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Mountain Life & Work vol. 01 no. 1 April, 1925 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv1n10425 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 01 no. 1 April, 1925 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky April, 1925 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume I APRIL, 1925. Number 1 CONTENTS Scaffold Cane (poem)_____________ Introduction _____________________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bristol Taylor _ _ -Dr. Win. J. Hutchins Purpose of Mountain Life and Work _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -Editor Greetings ____________________________Contributing Editors Flame of a New Future for the Highlands, Mrs. John C. Campbell The County. Achievement Contest in Kentucky A Program for the Mountains The English Ballad _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Prof. James Watt Raine Conference Programs l_k,$Yublished by Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual under- standing between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation. SCAFFOLD CANE "Scaffold Cane," the poem given below, was written by Bristol Taylor and is dedicated to his home community. He states that Scaffold Cane belongs to what is known as the Cavernous lime- stone region of Kentucky. The soil, with its red subsoil and scattering of coral, is known as the Clarksville Silt Loam. It is located four miles south of Berea. On the northern edge of the beautiful Scaffold Cane Plateau is Mr. Taylor's home. It is on the water-divide between the Cumberland and the Kentucky rivers. At the foot of a bluff, some four hundred feet below, lies a strip of country known as the Knobs. Across, and beyond is a broad expanse of rolling bluegrass pastures, which can be seen some twenty miles to the north. Mr. Taylor has been an expert for the past fifteen years in raising the highest grade ginseng in Eastern Kentucky. He makes his living, primarily, from this Chinese medicinal herb. Within Kentucky's fair domain, There stands our smiling Scaffold Cane, O'er which the hunter loved to roam, And now our peaceful, happy home; Where stood the hunters' cane-thatched shed That gave the place her name, 'tis said. In miles extent, some eight by three, A lovely table-land is she. Her soil is rich though blushed with red; Her coral speaks, "An old sea bed." Upheaved long since into the air, She stands a beauty, bright and fair. When bathed in sun and dressed in style, She wears a captivating smile. With autumn's brown and red and green, She is to me a charming queen, Who wears a crown of golden corn, And barks with dogs and blows the horn; Whose queenly dress includes, to me, The woods and fields and crops we see. But when, at dawn of coming spring, She calls her birds and frogs to sing; And when she sprays and milks her cows; And with her mules she hauls and plows; And when she plants her choicest seeds, And tills the soil to keep down weeds; And when she mows her grass for hay, .end calls her sons from work to play; And when she fills her woods with squir'ls To cheer and feast her boys and girls; And when she loads her lap with fruits, And gives to us her ginseng roots; And when she gives us shade of trees, With pigs and hens and hives of bees; And when, with fragrant blossoms sweet, She gives us all good things to eat; And when with breeze she fans us cool, And sends her girls and boys to school; And when in church she sweetly sings, Before the Lord, the King of Kings; And when she frowns at moonshine stills, And sings sweet peace from all her hills; It's then she's making love to me, And I .from her shall never flee. How sweet the name of Scaffold Cane, Whose cheeks, now blushed, were kissed with rain; That noble, lovely, smiling face Who helps sustain the human race! -Bristol Taylor April, 1925. Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 1 INTRODUCTION The highlands have always spoken to those who had ears to hear, spoken of mystery and ancient sorrow, of loneliness and strength. Nor have the highlands been without their in- terpreters. Kephart, Campbell, Raine and others have done highly significant service. But more often the senti- mentalist and sensa- tionalist have had their way, misinterpreting the mountains to them- selves and to the can public. It is further to be noted that a true inter- pretation of the moun- tains uttered years ago may misinterpret the facts of today. A woman writes: "I wish the mountain people might be left in their pristine simplicity." That wish is likely to be fulfilled, only when we forbid a Sears-Roebuck catalog to enter a moun- tain home, and forbid a Ford to creep up a dry creek-bed; only when we forbid a mountain man to get a winter job at Middletown, or a mountain boy to go to the "public works" at the rail-head. The so- WILLIAM JAI!?ES HUTCHINS, D.D.,-B.A., Ya'_e, 1892; D.D., Oberlin, 1920; D.D., Yale 1921; Ober~in Theol. Sem., 1895; Graduate Union Theol. 1896. Pastor, Bed- ford Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., 1896-1907. Professor of Homiletics, Oberlin Grad. School of Theol., 1907-20. Pres- ident, Berea College 1920- called, often miscalled goods of civilization are borne in every jolt-wagon that works its way up Big Hill; and Twentieth Century ideas are carried in the head of every girl, who at vaca- tion time rides home from some mountain school. The mountains need constant rein- terpretation to them- selves and to the world. Again, every moun- tain worker needs, longs for, intellectual com- radeship with others. "Are my methods of work archaic? Am I working so as best to foster the self-conscious- ness and efficiency of the public school system? What `program for the mountains' can claim and compel my enthusi- astic adherence?" Our Editors have been promised the co- operation of the fore- most students of the mountain problem. They believe that this magazine may become a present day interpret- er of the mountains to themselves and to the country;.and an organ of inquiry, investiga- tion , instruction t o the hundreds of mountain workers who are willing to make needful sacrifices, but do not care to die as the devotees of "misguided loyalties." We wish the new enterprise Godspeed. WM. J. HUTCHINS Page 2 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 Purpose of This Macrazine By the Editor The Appalachian Mountains might be ap- propriately called one of the grand divisions of the United States. It is one of our oldest regions with tre traditions and customs of an honored and i e ,,ered ancestry. Innumerable heroes of eve- y war from the ea- ly colonial Indian skirmi.shcs down to the great World War have come fr,-m humble mountain homes. Tears and heart aches, ,joy and ecstasy have in turn hari ened and softened the life of the mountaineer. Contrasted with the history of most pio- neers who fought, suffered and endured for a Marshall Everett Vaughn, born in Madison County, Kentucky; Educated in Berea College with special courses in University of Tennessee and University of Chicago; Superintendent of Schools, Newbern, Tenn., 1912-14; Secretary of Berea College from 1914 to 1919; Army Educational Corps and Y. M. C. A., with American Army in France, 1919; Resumed duties in Berea August 1919; in addition to Sccretarial duties he is Superintendent of Extension Service, Editor of the Citizen, Representative in Kentucky General As- sembly, Editor of Mountain Life and Work and an occasional contributor to various magazines. period and then conquered the region the mountaineer suffered and endured and was largely conquered by the region. The moun- tains have been unyielding to the ordinary pro- cesses of pioneering and for one hundred and fifty years have bent the backs of their people. This grinding toil for a living and unending combat with natural forces have a tendency to produce clannishness, factionalism, feuds, and a fatalistic view of life. It has been the sporadic outbreaks in the mountains that have given rise to a lot of un- authoritative characterization by professional writers and unscientific reformers. There has been built up among the mountaineers what the psychologists call an inferiority complex. It has found expression in the humble submis- sion to outside invasion and in the eager accept- ance of small favors and paltry benevolences. The mountains are poorly understood and in- sufficiently wap~leciated. It is a region of vast resources that has been blocked out of the wild by a g- eat people and held in trust, as it were, for the modern capitalist to develop and utili.ze. Its people are beginning to see tht dawn of a new day and to give form and expres- sion to their ambitions. Inte_ e.st in the mountains heretofore has been largely of the patronizing kind, the alms giving variety for the "uplift of the mountain whites". Today there is a national sentiment mobilizing in favor of the broader aspects of mountain life. To reach a true understanding of the real mountaineer will require a modification of many concepts about his life and habits that have been built up around him. Not only is it necessary to chant-the thinking of the outside world regarding him, but he must be brought to a different understanding of himself. It is to bring about these two ends that MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is launched. Every edu- cator and social service promoter who has had much exp~riea,ce in the mountains in recent years has felt or is feeling the need of such a medium as this publication. It is with the min- imum of misgivings that we undertake the task, for a serious and thoughtful country like ours will support this magazine for the good it will do. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK desires to serve and beyond that it has no ambitions to gratify. With that mission in view it ventures April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 3 to challenge the people to a common effort. This publication, sponsored by Berea College, en- dorsed and made valuable by its writers chosen from the best thinkers on mountain life to be found in the country desires to deliver a two- fold message-one to the dweller of the hills and the other to his brother of the plains and cities. It will realize its hopes if it can become a voice successfully inviting to a common effort the forces within its field-the schools, public and private, the churches, public officials, clubs and other governmental and private agencies. It will serve a larger usefulness if its voice can reach every corner of our common country, telling others of the needs of the mountains, of their opportunities, of their ambitions and their potentialities. Through the faith of Berea College built upon the promise and the belief that the pro- moters of this magazine will make it self-sup- porting the venture has been made. The high- lands are on the threshold of a new era either through conquest or self-development. MOUN- TAIN LIFE AND WORK desires to see the new era come by way of self-development rather than by way of conquest. There is a strain of blood in the mountains that America needs to perpetuate the ideals of the fathers. There is a simplicity in living that, if properly utilized, will help to sober the dizziness of our national life. We would appeal to every American inter- ested in needy people anywhere in the world to lend his co-operation to one of the most reliable groups of our great nation. We would help to establish a more intimate acquaintance between the mountains and the lowlands. We would make more clear and compelling the vision of prosperous and happy homes among the high- lands. One of the many scenic spots on the Dixie Highway which runs for 300 miles thru the Mountains of Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia. Page 4 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 SOUTHERN Mountain Life and Work Vol. I. APRIL 1925 No. 1. Marshall E. Vaughn, Editor Dr. Wm. J. Hutchins, Counsellor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson Mrs. John C. Campbell Dr. Edmund de S. Brunner Miss Helen H. Dingman Hon. W. O. Saunders Dr. John P. McConnell Dr. E. C. Branson Dr. John J. Tigert U. S. Commissioner of Education Others to be added later "Application for entry as second class matter at the Post office at Berea, Kentucky, pending." Subscription Price, $1.50 per year. Single Copy, 40c. Address all communications to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Berea, Kentucky Is there a mountain problem? Is there a rural problem? If you can answer the second question you can answer the first one. If you believe the farm population of our country is facing increasingly difficult situations you can easily believe that great masses of our mountain people are facing the same situations with a degree of intensity in proportion to their iso- lation and natural handicaps. Probably 750,000 of the 5,500,000 people living in the Southern Mountains get their living from industrial or- ganizations, such as coal mining, lumbering and manufacturing in the larger cities. This is about one-seventh of the whole population. Six-sevenths of the people must make an inde- pendent living by working for themselves. That is done by tilling the soil of their own or rented farms. More than 4,000,000 people are farmers or make their living indirectly thru the farmers by trading for them or selling goods to them. The mountain farmer, tho he suffers more than his agricultural neighbor of the low lands when farm conditions are bad, is in a better mental condition to endure his suffering. He has always had a meager living from his farm, has endured drudgery and poor educational facilities and therefore a slump is not as much of a crisis as it is with the farmer whose prod- ucts are sold on a high market and who lives under modern conditions. Relief to the farmer of the mountain yields a greater return than the same degree of relief yields to any other group in the United States. The rural population of the mountains is clamoring for a chance to make itself felt and if MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK can be of the least assistance in bringing this about it will count its mission fulfilled. We want to hear the story of the farmer who is battling with nature and with the competi- tion of a highly organized business world. We want to hear the story of the teacher who is living out in a desolate district and grappling with illiteracy and the poverty in that district. We want to hear the story of the unpaid min- ister who is preaching his heart out that his conception of the religion of Jesus Christ might take hold of his people and revolutionize their lives. We want to hear the story of the miner who lives amid the dangers of a hazardous oc- cupation, who makes large wages while he is making anything and spends it all as he make: it. We want to hear the story of the mine oper- ator who in some instances is faithfully trying to make the lives of the people in his employ as comfortable and pleasant as camp life can be and in other instances who is giving his miners the worst home conditions possible. We want to hear the story of the coal development of the Appalachian mountains and the real pioneering that was necessary to bring it up to its present status. We want to hear the story of the many other mineral deposits of this section and the progress that is being made in placing them upon the markets of the world. We want to hear the story of the timber and lumber industry in the Southern Mountains and what it has meant to the modernizing of the cities of our great centers of population and trade. We want to hear the story of the ambi- tions and aspirations of the million and a half boys and girls who live in the mountains and are not rebelling at being SENT to school but are pleading that they may be given a chance to GO to school. When these stories are told thru MOUN- TAIN LIFE AND WORK the imagination of the American who reads them will be quick- ened, his heart will beat faster and the mar from the plains will join hands with the man of the mountains and they will pull together for a greater American life as a whole. April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 5 Greetino,s from Contributing Editors JNO. J. TIGERT Department of the Interior Bureau of Education Washington, January 30, 1925 Dear Mr. Vaughn: I was glad to learn that you are inaugurat- Tigert, Jno. James, born, Nashville, Tennessee, Feb. 11, 1882; B.A. Vanderbilt University, 1924; B.A. in Honor School of Jurisprudence, Oxford, Eng., 1907 (first Rhodes scholar from Tennessee); M.A., Oxford University, 1915; graduate work University of Minnesota, 1916; hono-ry degrees, LL.D., Univer- sity of Kentucky, 1921; Ed.D. (Doctor of Education), Rhode Island State College, 192'3; LL.D., University of New Mexico, 1924; LL.D., Bates College, 1924. Ps o itions held: Professor of Psychology and Philos- ophy, Central College, Mo., 1907-9; President, Kentucky Wesleyan College, Winchester, Ky., 1909-11; Professor of Psychology and Philosophy, University of Kentucky, 1911.