountainous counties of the other southern states, thereby locating those in need of educational aid. While such tables will locate whole counties that are educationally in need, they will not locate smaller areas of isolation in counties which, as a whole, present a progressive educational picture. In order to locate such areas, a different technique is necessary. The author attempted to locate these by comparing a good road map with the geological contour map of a given area. The state highway departments of the various states have large-scale road maps showing homes, bus routes, churches and schools. Of course these maps do not reveal the number of people living in an area, and, due to the time lag between the completion of WPA and county roads and their inclusion on road maps, there may be inaccuracies. Nevertheless an investigator thoroughly familiar with a county can sketch in on such a highway map the areas in that county from which young people cannot attend public schools. On the basis of personal knowledge of the counties concerned, three such maps were made; because those counties provide no bus transportation, in each case almost the entire county was studied. Similar isolation maps could be drawn, by workers sufficiently familiar with each field, for other Kentucky mountain counties and for all the other counties in our Appalachian area. The problem of missionary work in Appalachia is more difficult now than a generation ago. Presumably donations, gifts, endowment for private schools and colleges in this area, are given to aid in the eductation of the young people who because of isolation and poverty might not otherwise obtain an education. One cannot feel sure any more that because a bov is from the mountains he cannot get a high school or college education through the normal channels. There may be a good high school or college near his home or there may be school buses to haul him to one. There may be a junior college of a state school with low or no tuition fees. To locate areas of need requires closer study. Neither can one feel sure that all educational needs of a county are met if it has one or more good high schools, good roads and school buses. There are very few counties which do not have some inaccessible areas, some areas of isolation too far from high schools or bus lines to enable the students to live at home and attend these schools. The question of the availability and need of college education, while not a part of this paper, is another problem which must be viewed in the light of relative opportunity and relative need. One pertinent study would be to determine the percent of high school graduates who attend college now. Such a study, reported in Mountain Life and Work in April, 1938, showed that 32.5 percent of the high school graduates of eastern Kentucky for ,June, 1936, were enrolled in college the following fall. A similar study for 1939 shows an increase to 35 percent, and if those enrolled in business schools and nursing schools are included, to 43 per cent. But back again to high school opportunity. A certain community has a good accredited high school; one might think young people there were fortunate, that they could get a high school education. A visit to the school and a study of its curriculum may reveal that its courses are traditional. In one such school two years of Latin are required for graduation; there is no shop work, no agriculture, no home economics. The courses are planned for the small group who will go on to college; there is no evidence of knowledge of the fact that most colleges have modified their entrance requirements in recent years. A situation such as this demands reform of the high school curriculum. The small rural high school must be adapted to its environment; it must offer courses of value to the majority of its potential pupils if it hopes to serve them. The mountain families who are isolated today are comparatively worse off than were their parents forty years ago, for then everybody was in the same boat and no one suffered by contrast. Today the state and county taxes are used to support high schools which the children of many tax payers cannot attend. Those who live near have the advantage of the tax-supported school. Page 22 MOUNTAIN Lnr AND WORK Winter, 1941 Those at a distance are denied it. This of course is not true where bus transportation is furnished free to all children in the county. In Kentucky, however, it is not compulsory that counties furnish transportation, and the poorer counties can not provide it on their present income. These constitute areas o f isolation. Even in the wealthier mountain counties there are usually some areas not served by hard-surfaced roads. These, too, are areas o f isolation. This whole situation is a challenge to those who direct the policy of the private and church schools in the Appalachian Mountains. It would seem to demand that such persons locate the areas of isolation and serve the people who are there, providing opportunities to fit their needs and serving them at the educational level where they are now. Special care will be necessary to avoid neglecting those islands of isolation sometimes found in a sea of educational opportunity. ANNOUNCEMENTS Scarritt College Short-Term School for Rural Missionaries Among the unique features of the Short-Term School at Scarritt College for 1941 are the following: The course will cover six weeks, or the first term of the regular Spring Quarter of the College. Four weeks, March 24-April 18, will be given to class-work and research seminars and the last ten days, April 19-29, to the Travel Seminar. The afternoons will be used for special conferences and trips to near-by places of special interest. The Scarritt Short-Term School is planned both for those who desire college credit and for noncredit students. Students meeting the admission requirements of the College and completing the required work may receive a term's credit for the courses. Details regarding the admission requirements are given in the College catalogue, which will be mailed on request. Students who do not desire credit may register as "irregular students." At the meeting of the Foreign Missions Conference, held at Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, in June, 1939, the Rural Missions Cooperating Committee, representing some twenty denominations, officially asked Scarritt College to agree to become the center in the South for a Special Short-Term School for Rural Missionaries, similar to the two special schools already established at that time, one at Cornell University and the other at Iowa State College. The first Annual Session of the Short-Term School at Scarritt College was held in the spring of 1940. All correspondence regarding Scarritt