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Mountain Life & Work vol. 01 no. 3 October, 1925 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv1n31025 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 01 no. 3 October, 1925 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky October, 1925 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume I OCTOBER, 1925. CONTENTS Barrier-Made Frontiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial Virginia Co-Operative Education Association . . . . Dr. John P. McConnell Shall We Save Cumberland Falls? ... Mountaineers of Western North Carolina . . . . Mountain Ballads . . . . . . . A Prophet in His Own Country Breakdowns ........ . . . . . . . . Vance Prather . . ... .... . . . . .James Cope . Miss Glades V. Jameson . . . . . Marshall E. Vaughn ... . Prof. Gordon Wilson Goitre In the Kentucky Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dr. Frances Rothert The Rural School Library . . . . . . . . .. . . . .Mrs. Florence Holrnes Ridgway Number III 'ublished Quarterly by Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the Nation. SOUTHERN Mountain Life D Work Vol. 1. OCTOBER, 1925 No. III. revolutionary ancestors, the people of Appa- lachia have been marooned on an island of mountains and have remained much as they were a hundred and fifty years ago. In the recesses of the Appalachian Moun- tains, the fundamental elements of the Amer- ican character are found today in stark sim- plicity, uncontaminated by the rush of business or the greed for money; unspoiled by social ambition; unbroken by industrial fears. Marshall E. Vaughn, Editor Dr. Wm. James Hutchins, Counsellor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson . . . . . . New York City Mrs. John C. Campbell . . West Medford, Mass. Dr. Edmund de S. Brunner . . . . . . New York Miss Helen H. Dingman . . . . . . . . Berea, Ky. Hon. W. 0. Saunders . . . . Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. John P. McConnell . . . . East Radford, Va. Dr. E. C. Branson . . . . . . . . Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. John J. Tigert . . . . . . . . Washington, D. C. U. S. Commissioner of Education Issued quarterly-January, April, July, October ubscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter. Address all communications to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Berea, Kentucky A BARRIER MADE FRONTIER "At the time the Declaration of Indepen- dence was signed, one sixth of our colonial pop- ulation was Scotch-Irish, driven from the north of Ireland by the stupidity of the Stuart kings. Many of these early settlers drifted south, through the beautiful valley of Virginia and into the heart of the free mountain region. With them went the freer spirits from Pala- tine Germany, Protestants driven out after the Thirty Years' War; Huguenots, similarly exiled from France; the more adventurous Quakers from western Pennsylvania, and a goodly sprinkling of Virginia English. From these early pioneers sprang the southern mountain people of today. While the at of our nation has grown far from our It is estimated that the rural population of this region is more than 3,000,000 people. Out of this mountain reserve can be drawn a constant stream of vigorous native manhood and charming, simple womanhood, fresh, un- spoiled and in the deepest sense American- American in language, ideals and religion- American in their love of freedom-American in their fearless facing of the future-Ameri- can in their resourcefulness and adaptability -American most of all, perhaps, in their natural hospitality and innate courtesy." The fundamental strain and dominant characteristics running thru all classes of the mountain population are quite largely the same. Their racial heritage is that of hardy, sturdy pioneer adventurers who closed their eyes to physical dangers and marched into the fast- nesses of illimitable mountain ranges to set up a kingdom of their own. Fate was more unkind to them than the outlook of a century and a quarter ago predicted. The following true story serves to illustrate what we mean by the handicaps of the mountains. More than one hundred years ago two men of adventurous spirit set out to follow the Dan- iel Boone trail from southern Virginia to some point in the west that they might decide upon. When they reached the last range of hills that separate the famous Blue Grass of Kentucky from the Appalachian Mountains they stood Page 2 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 and gazed with awe and wonder upon the un- broken wave of canebrakes that spread out over the levels of the country below. One of these men, Elisha Whitt by name, suggested to his comrade that they stop where they were, pitch their camp and begin life on the beautifully wooded hills where springs were flush and cool and hunting plentiful. His com, ade, Mr. Blythe, was not quite satisfied with the prospects of the hill location because he was more of a planter than he was a hunter. He believed there were greater crop possibilities in the lowlands when once they were cleared of their dense thickets of cane. These two opinions separated the men. Mr. Whitt built his cabin on a beautiful prom- inence overlooking the Blue Grass to the north and the mountain valleys to the south. This mountain range was covered with virgin for- ests. Bear, deer and turkey were plentiful. Numerous springs gushed forth cold water. The falling of dead timber supplied much acces- sible fire wood. To Mr. Whitt, these conditions offered a more favorable location for a perman- ent home than the dense thickets of the low- lands. Mr. Blythe moved on just twenty miles farther. He settled in what later became the most fertile section of the Blue Grass region. After hard work the canebrakes were cleared and his farm made tillable for corn, tobacco and other crops known to Virginia and Kentucky. As the years went by the families of Whitt and Blythe became more widely separated. Blythe accumulated a vast acreage of fertile Blue Grass soil. 1=7e became the founder of one of the most distinguished families in Kentucky. Mr. Whitt accumulated a large area of mountain land, but as the years came and went Mr. Whitt became poorer and finally much of his land was sold to pay taxes. He died and his children died near paupers, but they passed on before the in- dustrial and mineral age dawned. This little story typifies the processes that went on from the Revolutionary War down to the Civil War in building Kentucky and the West. Families like the Whitts were deceived by the beautiful mountain streams, abundance of game and convenient firewood. Those were valuable possessions one hundred and fifty years ago but are not sufficient to remove the mountain barriers of the present generation. They have their value and should be preserve(' but other values in this modern age must bt, considered if the highest interest of the human race is to be served. Co-Operative Education Association of Virginia an Adven ture in Commonwealth Building. By Dr. John Preston McConnell, President Radford State Teachers College and President the Co-Operative Education Association of Virginia. State wade organizations like the Virginia Co-Operative Educational Association, The Southern Co-Operative League, State Farm Bureau Federations