-17; Professor of Pscholcgy, University of Ken- tucky, 1917-21; Commissioner of Education of U. S., June, 1921 to present. Educational work with the Y. M. C. A., American Expeditionary Forces, Scotland, England, France, June 1918 to April 1919. Member Army Educational Corps, and extension lecturer, University of Beaune, American Expeditionary Forces, France, April to July, 1919. Author of numerous monographs, articles and re- ports on philosophical, psychological and educational subjects, in encyclopedias, periodicals, et.c. Fraternities: Phi Beta Kappa; Phi Delta Theta, (Member of General Council); Alpha Delta Sigma; Loyal Order of Moose. ing a publication which will administer to the needs of our mountain folk. Such a medium will be invaluable as a connecting link between the mountains and the outside world. It will be a great instrument in helping those who are unfamiliar with mountain life to appreciate the virtues and accomplishments of those often misunderstood inhabitants of our highlands. At the same time, it will furnish one more of the numerous channels that are now opening to bring the people of the mountains into con- tact with those outside. From every stand- point I see the possibility of great good from this venture. I hope for you splendid success. Cordially yours, Jno. J. Tigert, Commissioner HF'LEA' H. DINGllil~4 \' Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. Feb. 5, 1925. I believe that "Mountain Life and Work" is going to fill a long felt need in interpreting the mountains and their rapidly changing con- ditions to the public and in keeping sociologists arid mountain workers abreast with educational and social development. Through the pooling of experience and thought ought to come deeper understanding and more intelligent progress. In any way possible I shall be glad to be of assistance in this new undertaking. Very sincerely yours, Helen H. Dingman. Graduate, New Paltz State Normal School, New Pa1tz, New York, 1905; Teacher, Graded Schools, 1905- 1908; Teacher, Dans Hall, Wellesley, Mass., 1910-1917; Executive, Smith Community Centre, Smith, Harlan Page 6 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 County Kentucky, 1917-1922; Assistant Supt. of Field- work, Woman's Board of Home Missions of the Pres- byterian Church, U S. A., 1922-1924; Director of Service to Mountain Schools, Supervisor of Social Train- ing, Berea, 1924. MRS. JOHN C. CAMPBELL Conference of Southern Mountain Workers Rev. Isaac Messler, Chairman Meadow, Tennessee Mrs. John C. Campbell, Secretary 7 Hastings Lane, West Medford, Mass. My dear Mr. Vaughn I am indeed interested in such a magazine as you outline. Those of us who have had much to do with the mountains have long felt the need of some organ which would present different phases of life and work in the mountains in a sympathetic and broadminded manner and not merely for the purpose of raising funds for a particular school. We believe that such a magazine would help those living outside to better understand those living within the High- lands, and would also be of great practical assistance not only to the mountain workers but to all those who are striving elsewhere to make rural life a fuller life in every way. Mrs. John C. Campbell A graduate of Tuft's College, 1903, A.B. Taught high school three years before marriage. For twelve years traveled much with her husband, the late John C. Campbell, who was Director of the Southern High- land Division under the Russell Sage Foundation, and was more or less closely in touch with the whole moun- tain section. Since Dr. Campbell's death in 1919, Mrs. Campbell has been secretary of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. From 1920-1922 she was assistant to Mr. J. M. Glenn, General Director of the Sage Foundation, and then spent fifteen months in the Scandinavian countries studying the Peoples Col- leges. Since her return Mrs. Campbell has been study-' ing and advising as to the possibilities in the Highlands for adult education along the lines of the Scandinavian schools. EDMUND DE S. BRUNNER Brunner, Edmund de Schweintiz, M.A., Ph. D.- Institute of Social and Religious Research, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City, N. Y.; Director, Town and Country Surveys, Institute of Social and Religious Research, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City, N. Y.; Special lecturer on Rural Sociology, College of Missions, Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J.; Editor, Church and Country Life Department, Christian Work; Chairman, Rural Advisory Committee, Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America; Member of the Executive Committee, American Country Life Associa- tion President, Board of Education, Mountain Lakes, N. J.; Author of: History of Moravian Missions among California In- dians 1914; Cooperation in Coopersburg, 1916; The New County Church Building, 1917; The Country Church in the New World Order, 1919; A Church and Commun- ity Survey of Salem, County, N. J., 1922; A Church and Community Survey of Pend Oreille County, Washington, 1922; Joint author with Harry V. Brunner "Irrigation and Religion," 1922; Joint author with Herman N. Morse "The Town and Country Church in the United States," 1923; Church Life in the Rural South, 1923; Tested Methods in Town and Country Churches, 1923; Editor, Town and Country Studies, Institute of Social and Religious Research, 15 volumes. Institute of Social and Religious Research 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City February 2, 1925 Dear Mr. Vaughn I am very much interested in the proposal to start a magazine to be known as "Mountain Life and Work." The Southern Highlands have been so frequently misinterpreted to Ameri- cans at large and yet have so much which they can contribute to America that a magazine un- der the auspices of an institution like yours April, 1925 Southe-rv Mountain Life and Work Page 7 ought to render a service of unique value to the country and especially to the Southern High- lands. Sincerely yours, Edmund de S. Brunner W. 0. SANDERS COLLIER'S The National Weekly January 3, 1925 Dear Mr. Vaughn: I shall esteem it a privilege and a pleasure to be listed among the contributing editors of your forthcoming magazine. In the mountains of Appalachian America lies the assurance of the perpetuation of the finest American ideals. There is a gueat field for a magazine that will correctly interpret the life and moral grandeur of the mountain people to the rest of the world. With Berea College and other schools bringing the best of the world to the mountains and your proposed magazine to carry the best of the mountains to the world the job should be complete. With all good wishes for your adventure, i am Sincerely, W. O. Saunders Mr. Saunders is editor and publisher of the Elizabeth City, N. C. Independent; a member of the editorial staff of Collier's Weekly and contributor to the American Magazine. Address, Collier's Weekly, 416 West Thirteenth Street, New York City, N. Y.; or Elizabeth City, N. C. WARREN H. WILSON The Loard of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 156 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. January 2, 1924 Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn, _ Berea, Kentucky. Dear Mr. Vaughn: I am much pleased to hear about the maga- Dr. Warren H. Wilson, clergyman; A.B. degree, Oberlin; Ph. D. Columbia University; LL.D. Berea Col- lege; Pastor 1894 to 1908; Superintendent of Depart- ment of Church and Country Life of Presbyterian Church of the United States since 1908. Associate professor in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University; Member of Army Educational Corps and Y. M. C. A. service in France and Germany 1919; Author of many books and published articles on country life and country church questions. tine "Mountain Life and Work" and I am hon- ored to be named a contributor. I will be open to your orders when you want something from me. Sincerely yours, Warren H. Wilson, Director, Town and Country Department. JOHN PRESTON McCONNELL Dear Mr. Vaughn: I have received your letter announcing the proposed establishment of a magazine on the Mountains. I am delighted with this announce- ment. This "Mountain Life and Work" maga- Page 8 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 zine is badly needed at this time and will prove of inestimable value to the whole nation. The traditions, the ideals and the sturdy character of the people of the Appalachian Region are unquestionably one of the Nation's greatest assets. The human resources as well as the material resources of the Appalachian Region are very inadequately realized by the Nation. The Mountain Region is a nursery of char- acter and a conserver of the best traditions of the best countries of Euyope, whence the ances- tors of its population came. This publication should reveal and interpret to the world the possibilities of the undeveloped human re- sources of the neglected upland empire of the Appalachian Region. I shall be very glad to become a con- tributing editor as suggested in your letter and shall use whatever influence I can to give pub- licity to the new publication and to take steps to get it in the hands of the right people. Very respectfully, John Preston McConnell, President Dr. John Preston McConnell, President of the State Teachers College at Radford, Virginia has for many yeas been actively identified with education, humani- tarian and reform work in the Appalachian Region; has taught in all grades of educational institutions, beginning his teaching experience in a one-room school. He holds the Degree of Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts from Milligan College, Tennessee, and the De- gree of Doctor of Philosophy from University of Vir- ginia. He has served as President of the State Teachers Association of Virginia; President of Virginia Educa- tional Conference; President of the Virginia Society for Scientific Study of Education and is now President of the Appalachian School Improvement Foundation for the improvement of education and living conditions in the Appalachian Region; for four consecutive terms President of the State Conference of Charities and Corrections in Virginia; President of the Southern Educational Association and has for the last four years been President of the Anti-Saloon League of Virginia. He is a member of the National Board of Education of the Disciples of Christ Church. He is President of the Co-operative Education Association of the State of Virginia, which consists of eighteen hundred community organizations, with a membership of more thanone hundred thousand. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and a charter member of the Raven Society in the University of Virginia. He was a contributor to the ten volume History of the South in the "Building of the Nation" and also "Library of Southern Literature," wrote "Negroes and Their Treatment in Virginia, 1865-67," has written many pamphlets and published addresses on educational and social topics. He has for three years been President of the Co-operative League for Education and Social Service in the Southern States. He is a member of the War History Commission appointed by the Governor of Virginia to write a history of Virginia's Activities and Achievements in the World War. EUGENE C. BRANSON Branson, Eugere Cunnigham, Educator; born in Morehead City, N. C., educated Trinity College, Pea- body College and University of Georgia; Principal of High School, Raleigh, N. C.; Superintendent of Schools at Wilson, N. C. and Athens, Ga.; President of State Normal School of Georgia; Head of department of rural economics and sociology of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. Editor and author of distinction in the field of rural life. Probably the most effective editorial work of Dr. Branson is the University News Letter which goes weekly to practi- cally every community in the State. Address; Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. Branson refuses to permit his living likeness to crown his epitaph. He has agreed to become a partner with us in the effort to disseminate knowledge about the highland region but has an aversion to allowing his photograph to be published, .even tho he makes a rather distinguished pose. Dr. Branson needs no introduction to those who have followed the rapid rise of North Carolina during the last ten years. He has been a very potent factor in remaking his State. From time to time there will come to the readers of Southern Mountain Life And Work accounts of the accomplishments of Dr. Branson and suggestions from him for re- building the social and economic life of other states. April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 9 Flame of a New Future for the Highlands By Mrs. John C. Campbell Recently the query was put to me as to why workers in the Southern Mountains should separate themselves in a conference from the rest of the South, as if mountain problems were peculiar and the mountain people a peculiar people. The question was well worth asking. There is no real fundamental reason for sep- arating mountain people from lowland people, nor indeed are mountain problems so different at bottom from those of other rural areas in the United States. It cannot be stated too often or too emphatically that the so-called mountain problem is only a part of the whole national rural problem. Its differences are of degree rather than kind. Topography tends to make its rural problems intense. Inasmuch, however, as the influences of nature go deep in the life of a people and create certain condi- tions more or less universal over a circum- scribed area, we feel justified in discussing the life of such an area as a unit, as long as we keep in mind its larger relationship. Briefly then, what are the Southern Moun- tains or Highlands, and what are the general conditions which justify our discussing the region as a unit ? It is with considerable hesi- tation that I attempt any brief definition. The reader would much better go to Mr. Camp- bell's "Southern Highlander and His Home- land" for a full