ShortTerm School for Missionaries and requests for accommodations should be addressed to: Dr. J. L. Cunninggim, Scarritt College, Nashville, Tenness see. Inquiries regarding the School may be addressed to: Dr. John H. Reisner, Rural Missions Cooperating Committee, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York. Asheville College Summer School Tentative plans are being made to have Dr. Kenneth Eells, who has worked with the Cooperative Study of Secondary Schools in making evaluations and summaries, for the first two weeks of the summer school, June 9-25. D:-. Eells has helped officials from secondary schools through the University of Pennsylvania to rate themselves and layout plans for improvement. He will be prepared to help the principals and teaching staff of any of our secondary schools to use the instruments prepared by the Cooperative Study. Those interested may write to Dr. Frank C. Foster, Asheville College, Asheville, North Carolina. Later announcements will be made at the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Asheville College: A Heritage and A Hope' FRANK Asheville College is a heritage and a hope. In 1940 it completed its fifty-third year of service, with the largest student enrollment in its history. Four hundred eighty-six students were enrolled in the regular sessions, while the graduating class numbered one hundred eighteen. Thus the period under the Board of National Missions, represented today by the presence of Dr. Louis H. Evans as the President of that Board, marked the close of the mission phase of the school with all the evidences of success. More than two thousand students have been graduated with certificates indicating the fulfilment of some organized plan of study. Many of these have returned to advance their standing in the professional field and to keep abreast with the times. But such figures only hint at the heritage. I Consider first those people whose names mark our history-people whose lives have made the college possible. It will be seventy years next summer since Dr. and Mrs. Louis Hendrik Peace came to Asheville for quiet and rest. Six years later, in 1878, they came to Asheville to retire and live the few years remaining to them in quiet and peace. They bought a farm on this hill and lived in a building adjoining what is now the office building. The Home School opened October 5, 1887 in this house. How the interest of Dr. and Mrs. Peace grew is beautifully related by Florence Stephenson in an address given at the dedication of the hall bearing her name in 1923. She said: As time went on they desired to found a permanent institution for the educa tion of young people of the mountains and having no children of their own and no means of support for themselves, they devised a plan of offering their property to an organization willing to pledge it self to carry on school work, and to pay an annuity during the few years remain ing to them in this world. After being offered to the Masons and to the Southern Methodist Church, the site and the future An adaptation of Dr. Fosters address at his inauguration as president of Asheville College. C. FOSTER of the institution was entrusted to the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. With the erection of the Normal Building came Dr. Thomas Lawrence, who served for sixteen years and devised a program which grew with the advance of educational standards to the level of a school carrying some work on the college level. The old Normal building now bears his name. Florence Stephenson began her work in 188? and did not leave Asheville until 1928; forty-on,: years were spent in service by one who examined in the normal school from which she was graduated feared was too weak to stand the strain of the profession. Regarding her influence, Miss Frances Goodrich, another who has blessed this school by her presence, permits me to quote from this lovely tribute to Miss Stephenson: There are forceful personalities not known to the world at large but who so impress those who do know them that their influence persists and works in places and in people with undiminished strength long after they themselves have left the earth. Such a personality was Florence Stephenson. The coming in 1916 of Dr. John E. Ccafee as President brought youth and vigor to the leadership of the institution. For twenty-one years, during the years of most creative expansion of education in North Carolina and the neighboring areas served by the "Normal," Dr. Calfee kept pace, advancing the level of education to meet the demands of new days. During his administration the college became an accredited member of the American Association of Teachers Colleges. The college as we see it today and the change to a self-perpetuating board of control rooted in the region are a part of his vision and, in part, a product of his leadership. The legacy of personality should include the names of those less prominent in the roster. But I move on to a consideration of that in which personal experiences merge; namely, our heritage of ideals. 1. Dr. Peace, a northern Methodist, who Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE finally entrusted his hope to the Presbyterian Home Mission Society, was not a sectarian. Nor did he fear that his hope for a permanent institution would be betrayed. People of all denominations have contributed to the support of the college just as students of all denominations have attended, knowing that the Kingdom of God included within its fellowship those who seek Him from many cultures. 2. The emphasis upon the home as fundamental to our civilization led the founders to make a large place in the program for such work. Before the day when courses for all potential home makers were generally advocated, each student was offered such work and study in one of the three practice houses. 3. A third ideal was expressed in the understanding of the importance of the public school as an instrument for reaching the community. Teaching was a way of service through which young women might exercise influence beyond the limits of the school room. 4. Work, its dignity and essential place in the activities of life, was emphasized. So we find in an early catalog this statement: All pupils are expected to share in the domestic work of the household under the supervision of the Matron. This occupies ordinarily not more than one hour a day; the time so spent is found conducive of health, the development of character, and is an admirable preparation for the after duties of life. The aim of the Institute is to provide solid and thorough training in each department, under teachers competent and qualified to use the best modern methods. 