and state branches of the American Country Life Association will do much to remove the isolation and monotony of rural life if they are manned by leaders of vision and power. All such organizations should be set to the task of mobilizing the latent power-s of the men and women, boys and girls who inhabit the farms. None of the, above organizations have a right to exist apart from the educational train- ing they give to the people they are endeavoring to serve. Any organization that can produce a record of service and efficiency among the rural schools of a state like the one that has been made by the Virginia Co-Operative Education As- sociation should have every encouragement to live and multiply its usefulness. During the first decade of the twentieth ditions very unsatisfactory. The total value century the educational facilities in Virginia of school property was about four million de' were very inadequate and the rural life con- lars. The total annual expenditure for the sul. October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Pag(; 3 port of the public schools was $2,135,364, of which local taxation furnished $1,126,603. Only 331y, of Virginia's children of school age were in attendance during an average term of six and one-tenth months. The cost of education per child enrolled was seventy cents per month or $4.20 for the year. Virginia then had no State Department of Public Health or High- ways. There was no State Board of Charities or Public Welfare. There was no special or in- telligent provision for the care of the epileptic or feeble minded. Lunatics were often confined in common county jails for long seasons on account of inadequate room for them in the State Hospitals. The county poorhouses, in most cases, were a reproach to the county and their management regarded as a piece of politi- cal patronage. There was no statewide high school system. Practically no provision was made in the schools for Agricultural and Indus- trial or Home Economics training. In fact, there were outside of the cities very few four- year high schools that would meet anything ike the standards for modern four-year high schools. There were, of course, no County Demonstration Agents or Home Demonstration Agents. Compulsory school attendance was re- garded as altogether impracticable and even undesirable. There was no special provision for the education, care, and training of the de- fective and dependent classes. The County Superintendents of Public Instruction were ex- pected to give little or no attention to the actu- al supervision of instruction or guidance of teachers in their school room and community problems. Most of the teachers had little edu- cation and no professional training for their work. The existing conditions were a challenge to the patriotism, statesmanship, and vision of the Old Dominion. In March 1904, a group of public spirited citizens met at Richmond, Vir- ginia, and organized the Co-Operative Educa- tion Association. Citizens representing the ge- ographical divisions of the State, as well as edu- cational institutions, participated in this organ- ization. The following statement of the spirit and purposes of the new movement was pre- fired by Dr. S. C. Mitchell, the first President of the Association "The spirit of this movement is democratic; its end is patriotic; and its program elastic. Appreciating profoundly what the people of Virginia have done the Association stands, not for criticism, but for sympathetic construction. We cordially solicit the aid of the secular and religious press, all institutions of higher learn- ing, and all school agencies, both local and gen- eral in a hearty effort to rally the whole citizen- ship of our Commonwealth to the advancement of universal education." It adopted a program of eight purposes as follows A nine-month's school for every child. A high school within reasonable distance of every child. Well-trained teachers for all public schools. Efficient supervision of schools. The introduction of agricultural and indus- trial training in the schools. The promotion of libraries and correlation of public schools and public libraries. Schools for the defective and dependent classes. The organization of a Citizens' Education Association in every county and city. Practically every feature of this program at that time was regarded by most of the peo- ple as impractical and unattainable in this gen- eration. For twenty-one years the Co-Opera- tive Education Association has constantly con- ducted Statewide propaganda through speeches, literature, conventions, newspapers, and every other agency of publicity available to create sentiment for the early realization of the eight purposes of the Co-Operative Education Asso- ciation outlined in 1904. How It Has Done Its Work The first step taken to carry out the pro- gram of the Association was to organize groups of citizens in all parts of Virginia in the inter- est of public education, community enrichment, and development. In 1904, it definitely began the organization of what was known as "School and Civic Leagues" with the school house as the center. The School and Civic Leagues were the forerunners of the present "Community Leagues," of which there are now about sixteen Page 4 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 hundred in the State of Virginia, most of them in village and rural communities. The Co-Operative Education Association has always had a constantly expanding program. From its earliest organization it has taken an interest in the health of the children and of the people of the State, particularly the rural people and the improvement of sanitary con- ditions of the schools, homes, and the commun- ity. Has Recognized the Rural Problem Virginia is preeminently a rural State. More than 85 %o of the people of Virginia live in rural communities. The Co-Operative Education Association has always kept clearly before it the idea that the problems with which it had to deal were largely those of rural people, particu- larly those living in isolated sections and hilly or mountainous sections of the State. The Association has done much in the urban com- munities but its chief strength and effort have been devoted to rural and village communities. Some Milestones of Achievement The Co-Operative Education Association as- sisted in creating sentiment in Virginia for the establishment by the State of the State Board of Public Welfare, Institutions for the Epilep- tic and Feeble-minded, Home Demonstration Agents for the rural sections, State Highway Commission, the State Board of Agriculture, and the State Board of Health. The Co-Oper- ative Education A3sociation immediately allied itself with each of these State Departments and agencies after their creation and has con- stantly assisted each of them, through the Community Organizations which it has set up in the rural and village communities through- out the State, in carrying forward the program of each of these departments. The various State agencies and departments were quick to recognize the unprecedented op- portunity they had to reach and influence rural and village communities of the State through the Community League Organizations, which have been set up in every nook and corner of the State by the Co-Operative Education As- sociation. These