understanding of matters per- taining to the Southern Mountain area. The mountain land and people have suffered much from generalization at the hands of the press and many of their would-be friends. It is easier to point out differences than similarities. In general terms one can hardly do more than to call attention to the elevated character of the whole area, whatever its regional or local peculiarities; the homogeneous nature of its racial stock, however different its social and economic status may appear in different places; and the predominantly, rural form of its civili- zation, despite the presence of certain conspic- uous cities and industrial centers. Roughly speaking, the Southern Mountains are that part of the Appalachain Mountain chain which extends from western Maryland in a south-westerly direction, through western Virginia, West Virginia, Eastern, Kentucky East Tennessee, western North Carolina, four counties in northwest South Carolina on down into northern Georgia and Alabama. Tech- nically, only that portion is properly called Southern which lies south of the New River Divide in southern Virginia. From this point rivers flow south and west into the Ohio and Tennessee. Northward rivers flow north and east to the Atlantic, and the region is desig- nated by the Geological Survey as the Northern Appalachians. History rather than geology sanctions the use of the word Southern for the whole upland area lying south of the Mason and Dixon Line. The limits of this upland area, shading off to east and west into Piedmont hills, and to the youth into the Coastal Plain, have been variously defined. Mr. Campbell, discarding urban and rural cleavages, social and racial similarities, has safely based his definition of Southern Highlands on geological grounds. In other words, he included under the name Southern Highlands those three belts of the Appalachian Province, designated by the Geological Survey as the Blue Ridge Belt, the Greater Appala- chian Valley and the Allegheny-Cumberland Plateau. The steep front of the Blue Ridge to the east, the broken irregular face of the Allegheny-Cumberland Plateau to the west and the upper reaches of the Coastal Plain to the south, distinguish the Highlands proper from the country adjacent and in many respects not dissimilar. In all, this region, reckoned on a county basis, covers some 112,000 square miles. It is necessary to understand the character of these ribbon like belts which follow the trend of the mountain chain throughout its entire length, in order to understand certain differ- ,ences in life and development. The eastern- most or Blue Ridge Belt has a purely mountain character,-high ranges and cross ranges which reach in Mount Mitchell on the mountain plateau of western North Carolina, a height of 6711 feet. Numerous other peaks reach an al- titude of from 5,000 to 6,000 feet above sea- level. It is a region of great forests, water- Page 10 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 power, and valuable mineral deposits other than coal, and largely undeveloped. Its healthful- ness and beauty are two of its greatest assets. The Greater Appallachian Valley lies directly to the west and varies in altitude from 500 to 1700 feet above sea-level. It is a limestone region, a natural farming land although diver- sified especially on its western side, by ridges. For many years it has had railroad communi- cations and is the seat of such flourishing cities as Knoxville, Chattanooga and Birmingham. The Allegheny-Cumberland Plateau, lying west of the Valley, includes twice as much terri- tory as the other two belts combined. It varies from characteristically plateau country in Ala- bama and Tennessee to a deeply dissected pla- teau region, mistakenly called mountains, in Kentucky and West Virgina. This too is a forest region but the greatest resources are found in its marvellously rich coal measures. Within these different belts the diversity of the country is so great that it is practically im- possible to speak of any one section as typical, nor can conditions within a given area be safe- ly designated as "typical conditions." The steep hillsides and deep winding valleys of eastern Kentucky and much of West Virgina present problems quite different in many res- pects from the more level, thin-soiled and spar- cely populated areas of the Plateau farther south. The life of parts of the ridge section of the Great Valley has little in common with that of cities not far, as miles are measured, from them. The narrow range of the Blue Ridge in Virginia has meant something quite different in the history of the people living there from the great mountain plateau between the Blue Ridge and Unakas, in western North Carolina. Rural it all is. In 1920 only seven cities of 25,000 inhabitants were to be found in its whole extent, and only twenty-two cities of 10,000. 79.3% of its entire population which numbered over five and one quarter millions, were living in communities of 1,000 or under. 84.3'/, were native born white of native parents. Only 1% were foreign born, and 2.71/1, negro, of whom the greatest numbers were in cities, in- dustrial centres and the richer valley areas. Who the ancestors of the mountain people were, how they came into the mountains, and why they stayed, has been much debated. We are reasonably safe in saying that the bulk of the people living in the mountains are descen- dants of colonial English, Scotch-Irish and Ger- man stock, with smaller admixtures of other races,-much of the best and certainly some of the poorest pioneer blood. They were the ad- vance guard of the great migration to the west, moving from Pennsylvania into the Greater Valley in Maryland, Virginia and Tennessee, and from the Southern coast up the river cour- ses to the Piedmont and then across the Blue Ridge. Generation by generation they pushed on into the wilderness, seeking land, liberty, game, until after the Revolution they struck the Wilderness Road through Kentucky and founded an empire beyond the Alleghenies in the great west. One may retrace their steps by common names sprinkled from Kentucky to Tennessee, and so to North Carolina and Vir- vinia. "Grandpap came from North Carolina, or Virginia," says the Kentuckian. In all like- lihood his knowledge stops there, but we find his distant kinfolk in Pennsylvania in 1790 as we find his aristocratic cousin in the Blue Grass today. Why did they linger? Valley lands were good; there were springs of clear water and plenty of game. They had liberty and no worse roads than, at that time, stretched to the west- ward. Doubtless many remained from the pure chance of a "broken axle", but one may venture to guess that many more stayed from choice. The little home unit left in the mountain wild- erness increased rapidly. Soon population spread back up among creek and branch, where- ever a little bottom land was to be found, fresh game or new springs of clear water. Later migration from the coast increased numbers without greatly changing stock. They brought probably more English proportionally,-pos- sibly of a less vigorous type, but this is specu- lation merely. At all events they brought no new traditions, no new ways of life. "The civilization remained," to quote Mr. Cecil Sharp, "Anglo-Celtic." Then about one hundred years ago, west- ward migration through the mountains ceased. The old trails were traveled no more. In favor- ed spots or larger stretches of rich land or at the junction of major streams, life continued to develop normally as elsewhere. Cities grew with their urban population; prosperous farms added to the wealth of the nation. Over much of the region, however, mountain range and narrow valley tended to act as barriers. The April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work .Page 11 cove, the bottom land along creek and branch, the high upland, holding little intercourse with the outside, lingered on in the life of earlier days. The traditions brought from lands across the sea blended with customs and prejudices bred by the frontier existence. The natural conservatism of country-dwellers everywhere, and here intensified, made for little change. Independence, democracy, simplicity of living- sturdy virtues all, had a reverse side less bright. Standards of conduct elsewhere frowned upon, a code of honor based on "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth," became intrenched in a society where every man was for himself. Life was hard. The subduing of a forest land gave little time and opportunity for book education. Illiteracy became common and was no index of intelligence or worth. Then suddenly the "retarded frontier" was rediscovered. A conventional world was char- med with its picturesqueness, startled by its independence and shocked at its illiteracy and disregard for law. It could not understand how people could at once be feudists and men of integrity and responsibility in their neighbor- hood; how they could be illiterate yet have a real and deep culture. They failed to distin- guish, through the universal simplicity of liv- ing, social differences which had their found- ations in natural force and character. Personal experiences led to undiscriminating generaliza- tions on the "finest of Anglo-Saxon blood", and the "off-shoots of degenerate refugees and criminals". No people have ever played more completely the mixed role of villain and neg- lected hero in the public eye. One might divide the discoverers into two classes; those who saw the natural resources and sought them regardless of the interests of the natural owners; and those who with mis- sionary zeal rushed in to educate and reform. Millions of acres of mineral and virgin timber lands passed into the hands of development companies at from 75 cents to 10 dollars an acre, some to be held indefinitely for future use, and some to be stripped recklessly without thought of the morrow. There are counties to- day in the mountains where the major part of the land is company land inhabited by a shift- ing population. Railroads have penetrated into the back country, some to stay, some to disap- pear after a number of years, leaving behind a deadened and weakened rural life. Almost in a night industrial communities have grown up. People who have never known anything of or- ganized community existence, have been of a sudden, gathered into mining camps or set alongside a development which presents all the problems of the modern industrial world. New highways flung across the heights have brought connection with hitherto far-off cities; they have given glimpses of unthought-of lux- uries. Summer visitors, eager for amusement have pounced in with new standards. And with all this new life, stimulating and demanding, came the 18th amendment, commercializing what had previously been held a right passed down from pioneer days. Society in the Highlands is in a process of transition so rapid in places as to leave one breathless and at times all but hopeless. Here is a seemingly remote untouched corner, where granny may still wear her sunbonnet and ride her side saddle, but her granddaughter not uncommonly has bobbed hair and carmined lips. On one hand is heard, less and less frequently, the old English ballad; on the other, increasingly, jazz from the commissary vic- trola. Here the road still lies in the creek; there runs the hard-surfaced highway. Here the canvas-topped wagon jolts through the mud behind the teams of mules; there the omnipres- ent Ford and the high-powered machine. Are you surprised that the mountaineer is finding it hard to make the adjustment? Some, it is true, have won out in the fight against odds. They have matched their wits against the newcomers and become capitalists in turn. One finds them here and there in county seats or cities outside. There is no question but the mountaineer, given his chance, can compete with the ablest. If that is his con- tribution to modern society, there will be plenty in his numbers who can make it. Fixing our eyes upon them, we talk of progress and free- dom of choice, forgetting that chances are not even, that many a mountain family which finds a livelihood in the mills and shops of the border land, loses with it independence and other things equally precious. One cannot wonder that many a mountain miner, conscious of his blood that tamed the wilderness, under- standing nothing of the forces which have him in their control, joins the Ku Klux and pursues with deadly hatred his negro and foreign eco- nomic rivals. It is easy for him to think of set- tling such questions with his gun. He sees the Page12 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 wealth of his employers, and he -a son of the tamers of the wilderness, talks of "class," though he shudders at the name of socialist or bolshevist. When the mines are working, he has a wage that is large on his moneyless horizon, but he does not know how to save or use his wages. Moreover, employment is un- even. There are hard times for the family which has kept no foothold on the soil. One sees, too the young man who goes out to work for a few months at a time and comes home in the winter to live on his father. And his father? The older men who own their land, continue, most of them, blindly in the old way, to raise a crop of corn, though their soil is badly impoverished and the smaller yield hardly pays the cost of raising unless one sells it at the still. The more prosperous, run- ning a store or mill, trading cattle or tobacco, defy changing conditions for the present. The less prosperous who keep clear of the tempta- tion of bootlegging, continue to piece out their crop with making railroad ties and with be- tween-season's labor at the public works. Of the renters one does not need to speak, they are the same everywhere. The young men of the mountains, however, who are getting an edu- cation, are not going back to the farm. If you do not believe this, ask the boys in high school and college, and see what they say. They may go to the county seat as lawyers, doctors, mer- chants; they go out into rural sections for a period as teachers, but back to the land--"no more of that." In vain the county agent tries to point out that there may be an agricultural future for much of the mountain area. He himself has perhaps a vision of what might be; he preaches how worn-out lands may be renewed, what new methods should be used, what type of agricul- ture should replace the old. If he can get the hearing of the younger married men, he is do- ing well. Within a few weeks, one far-sighted county agent has said to me, "Agricultural teaching alone cannot meet the situation. There must be inspiration along with it." Is there really an agricultural future for the mountain country? Once again one meets many answers in which the questions of land ownership, good roads and accessibility to mar- ket all play their part. Reduced to lowest terms, the situation may be thus stated: there seems to be no reason why a large proportion of the mountain country should not be made to support a satisfying rural life provided the peo- ple work together toward realizing them. What- ever one may think of the desirability of drain- ing the mountain population into sections more favorable agriculturally, this remedy is no an- swer to the rural problem in the mountains or elsewhere. Moreover, some people are always going to live in the mountain country. Who and what they are to be-the hangers on of an industrial civilization fast developing, in many sections, the problems of West Virginia; the servants of a tourist aristocracy; the dregs of a once independent