5. The fifth ideal, that of the campus as a community, was reflected in the attitude of Florence Stephenson in treating the students as members of a home rather than inmates of an institution. The whole life mattered, and especially the direction toward which life moved. 6. The idea of the program reaching the special needs of students in a section of the nation has led to a unity of spirit and an ability to deal with similar situations that has given practical direction to the study. Students could give attention to problems that exist within the radius of one Winter, 1941 hundred miles and prepare to do something about them. Such education has the force of combining faith and works; it is education in the general sense, but also training that is specific in its aim. "Regionalism" is familiar to North Carolinians. Devotion to a particular region, defining respon sibility in terms of particular educational problems, has been a part of our heritage. 7. Any seemingly restrictive element in this sixth aim was offset by the seventh ideal, which concerned the whole of life. To education of the head, the hand, and the heart, the founders of this institution wished to add education for the whole personality in all its relationships. Life is living, throbbing, active serving. Life moves onward, drawing on the past, but is especially concerned with what is to come. Out of this comes the school experience. Such then is the stuff out of which the program has been built-experiences that will help the students meet the exigencies of life. The program of the college should be determined by what the students need. In addition to these eight ideals: 1. a religious faith, 2. an emphasis on home, 3. the school as an instrument of service, 4. the essential dignity of worthy labor, 5. the campus as a community, 6. the region as an object of service, 7. the total life as the object of education, and 8. the student as the basis of the curriculum, another is being realized today. Little was done toward building what we who have served abroad in foreign mission service called an indigenous mission. The roots of support were not here. The ceremony today realizes the ideal of every successful mission-the placing the roots of an institution in the soil where it is being cultivated. This is to me so significant that I am listing it as the third heritage. First, the personalities, second, the ideals, and third, the missionary heritage. To some the missionary heritage of an institution would be something to be thrown off or resented, and if it were what they think it is, 1'd resent it, too. We are much more willing to be missionaries to others than to receive the aid of others. Quite true. It is more blessed to give than to receive. But in the ceremony of life, receiving requires as much grace as giving, and is essential to the cycle. There must be recipients Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 if there are to be gifts. And all adjustments must rest upon the progress whereby those who have share with those who have not. The major adjustments of life can come out of compassion and understanding, through love and fellow feeling, or they may be sought through violence and coercion. This is an extremely personal matter to me, born in a mission family and having served in mission teaching both in the foreign field and at home before beginning my service here under the Board of National Missions. I do not regret this passing from the missionary status to that of an independent board of trustees which Mr. Cocke represents today. Rather is it a triumph of missions that the transition can be made without the destruction of the program. It should be the normal development of a program-from dependence to independence, from immaturity to maturity. It seems that the Asheville program has been carried on through the devotion and friendship of people scattered from California to Florida, from Providence to Seattle. The linking of churches throughout the nation in acts of helpfulness represents one of the most dramatic ventures in human adjustment we have, and will be so understood as we see developments in their proper perspective. Educators have talked about equalization through the proposed education bill. Missions have been conducted and continue to be conducted in this interest, not only for equalization, but for the purpose toward which equalization is devoted, that of helping people to realize their full capacity for service and to achieve as abundant a life as wisdom and resources will permit. In times when bitterness, bigotry, prejudices, and slander are all too common, a heritage which seeks understanding and helpfulness, one that professes the common brotherhood of man under the universal fatherhood of God, needs to be cherished. It was to the graduating class of 1897 that Walter Hines Page delivered his famous address on "The Forgotten Man." His was a plea for educational opportunity. Econorr.ic inequalities today make it more difficult than ever to provide opportunity for those who, through no fault of their own or of their parents, were not born to enjoy the financial assets which open the doors to higher learning. ciple still needs to be harbored in the new status of this school as an independent institution. II And now the hope. What can this ceremony mean but hope, hope strengthened by a faith in the prevailing good will of those who will not let the college fail? This ceremony symbolizes the passing on of control without the title of ownership, the acceptance of responsibility to raise money for expenses instead of counting on endowments: no board would risk such a move without an abundance of hope. We have such hopehope that from these roots will grow a college that not only will do justice to the past, but rise to meet the even more baffling challenge of the future. May I take time enough to summarize briefly some of the areas in which our hope lies. We continue our hope in the heritage of religious faith. Call it the metaphysics of President Hutchins of Chicago, or the theology of William Adams Brown, or the ideas of Plato. The primary essential of education today is some unifying power beyond ourselves. In time of war prepare for peace; so we today must be building a better world nobler, juster, saner perpetuating the virmes of this and eliminating its vices. The hope of this type of faith should naturally bear fruit in works. So we would continue an educational program resting on the essential institutions of the world: understanding and strengthening the family, vitalizing and spiritualizing the school, taking the inclusive program which has so happily served many pupiiF and giving better content and meaning, producing citizens capable, as far as they are concerned, of curing the world of its ills. The labor program today is complicated by the intricacies of