Community Leagues are or- ganizations of the citizens of the community, both men and women. The Co-Operative Edu- cation Association constantly suggests to these local Community Leagues definite concrete tasks and opportunities that are open to organ- ized and co-operating citizens in each commun- ity. Each Community League is left to work on some local problem or need, and given a vision of the State's opportunities and the necessity of unselfish co-operation of all Leagues with the citizens for the common good. The membership of the Community Leagues now numbers more than fifty thousand men and women enlisted in more than sixteen hundred leagues. The Co-Operative Education Association, through a force of Field Secretaries, keeps in close touch with these organizations and fur- nishes them literature, advice, and direction for all their local activities. More than sixteen hundred of these Community Leagues are now functioning in Virginia. The Co-Operative Education Association has always made its appeal and exerted it helpful influence by diffusing among the mass of the people information and ideals as to a fuller and more satisfactory life for the individ- ual and the community. It acts on the assump- tion that the people want to know how to im- prove their schools, their educational opportun- ities, health, social, and economic conditions and are eager to know what is the best thing for them to do and how to do it. Avoids Controversies The Association has always studiously striven to avoid antagonisms and local contro- versies. For the last twenty years it has been the outstanding, unifying, and co-ordinating agency in the State. It strives through intelli- gent co-operation to create and mobilize sound public sentiment for the betterment of Virginia in every way. It has gone hand in hand with every co-operative, constructive, curative, for- ward-looking organization in the State. It has been singularly free from criticism or hurtful competition with any other agencies either private or public. The genius of the Co-Oper-- ative Education Association is its spirit of c October, 1025 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 5 operation and its reliance on the dissemination of information amongst the citizens to bring about the realization of its program and its ideals. Junior Leagues Enlist the Young The success of the Community Leagues, consisting of adult membership soon suggested the wisdom of organizing the students in all classes of schools in the "Junior Leagues." A COUNTY PROGRAM CHART These organizations of the young people in the school and in the community strive to promote patriotism, loyalty, unselfishness, and the ideals of good citizenship. Last year more than 30,000 students were enlisted in these Junior Leagues. The program and the ideals of the Tunior League organizations have constantly expanded. These Junior Leagues exert a stim- ulating and helpful influence in the lives of the boys and girls in the school similar to the Boy and Girl Scout Organizations. The Junior Leagues have a wider program than the Boy Scout movement. There now are about four hundred Junior Leagues in the State. What the Leagues Do The Community Leagues and the Junior Leagues co-operate in raising money for school buildings and grounds, lengthening of school term and equipping the school and grounds. It diffuses information on health and sanita- tion, establishes libraries in the schools, im- proves roads, promotes the diversification of agriculture and horticulture, introduces com- forts and conveniences in the homes of the people, and fosters every other interest of the community. Each Community League and Junior League is urged by the State Associa- tion to find the important, pressing, vital needs of the community and study the solution of these problems. There is no particular sched- uled program or form of work for any given League. Each one is urged to do the next thing that should be done in that particular community. This makes the program of the Co-Operative Education Association very flex- ible and workable in every community. The Co-Operative Education Association strives particularly to promote the work of the County Home Demonstration Agent and prepare the way for the work of those agents by creating intelligent sentiment among the citizens in favor of such work. The County Demonstra- tion Agents for the boys and men and the Home Demonstration Agents instinctively recognize the Community Leagues and Junior Leagues as their most effective allies in reaching the people and winning their confidence. A Pioneering Organization The Co-Operative Education Association has always been a pioneering association. It has constantly sought out new fields in which it could exert its stimulating influence. In addition to the Community Leagues and the Junior Leagues, whose organization, spirit, and Page 6 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 work have already been explained, the Co- Operative Education Association has established Child Study Centers mostly in the large cities, where the mothers of the community are given instruction in child psychology, home-making, child training, and all those problems in which mothers are so vitally interested. This third phase of the work of the Co-Operative Educa- tion Association is rapidly expanding in the cities. The Community Leagues and the Junior Leagues have also flourished in the cities, but their most helpful work has always been in the remote rural and village sections of Virginia. Another Step Forward In 1924 the Co-Operative Education Associ- ation took another forward-step by organizing in a number of counties of the State what is known as "A County Council of Rural Agen- cies." This Council co-ordinates the efforts and activities of the County Educational Sys- tem, the Red Cross Work, the County Health Work, the Home Demonstilation Agent, the County Demonstration Agent, the County Bankers' Association, the Farm Bureau, the Farmers' Union, and all the other agencies functioning in the county. In most rural coun- ties these various agencies do not understand each others' work and consequently do not appreciate the efforts of other sister organiza- tions and agencies. Frequently there is rivalry and hurtful competition. Much duplication of efforts arises and some important fields of pub- lic service and community activity are alto- gether overlooked and neglected. The County Council a Co-ordinating Agency The County Council as organized under the Co-Operative Education Association brings all these agencies, departments, and organizations into a mutual understanding and co-operative helpful spirit. The experience of the Co-Opera- tive Education Association in this work seems to indicate that the County Council of Rural Agencies will prove one of the most helpful features of the program of the Co-Operative Education Association. The Co-Operative Education Association called a statewide Rural Life Conference at Richmond in May 1921. As an outgrowth of that State Conference, the State Council of Rural Agencies was organized as a feature of the Co-Operative Education Association. The Co-Operative Education Association gathers and disseminates information from every part of the country as to rural problems and their solution. The work of the organization