people, the hopeless problem of church boards and philanthropists? What should be our ideal of mountain life, what the aim of mountain work? This is not the time to turn back the page of educational effort in the mountains or else- where in the rural sections of the United States. It is too well recognized that our education, public and private, academic and agricultural, has not solved the problem of the country, has not stemmed the tide to the cities. There are doubtless economic and social reasons for this, sound and serious reasons, but there is another which seems to me too little recog- nized. How many of us who talk of rural problems and -rural life, really believe in the country? We speak of the fine independence of farm life but deep down in our hearts do we not still measure success in urban terms of reputation, money, freedom from manual labor? When we talk of the farm as the foundation of national life, do we not secretly cherish the thought that the energetic, intelli- gent boy should go to the city to realize his fullest potentialities? Yet all of us would read- ily grant that it takes ability of a high order to farm well, to contribute to a successful agri- cultural civilization, whether it be on the prairie lands of the middle west, the limestone soils of the Virginia Valley or the coal meas- ures of Kentucky. "There has been too much bunk in our talk about the country," an educator confessed to me recently. Yet obviously what we believe will have its sure outward influence. We, who are teachers in rural regions, cannot believe in one thing and teach another. We must have and make shine in the minds of others, some- thing for the mountains of the vision which Mr. George Russell desires for Ireland "People tell me that the countryside must always be stupid and backward, and I get angry, as if it were said that only townspeople had immortal souls, and it was only in the city that the flame of divinity breathed into the first man had any unobscured glow. The countryside in Ireland could blossom and glow into as much beauty as the hillsides in mediae- April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 13 val Italy if we could but get rid of our self- mistrust. We have had all that any race ever had to inspire them, the heavens overhead, the earth beneath, and the breath of life in our nostrils. * * * * * * We are dreaming of nothing impossible, nothing which has not been done somewhere already, nothing which we could not do here in Ireland. True, it cannot be done all at once, but if we get the idea clearly in our minds of the building up of a rural civili- zation in Ireland, we can labor at it with the grand persistence of mediaeval burghers in their little towns, where one generation laid down the foundations of a great cathedral and saw only in hope and faith the gorgeous glooms over altar and sanctuary, and the blaze and the flame of stained glass, where apostles, prophets and angelic presences were pictured in fire, and the next generation raised high the walls, and the third generation only saw the realiza- tion of what their grandsires had dreamed. We in Ireland should not live only from day to day, for the day only, like the beasts in the field, but should think of where all this long caval- cade of the Gael is tending and how and in what manner their tents will be pitched in the :vening of their generation. A national pur- pose is the most unconquerable and victorious of all things on earth.* * * * * *Does anyone think that out of all these little cabins and farm- houses dotting the green of Ireland there will come harmonious effort to a common end with- out organization and set purpose? The idea and plan of a great rural civilization must shine like a burning lamp in the imagination of the youth of Ireland, or we shall only be at cross-purposes and end in little futilities." I believe there is a agricultural future for the Highlands, and I hope to see those now on the land begin to work toward its realization. Whatever we believe, however, as to the man- ner in which the mountains are to develop, the time has come for us to divest ourselves as far as possible of academic prejudice, emancipate ourselves from the yardstick of grades and de- grees, ask ourselves the true object of educa- tion. When we do this honestly, it is hard to escape from the conclusions of the old Danish preacher and philosopher, Grundtvig, the in- spirer of the folk-schools, when he was faced with the educating of a nation soon to have universal suffrage. The future of a nation with a democratic government depends not nly upon the intelligence and general knowl- edge of its citizens, but upon the desire and purpose of those citizens to make national life what it should be. In other words, education for rich and poor, for city and country should stimulate idealism, purpose, action, responsi- bility, service, brotherhood, true patriotism. It should aim to make better citizens by making better men. And finally, it should recognize the fundamental education in the doing of the common tasks of every day-the education which only needs to be linked with intelligent vision to make every day life better and hap- pier. This is our problem in the mountains. Is it a mountain problem alone? (Courtesy of Editor Jackson Times, Jackson, Kentucky.) State of Jetts Creek Breathitt County Kentucky I, Jackson Terry, Hi official Magistrate Squire and Justice of the Peace do hereby isu the fol- lowing rit against Henderson Harris charging him with assalt and battery and breach of the peace on his brutherin lau, Tom Fox by name, this warant cuses him of kickin bitin and scratchin and thron rocks an doing everything that wus mean and contrary to the law in the state of Jetts Creek and aforesed. This war- ant othorise the hi constable, Mils Terry by name to go forthwith and forthcomin and rest the sed Henderson Harris and bring him to bee delt with accordin to the law of Jetts Creek and aforesed this warant othorise the hi constable to tak him wher he finds him on the hil side as wel as in the level, to take him wher he aint as wel as wher he his and bring him to be dealt with according to the laws of Jetts Creek an aforesed January the 2, 1838 Jackson Terry Hi constable Magistrate and Squire an Justice of the Pece of the State of Jetts Creek and aforesed "The church in our holler, is about dead. Part of the folks wants a edicated preacher, an' part of 'em wants an old timer, an' so they aint got nary one." "Shure I'm sick enough, but we haint no money for doctor bills. Time he comes four- teen- miles up the creek he'll charge more money than we-all's got to pay. Might as well die of sickness as to die of starvation payin' doctor bills." Page 14 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 County Achievement Contest in Kentucky By Marshall E. Vaughn (This article except the judges' report, appeared in February number of "Rural America.") On the first day of August, 1922, an improve- ment contest on a county wide scale was launched in Eastern Kentucky by the Exten- sion Department of Berea College. I have been superintendent of that service for ten years and have always been ready to employ any worthwhile method that would fit in with our program and be practical for our field. As the outgrowth of a number of suggestions and experiments, the County Achievement Contest was developed. The idea was to put on an ideal experiment and use the most effective means possible to get results. Contests in community clubs, Sunday school classes, and various city projects have been tried with success. And basing our hope on these successes we decided to launch a gigantic contest and put behind it every agency and organization that could be converted to our plan. We worked out these ideas on paper before giving them any concrete form. The first question that came to our minds was: what is a well organized and well balanced county? The answer to this question was the development of ten departments which were to be federated under one general organization known as the county council. The ten departments are as follows: The public school system, health and sanitation, home and farm improvements, churches and Sunday schools, agriculture and live stock, community clubs, junior clubs, roads and public buildings, newspaper circulation, and social work. There is nothing convention- al or arbitrary in the naming of these particular ten departments. It is not really essential to have as many as ten and I would not have more than ten if I were to start another organiza- tion. There should not be fewer than seven departments nor more than ten. It depends on how you group them and outline the work in order that it will cover every phase of country life. When our ideal county had been built on paper, we sought a benefactor who had both money and vision. I made a trip to Louisville to see Judge R. W. Bingham, owner and editor of the Courier-Journal and Times, and one of the outstanding promoters of cooperative so- cieties among farmers. After listening atten- tively to the details of the program, Judge Bingham agreed to give five thousand dollars to be awarded in two prizes, three thousand and two thousand dollars, to the two counties showing the greatest improvement over a per- iod of two years. He left the details of the plan entirely with us because he had enough faith in the sincerity of Berea College's work to leave all of the details of such a program with the college. With our program on paper and the promise of the awards secured, we had to put over the real job, and there is where the rub comes, always. Judge Bingham being owner of a me- tropolitan paper, the news of the ,enterprise was given wide circulation on the front page of his morning Courier. The agricultural agents, who are the real leaders in most of the Eastern Kentucky counties, began to write for information and within a month ten counties had signified their desire to enter the contest. Before we enrolled the counties we got the written agreement of all the public officials and the principal service organizations of the coun- ty to cooperate with the enterprise. Then a meeting was held to elect the county chairman and secretary. A list of the ten departments and an outline of their duties were given to the county chairman in order that a chairman and committee for each department might be care- fully chosen. When this was done mass meet- ings were held in the courthouse and other central points throughout the county for the purpose of arousing the interest of the people. Publicity was given through local papers, and placards and posters were sent to all parts of the county. An ,effort was made to arouse the interest and enthusiasm of every citizen. In some counties the work started off with a bang, while in others, more conservative, it went more slowly. A beautiful sequel to this move- ment was the noticeable fact that some of the slowest counties in the beginning were the most enthusiastic at the close. Shortly after the inauguration of the move- ment a county wide road working was called in Knott county and three thousand citizens gave two full days' work on the roads of the county. On some far distant creeks of Knott, roads were put in passable condition that had not been worked in twelve years. It these days of centralization of authority and power in state and national governments the people April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 15 are losing their local interest and looking to the state capitol for all of their improvements. The people in many sections of Eastern Ken- tucky are doing the same thing. They need roads badly but spend more time sending dele- gations to the state highway department to get state roads than they do in working some of the county roads that will never receive state aid. In the counties of this contest this system was changed. The report of the county chair- man of Rockcastle shows that one houndred and twenty-seven miles were made usable for automobiles during the two years of the con- test. For one reason or another three counties of the ten dropped out of the contest shortly after entering it. Lack of harmony among the leaders, factional politics, and other causes pre- vented the movement from going forward. But in seven counties more than twenty thous- ands man-days of free labor were given to road building and more than two thousand team- days. The total value of the free labor given to the roads of these seven counties is sixty or seventy thousand dollars. Put the efforts of the people were not con- fined to road building. That represents only one of ten departments. In four counties of he ten -every school child in the county had a physical examination and more than a thous- and defectives were sent to physicians, hos- pitals, or clinics to be treated. The population of the counties in the contest is something over 190,000 and more than 50 per cent of them par- ticipated in one way or another. As an example of the accomplishment of the church and Sunday school departments, I will give the results of the investigation of the judges in Lee County. According to the official report of the Sunday school association in June, 1922, there were five Sunday schools in Lee County with an enrollment of 409 pupils. The same association at the end of the contest, July 1, 1924, reported twenty-three Sunday schools with 1,950 pupils enrolled. In this same county four unusable rural churches that had not had pastors in five years were remodeled, their congregations revived and part-time pas- tors employed. The rebuilding of one of these country churches reads like a fairy tale. The people gathered in the old building for a com- munity meeting in response to the call of the county agent and when they turned their at- tention to the things that could be done in their community one of the first subjects that came n for discussion was the condition of the old -nurch building in which they were meeting. As a result the building was covered, painted inside and out, the old fence torn down, new seats bought, and a minister called to the task of reorganizing the congregation. They are having regular services there and Sunday school every Sunday and have been for more than a year. Other notable achievements were: the establishment of the cooperative creamery in Rockcastle County, with one hun- dred and ten stockholders, practically all far- mers, and one hundred and fifty customers marketing the cream from five hundred cows; the building of a new telephone system in Lee County, the first one ever built in the county, the organization of a newspaper and a light- ing system; more than five thousand homes have undergone improvement under the di- rection of the.home improvement committees of the various counties; nearly five hundred standard homes were brought up to the speci- fications for standard homes outlined in the county achievement manual, of these 200 were farm homes; more than 6,000 subscribers were added to newspapers, farm and religious magazines; the organization of more than one hundred community clubs with working pro- gram, meeting regularly and functioning as community clubs should. It is sufficient to say that the County Achievement Contest is no longer an experi- ment so far as the counties that have gone through it are concerned. At the last meeting of the county councils and the receptions given. for the judges, the citizens present voted unani- mously to continue the work of the contest re- gardless of the prize feature. Wa are indebted to a number of individuals and state agencies for their cooperation in this great experiment. The State College of Agri- culture at Lexington, the State Board of Health, The State Department of Education gave their unqualified endorsement to the work and encouraged their representatives to cooper- ate wherever it was possible. The outstanding individual who helped to launch the program in the beginning was Prof. Everett L. Dix of the American Red Cross who was at that time teaching Social Service in Berea College. Pr of. Dix was soon called into permanent Red Cross work at Atlanta and was forced to give up his connection with the contest except to wish for its success at a distance. Following is the report of the judges: Lee, Jackson, Rockcastle, Breathitt, Owsley and Knott counties reported as a whole the fol- lowing outstanding achievements. They do not express the great spirit of fellowship and co- operation in its entirety, but merely the tan- Page 16 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 gible accomplishments for which credit was given. Roads and Public Buildings New court house in Jackson County, pro- moted by the contest, cost $49,000. Court house in Lee County remodeled-$10,000. Pub- lic buildings, repairs, Rockcastle County- $8,250. Public buildings, repairs, Breathitt County-$41,000. Bonds for road building voted during the contest, $450,000. Bond mon- ey used during contest, $720,000. Part of bond money spent was voted by the counties before the contest started. County wide road workings iri all counties. Total 20,160 days of free labor. 