technical skill that are required. More and more, individual skill is linked with human understanding of personal relations. In developing a program that will include more opportunities to work, greater dexterity in workmanship, as well as intellectual and spiritual insights, we would aspire to bring respect and dignity to all who carry the essential responsibilities of creative effort. We will continue to do our work and respect each other for it, to honor those who do for us what is necessary for our comfort and enjoyment. The missionary prin Page 26 MouNrtm LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1941 In accepting our life in the mountains we aim to develop it so that it is as broad in its appreciations as the vision from the mountain tops, and as intimate with the beauties and harmonies as a snug home in a cove. Accepting the region as basic to our life is not a provincialism but a realism. We are devoted to the principle of education which helps us make the most of the resources at hand. This is our world, and a beautiful world it is. These are the resources we must develop. Out of a study of our problems and opportunities we will set our course. We accept the land in which we live, but see it in its proper relation to the rest of the world. The increasing measure of understanding and good will which prevails among our neighboring institutions, the acceptance this year of a mutual adjustment of programs with Biltmore College in the use of our facilities, gives promise of better range of opportunities, economics in operation, and development in further lines of work to meet new needs. The increased opportunity in city and county extension of relations with the Adult School, health conferences, Labor School, institutes on safety and similar agencies, together with our intimate ties with the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers and the Handicraft Guildwhose museum is housed on this campus-make it increasingly evident that the college is a living part in the community that will ultimately carry it and support it, as it has accepted the responsibility through this ceremony today. I trust that we may measure up to the respon sibilities placed upon colleges today. I I I 1 0 Second National Conference on Handicrafts BONNIE WILLIS FORD Three years ago, Mrs. J. Randolph Coolidge, Founder of the New Hampshire League of Arts and Crafts, brought together at Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, a group of craftsmen from widely scattered sections of the country for a National Conference on Handicrafts. The theme of that meeting centered around the question of "What Can We Do Together That We Cannot Do Alone?" In other words, the purpose of the meeting was to discuss ways and means of working toward national solidarity, group achievement-perhaps national organization in the field of handicrafts. It was hoped at that meeting that a national conference might be held each year, but unavoidable circumstances prevented another meeting un t*1 th' I is summer, when one hundred and fifty people, representing twenty-five states and the District of Columbia, met at Penland, North Carolina, from August 31st to September 4th for the Second National Conference. This meeting, like the one in New Hampshire, was presided over by Allen Eaton, of the Russell Sage Foundation and author of Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands. Its theme, though per haps not stated in the same words, was a continuation of the same question to which thought had been given at the New Hampshire meeting. As in most conferences, the answer to this question lay in the sharing of experiences of one group with another, the discussion of methods, of problems, of successes tried by one which might prove of value to the other. No secrets were withheld. It was a frank, straightforward discussion of the experiences which each group or individual had encountered in his or her work in the handicrafts, and it was hoped that out of the meeting together, a more or less definite organization might resultnot a vast producing organization nor a big marketing concern, but an organization which might give its members moral support and encouragement, and the advantages of a mutual sharing of experiences and problems of universal interest. At the time of registration, each person attending the Conference was asked to write down any point which he would like to have discussed. A tabulation of these requests showed that the main interest of two-thirds of the people in attendance had to do with marketing problems. Consequently. Winter, 1941 much time was devoted to a discussion of this one point and many valuable suggestions advanced. In a short article, however, we can do no better than to quote Mr. David Campbell, Director of the New Hampshire League of Arts and Crafts, and Mrs. Olive D. Campbell, Director of the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, North Carolina. Mr. Campbell said in substance: "During the past year, we have formed an association called the Cooperative Handicraft Association of America. We feel the necessity of banding crafts groups together because at this time there are concentrated efforts by all sorts of organizations and department stores to get craft work, since their stores have been depleted by lack of imports from foreign markets. W e believe in marketing our own things in such a manner that the craftsmen themselves have much to do with the marketing. We will open next month the American House in New York City. The purpose is to provide markets and outlets for organizations not having proper outlets. Well-formulated plans have been made which any If you can get by writing to the League (The New mpshire League of Arts and Crafts, Concord, New Hampshire). Some part of our effort might fit into your scheme of marketing and be helpful to you." Mr. Campbell continued his discussion by telling of the annual fair which is held in New Hampshire each summer by the New Hampshire Leaguethus providing a market within their own state which attracts people within the state as well as numerous summer visitors. It was felt that this plan might well be developed in other states. While it was agreed that nothing could be more ideal than for each state to have its own markets within its own borders, among its own population, this is practically impossible in the Southern Mountains, for as Mrs. Campbell of Brasstown pointed out: "tee are mere isolated in our area during the whole year around. We haven't a population which buys crafts. We depend enormously on the tourists coming into this section. It brings our market to our door, but tourists very largely want cheap things. The question is how far can we commercialize crafts. The question of how we are going to value things is another problem. In our situation (at the John C. Campbell Folk School), we value farm work, just as we value craft work. 