is car- ried on through a corps of field workers, each of them in charge of some special phase of the work of the Association. The Gore)-ping Body The policies of the Co-Operative Education Association are determined by the Board of Directors of fifty-three members, all eminent public spirited citizens of the Commonwealth. Every interest and section of the State is rep- resented in this Board of Directors. The Co- Operative Education Association holds its An- nual Meeting Thanksgiving Week each year. In addition to this State meeting, there are twelve Regional Meetings held in twelve differ- ent sections of the State. Each of the twelve Regions has its own Director. Each county also has its County President and county or- ganization. All of these Regional and County Organizations report to and co-operate with the headquarters of the Co-Operative Education Association at Richmond. The Association an Ozftgrozcth of Conditions in Virginia A careful examination of its organization, its methods, its flexibility, its versatility and achievements discloses its unique character and its remarkable achievements during its twenty- one years of service in Virginia. This Asso- ciation is spontaneous and indigenous in Vir- ginia. The headquarters of this Association are in the State Office Building, Richmond, Vir- ginia. The State Director, J. H. Montgomery, will gladly give any one interested full informa- tion about every phase of the work of this re- markable civic movement in Virginia in the in- terest of every section of the State but particu- larly the rural section. October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 7 Shall We Save Cumberland Falls? By Vance Prather, Secretary Kentucky Park Commission Cumberland Falls needs no attorney to plead its case. It merely needs a messenger to bear the news of its existence, of its grandeur and its potential value. This jog spot in natuiÃ‚Â°e's unfettered wildness calls one back to the period, of unreckoned time. It seems to be the connecting link between this and other ages. It is simultaneously a place of repose and swirl- ing emotions. The dashing waters drive the feeling high; the quiet and restful banks of cling- ing vines and blooming shrubs soothe the spirit and bring peace to the )~estless soul. Cumberland Falls must have messengers to warn the wo)Ã‚Â°ld of its threatened destruction. All nature lovers and true sportsmen must cone to its rescue. "It shall not be despoiled for p) irate industry's sake" must be our motto. Quick action is necessary to save it. Every agency of conservation, every friend of natur- al resources, the State Federation of Women's Clubs, the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the National Chamber of Commerce, Kentucky chambers of commerce, and, in fine, Cumberland Falls, Kentucky, will be wiped out of existence by commercial development unless Kentucky saves it for a state park. Shall it be a wonderful, accessible, recreational play- ground and state game preserve forever for the people of this and forty-seven other states, CUMBERLAND FALLS or shall it be dried up and its waters converted into electrical power for commercial profit? The fate of this great natural asset of Kentucky must be decided soon, for an option now is held by a big development company with millions of dollars behind it, and engineering work has already begun toward destroying this marvel- ous water fall and wonderful natural park. every friend of the great out-of-doors, should be enlisted in the fight to save for all time this "Niagara of the Middle-West," the finest and most picturesque water fall between the Ap- palachian and the Rocky mountains, and second only in grandeur to Niagara itself. Cumberland Falls, eighty feet high, by one hundred and twenty-five feet wide, is the second Page 8 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 largest water fall of the Appalachian Range- nearly half as high as Niagara! It forms part of the Cumberland River, dividing Whitley and McCreary counties, in Kentucky, and is twenty miles from the Tennessee line. Burnside lies north of it, on the river, where it meets the South Fork. The "Old Hunters Trail" passed within thirteen miles of the Falls. Railroads are far enough away to prevent despoliation, yet maintain access. The Louisville and Nash- ville railroad is eighteen miles distant, and the Southern railway is fourteen miles away (but proposes to run its new line, from Danville, Kentucky, to Jellico, Tennessee, within three miles of the Falls.) County roads are clay, but are passable for automobiles. The Cincin- nati-to-Chattanooga route (Cincinnati-Lookout Mountain Highway) of the Dixie Highway, to be completed in 1927, will be thirteen miles away. The meandering Cumberland river descends between steep, forested, picturesque mountains and forms one of the most unique scenic spots and finest natural playgrounds to be found in all America. The Cumberland river here drops, by twelve foot rapids, and plunges immediately and precipitately over a sheer sixty-eight foot fall into a great pool, sixty feet deep. The river then runs on for miles through a narrow, walled-in gorge, often almost blocked by giant boulders, weighing many tons and forty feet or more in height. Rainbows hover over the falls at all hours of the day, and at night one sees clearly the unique moonbow. No spot of central nor of eastern North America offers such a wonderfully beautiful and majestic site for a State reservation, State Park or Game Preserve; no spot is more access- ible to tourists from other States. It is a tangled wilderness of wild life, with pink and white mountain laurel, the mountain azalea and the wild cucumber growing in a riot all around. Beech, oak, elm, sycamore, dogwood, cotton- wood, willow, persimmon, pawpaw, walnut, ash, anal a labyrinth of creeping and climbing vines, add to the enchanting beauty. Kentucky needs this State Park for its present and future gen- erations, and for the enjoyment of visitors from forty-seven other States of the Union. Geologically, the Cumberland Falls region is of the early Pottsville age, conglomerate sandstone and shale. Some minerals are found -soft coal and gas rarely. Botanically, the Cumberland Falls region has flora of both the north and the south. Rhododendron trees, a foot thick are found, the tropical magnolia is everywhere, rare moccasin flowers and many others grow here. The wild pea-vine, so useful in deer feeding, is native. Historically, the Cumberland Falls region is a treasure-hold for the study of early American folklore and prim- itive mountain life. Cabins lie far apart up roadless ravines; squatter rights prevail. With- in these primitive cabins one still may find spinning wheels and hand-looms, "pretties" hang from rafters of the "family bedroom", and scrawny pigs scratch beneath. Schools run from "crops to Christmas" at Seed Tick and Indian school houses, nine miles apart. Doctors are twenty-five miles away. The fam- ily of the Brunsons has been the one point of contact of civilization with the "furriners." Yet these blue-eyed people of the mountains are straight descendants of the English pio- neers. This tract of Cumberland Falls first was re- corded in grants from the Governor of Virginia. Earlier history gives unusually vivid Indian legends and