2,110 days of team work. Cash value of all free work at least $60,000. 210 miles of road graded or repaired for automobile service. 8 miles of permanent gravel road built by community co-operation. 7 miles of stone road built largely by free labor and contributions of local citizens. Total contributions reported, $16,000. School System Average increase in school attendance dur- ing the contest over the previous year, 5 per cent. Money raised in six counties for school equipment-$6,450. 112 Parent-Teacher Associations were or- ganized in the six counties during the two years of the contest. Twenty-one Associations was the greatest number ever organized before. Health and Sanitation There were held 27 health clinics in the above six counties during the two years of the contest. Two thousand, six hundred young people and children were examined by special- ists and the following diseases were discovered Diphtheria-17; Trachoma-116; Hook Worm -67; Defectives-eyes, nose, throat, cripples, 468 ; Tuberculosis-35. 1 More than 4,000 school children were vac- cinated in the country schools. Twice as maany as ever before. 127 sanitary privies were erected during the contest. Only 7 had been installed ~ in the previous two years. More than 50,000 health circulars were dis- tributed thru the counties. Three times as many as ever before. FayÃ‚Â°m and Home Improvements Seven thousand and three hundred homes made reports on the offiicial blank furnished by the County Councils. A sample report given herewith indicates the general type of improve- ments made in the homes and on the farms. Nearly 200 country homes became standard according to the standardization fixed by the promoters of the contest. 311 new stock barns were erected during the contest. 62 new home lighting plants were installed in six counties. One Communiity Creamery in Rockcastle County. The stock belongs to 106 farmers and it consumes the products from nearly 500 cows. More than 400 miles of new wire fencing was constructed during the contest. According to the report of the County Agents, 5,000 more acres of grasses and le- gumes were planted during the two years of the contest than during the five previous years. 25,000 fruit trees were planted during the two years of the contest. 4,000 more pure bred chickens were pro- duced than during the two previous years. Of the seven thousand and three hundred homes that were scored, five thousand were farm homes. These showed an increase in the market value of vegetables and eggs of $40,000 over the previous period. It is well to note in this connection that the period of the contest from 1922 to 1924 was .the period of greatest depression in farm products since the close of the war. Church and Sunday Schools Nine new churches were erected where there had been none before the contest began. Eight old churches were replaced by new and in most cases modern buildings in every way. The total cost of these buildings was, $100,000. Fifty-five new Sunday Schools were organ- ized with a total enrollment of 4,100 pupils. The attendance upon Sunday School in the six counties increased 57 per cent over the pre- vious period. All but six of the above Sunday Schools or- ganized during the contest are self-supporting April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 17 as they were locally organized and had no mis- sionary connection. Community Clubs 12Q community clubs were organized in six counties and at least 85 of them held regular monthly meetings. The majority of the rest held irregular meetings, but in every case meet- ings were held at least three times a year. 1835 men and women were members of com- munity clubs. The 126 clubs held 1560 meetings during the contest and recorded a total attendance for the entire period of 24,680 people. 80 clubs organized regular programs of work that were endorsed by the College of Agriculture of the University of Kentucky. Junior Clubs 4,780 boys and girls were enrolled in the 92 Junior Clubs which was an increase in mem- bership of about 40 per cent over the previous period. These club members engaged in 9 different projects such as Pig Clubs, Tomato Clubs, Calf Clubs, Corn Clubs, Poultry Clubs, etc. Newspaper Circulation A campaign was put on for increasing the circulation of Dailies, County Papers; School, Religious and Agricultural Journals. Increase of dailies over previous period in all counties, 1650. Increase of county papers over previous period in all counties, 2700. Increase of farm journals over previous period in all counties, 1700. Increase of religious journals over previous period in all counties, 485. County paper rehabilitated and started un- der new management in Lee County thru efforts of contest leaders. The paper had ceased to operate. Social Work Two county Ministerial Associations organ- ized for first time. Three county Educational Associations or- ganized for first time. One Kiwanis Club, One Credit Union, Three County Boards of Health, Two County Sunday School Associations, Two singing clubs, and two women's clubs. These are separate organ- izations from the Community Clubs that are located in the country. These clubs have their headquarters in the County Seats. The report of the judges follows: We are very much pleased to find wonder- ful progress made in each county inspected. The progress is particularly striking along the line of law enforcement, development of churches and Sunday schools, and a general growing sentiment favoring good roads. Dur- ing the entire trip we attended large gatherings and never saw a sign of liquor, "pistol toting," or any form of lawlessness. The work of the Junior Agricultural Clubs is particularly strik- ing in every county. The Club Camp attended in Jackson County was the best ever witnessed by any member of the Committee. There is also a striking improvement in the country homes. Many of the homes in all the counties are being improved and made more beautiful. Beautiful flowers adorn many of the country yards. Perhaps the most disappointing phase of the Achievement Contest is to be found in the lack of development of our country schools. Many new buildings have been built but some have not been kept in good repair. It appears that our improved school laws have not been success- ful in putting into the school room teachers with as much training or experience as the children deserve. This is largely due to the lack of finances. Some of the counties are paying as low as $40 per month for school teachers, while in some communities the common laborer is drawing larger amounts. It is to be hoped that a general sentiment will be created so that our schools will have more attention. Lee County First The Committee wishes to express its hearty thanks to the many people who royally enter- tained us all along the line. We were given every courtesy possible and we enjoyed the hos- pitality of many homes. The Committee awards first prize to Lee County, with more than 16,000 points because of its general progress in all lines. In each one of the ten different departments this County has a high score. The work is outstanding in the following departments: Churches and Sun- day schools, roads and public buildings, health and sanitation, Junior Clubs and newspaper circulation. The Kiwanis Club of Beattyville put a large Page 18 ,Southern Mountain Life and, Work April, 1925 group of business men into the Achievement Contest with "pep" and enthusiasm. Lee County won the Contest because thirty or forty men were back of it. These men did not put money into the Contest, but put in many days of hard work. A united effort on the part of the lead- ing business men together with many progres- sive women's clubs has brought about a mar- velous change in the conditions of the homes, public buildings, roads, etc. The judges have sought to be of service in this Contest, therefore took the right of making some suggestions. Lee County needs most of all an adequate high school for the city of Beatty- ville and the County. We hope within the next ten months this will be a reality. Among the achievements of the city of Beattyville might be mentioned a new and adequate electric light system, new telephone system, and a rehabili- tated newspaper plant. All of these develop- ments are largely due to the Contest. A new water supply should accompany the above. Second P)Ã‚Â°ize Split The Judges have spent several days in reaching the decision as to which county should be given second place. We finally decided to declare it a tie between Rockcastle and Jackson Counties with 15,000 points each, thus dividing the second and third prizes between the two counties. The achievements of Rockcastle County were striking along the following lines: The general development of agriculture, more and better stock, better poultry, better dairying, and the creamery at Brodhead deserve special mention. The farm homes have been wonder- fully beautified, churches and Sunday schools have made good progress, Community and Jun- ior Clubs have been progressing and the gen- eral movement of improved roads deserve spec- ial mention. A general interest among the people of Mt. Vernon in the development of the County was gratifying to the Committee. The new plant for the making of hydrate of lime offers an opportunity for the farmers with sour land. Jackson County ties with Rockcastle for second place. The achievements of Jackson County were striking along the following lines Health and sanitation, largely due to the hos- pital at Gray Hawk with its adequate equip- ment and very splendid record of service. There are but four doctors in the county, but the clinics held have set a very high record. Churches and Sunday schools have developed about 100 per cent during the period of the contest. Community and Junior Clubs .have been very active. The County should be given special mention because it is building a new $47,000 Court House and is also putting in a full time trained nurse to serve the County. Jackson compiled and presented a very com- plete report on the progress in the County. The development in agriculture in some sec- tions of the County was very pleasing, but some progressive citizens might well afford to put in some scientific method of utilizing cut over timber land. The village of McKee failed to show the progress that some of the other county seats did. A few citizens have beauti- fied their homes, but it is to be hoped that when the new Court House is finished a general im- provement in the entire community will be made. Streets, sidewalks and public sanitation are desirable even in a small town. Good High Schools Breathitt County deserves special mention because a more adequate school system has been organized under the direction of Fallen Campbell than in any other county in the Con- test. The method of supervising and instruct- ing- through weekly letters to rural school teach- ers is the best system yet observed by the Com- mittee. The only disappointment is that Mr. Campbell has recently left the County. The Committee was especially pleased with the pro- gress along the line of sanitation. The work of the two hospitals and the several competent doctors and nurses deserves special mention. Breathitt County is to be congratulated up- on its good high schools-two in Jackson and three in the country. The work of the mission schools in this county is of a very high order. The beautiful new churches in the city of Jack- son are such that other cities of that vicinity might well copy. The civic consciousness which has been de- veloped through the leadership of the Women's Club and Kiwanis Club would attract the atten- tion of any one who is familiar with the prog- ress made. The great problem of Breathitt County is to carry this progressive idea into its vast rural sections. Owsley County is difficult to reach but is pleasing to know. "The wholesome quality of April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 19 the average citizen of Owsley cannot be ex- celled by any county anywhere in Kentucky." This was a remark made by one of the members of the Committee who had never seen the county before. Owsley County has produced more lead- ers of influence in this and other States than any other county in Eastern Kentucky with which we are familiar. It is the opinion of the Committee that if Owsley County had entered and Sunday-schools was especially good. Spirit of Progressiveness The most gratifying result of the entire Con- test is the fact that in all counties a general spirit of progressiveness and co-operation has been developed among the county leaders. The Committee has found it difficult to de- termine the exact points achieved along some Cooperative Road Bztzlding in Hockcastlc Cou;rt?t, Kenhtckg the Contest with as much vim as it displayed in the close they would have won a high place. Their reports were not as adequate as some of the other counties, but the development wit- nessed by the Judges was better in proportion than some of the other counties. The beautiful country homes and improved farming were par- ticularly striking. Some twenty-five country homes have installed modern light plants and many modern water plants dine to the influence of the Contest. The improvement in churches lines since the nature of the reports left the grade a little indefinite. The maximum goal sought by the Committee was 20,000 points and the best county has pass- ed 16,000 and the next two ranging around 15,000 each and the other two around 12,000. Signed. F. 0. Clark, Ralph Fletcher, W. 0. Saunders, Judging Committee Page 20 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 A Program for the Mountains We are not a peculiar people in any very sig- nificant sense, but we do have peculiar prob- lems. The vastness of our natural resources as yet largely undeveloped, the irregular topog- raphy of the country, inadequate highways and other means of transportation, the back- wardness of our educational development com- bine to produce a situation difficult but not impossible. The solution of our problem de- pends upon ourselves and the co-operation that we can get from other sections of the country. If the mountains are to keep pace with the rest of the world our people must recognize that we are a unit in ourselves and must fix aims which we shall strive to reach. We do not pretend to he able to reach these aims alone. Just as has been the case with all sections of the country that have gone forward we must co-operate with each other and have mutual relations with outside regions. The initiative must be taken by our own people but it is well for us to study the best and most successful methods of others and secure their help and co-operation when ever it is possible. 