'ou can't pay so much for craft work that a man v: on't v"ant to do his farm work. We also want MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 to keep the joy in craft work, and not of that for the economic value." Pertinent remarks made by Mr. Whitney Atchley, of Washington, D.C., National Consultant on Arts and Crafts for the Works Progress Administration, in another meeting bear repeating here. Says Mr. Atchley: "Prior to the war in Europe, this country imported fifty million dollars worth of crafts annually. Since the war, this tremendous business has been almost entirely obliterated, and while none of us would wish to profit by another's misfortune, still this is the time for American handicrafts to be made and to be sold." Discussing the National Art Week proclaimed by the President of the United States, Mr. Atchley said his fears were not that the handicrafts to be put on exhibition and sale all over the country during this week could not be sold, but that enough articles could not be produced to meet the demands of the buyers. Significant contributions to the question of marketing, as well as to the other problems discussed, were made by the various agricultural extension workers in several states who took this opportunity of holding a regional meeting of their own. The wise and sympathetic influence of Mrs. L. B. Fuller, who came directly from the Department of Agriculture in Washington, was felt throughout the Conference. In addition to marketing, much time was devoted to discussions of originality and design. On these two points, which really merge into the same thing, Mr. Eaton's remarks were among the best of many good statements which he made throughout the meetings. In opening the discussion, Mr. Eaton said: "To encourage people in good design and originality is one of the most important things we can discuss in handicrafts, I believe. A very good rule before we attempt to bring in designs from the outside is to ferret out the abilities of the people within a community itself. All localities have much originality, and we should see what can be brought from them first. Just a little encouragement in the direction in which one should go is very important and may lead to important beginnings in design." At Mr. Eaton's request, Mrs. Linnell of Rhode Island told of her experience in Sweden: "Last summer while in Sweden, I was very much interested in the type of arts and crafts they were doing there. Each province has its own patterns and ideas, and no province would think of using lose sight Page 28 the same patterns as those of another province. While attending a school there with another American woman, I had an interesting experience. She was looking over some of my upholstery anti wanted to weave some like it. The teacher was quite disturbed and said that she couldn't teach her because it was the design of another woman and they didn't teach the designs of other people in the weaving school." Continuing the discussion on this and other topics, Mr. Eugene Deutsch, an Hungarian by birth, now a resident of Chicago and a ceramist of note, said in part in a separate address: "Handicrafts as a whole to me, mean a very important factor in our civilization. People always want to do things with their hands. That is the natural creative desire everyone has. Handicrafts are just about as important as all the other phases of art because of their utilitarian value in the home. Handicrafts can be made available to almost everyone in homes, though we might not be able to have the fine arts in our homes . . . . Not only must handicraft give real materials, but quality and originality and design. We have to compete against modern industry. The minute I make a good design for a vase, I have to hide it because otherwise it would be in every flower shop in the city before I would have a chance to put it on the market myself. Craftsmen have to guard against a thing like that. We have to fight with a cultural educational process though, and not with open fists." Mr. Deutsch's address was so much to the point that perhaps we may be forgiven if we quote further from him: "Tradition behind craftsmen is missing to a certain extent in America, and that is one difficulty here. This age is so highly industrialized that we must teach our children the handicrafts now or they will be lost. If more people appreciated good things, maybe we wouldn't even have war. If people would be willing to sacrifice for the good things in the world, we wouldn't be concerned with the financial and economic difficulties of the world. No bad man really loves any good art." Miss Frances Van Hall, lately of Denmark and Holland but now engaged by the Farm Security MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1941 J Administration to teach handicrafts to under p1 ileged rural women, spoke most interestingly r vi I I of her work with the Administration, but devi ated to make a most helpful suggestion on the subject of originality and design in the arrange ment of exhibits. We quote from Miss Van Hall: "My hobby in Europe was putting up exhibits. I agree that ninety percent of the success of an exhibit is in how the articles are exhibited. Textiles are among the most difficult things to exhibit. Table cloths should be put on a table for example, and draperies should be hung. Upholstery material should be put on a chair if that is where it belongs. If we are having a sales bazaar that is one thing, but an educational exhibit is another thing and we don't want too many things shown at a time in a limited space. In our exhibit (put on in Washington by the Farm Security Administration), we decided to have samples fifteen inches square and we had about one hundred and twenty-five of them. We framed them with narrow wooden frames, and put them six and six together. If we had put dif ferent sizes together on the walls of a big exhibit hall, it would have looked like so many postage stamps on the wall." We have selected the three points most widely discussed-marketing, originality, and design, out of many points which were just as ably presented and talked over in an effort to work out together what might be difficult to accomplish alone. Permeating all the discussions and recurring over and over again was the plea not to lose sight of the joy there is in the doing of handicrafts, and in the need of doing them as a means of selfexpression. In a most able address another value was stressed by Miss Sue Hurt, representing the Occupational 'therapy movement, who spoke on handicrafts as a means of healing. Certain it is that some great force which must have grown out of a real need drew these one hundred and fifty people from all parts of the country together on Penland's peaceful hill-top to discuss their common and separate problems and to plan for an organization which will knit them more closely together into a bond of fellowship and endeavor-a bond which may go far toward helping to bring peace and balance to a troubled world. Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN LiFE AND WORK W HAT T O REA D A new department to be conducted by Glyn A. Morris, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Kentucky. WHAT THE HIGH SCHOOLS OUGHT TO TEACH, A pamphlet published by The American Youth Commission, 755 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. Authoritative and invaluable for all who wish to adjust education to the changing times. It summarizes and points the way and should be read by all educators. FAITH FOR LIVING, Lewis Mumford, especially Chapter 36, "Roots in the Region," together with New Tools for Democracy by Peter Van Dresser in HARPERS for March 1939 ought to be of more than passing interest to all who yearn for a more abundant life in the mountains and who have faith in such a life. Bot'.i these articles have prophetic implications and are a real shot in the arm to anyone at the crossroads. TIME magazine for November 25 has on page _. 2 a report of the eight year study of the Progressive Education Society of the graduates of 30 selected high schools. This ought to help all those who are trying to adjust education to the needs of the individual. LAND POLICY REVIEW, Bright Youngsters, an article in the November 1940 issue, according to Arthur M. Bannerman of Asheville Farm School, hits the nail on the head so far as pointing up the major mountain problem of certain areas is concerned. Community School Leadership in the South, reported in the EDUCATION DIGEST for October 1940 (p 17) tells briefly of Mr. L. P. Hopis' work with the Parker District Schools near Greenville, South Carolina. For all who are interested in community organization. AMERICA'S CHILDREN, Maxwell S. Stewart. This pamphlet is based mainly on Children in a Democracy, the General Report adopted by the White House Conference on Children in a Democracy, January, 1940, and the researc'i documents prepared for that Conference. Interesting -epics discussed are: "Preparing Children for To-sorrow's Duties," "Leisure-Time Activities," "Re Page 29 ligion in the Lives of Children," "Children in Minority Groups." It is available for 10 cents from the Public Affairs Committee, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, New York. READ YOUR LABELS is a pamphlet prepared by the Institute for Consumer Education, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri, on the basis of studies by the Department of Agriculture, findings of the Federal Trade Commission, and other materials. Consumers are warned that they must be constantly on their guard if they are to obtain the full benefit of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and ways are listed by which consumers can protect themselves against impure foods, drugs, and cosmetics. This is another 10-cent pamphlet which may be secured from the Public Affairs Committee. MENTAL HYGIENE, by Griffin, Laycock and Line. Cincinnati, American Book Company, 1940. 304 pp. $1.75. Written primarily for teachers, this work makes a valuable contribution in that it seeks to unify the points of view of psychiatrist, educator and psychologist. It is constructive in approach, with little emphasis :.n the psychopathic. The style is readable and interesting and the author has packed a great deal into small compass. Charts and outlines are clear and comprehensive. The addition of an index, however, would have made the work more valuable. The mental hygiene approach to teaching will help to lift any teacher's work from the category of "job" to that of "vocation." RURAL ROADS TO SECURITY by the Rt. Rev. Luigi Ligutti and the Rev. J. J. Rawe. Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, 1940. 387 pp. $3. This work is dedicated to "Better fields, better homes, better communities, better hearts, better lives." It deals with the "third struggle for freedom" in America, a struggle for the freedom of the family based on ownership of home and laid: for, it is asserted, "there is no liberty possible when there is no ownership of productive property." To preserve the family, "the organic unity of activity in the state," is important because the family is necessary for the continuance of the race. Page 30 MOUNTAIN LmE AND WORK Winter, 1941 Furthermore, the authors point out, the moral, economic and social health of the nation depends upon the moral, economic and social health of the families that make up the nation. In order to protect the home, "its dignity, its health, its integrity, its ownership, its culture, its life, its liberty, its security, its independence," the educational medical, social and political forces of America must throw their protection around the homeespecially the home on the land, where the majority of the next generation of citizens is being reared. The specific plan advocated is the food-producing homestead, whether for the small farmer or the industrial worker. "There must be a home and land . . . . owned by the family that occupies it." To make such homesteads possible necessitates low-interest, long-time loans, preferably from private sources. To preserve homesteads, taxing bodies must make distinction between "land for the home and land for business." Whether in urban or rural areas, houses owned and occupied by the family should be free of taxation, "with an exemption that is large enough to cover the value of a good substantial home and the amount of land that can be used directly for family living," increasingly the burden of taxation must be placed on personal and corporation incomes. Such small tax-exempt homesteads should be farmed by biologically-sound farming methods, such as those followed in Denmark and the Neth erlands, as distinguished from the biologically unsound methods too frequently followed on big commercial or corporation farms. On a foodproducing homestead, "the child can soon become an economic asset instead of remaining an economic liability." Thus both economically and socially, such homesteads would provide the basis for permanent, democratic, cooperative communities. In such communities adequate organizations can be maintained, with school and church programs adapted to rural life and led by leaders especially trained for rural community leadership. The Rev. Ligutti is the sponsor of the successful Granger Homesteads project and former president of the National Catholic Rural Life Conference. The Rev. Rawe has been Professor of Philosophy and