records. The Battle of Shiloh, (two miles away), was fought in defense of "the place of worship" (doubtless Cumberland Falls). Little Eagle, nearby, was guarded day and night. Preceding the Indians are traces of still an older civilization or semi-civilization, for the Aztecs, who once sought the conquest of North America, were turned back at Lexing- ton, Kentucky, and their "retreat" led through Cumberland Falls and Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Mexico. And, even preceding the Aztecs, were the mysteriously half-mythical "Moon- Faced People," who lived and buried by a rule of seven. Skeletons and chests nearby have gone to the museum of Harvard University. Cumberland Falls is only waiting for its his- torian to tell such secrets as that of Prop Cave. Preservation of Cumberland Falls is im- perative for a State Park and State Game Pre- serve for the future. Wild turkey, pheasant, partridge, .gray fox, opossum, ,,raccoon, and (Continued on page 19. ) October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page a Mountaineers of Western North Carolina By James Cope, Possibly in no section of the Southern High- lands has there been so marked an improve- ment in the lot of mountain folk as in western North Carolina. This region, the wildest mountain land of the South and the most beau- tiful, is now teeming with prosperous farms where a decade or two ago there were mountain cabins. Diversified farm products place money in the hands of the former mountaineer, in- stead of his depending on the historical "block- ading." Little radio sets are found in many moun- tain homes, bringing the news and entertain- ment of the world to the backwoods. Over the paved roads buses stop in the morning and collect the children, taking them to handsome school buildings where an education that is worthy of the name is given them instead of the three R's of the "little red school-house" of yore. Farm products are brought to the railway undamaged over the same roads in the trusty Lizzie, and from that point they are marketed cooperatively. In the same way seeds and fertilizer and other farm necessities are brought back to the farmer, slightly lower in cost and often higher in quality than those they might obtain singly. The Lizzie takes them in an hour or so to town, or to the city in a slightly longer time. From the proceeds of farming the children go to high school and to college. The home econ- omics courses have taught the younger girls the elements of wholesome cooking and this is rapidly supplanting the horrible concoctions of the past generations. The mountaineers are losing the picturesque appearance of another day, it is true. "Store clothes" are supplanting the homespuns and striped shirts and white collars appear now and again, but these people still retain their knowledge of the pioneer crafts. They are clever with primitive tools; they can grind their own corn, make their own molasses, patch their own shoes, mend their pots. Little of their food is store bought but they are canning Asheville, North Carolina their own vegetables for use in wintertime. The store-purchased canned goods are still the abomination that another generation consid- ered them and only where the logging camps have injected different living conditions are they used. The women produce beautiful hooked rugs and weaves. The mountaineer is still self-sufficient in many ways but he controls the advantages of modern civilization while maintaining his in- dividual independence. The law still stops at his doorstep; homicide is considered much more lightly than in our cities, but their justice is impregnable and more rugged than the wily law of the thickly populated sections. Perhaps a too complete invasion of modern practice will damage the integrity of this re- markable people. These mountaineers are not, as is generally believed, of pure Anglo-Saxon stock, but they are descendants of first Ameri- cans. They are the sons of freeman, exiled from their homelands for religious or political views, not felons banished to foreign shores. Largely they came from western Pennsylvania, of English, Irish, Scotch, Dutch and Swiss stock. There is some French blood among them but the nations mentioned above contributed practically the whole of this population. Largely speaking these people were the same as the pioneers of the West, but they chose the southward course and the fastnesses of the mountains broke their westward distri- bution. The rugged mountains inculcated their own character into their people until there is probably no more dependable, substantial pop- ulation to be found in America. Whether they will maintain high standards as the world in- vades their doors is a big question, but it probably is safe to conjecture that they will remain as they are. Apart from the efforts of the state and counties in providing education, transportation and accessibility to the outer world, one of the greatest beneficial influences in western North Carolina has been the Farmers' Federation of Lake Fairfield, a quiet corner of the Blue Ridge in Western North Carolina, where beauty of surroundings, and excellence of climate are combined with fertility of soil, making farm existence a full and abundant life October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page II Asheville. It is only five years old but is doing a million dollar business annually. Recently it raised over $160,000 in a stock drive in the city of Asheville alone. It pays dividends on all its stocks and is extending its services through all the counties, up the mountain coves and into the most inaccessible places. The Federation owns a hatchery, raises chicks and then distributes them to the moun- tain homes in the spring. In the fall they come around and collect a number of the chickens and ship them in carloads to the northern mar- kets after fattening them in special pens main- tained for the purpose. The farmer or moun- taineer still has a flock of chickens and next year he has a solidly established side line. And so with all lines of farm produce. This organization was developed from the social service angle rather than with the di- rect view of increasing farm profits. To ex- pand the mountaineer's horizon, to place money in his pocket with which to buy conveniences that mean healthy life, to back up education with prosperity and make life worthwhile for the farm wife. Labor saving devices are now found in farm homes, electric lights and bath- tubs and many other necessities which the mountaineer has likely as not considered sinful luxuries, entirely unattainable. It has been said that this Farmers' Feder- ation of Asheville is the only thoroughly suc- cessful marketing organization in the country. Started on a shoe-string by James G. K. McClure, Jr., of Chicago, it met with opposition from the farmers themselves. They did not want to hold their potatoes until the best mar- ket conditions prevailed, they distrusted such tactics and preferred to sell for what little cash they could get locally. They objected to using fertilizer on their fields and reasoning could not drill the advantages of it into their heads. And so this organization had to fight for its existence and its success and it won by the simplest possible tactics. Instead of using clear and convincing argument