1. AIMS 1. The Development of Mountain Resources by Mountain People. This requires awakening of ambitions and the development of latent powers. It means the discovery of prophets and leaders, the training of engineers and build- ers, from our own youth. Northern and East- ern artisans and capitalists.are our friends and we invite them among us but we must not per- mit them to crowd us out and take away our heritage and our birthright. There is no insin- uation that this heritage and birthright are be- ing dishonestly taken from us. They are simp- ly slipping from our hands because of our ina- bility to hold them. We can hold them only through education, skill and efficiency. These three acquirements must become our posses- sions if we would develop the mountain re- sources. 2. The Perpetuation of Mountain Home Life along the Lines of Our Own Best Traditions This means God-fearing homes where sturdy health is promoted, where education is encour- aged and love reigns. It means homes wisely planned, the creation of beauty, the building of upright character within them, the preparation of wholesome food and the provision of other necessities. It means homes where convenien- ces relieve the drudgery of the wife and mother and permit her to enter into a fuller life for herself and to make possible a fuller life for her family. It means homes where the precepts and examples of law abiding citizens are held in reverence, where everything derogatory to peace and order and neighborly good-will is discouraged. 3. Health and Sanitation. This calls for clean- liness in the home, the school, the store and every other place frequented by people. There must be a sanitation consciousness before con- tagious or infectious diseases can be eradicated. Each individual must come to appreciate the value of public and private hygiene. The welfare of the whole community must be con- sidered before the health of any individual in the community can be guaranteed. Public hygiene is also necessary for the perpetuation of a sturdy race of men and women. 4. An Agriculture Fitted to the Conditions of the Soil, Topography and Markets of the Moun- tains. This can be done best by educating the National Department of Agriculture in the particular needs of the mountains along agri- cultural lines. Crops and methods of cultiva- tion that fit the soil and the irregular surface of the land should be made use of. Fruits and garden products, sheep, milk-cows and poultry are better suited to our conditions than grain, tobacco or race horses. Each county or group of contiguous counties representing a particular industrial area should study the market con- ditions of that particular region and produce those things that are suitable to their soil and have the greatest market value. 5. The Creation of Highways of Travel. The mountains must have roads for the transpor- tation of the necessities and a few of the luxuries of life. Education, health, recreation, prosperity and practically every advantage of civilization in the country waits upon the build- ing of roads. There are three methods of April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Worlr Page 21 building roads, all of which should be employed to the utmost in the mountains. National aid and state aid come by appropriations and are not within the control of counties and local communities, but the third method of road building is largely within the control of the county. Of course, there are financial limi- tations beyond which a county cannot go in making appropriations for road building but up to that limitation the county court has abso- lute authority and can be compelled to act according to the will of the majority of the people. So far as community work and co-oper- ative effort is concerned there is no limit. Much progress can be made by communiity road building. 6. Universal Educational Opportunities. This means adequate accomodations and equipment for the public schools, regular attendance for all the children and well-trained teachers to give instruction. It means schools adapted to rural life, coupling national patriotism with local patriotism. It means community centers and neighborhood co-operation for the common good. These community centers should ulti- mately develop into study centers where neigh- bors aid each other in getting acquainted with higher culture. 7. The Development of Child Life. We must universally recognize the value of Junior Club work and see in it and kindred efforts the future of our country. All of the legitimate endeavors of the youth to get into constructive work should be encouraged and urged by our adults. The most notable advance that will be made in any rural community in the next two decades will be made by the Junior Club chil- dren. 8. Wise Use of Leisure Time. This means recreational activity that will make country life more enjoyable and will develope the higher social instincts. It means training in the art of play. It means a recognition of the building power of wholesome play. It means the de- velopment of sportsmanship and team work that destroy isolation and hatreds. It means more and better reading during the evening hours and other leisure periods. It means an increase of standard newspapers and current magazine literature. It means a breaking of the isolation and bringing the people face to face with the problems and achievements of the world and lastly it means adult education in practical life. 9. Community Co-operation. This can best be brought about through the community club or local centers. A community organization under enthusiastic leadership has an unlimited field for service and it will be the purpose of "Mountain Life and Work" to aid such organ- izations along all practical lines. Our mountain people must begin to deplore isolation, that type of independence that holds men aloof from one another, local jealousies and rivalries. Our rural people must learn the lesson taught so admirably by the American city, that in organization, unity of purpose, efficiency of management we can succeed. 10. A Religion that Functions Actively in the Life of the People. This means a Christianity true to the purposes of its Founder; churches working at a common task, jealousies and com- petitions forgotten ; risen and women glorifying in every community, the life of unselfish devotion to the welfare of their neighbors and the cause of Christ. It means a religion that is felt in politics and in business and one that motivates the civic life of the people. It means patriotic enforcement of the law first by proper use of the ballot box, second by community backing of public officials. It means the elec- tion of God-fearing coutry-loving officers who will do their duty. It means training the youth of the mountains that bravery and heroism are not expressed by intimidation, revenge and killing. 11 PRINCIPLES OF ACTION 1. The mountains are made up of communities and neighborhoods bound in by natural lines that cannot be easily blotted out by the will of the people. These communities are usually of shoe-string dimensions with creeks threading their narrow valleys. Sometimes these valleys form a junction at the mouths of the creeks, with other valleys making possible the forma- tion of a larger community centering at the j unction. Where such a natural condition exists a consolidated school may be formed and other activities of like nature organized. These groups are the working social units of the Southern Mountains and in their hands lies the destiny of the country life of this region. These groups may be federated under a county- wide leadership and work together for the good of the larger unit. This has been done with Page 22 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 marked success. Give to these groups a con- sciousness of their powers, worthy aims to work for, and a slight technique in manage- ment and you have harnessed a social machine for moving the life of the Highlands. 2. In every county in the Mountains, usually at the county seat but not always, are to be found persons interested in the progress of the county as a whole-a few progressive county officials, ministers of the gospel, teachers with vision, social workers, broadminded citizens who can reach the rank and file of the people and help them to get a vision of their possibil- ities. Give these people an organization and a program and you have a means of directing a great forward movement. 3. Recognizing the Mountains as a great social and economic unit with more common problems than any one state of which they are a part, the county as a unit of organization and the community as the 'unit of achievement, there yet remains the common enlistment of the people, the schools to give proper training to leaders and inter-relations with all parts of our common country. III. PROCEDURE. There is given in other columns of this issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK a brief account of an experiment in county organ- ization, known as the County Achievement Contest. It can be taken as a fair example of one way of proceeding with county and com- munity improvements. Thru the generosity of a friend of Berea College the experiment was launched in the form of a contest. That method is not recommended as the only way of going about it. It will frequently open the way for your program when the more conventional and prosaic methods fail. It administers a shock to the community that arouses them and gets action. A distinct advantage to be gained from the contest type of work is sustained effort on the part of the people over a long period of time. It is quite certain that two years co-operative work along a given line will reap benefits that will not be easily forgotten. As a basis for united action there must be a common cause and a common thought. We must think the same things if we are to do the same things. May we not expect that the aims placed at the head of this program or something similar may be adopted as the aims of all the mountain country, and that the public schools and private schools may teach them to their students? Will not the ministers herald them from their pulpits, the county agents discuss them in their clubs? Will not the social organizations, the women's clubs, and lodges promulgate them in their membership? Will not the benefactors of education and institutions for the training of artisans seize this golden opportunity to be- come nation builders? Will not the newspapers and magazines run them in their columns as the aims of the mountain people? May we not find them posted in the country stores, the court houses, the homes of the people? Revise them if you will, but let us set a goal, and strive with all our powers to reach it. The first four advance subscribers to Southern Mountain Life And Work BISHOP THEO. S. HENDERSON Methodist Book Concern Cincinnati, Ohio MISS ISABEL A. BELL BRISTOL TAYLOR Brooklyn, New Yo)* I ALBERT MORGAN Scaffold Cane I Lily, Laurel County, Kentucky Berea, Kentucky April, 1925 , Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 23 In the richly expressive speech of the South- ern Mountain people there is no phrase more charming and more satisfying to visitant ears than the courteous salutation "I am proud to know you". Not the words only but the manner of its saying expresses a kindliness, a sincerity and a heartiness that make a glad, homey feel- ing bubble up in the listener's heart. Only a native born son or daughter of the mountains knows just how to say it: no one else can du- plicate it. Yet because it is one of the most beautifully expressive salutations one can find we would faro use it in these introductory lines and ask that our readers will try to imagine it as being given in the true mountain way. Then try to imagine further that this page is like the hospitably opened door of a mountain home through which you may enter and sit beside our chimney nook while the flames leap high, or by the cool, open window while we look toward the valleys and hills we love: and as we sit together in this neighborly way let us talk about books-the books that befriend us. One of the big joys of life lies in the fact that books can be our friends just as the people who wrote them might be should we know them face to face. In the circle of our friends who are the ones whose names leap to our thoughts most quickly? There is one friend whom we are always so glad to meet for we know that her words will be so full of cheer that we shall feel better all the day long. There is another who has a fine way of understanding us and who by his wise council has helped us untangle many a hard knot. There is still another friend who has such a big outlook upon life that we feel ourselves larger grown every time we converse together. And many other FRIENDLY F30 OKS FO R QUIET NOOKS By Florence H. Ridgway friends there are who lift and strengthen and beautify life. On these pages we hope you may meet book friends who will brighten your days, give a lift in your work, understand your problems, and help you live the more abundant life-the life we are all seeking in some way and which God wants each of us to find. Back in the quiet nooks of the hills is a splendid host with minds a-hunger for books. There are the children with glowing hearts and eyes sweet with. dreams: these little ones, who tomorrow grown, will hold in their hands the vast responsibilities of shaping home, church, school and state for a better America. There are the fathers and mothers, hands and minds so busy with home tasks there is little time to read: and often the reading process is not easy because they had small chance for schooling in their early days. There are the young folk with minds bent on things out be- yond the home gate where the road of life stretches wondrously onward. By the side of the home group stands an- other: those builders of community enterprises and keepers of sacred trusts in church and school: the ministers toiling for the coming of the Kingdom in the waste places; the teachers working marvels in school-houses desolate of comfort and equipment; the community work- ers helping toward better health conditions, improved farming, comfortable home making and happy community fellowship. There are still others for whom we would have these pages of service-folk who live be- yond the mountain region. Much do we hear these days of a better understanding between nations and races. God hasten its fulness: but may we not forget as we look across the seas Pave 24 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 that a more intelligent understanding of Amer- icans by Americans will also help bring the longed for age of peace and good will among men? No portion of our land is so little under- stood as the Southern Appalachian region, perhaps it would be better to say so much mis- understood. When the commercialization of the mountains is spoken of we are likely to think of oil and timber and coal. But the mountains are none the less