Sociology at Creighton University. Although Rural Roads to Security is written from an agrarian point of view, it is an agrarianism whose purpose is "not to breathe antagonism toward the city, but rather to set forth the prac tI I hilosophy, a philosophy that cal a*ms of a true p I I w'll save the cities and their *ndustri I i 1 1 1 1 al*sm from decay and final chaos." The rural philosophy s ~' forth and the glimpses of practical rehabilitation'' projects being carried out make the book worth study by those who are interested in a permanent Christian civilization in rural America-r, r, indeed, in urban America! Interesting appendices, a selected bibliography of eighteen pages, and an index add to the value of the work. U. L. K. Winter, 1941 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 INDEX MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XVI A AkÃ¢â‚¬Â¢aa"rlvia--A Coo(wratiro Conr"rrruit3 Ollie Mac Parker XVI:4 Winter 41 p 6 Ambrose, Luther M. Areas of Isolation XVI:4 Winter 41 p 18 Another Year of Adult fÃ¢â‚¬Â¢d"cation Ellsworth M. Smith XVI:1 Spring 40 p 16 Areas of Isolation Luther M. Ambrose XVI:4 Winter 41 p 18 AshrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rille College: A HcritagcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ and a Hope Frank C. Foster XVI:4 Winter 41 p 23 B Bannerman, Arthur M. Pertinent Educational Planning XVLI Spring 40 p 22 Bannerman, Arthur M. Uncle Jeff's Children's Children XVI:3 Hall 40 a 10 Bishop, Birdena Pine Mountain Guidance Institute XVI:3 Fall 40 p 25 BOOKS REVIEWED A B C of Coo/tcratirÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cs Gerald Richardson XV1:3 Fall 40 p 30 De"rocracy's Challenge to Education E. B. Sackett XVI:1 Spring 40 p 32 Erncrgin,q High School C"vricnl""r a"d Its Direction, The Harold Spears XVI:1 Spring 40 p 31 Hamilton, Gordon Tltror3 and Practice of Social Case Work XVI:3 Fall 40 p 30 Leeder, Joseph A. and Jean Thomas The Singirz' Gathcrirr' XVI:3 Fall 40 p 32 Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Bread Carlisle and Carol Shafer XVI:1 Spring 40 p 30 Ligutti, Rt. Rev. Luigi and Rev. J. J. Rawc Rural Roads to Security XVI:4 Winter 41 p 29 Rawe, Rev. J. J. and Rt. Rev. Luigi Ligutti Rural Roads to Security XVI:4 Winter 41 p 29 Richardson, Gerald A B C of CoojrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ratires XVI:3 Fall 40 p 30 Rirer of Earth James Still XVI:1 Spring 40 p 30 Rural Roads to SeraritjRt. Rev. Luigi Liguitti and Rev. J. J. Rawc XVI:4 Winter 41 p 29 Sackett, E. B. Derrrorrar)1'.s Challenge to Education XVI:l Spring 40 p 32 Schools for Democracy Churl Ormond Williams XVI:1 Spring 40 p 32 Shafer, Carlisle and Carol Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Bread XVI:I Spring 40 p 30 Si",qi"' Gatheri"', The jean Thomas and Joseph A. Leedcr XVI:3 Fall 40 p 32 Spears, Harold The la"crging High School Catvrrr"I""r a"rl Itv Direr tio" XVl: ( Spring 40 p 31 Still, James River of Earth XVI:1 Spring 40 p 30 Thenrl and Pr-acfire of Social Cast, Work Gordon Hamilton XVI:3 Fall 40 p 30 Thomas, Jean and Joseph A. Leeder The Si"gin' Gathcri"' XV1:3 Fall 40 p 32 Toil and Hunger Don West XVI:3 Fall 40 p 31 West, Don Toil erred Hunger XVI:3 Fall 40 p 31 Willitms, Churl Ormond Schools for Denrocrar~~ XVI:I Spring 40 p 32 Campbell, Olive D. Oil Recreation XVI:1 Spring 40 p 21 Cory, Harry A Folk Co"ferrnce XVI:3 Pall 40 p 20 Changing the Library Map of the So"thland Florence Holmes Ridgway XVI:2 Summer 40 p 10 Christian Corrrnruruty, The editorial XVI:2 Summer 40 p 8 CHURCHES Church and lhc Welfare State, The Arthur E. Hole XVIa Spring 40 p I R"ral Church Co"tmi.csio", The Eugene Smothers XVI:2 Summer 40 1) 28 Church and the Welfare State, The Spring 40 p 1 Colman, Henry To Lire i" the Country, I,orr Country Life XV1:2 Summer 40 p 32 Colvin, Esther Marie These of Beauty XVI:2 Summer 40 p 31 Cor"e to Kuovrillo XVI:4 Winter 41 CONFERENCES Conic to Kno-cr~ille XVI:4 Winter 41 p 1 Conference in Reriew, The Helen H. Dingman XVI:1 Spring 40 p 4 There's No Other Conference Like It Ellsworth M. Smith XVI:2 Summer 40 p 21 Second National Conference o" Handicrafts Bonnie Willis Ford XVI:4 Winter 41 p 26 Conference in RrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢uirrr.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢, The Helen H. Dingman XVI:I Spring 40 p 4 Crabb, Nellie I. The Shuttle XVI:3 Fall 40 p 9 D Davidson, Ursula March Why Kentucky Needs State-Wiclr Library Sercicr XVI:2 Summer 40 p 15 Derrrocracl, editorial XVI:1 Spring 40 p 18 Dingman, Helen H. The Corrfrvence i" RericuÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ XVI:1 Spring 40 p 4 Duncan, Naomi Why Kentucky Needs State-Wirlc Library Srrriro XVI:2 Summer 40 p 15 Arthur E. Hole XVI:1 ECONOMIC CONDITIONS 4-H Club Work J. M. Feltner XVI:2 Summer 40 p IG Mountain Youth in N.Y.t1., The Francis Shousc XV1:2 Summer 40 p 24 Southern Mountains, The-Their Current Problems and Future Hope Marshall E. Vaughn XVI:4 Winter 41 p 14 Uncle Jeff's Children's Children Arthur M. Bannerman XVI:3 Fall 40 p 10 EDUCATION Another Yea, of Adult Education Ellsworth M. Smith XVI:l Spring 40 p 16 Asherille College: A Heritage acrd a Hone Frank C. Foster XVI:4 Winter 41 p 23 1'rrrmer Can't Halt, Too Much E"r-orrvageme"t, The Clarence F. Falk XVI:4 Winter 41 p 10 Highlander Folk School Leon Wilson XVI:3 Fall 40 p 15 On Top of Gunter Mountain Wilson Evans XV1:4 Winter 41 P 2 Pertinent Educational Planning Arthur Bannerman XVI:I Spring 40 p 22 Education, On Frank C. Foster XVI:1 Spring 40 p 19 Fla, Mary Made by Band XVI:3 Fall 40 p 1 Evans, Wilson O" Top of Gunter Mountain XVI:4 Winter 41 p 2 F Folk, Clarence F. Far"rrr Can't Mace Too Much Encouragement, The XVI:4 Winter 41 p 10 Farmer Ca"'t Hare Too Much Encouragement, The Clarence T. Folk XVI:4 Winter 41 p 10 Feltner, ,J. M. 4-11 CI"h Work XVI:2 Summer 40 a 16 FESTIVALS Mo""tai" Folk Fe,vtiral, 1940 May Gadd XVI:1 Spring 40 p 25 Folk Conference, A Harry Cary XVI:3 Fall 40 p 20 FOLK SCHOOLS Highlander Folk School Leon Wilson XVI:3 Fall 40 p 15 Ford, Bonnie Willis Second National C01lfe`rC1lCC 017 Handicrafts XVI:4 Winter 41 v 26 Foster, Frank C. A.clteoillc College: A Heritage, and o Hope XVI:4 Winter 41 p 23 Foster, Frank C. Ore Education XVI:1 Spring 40 p 19 4-FI Club Work J. M. Feltner XVI:2 Summer 40 p 16 Page 3 2 1V1UUN'1'AIN LIFE AND WORK -- Winter,1941 G Gadd, May 1940 Mountain Folk Fostitul XVI:1 Spring 40 p 25 Getting the Farts o" Health Edwin E. White XVI:1 Spring 40 p 7 GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 4-H Club Work J. M. Feltner XVI:2 Summer 40 p 16 Mountain Youth i" N.Y.A., The, Francis Shousc XVI:2 Summer 40 p 24 H HANDICRAFTS Made by Hand Mary Fla XVI:3 Fall 40 p I National Conference o" Handicrafts XVI:2 Summer 40 p 29 