they went at the farmer with fun. They put on local plays, all of which had a clown as butt for the jokes of the rest of the cast and every dig consisted of Anaking fun of him for trying to raise corn with- out fertilizer, or trying to run a farm without chickens, and so on. The farmers laughed at the ridiculous clown and bought fertilizer and immediately started making fun of their neigh- bors who stuck to old-fashioned methods of farming. To hold the business of their farmer stock- holders the Federation offered a stock dividend based on the volume of business transacted through the organization. Since the organiza- tion of the company not a single dividend has been passed up and the capital has been in- creased to about $200,000. But this has been A SCENE ON KENTUCKY RIVER done during the past few months only and for the proceeding five years the available capital ranged from $15,000 to $50,000, a great sum to do a million dollar business on! It is the work of an organization like this coupled with the increased accessibility given by the system of state highways which links up each county seat to that of each adjoining county that has changed the aspect of Carolina mountain life from one of isolated squalor to comparative affluence. The time since the change began has been so short that only a small fraction of results have manifested them- selves. In time the mountains of western North Carolina will be filled with prosperous farms and farmhomes, as prosperous and neat as those of New England and the eastern states. The misery of the mountains is be- coming a thing of the past. "Nothing is impossible where there is co- operation of individuals bent upon vouchsafing the public good."-V. Page 12 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 Mountain Ballads By Miss Gladys V. Jameson A Paper of Pins. 1. I'll give to you a pa - per of pins, And that's the way our loge be- -y will mar -ry me. gins, If you will mar- rv me, my Miss, If you 2. I won't accept your paper of pins, If that's the way our love begins, And I'll not marry you, you, you, And I'll not marry you. I'll give to you a dress of red, Stitched all around with golden thread, If you will marry me, me, me, If you will marry me. 3. 7. I'll give you a little Tray-dog To go with you when you walk abroad, If you will marry me, me, me, If you will marry me. 8. I won't accept your little Tray-dog To go with me when I walk abroad, And I'll not marry you. And I'll not marry you, you, you, 4. I won't accept your dress of red, 9. I'll give to you a house and land Stitched all around with golden thread, That you may have at your command, And I'll not marry you, you, you, If you will marry me, me, me, And I'll not marry you. If you will marry me. 5. I'll give to you a dress of green, That you may look just like a queen, If you will marry me, me, me, If you will marry me. 6. I won't accept your dress of green, That I may look just like a queen, And I'll not marry you, you, you, And I'll not marry you. 12. I do accept the key of your heart, That we may lock and never part, And I will marry you, you, you, Yes, I will marry you. The great interest in folk music manifest at every hand today, is of far deeper signifi- cance than many of the spurious fads in art that rise and die almost over night. It indi- cates one of those mighty swings of "the peo- ple" away from that which soon cloys or an- noys, toward a form of expression both direct and adequate. One hearing ballads or folk music for the first time is immediately impressed with its simplicity and freshness. It is not a static simplicity, however; for just as all higher mathematics is' based on the multiplication table, so all really great, complex music is founded on folk music. But one is not less im- 10. I won't accept your house and land That I may have at my command, And I'll not marry you, you, you, And I'll not marry you. 11. I'll give to you the key of my heart, That we may lock and never part, If you will marry me, me, me, If you will marry me. pressed with its quaintness and peculiar charm. In reality it is "quaint" because it is not built on our familiar major (or minor) scale; it was evolved by the people when their musical ex- perience was founded chiefly on the "modes" used in early Church music, when the sea of Modern Harmony was as unknown as the lim- its of the universe. These "modes" follow various tone succes- sions, but the most common ones may be ap- proximated by playing the octaves d to d, e to e, etc., on just the white keys of a piano. However, the Celtic scale, on which much of the old Irish music was founded, may be made (Continued to page 19) October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 13 A Prophet in His Own Country By Marshall E. Vaughn, Secretary, Berea College If you could choose the place in which to be born and had the power to make your choice retro-active, where would you choose? Sermons have been preached, poems written and orations delivered on the origin of great men. Many a political office has been sought on the basis of the strategical location of the candidate. This is supposed to give him a preferred eligi- bility for the office. We have even reached the from pivotal place of choosing our presidents states rather than choosing them because of their excep- tional ability as executives. President Coolidge is an acci- dent as President of the Unit- ed States. He was just as able a man before the conven- tion that nominated him on the ticket with President Har- ding as he was last year but he came from the rock-ribbed state of Massachusetts where it was thought his political prestige was not needed. Sen- ator Borah, because of his lo- cation, will never be president :)f the United States unless he [selected vice-president and his chief dies. Ambitious writers who are `crazy" to get something pub- lished for which they will re- ceive a check argue that there is no chance for a new person to break into print unless he lives in New York or some other magazine center where he can bombard the offices of editors every day and by some hook or crook get a "pull" that will give him a chance. Bombarding the offices of editors does have its weight and many a person has gotten an entree by such methods, but whether or not he stays on the inside depends upon his being able to deliver. Now, back to the subject. Just what kind of a birthplace would you choose if the matter were left up to you? The child that is born in the city may have all the care that a well organ- REV. G. G. WARD ized society is prepared to give in the most important period of its life. He starts life in the place that seems to be the ultimate goal of every ambitious youth of the land. It is true that if he comes into the world under the auspices of very poor parents his health might suffer and he might be compelled to endure squalor and hardships. But think of the joy unconfined that actually comes from living in the city and having the proud distinction of being born there! The child that is born in the country is assured by statisticians that 75 percent of all the successful men of the United States first saw the light of day in the country. Think of the innumerable themes for public addresses and speeches that one's exper- iences in the country would guarantee.The little red school