commercialized by those writers and publishers of America who are sensation mongers. Even some of the better fiction writers who are doubtless honest as to intention have portrayed the picturesque so out of proportion to its modifying relations as to produce impressions distorted and false. Some of the searchers after social phenomena who come out from the distant cities and make observations here and there in the mountains are sublimely unconscious that the articles which they publish on conditions in Appalach- ian America would have to undergo a radical revision should they have carried their obser- vations into the next valley or county. Still other misinformants are sometimes found among the people who are working in mountain schools, churches and elsewhere and who are unquestionably desirous of doing good but who most unfortunately have become afflicted with myopic vision. The romantic and picturesque do abound in the mountains: so does the whole Southland thus abound as does no other section of Amer- ica. The mountain people are unusual but chiefly because their habitat has protected them from some of the conditions in modern civili- zation which smooth folk down into uniformity and too often into commonplaceness. The mountain folk are different from the average American in several respects but when justice is done those differences will not be caricatured or exploited. It is to be hoped that they may keep forever some of those qualities of great- ness which are sorely needed in many sections of America. Displayed in the art museum of one of our large cities was a picture called, "The Moun- taineer". Vitisors who may have observed it carried away a visualization of the mountain man that may have run the whole gamut from the ridiculous to the repellant. In the library of a college in one of our mountain states hangs a picture of "The Boy Lincoln". Visitors linger before the quiet figure of the boy read- ing by the firelight in his cabin home. The light from the flames playing over his face il- lumine it less than the fine, keen intellect and eager, high born soul. Those who look upon that picture go away with a finer understand- ing of the people from whom came the great Lincoln, son of the mountains. ' In the minds of the majority of the people who read about the mountain people linger ideas as distorted and untrue as the picture called "The Mountaineer". Only a few have the impression which the picture of "The Boy Lincoln" should convey. True it is that by much searching one might find such a looking individual as "The Mountaineer" but is any community, rural or urban exempt from the grotesque? Also true it is, that without search- ing one n-teets everywhere in the mountains sterling kinsman of "The Boy Lincoln". Once it is understood that the dwellers in the mountains are not a type but a people as widely varying as any other group of 5,000,000 souls in any other part of our land, a more helpful attitude will have been gained. They range from the poverty-stricken to the prosperous, from the grossly ignorant to the highly intelligent, from the God fearless to the God fearing. Is this classification peculiar to Appalachian America? All of this is to say that it shall be the pro- gram on these pages to try to promote a better understanding of the mountain people by set- ting forth those books and magazine articles which deal with this subject in a fair, unbiased way. From this standpoint the book which should first be spoken of is The Southern Highlander and his Homeland by John C. Campbell*. No other book about the mountain people is so thoroughly informing. For twenty-five years, Mr. Campbell dwelt among the mountain folk; first in school work in three different states and later appointed by the Russell Sage Foun- dation to make a comprehensive study of the whole mountain region. He believed in co- operative methods and through all the years of his study kept in contact with others whose knowledge and experience not only in the moun- tain regions but in rural work throughout the country would enable him to gain the widest view and deepest insight into mountain life and its problems. He threaded the loneliest moun- tain trails and visited the most remote moun- tain homes. He went to scores of church and independent schools and in each case made a careful study of their problems and surround- ing conditions. Along with all these scholarly methods of study went a heart of the finest un- derstanding. He loved the mountain people and while no sentimentality flavors his volume there is a respect and a tenderness for the Highlanders permeating it which in no way April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 25 obscures but rather clarifies his presentation of conditions. Left to edit his book after his untimely death his wife wrote of him; "Many a time I have seen him before the hearth-fire of some little cabin as much at home in the group there gathered, as in the most polished assembly, and far more happy. Many a night I have known him to lie sleepless trying to devise means whereby the hard conditions of mountain life might be eased, or help brought to some crippled or suffering child. He never left a home with- out feeling that the parting was one between friends." Yet withal he presents such matters as feuds and moonshining with calm unbiased judgment: he sees these and other untoward conditions in their true proportions and the un- derstanding heart of the mountain people's friend did not effect the keen analysis of the sociologist. Indeed he exemplified the fact that the understanding heart is a necessary factor in any such analysis. Covering the history of the Highlanders with painstaking care he discourses upon the various groups in the present population and in this connection says, "one hesitates to portray these homes which have been described with so free a pen in literature and missionary tracts, the more so because there is such great variety in them." His chapter on individualism in its various aspects is very illuminating as to some of the much exploited characteristics of the mountain people. Other chapters deal with the religious life, growth of denominationalism, living conditions and health, the home life, edu- cational problems and natural resources and their development. A very useful index, valu- able appendices and bibliography further make the volume a very fine reference work. With all the careful compilation of facts it is a delight- fully readable book. Flashes of humor and many a fine story enrich its pages. As to conclusions: Mr. Campbell shows the need of changing the old conventional form of appeal upon the basis of the "pathetic and pic- turesque" to the more strictly honest one of the rural. Admit frankly that there is a need, a great rural need throughout the U. S. and that it is especially great in the mountains because conditions are intensified by topography." He further believes many of the efforts by people and institutions for good in the past have been too widely independent. "The ultimate solution of mountain prob- lems must come through convincing the indi- vidualistic mountaineer that he cannot live for himself alone and thus enlisting him in co-oper- ative service to create an environment that will breed in his children the community spirit. Cooperation in Christian effort which empha- sizes the essential and minimizes the nonessen- tial and ultimately finds full expression in united effort, is what we all so much need." FLORENCE HOLMES RIDGWAY `The Southern Highlander and his Home- land by John C. Campbell. The Russell Sage Foundation, New York. Editor's note.-Mrs. Ridgway is probably the greatest authority on mountain literature in America today. She has compiled the great- est bibliography of books, pamphlets, and ar- ticles, and published addresses on all phases of mountain life to be found in America. A LECTURE TOUR IN THE MOUNTAINS For five miles our road led along the pictur- esque Middle Fork of the Kentucky River, amid scenery that for sylvan beauty is scarcely paral- leled in any part of the United States. After traveling about five miles we found the road be- coming very narrow, rough, and sandy, and presently found ourselves stuck fast in a sand bank. Piling out we cut down a long lever, pried up the wheel and built a sort of cause-way out of the rock for it to run upon until we reached hard ground. Going on from here we crossed a creek and very shortly settled in the sand on the other shore. But the wagon dragged wearily on until it became necessary to leave the bed of the river and begin the ascent of the hill. Here we found that sand had drifted in to the depth of four or five feet, and in spite of all that two mules and two oxen could do, our wagon stuck fast. It was very plain that further progress was impossible, so leav- ing the wagon in charge of our assistant, Mr. Reed, we mounted one of the mules and rode on to Hoskinton, arriving there about dark. The people were waiting for us and were disap- pointed that we were unable to bring our stere- opticon and talking machine, but we told them this was a good lesson on the need of better roads and that the disappointment they suffered was a just punishment for their neglect to pre- pare highways. They blamed the county judge. We said, "Elect another" and whether they did or not it seems that the spirit for better roads got into their blood, and reports coming from this section indicate that the roads are kept in repair better than ever before. The total dis- tance from our last stop to Hoskinton, where our journey led us on this summer's day was ten miles, a twenty minutes trip through a mod- ern country-side. But our meeting was not a Page 26 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 failure despite the absence of the talking ma- chine and stereopticon-twentieth century ap- pliances of education and entertainment. The people came from all directions and filled the little school house until we were obliged to move out under the trees and here in the flick- ering light of a few oil lamps and the pale moonbeams that filtered through the bushes of the mountainside, we talked of a higher life and of the advantages of education and modern civilization. After leaving Hoskinton we returned to our wagon which had been extracted from the sand-bank. One or two other stops and two days journey brought us to Wooton. We refer especially to Wooton because of the very en- lightening comparison that can be made be- tween the Wooton of 1917, the year of this journey, and the Wooton of 1925. Some of the best citizens said this confer- ence was the greatest ever held in the commun- ity up to this time and the conference was no greater than the need for it. On the second night after the close of the meeting we heard a noise up the hollow like the war whoop of a company of Indians. The hoarse shouts of men and the shrill cries of women pierced the air. Next morning we found that a young man had barely been prevented from shooting the father of a girl because he objected to the young fellow as a suiter for his daughter. The boy was under the influence of drink and enraged by jealousy attempted to get revenge through murder. The next night while an illustrated lecture was in progress a lady came in and spoke to her husband who noislessly slipped out of the house. We noticed a slight restless- ness in the audience but were unable to ascer- tain the trouble at the time. We learned the next day that the lady had come to tell her hus- band that two men were "laying" in ambush for him because they suspected he was about to re- port them for moonshining. He told us after- ward that he left the church for the purpose of coming in behind them in their hiding place and capturing them if possible, but they learned of his movements and escaped before he reach- ed the spot. This, however, has nothing to do with the feuds as these skirmishes and indivi- dual fights are sporadic and seem to be the dy- ing gasps of the liquor traffic which has wrought much havoc in the mountains as else- where. So far as our knowledge of the feuds is concerned, they have an entirely different origin and progress along entirely different lines. They usually took place between families or groups that were powerful and influential. The above sentence is used in the past tense be- cause the feuds have about passed and will soon be only a matter of history. How about Wooton today? There is an enterprising community center located in this. very same place, with a fulltime director, two, or three public school teachers, community nurse, farm manager, farmers club, credit un- ion and a united people ready to back any for- ward looking enterprise that will help their community. They are attacking the problem of illiteracy, poor sanitation, bad roads and every form of lawlessness. The comparison illustrates the hopefulness of the most isolated communities of the mountains. This is a true account of a lecture tour which is typical of scores that are frequently made by educational institutions working in the Southern Moun- tains. One of the first things a married couple back in a country district of the mountains will do is to begin calling each other, "my old man" and "my old woman." The phrase may be easily misunderstood. One might think it is a declining respect for each other. It is the proud title of ownership that shows the sacred relationship between the one time sweet hearts that comes from marriage. SUMMER SCHOOL I Berea College, Berea, Kentucky j Berea College offers a safe and easy method of investing in "revenue producing holdings." The Summer School of Berea College furnishes = a schedule of courses that requires earnest ap- plication, but its work is relieved by various forms of wholesome recreation. Instruction in the Sum- mer School is given by many of the strongest teachers of the regular staff of the College and selected teachers from other institutions. TWO TERMS First Term opens June 8th. First Term closes July 3rd. Holiday-July 4th. Second Term begins July 5th. Secord Term closes July 31st. Only secondary students are admitted for four weeks. College students must enter for - eight weeks. Incidental Fee, Room Rent and Table Board Four weeks, $26.00 for women; $27.00 for men Incidental Fee, Room Rent and Table Board Eight weeks, $47.0 for women; $49.00 for men For Summer School Bulletin, write to SUMMER SCHOOL REGENT, Berea College, Berea, Ky. Alabama 1 Blount 2 Calhoun 3 Cherokee 4 Clay 5 Cleburne 6 Coosa 7 Cullman 8 De Kalb 9 Etowah 10 Ferson 11 Jackson 12 Jefferson 13 Talladega 14 Madison 15 Marshall 16 Morgan 17 St. Clair 18 Shelby 19 Walker 20 Winston Georgia 1 Banks 2 Bartow :; Catoosa 4 Chattooga aS Cherokee 6 Dade 7 Dawson 8 Fannin 9 Floyd 10 Forsyth 11 Gilmer 12 Gordon 13 Harbersham 14 Hall 15 Lumpkin 16 Murray 17 Ficlcens IS Polk 19 Raburn 20 Stephens 21 Towns 22 Union 23 Walker 24 White 25 Whitfield Kentucky 1 Adair 2 Bell 3 Boyd 4 Breathitt :i Casey 6 Carter 7 Clay 8 Clinton 9 Cumberland 10 Elliott 11 Estill 12 Floyd 13 Garrard 14 Greenup 15 Harlan 16 Jackson 17 Johnson 18 Knott 19 Knox 20 Laurel 21 Lawrence 22 Lee 23 Leslie 24 Letcher 25 Lewis 26 Lincoln 27 McCreary 28 Madison 29 Magoffin 30 Martin 31 Menifee 32 Metcalfe 33 Monroe 34 Morgan 35 Owsley 36 Perry 3 7 Pike 38 Powell 39 Pulaski 40 Roekcastle 41 Rowan 42 Wayne 43 Whitley 44 Wolfe N. Carolina 1 A1leghany 2 Ashe 3 Avery 4 Buncomb 5 Burke 6 Caldwell 7 Cherokee 8 Clay 9 Graham 7 0 Haywood 11 Henderson 12 Jackson 1.3 McDowell 14 Macon 15 Madison 16 Mitchell 17 Polk 18 Rutherford 19 Stokes 20 Surry 21 Swain 22 Transylvania 23 Watauga 24 Wilkes 25 Yancey S. Carolina 1 Cherokee 2 Greenville 3 Oconee 4 Pickens 5 Spartanburg Tennessee 1 Anderson 2 Bledsoe :3 Blount 4 Bradley 5 Campbell 6 Cannon 7 Carter 8 Claiborne 9 Clay 10 Cocks 11 Coffee 12 Cumberland 13 De Kalb 14 Fentress 16 Franklin 16 Grainger 17 Greene 18 Grundy 19 Hamblen 20 Hamilton 21 Hancock 22 Hawkins 23 Jackson 24 James 25 Johnson 26 Knox 27 Loudon 28 Me Minn 29 Macon 30 Marion 31 Meigs 32 Monroe 33 Morgan 34 Overton 35 Pickett :36 Putnam 37 Roane :;8 Scott 39 Sequatchie 40 Sevier 41 Smith 42 Sullivan 43 Unicoi 44 Union 45 Van Buren 46 Warren 17 Washington 48 White 49 Jefferson 50 Rhea 51 Polk Virginia 1 Albemarle 2 Alleghany 3 Amherst 4 Augusta 5 Bath 6 Bedford 7 Bland R Botetourt 9 Buchanan 10 Carroll 11 Clarke 12 Craig 13 Dickenson 14 Fauquier 15 Floyd 16 Frederick 17 Franklin 18 Giles 19 Grayson 20 Greene 21 Highland 22 Lee 23 Loudoun 24 Madison 25 Montgomery 26 Nelson 27 Page 28 Patrick 29 Pulaski 30 Rappahannock 31 Roanoke 32 Rockbridge 33 Rockingham 34 Russell 35 Scott 36 Shenandoah 3 7 Smyth 38 Tazewell S9 Warren 40 Washington 41 Wise 42 Wythe W. Virginia 1 Barbour 2 Berkeley 3 Boone 4 Braxton 5 Brooke 6 Cabell 7 Calhoun 8 Clay 9 Doddridge 10 Fayette 11 Gilmer 12 Grant 13 Greenbrier 14 Hampshire 15 Hancock 16 Harrison 17 Jackson 18 Kanawha 1:) Lewis 20 Lincoln 21 Logan 22 McDowell 23 Marion 24 Marshall 2i Mason . 