Second National Conference n" Handicrafts Bonnie Willis Ford XVI:4 Winter 41 p 26 Southern Highland Handicraft Guild XVI:1 Spring 40 p 29 HEALTH Getting the Faces on Health Edwin E. White XVI:l Spring 40 p 7 Problems 1"coltrd i" Obtaining Adequate Health Serrice fon the Mountains May Cravath Wharton, M.D. XVI:2 Summer 40 p 4 Highlander Folk Srhool Leon Wilson XVI:3 Fall 40 p 15 Hoffman, Mary Lindsay Planned Parenthood for Rnral Families XVI:2 Summer 40 p 19 Holt, Arthur E. The Church anti the Welfare State XVI:1 Spring 40 p l I Itinerant Recreation Service ire 1939 Frank H. Smith XVI:l Spring 40 p 14 l loin ihr Conference editorial XVI:3 Fall 40 p 33 K Keener, Orrin L. Toward a Social Science, Or the Genius of Jesus XVI:2 Summer 40 p 1 Kentucky Mountains Harvey K. Meyer XVI:4 Winter 41 p 13 L LIBRARIES Changing the Library Map of the Southland Florence Holmes Ridgway XVI:2 Summer 40 p 10 Why Kentucky Needs State-Wide Library Srrricr Ursula March Davidson XVI:2 Summer 40 p 15 Why Kentucky Needs State-Wirlr Library Scrcire Naomi Duncan XVI:2 Summer 40 p 15 Lewis, Claudia Tennessee Mountain XVI:1 Spring 40 p 24 M Marlr bV [land Mary Fla XVI:3 Fall 40 p 1 Meyer, Harvey K. Kentucky Mountains XVI:4 Winter 41 p 13 Mountain Folk Festival, 1940 May Gadd XVI:1 Spring 40 p 25 Mountain Youth ire N.Y.A., The Francis Shouse XVI:2 Summer 40 p 24 At National Conference on Handicrafts XVI:2 Summer 40 p 29 O On Top of Gn"tcr Mountain Wilson Evans XVI:4 Winter 41 p 2 P Parker, Ollie Mac Alexandria-A Cooperative Conzinnnit)XVI:4 Winter 41 p 6 Passel of Little Things, A Pauline Ritchie XVI:2 Summer 40 p 8 Pertinent I?dncatio"al Planning Arthur Bannerman XVI:1 Spring 40 p 22 PICTURES Book Wagon-1916 XVI:2 Summer 40 p 10 Fishing John A. Spelman III XVI:2 Summer 40 p 25 Highlander Folk School XVI:3 Fall 40 p 16 & p 17 His Leisure linoleum cut John A. Spchnan III XVI:I Spring 40 n 18 Modern Book Truck-1940 XVI:2 Summer 40 p 11 Playirr,q Together XVI:4 Winter 41 p 12 Spelman, John A. III linoleum blocks XVI:1 Spring 40 p 18 & back cover; XVI:2 Summer 40 p 25 Spring John A. Spchnan III XVI:1 Spring 40 p 18 Ulmann, Doris photographs XVI:2 Summer 40 p 9; XVI:3 Fall 40 p 3 Working Together XVI:4 Winter 41 p 11 Pi"r Mo""tui" Guidance Institute 13irdcna Bishop XV7:3 Fall 40 p 25 Pla""rrl Parr"thood for Rural Families Mary Lindsay Hoffmm XVI:2 Summer 40 p 19 Problems luoolrrol in Obtaining Adequate Health ScÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rtirr for thrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ More"tui"s May Cravath Wharton, M.D. XVI:2 Summer 40 p 4 R RECREATION Iti"rru"t IZrrrr,ttio" Srrricc in 1939 Prank H. Smith XVI:1 Spring 40 p 14 Mountain Folk Frsfital, 1940 May Gadd XVI:l Spring 40 p 25 Rrrrratio", U" Olive D. Campbell XVI:I Spring 40 p 21 Recreation, U" Olive D. Campbell XVT:I Spring 40 p 2l RELIGION Church asl the Welfare State, ThrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ Arthur E. Holt XVI:1 Spring 40 p 1 Rural Church Commission, The Eugene Smathexs XVI:2 Summer 40 p 28 Toward a Social Scir"rr, Or the Genius of Jesus Orrin 1.. Keener XVI:2 Summer 40 p 1 Ridgway, Florence Holmes Changing the Library Map of Ihc Southland XVI:2 Summer 40 p LO Ritchie, Pauline A Passel of Little Things XVI:2 Summer 40 p 8 Rural Church Commission, The Eugene Smathers XVI:2 Sum mer 40 p 28 S Second National Co"frrcrrrzÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ ore HanrlirruJfs Bonnie Willis Ford XVI:4 Winter 41 p 26 Shouse, Francis Thr Mountain Youth in N.Y.A. XVI:2 Summer 40 p 24 Shuttle, The Nellie I. Crabb XVI:3 Fall 40 p 9 Smachers, Eugene The R"ral Church Co"rmission XVI:2 Sum mer 40 p 28 Smith, Ellsworth M. Another Year of Adult Ednrrrtio" XVI:1 Spring 40 p 16 Smith, I?Ilsworth M. Tlarrr's No Other C:o"fcrr"rr Like If XVI: Summer 40 p 21 Smith, Frank H. Iii"cru"t RrrrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ation Scrrire ire 1939 XVI:1 Spring 40 p 14 Southern I-lighlanrl Handicraft Guild XVI:1 Spring 40 p 29 Southern Mountains, Thr-Their Current Problems and Fitiurc Hope Marshall E. Vaughn XVI:4 Winter 41 p 14 SURVEYS ArrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢a.s of Isolation Luther M. Ambrose XVI:4 Winter 41 p 18 Sjmbols Don West XVI:1 Spring 40 p 3 T Tennessee Mountain Claudia Lewis XVI:1 Spring 40 p 24 T/arm's No Other Co"frrc"rc Like It Ellsworth M. Smith XVI:2 Summer 40 p 21 These of Beauty Esther Marie Colvin XVI:2 Summer 40 p 31 To Live ire the Country, Lot(, Country Life Henry Colman XVI:2 Summer 40 p 32 Toward a Social Scic"rc, Or ehc Genius of ]rs"s Orrin L. Keener Sutnmcr 40 p I U Unrlr Jeff's Children's Children Arthur M. Banncrman XVI:3 Fall 40 p 10 V Vaughn, Marshall I.. The So"thrr" i'vIountains-Their Current Problems anti Future Hope XVI:4 Winter 41 p 14 West, Don Slrrbnls XVI:I Spring 40 p 3 What tree the Characteristics of a Christian Rural Co"rrrr""it3 XVI:2 Summer 40 p 27 Wharton, May Cravath, M.D. Problc"r.c I"uolrrd in Obtaining Aolcd"atr Health ,SrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rufcr for the Mon."tai"s X\'T:2 Summer 40 p 4 White, Edwin E. Gelling the farts on Health XV1:1 Spring 40 p 7 Why Kentucky Nccrls State-Wirlr I_ibrarl Srrrirm Ursula March Davidson XVI:2 Summer 40 p 15 ZF'bl Kr"tnckp Needs .State-Wilr Library Srrtirr Naomi Duncar XVI:2 Summer 40 p 15 Wilson, Leon Folk School XV1:3 Fall 40 p 15 OUR CON'T'RIBUTORS Wlt.soN EVANS, who at present is Alumni Secretary of Berea College, lived "on top of Gunter Mountain" for three years as superintendent of the Kate Duncan Smith School. Ol.t,ll: MAE PARKER, once a teacher at Berea College, is now living in her home community, teaching school and leading in community activities. Her story of Alexandria is suggestive of what can be accomplished in some of our own mountain communities. CLwRENCE F. FALK is a Presbyterian minister at Double Springs, Tennessee. He was a member of the Study Club Short Course held at Berea, January 7-13. HARVEY K. MEYER, a teacher of industrial arts in the Richmond High School, designs and builds houses, and in his spare time writes poetry. MARSHALL E. VAUGHN, one of our contributing editors, is now Manager of the Lexington Social Security Office, Lexington, Kentucky. LUTHER M. AMBROSE, of the Education Department of Berea College, contributed to the April, 1938, issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK an article entitled "Private Secondary Schools-The Present Need." He now presents a new study of educational conditions in the mountains. FRANK C. FOSTER, president of Asheville College, is chairman of the Committee on Surveys and Appraisals of the Education Commission of the Conference. BONNIE WILLIS FORD, of the Penland Weavers and Potters, has been a frequent contributor to MOUNTAIN LIPS AND WORK.