house on the hill, the mossy brook that flows through grandfather's meadow, !the tramp through the forest, the rabbit chasing with "old Ring" and a thousand other things build up a background of ro- mance and sentiment that makes orators, poets and dreamers. Now where would you be born if you had a chance to do it again? I would refuse to accept the responsibility of promising success to any one on the basis of birthplace. Life is so varied and success so dependent upon the inner qualities of the individual that I am prone to deny the existence of any relationship between the place of one's advent into the world and the success he makes in life. If place and environment were the chief consideration in determining the success of people we would never have been blessed with the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Raymond Robins and Edward Bok. There is a still greater number of lesser lights who have risen Page 14 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 above their surroundings and blessed the world with service. It is to one of the latter class that this article is dedicated. Down in Gilmer County, Gerorgia is a spur of the Blue Ridge mountains. The ridges of this famous mountain range skirt the entire northern and western border of the county and extend for hundreds of miles through western North Carolina and Virginia. High upon a thick pine and ivy clad ridge overlooking the meadow and swift winding stream stood a chance-built cottage, the birthplace of G. G. Ward. Away to the east and beyond a railroad cut stand, silent and blue, still higher ridges; be- fond those arise, dim and mighty, Cole, Rich, Bald and other gray peaks al- most piercing the clouds. For picturesqueness a king could not wish for a more delightful setting for a birthplace, but wild flowers must be cultiva- ted and pruned or they will continue in their wild state. It is the guid- ing hand and the compas- sionate pruning hooks of great teachers that make men of leadership out of boys who are "just growin' up" on mountain sides. The spirit of young Ward was restless. The narrow valley at his feet seemed to widen out into something bigger. There must be some- thing beyond if he could only reach it. His first weeks in the make-shift school were a mixture of fear and anticipation. He was told the teacher would "whoop" him for little or nothing. He actually crawled under the floor the first day from sheer fright. He soon learn- ed that he must steel his nerve against all threats and make himself as comfortable as he could. Mr. Ward expressed himself with a great deal of feeling when he was quizzed on the subject of his early school days in the moun- tains of Georgia. "Mr. Ward, what was the greatest influence in your boyhood days that led you to go through hardships to get an education?" I asked. "My first teacher was a failure," he replied, "but there was a brilliant boy in school a few years older than I. I found that he could read and that he liked to show the children how to read. The school was small and stuffy and the teacher used to let us go out and sit under the trees and study. John Whittaker would sit by me and read his lessons out loud. I remember the first lesson he read to me. It was on page 14 of the `old Blueback speller.' The first line ran as follows: `Moss grows on trees in the woods." "I suppose you have heard of a `blab school' have you not? Well, we were allowed to blab in this school during `books' although studying out loud was becoming less popular in this communi- ty. "With this first at- tempt at reading came a thrill I have never ex- perienced mall my sub- sequent years in college and in the ministry. "Going a-voyaging and finding the fairy isles of dreams and im- agination is an experi- ence that money cannot buy and the heart can- not cherish too fondly. The garden gates of beauty and learning swung ajar and I caught glimpses and odorÃ‚Â°s of the glories within. I had no more help in reading. From that hour I went on step by step devouring everything that was readable, and many things that were not readable, that came within my reach. In the score of years that have passed since that event- ful introduction to my new world I have read books by the set and steeped my mind in the best literature of the ages." "But what about the great natural world about you? Did you confine your life to books or did you increase your knowledge of the abun- dance of real things that are a great part of mountain life?" I asked. "Why bless your life, all the time I was reading in books I was learning from the trees, THE EVEN BREEZE BY G. G. Ward I crave no loud excess of song upon my sea Nor joys that rack my nerves and snatch my sleep from me; Nor storms that drive my fragile bark on darlcsome ways To strike the rocks that cleave my hopes of earthly days. Give me the sweet even breeze to waf t for me My gently rocking boat of life across the sea. October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 15 birds and every leaf in the open book of nature. I took a great deal of ridicule for my devouring love for bugs, toads and butterflies. The soli- tude of the mountains was conducive to nature study, to meditation and planning." Mr. Ward might easily lay claim to receiv- ing a disguised blessing from an early misfor- tune that befell his father. His father, though a frugal man, was not a genius in finances. The mother died when little "G. G." as the youth was called, was six years old, and the father almost simultaneously lost the hard earned ac- cumulations of a life time. These misfortunes forced him to move into a poorer and more neg- lected part of the county where the land was cheaper. Now Buckhorn community, though removed from all contact with the outside world, had inherited a counter force to the customary lawlessness of such communities. Fifty years prior to the coming of the Ward family to the community, Landrine J. Tatum of Mercer University, in southern Georgia, had taught school in a log cabin and preached the redeeming power of Christianity on Sunday. He was the first college man to give his life in volunteer service among the white people of the Georgia mountains. There was never a nobler nor a superior servant of a cause. Ta- tumtaught "Chris" Bryant and Bryant taught young Ward. This Socratic method of trans- mitting the spirit and power of consecrated teachers from generation to generation through selected individuals has made its impress upon the history of the world. Landrine Tatum is referred to as one of the patriarchs and proph- ets of the mountains. He knew something. He had a big soul overflowing with sympathy. "Chris" Bryant was an idealist, an inspirer of youth who cared more for his chances of heaven than he did for power to subdue the earth. Ungovernable circumstances brought the school down to a small attendance but they never "resigned". Theirs was to toil on work- ing at the theories and philosophies of life and dreaming of a better day. After crushing delays "G. G." walked to Morgantown, Fannin county, some thirty miles over the Blue Ridge mountains to attend an Academy that had been started by the Baptist church. The Academy was reaching out in its course of study and for the first time young Ward got a taste of formal public speaking taught in a school of "higher