26 Mercer 2 7 Mineral 28 Mingo 29 Monongalia 30 Monroe 31 Morgan 32 Nicholas Ohio 34 Pendleton 35 Pleasants 36 Pocahontas 37 Preston 38 Putnam 39 Raleigh 40 Randolph 41 Ritchie 42 Roane 43 Summers 44 Pucker 45 Tyler 46 Unshur 47 Wayne 48 Webster 49 Wetzel 50 Wirt 51 Wood 52 Wyoming Page 28 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 The English Ballad Bid Prof. James Watt Raine A ballad is a song sung by someone that is very familiar with the story, for it is always a story. No ballad tells of the hopes or fears, the joys or sorrows of the singer. The story has seized upon the singer's imagination and drawn him out of himself. It has strongly stirred his emotions, and for the moment his whole attention hangs upon the story. He is experiencing the adventures that he sings about. And because these have by vivid im- agination become so real to him, there is a directness about ballads, a simplicity, a naked nearness, that we do not find in any other poetry. With this vividness there is often a mysterious echo from a lost world, a touch of the mystical and supernatural. Yet in the bal- lad here printed we find the directness, the straightforward movement of the story con- stantly interrupted by a refrain. It is a com- plicated refrain. The first line of each stanza is sung three times, and as if that were not enough to delay the directness there are four other lines of refrain that have no connection with the story. This refrain then occurs not merely at the end of every stanza, but is also thrust into the middle of each. The extraneous part of the refrain was sung by the listeners, as a sort of musical accompaniment, which now-a-days we play upon an instrument. This hummed or sung refrain sometimes expressed the listeners' feelings about the story, and sometimes was merely a bit of unrelated tune. The refrain of "The Two Sisters" is an example of both. The last two lines give the listeners' comment on the story while "Bowee down" (run together from Bow ye down) and "Bow and balance to me" were familiar dance calls. Ballads are the poetry of the common people. A poet did not go away to some quiet spot and compose a ballad; he, with the crowd encouraging him, made it up as he went along. They all entered into the excitement and urged him on with the interjected refrain, very much as the bystanders pat a jig for a dancer. The story told in the ballad was as well known to the listeners as to the singer. They enjoyed listening not because it was new; but because however simple or even crude it may seem to us now, it was a work of art-The way it was told was fascinating-Every element of interest was vividly suggested-Three times the old lord by the northern sea is thrust~upon our attention, then to our great relief we find that he has daughters. A man with daughters is always interesting. This man has three of them. The next item is a young man that comes a-courting-Very interesting. Everybody is eager to hear about love-making. Then follows the rather unusual present of a beaver hat, the older sister's jealousy, the walk to the river, the fatal push, the cry for help and the pitiful offer of house and land, the five gold rings, and the final retribution. The constant refrain, instead of interrupting helps the bystanders to get more and more into the spirit of the ballad as they take part in it. Then they all become almost as vigorously aroused and deeply moved as the singer himself, and the ballad is the joint product of them all. THE TWO SISTERS There lived an old lord by the Northern Sea, Bow-ee down! There lived an old lord by the Northern Sea, Bow and balance to me! There lived an old lord by the Northern Sea, And he had daughters one, two, three. I'll be true to my love, If my love 'll be true to me! 2. A young man came a-courting there, And he made choice of the youngest fair. 3. He brought this youngest a beaver hat, And the oldest sister didn't like that. 4. 0 sister, 0 sister, let us walk out To see the ships a-sailing about. 5. As they walked down to the water's brim, The oldest pushed the youngest in. 6. 0 sister, 0 sister, lend me your hand And you may have my house and land. 7. I'll neither lend you my hand nor glove, But I will have your own true love. s. She floated down to the miller's dam, The miller drew her safe to land. 9. And off of her fingers took five gold rings, Then into the water he plunged her again. 10. The miller was hanged on a gallows so high, Bow-ee down! The miller was hanged on a gallows so high, Bow and balance to me! The miller was hanged on a gallows so high, The oldest sister there close by. I'll be true to my love, If my love 'll be true to me! April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 29 PROGRAM Thirteenth Annual Conference of SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS Knoxville, Tenn. March 17-18-19, 1925 Conference Headquarters: The St. James Hotel All Meetings of the Conference will be held in the Lecture Room of the Lawson - McGhee Library corner of Market and Commerce Streets. PROGRAM MARCH 17TH Evening, 7:30 Presiding, Chairman Rev. Isaac Messler Opening Address Conference Programs Rev. Andrew J. Ritchie, Rabun Gap Inde- pendent School, Rabun Gap, Georgia Address Music Miss Gladys Jameson, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky Informal Social Gathering MARCH 18TH Morning Session, 9:00 to 12:00 Presiding, Miss May Stone Invocation Announcements Training for Mountain Work Rev. Carroll M. Davis, Secretary, Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church Should Tuition and Labor Requirements in Our Mountain Schools Be Standardized? Mr. E. C. Waller, Principal, Pizgah Inde- pendent Institute, Candler, North Car- olina. Afternoon Session, 2:30 to 5:30 Presiding, Dr. James Thompson McGarvey The Sunday School Dr. John M. Somerndike, Department of Sunday School Missions, Board of Na- tional Missions Community Work Rev. Frank S. Persons, II, Yancey, Virginia My Work in the Mountains Mr. J. M. Feltner, County Agent, Laurel County, Kentucky Evening Session, 8:00 Presiding, Chairman Rev. Isaac Messler Dr. John Preston McConnell, President State Teachers College, East Radford, Virginia The Scout Movement Principal J. W. Bennett, Asheville, North Carolina MARCH 19TH Morning Session, 9:00 to 12:00 Presiding, Rev. Carroll M. Davis Business Reports Credit Union Miss Angela Melville, Credit Union Na- tional Extension Bureau Page 30 Southern Mountain Life and, Work April, 1925 Adult Education a. Community Evening School-Woo- ton, Kentucky Miss Marguerite Butler b. Short Course-Berea Miss Helen Dingman, Berea College, Kentucky County Achievement Program Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn, Secretary, Be- rea College, Kentucky Public Library Extension Miss Mary U. Rothrock, Librarian, Law- son-McGhee Library, Knoxville, Ten- nessee Afternoon Session, 2:00 to 5:00 Presiding, Dr. Fred L. Brownlee 'The Responsibility of Mountain Workers in Teaching Health Dr. Annie S. Veech, State Board of Health, Louisville, Kentucky Tlae Junior Red Cross Miss Nell Whaley, Cullowhee, North Car- olina Recreation Miss Mary Dupuy, Smith, Kentucky CHAIRMAN Rev. Isaac Messler, Meadow, Tenn. SECRETARY Mrs. John C. Campbell EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Rev. Isaac Messler, Meadow, Tenn. Mrs. John C. Campbell, West Medford, Mass. Rev. Franklin J. Clark, N. Y. City President Wm. J. Hutchins, Berea, Ky. Dr. Chas. A. Keffer, Knoxville, Tenn. Rev. C: H. Trowbridge, Weaverville, N .C. BLUE RIDGE ASSOCIATION CONFERENCES Blue Ridge, North Carolina The Young Women's Christian Association Conference from June 5 to 14 inclusive. Con- ference under direction of Dr. W. D. Weather- ford, President of Southern Y. M. C. A College. Lectures, classes, concerts and recreation thru- out the period. The Young Men's Christian Association Conference June 16 to June 25 inclusive. Dr. Weatherford, Director. Mr. Fletcher S. Brockman, series of three lectures. Classes, music and recreation every day. M. E. M. Conference, June 26 to July 5, inclusive. Community Y. W. C. A., from July 6 to July 15 inclusive. Southern Summer School of Y. M. C. A., from July 16 to July 30 inclusive. Industrial Conference of Y. M. C. A., July 31 to August 2 inclusive. Interracial Conference 7:30 p.m.. from July 13 to July 15 with Dr. W. W. Alexander in charge. Travelers Aid Conference from August 3 to August 8 inclusive. Dr. Warren H. Wilson and Bishop F. J. McConnell will give a series of three lectures each during the conferences. Many other well known speakers will address the various con- ferences as shown in the complete catalog which will be sent to anyone wishing infor- mation about the different conferences. KENTUCKY EDUCATION ASSOCIATION PROGRAM Louisville, Kentucky, April 22-25 Wednesday afternoon, April 22nd-State Wide Spelling Match. Wednesday evening, April 22nd-Address by Dr. Edwin. Mims, Vanderbilt Universi- ty, Nashville, Tenn. The Out-of-State speakers during the week will be Supt. William McAndrew, Chicago City Schools, Miss Florence Hale, Rural School Su- April, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 31 pervisor, Augusta Maine; Tom Skeyhill, inter- national lecturer from Australia; G. I. Cristie, Director in Agricultural Department, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.; Dr. G. T. Buswell, Department of Education, University of Chi- cago.; Dr. J. H. Kelly, Secretary Pennsylvania Educational Association, Harrisburg, Pa. Dr. Frank L. McVey, President of the Uni- versity of Kentucky, and other educators from all parts of the State will contribute toward the departmental meetings which are the real working sessions of the Conference. Conference Headquarters-Seelbach Hotel. Central meeting place for general sessions- Auditorium of First Christian Church. For further details address R. E. Williams, Secretary, Room 319-320 Starks Bldg., Louisville, Ky. INCIDENTS AND PHILOSOPHY OF agin." MOUNTAIN LIFE "No lickin', no larnin', thets what I say, being a sperienced shule trustee. The lickin- est teacher makes the smartest younguns. An' don't spend too much time tryin' to larn 'em grammar. Larn 'em figgers, they will need figerin' and grammar won't do 'em much good." "Some folks that aint got no sort of religion theirsPlves kin argue and hate their neighbors fer the church they stands up fer an' quote Scriptur so easy you'd think they had et a Bible." "The Smilin'est Gal" Over yan across the mountains Kinder nursed up in a holler Stan's the cabin where my heart is An' my feet they ~eetch ter foller. Fer I know the gal, an' I know she stans waitin' An' ther place all aroun' with glory she fills- Ther rarest, ther fairest, ther sweetest, An' ther smilin'est gal in the hills. -Twitchell. The Dixie Highway traverses the moun- tains of Eastern Kentucky, East Tennessee and Northern Georgia. It has had to fight its way thru the opposition of landowners, not a few, who were not willing to spare their hard earned land for the right-of-way. Here is an actual dialog between a promoter and a farmer "This highway will help your folks." "Don't like hit; don't want ter be goin' ; caint keep my gals to home now." "But it will raise the value of your land." "faint pay the taxes on it now." "But if you sell you will get more for it." "Don't want to sell; I'm buyin' land." This is not a typical conversation but it represents the opposition that is fast dying. The overwhelming public opinion of every com- munity in the mountains would soon smother out such opposition now. "What do you owe me fer entertainment?" "Well sir, jest this-you owe me to come Blue Ridge Summer Conferences 1925 From June 5 to August 8 inclusive The Blue Ridge Association, (near Ashville, North Carolina) in the heart of the most rugged mountains of Western North Carolina is the con- ference center of the South. The most ideal spot in the mountains for teachers, ministers, social workers, and others to get both inspiration and recreation. Lecturers and teachers of national reputation will be on hand during the various conferences to discuss the great social and religious questions of the hour. To go once to Blue Ridge means to go again, for the beauty of scenery, the wholesome fellow- ship, the splendid lectures, the good music, the swimming, boating and other outdoor recreation, the comfortable rooms and well-balanced food make this a truly worthwhile summer place. For further information write the BLUE RIDGE ASSOCIATION Blue Ridge, N. C. Page 32 Southern Mountain Life and Work April, 1925 Special Offer to Initial Subscribers Get the first number and build an encyclopedia of informa- tion on the life and work of the Appalachian Mountains. The traditions, the romances, the struggles, the ambitions, the occupation of the great mountain region are sufficient to keep a magazine teeming with interest to the thoughtful reader. The resources of the hills, the scenic beauty of the landscape are alluring to capitalists and vacation hunters. All of this and more will be written about by men and women who know the facts and will tell the truth. There will be an occasional story that will grip the imagination of the reader. Here is the Proposition There will be very few advertisements in this magazine as we will not seek to give publicity to all sorts of things that are upon the market. By limiting our advertising to a select group of institutions and businesses we greatly limit our income. We must make the regular subscription price of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK $1.50 a year. But to those who start reading this publica- tion with the first number we will send it one year for $1.00. Remember, $1.00 a Year For Initial Subscribers If you have a friend who should take Mountain Life and Work send the name along with your own. Fill out the blank below and return it at once to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, BEREA KENTUCKY. Mountain Life and Work A Magazine devoted to the In- Mountain of the Appalachain Mts. The idea of your new magazine appeals to me. Send me your first number. If I find it to be what you have said it is I will send you $1.00 for a year's subscription. If you want to get better acquainted with one of the greatest grand divisions of the U. S. send $1.09 at once.