learning." He had been used to the stump oratory of local politi- cians and camp meeting preaching but he never knew before that public speaking could be taught by rule and that there was a reasonably well defined science back of effective oratory. All the time Ward was attending local schools he kept up his investigations about other and more advanced institutions. He spent a year at Hiawassee College and three years at Mercer University. The dream day of his life finally came. Was it true that he was sitting upon a college platform waiting for the President to hand over to him a certificate of graduation from college? "Where do I go from here?" he asked him- self when he stepped out upon the campus, freed from the worries of school life. He could not bring his school days to a close for he was not yet prepared to do what he longed to do. He had determined years ago that he would some day become a minister. But he did not want to be the half-baked, narrow pre acher of the Gospel that he knew so well. The mountains had been bred into his bone and sinew and the mountains would be his permanent home. If he would be a minister to his own people he would be the best and most informed minister he was capable of becoming. Nothing was too good for a great people like his own and they had received so little in the way of inspiration and uplift that real leadership would net great- er results in the mountains than anywhere else in the world. For three years Mr. Ward worked in the county at the various jobs he could get. He taught, preached and worked on the farm. Dur- ing this time he was investigating schools for his finishing work. Finally he decided upon The School of Expression in Boston, Massa- chusetts. He walked to Morgantown and worked all summer. His accumulations from this employment amounted to the.immense sum of $25.00. With this amount and another small sum which he borrowed at 8 per cent interest he started for Boston. "S. S. Curry, the founder of the School of Expression, was my teacher and friend. I Page 16 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 PART OF THE CAMPUS ~l GHA NG'E FOR YOUNG PE Berea College, located in the foothills of Eastern Kentucky offers a chance ments from the grades thru college are available for young people abov- 15 y the mountains of eight states. All students work to meet part of their ,.xpen agents and leaders of many other vocations. INFORMATION MAY BE SECURED BY WRITING T ._Ã¢â‚¬Å¾_,_Ã¢â‚¬Å¾_._,_,_,,_Ã¢â‚¬Å¾_.,_,_,_,_,_,,_,,_,,_,_,,__,__,_Ã¢â‚¬Å¾,_,,_ What Leading Men He I BENJAMIN ANDREWS Berea at the front of all colleges on more net good than j Teachers' College, New York the borderland between North and I believe I have foun j "Berea College-an institution South. It is in just such colleges as It costs Berea $100 a j that stretches dollars farther in se- Berea that the hope of America lies, to carry on. I hav, 1 curing educational results than prob- and I commend the blessed place to ten boys and pay th j ably any other in the country." all lovers of knowledge, truth, justice education each ye.- and freedom." get twenty-four l j S. PARKES CADMAN each take ten. I I "The history and advance of this BRUCE BARTON quarter of Preside I great Christian institution take pre- (From a letter addressed to twenty- turning in $25,OO~. mier rank. Nothing done in our time four intimate friends.) for you ten boys exceeds them in real worth. I con- "A couple of years ago I said : `I'd blooded Americans I sider it a reflection upon the Ameri- like to discover the one place in the and just as deserv: I can people that they do not place United States where a dollar does I'll promise you the October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 17 PUS OF BEREA COLLEGE 'E 0 PL E 0 F THE AIJ0 UNTA INS ce to every ambitious boy and girl in the Mountains. Courses in all depart- s ye- s of age. This year ninety per cent of the student body comes from pensc.,,. Special attention given to training rural teachers, county agricultural a' THE PRESIDENT Wm. J. HUTCHINS, BEREA, KY. Have ,Said Jh out Berea - ....- -"_,,_,,_,,_,_,_ than anywhere else.' ever got for a thousand. What will found the place . . . . . you have, ten boys or ten girls?" .00 a year per student have agreed to take ,y the deficit on their re-$1.000, if I can o 'ter men who will I want to lift one ;id nt ~utchins' load 10u. Let me pick out ys who are as pure ins as your own sons, serving of a chance. the biggest thrill you SHERWOOD EDDY "Unsectarian, with no aid from state or federal funds, Berea College offers an opportunity for investment in humanity, with compound interest. I know of none better." A. T. McCORMACK Kentucky State Board of Health "At a staff meeting of this Board, several of its members, including my- self, who had just returned from of- ficial trips in the mountains of East- ern Kentucky, joined in a very en- thusiastic expression of opinion that the most important single influence in the real progress of the citizenship was that generated by and from Berea College." CHARLES W. ELIOT "Discriminating givers will read- ily class a work of such magnitude, such urgency, and above all such i promise, as a preferred benevolence." ( Advt. ) Page 18 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 learned that other friends could be found by cultivation and earnest work. It is sufficient to say that in three years from the time I reach- ed Boston I was the Commencement speaker for our graduating class in Newton Theologi- cal Seminary." "Debts had accumulated even though I had been compelled to `pay up' as I went along. "I must serve for a year or two some church that is able to pay me enough money to settle my accounts, then I will return to my own mountains, was the way I reason- ed. I went to new Hampshire and finally to southern Georgia. But the mountains kept calling me. I have been awakened from sleep with the burden of the montains on my mind. Late in the year 1921 1 made the momentous decision. I flung away some attractive offers of larger pas- torates and chances of going on the lecture platform and went back to my home com- munity to teach in the country school at less than one-third the salary. "I went back where I rambled as a boy, where my mother lived as a little girl; where my father had grown up, where grandfather and great-grandfather had lived. "I went back home. In my haste I even forgot to ask about the salary. I found it would be $65.00 a month, and that for less than three fourths of the year. I did not mind, for I was coming back home to do a big job in a small place. But as I settled down to work I had more worries over the economics of my pro- fession than I confessed. "It looked like financial disaster faced me. But things, even financial, are not always what they seem. The First Baptist Church of Ellijay, my home town, called me to the full pastorate which gave me an increase in salary, though it would look mighty small to many of my brothers in the service. But my work is consuming and my experiences are in- spiring. I work with faithful and loyal people who like to hear of the big things of life. The grown-up folks of my town fill the church, and they never miss a lecture. I am serving the men, women and children of the race that mothered George Washington, William Words- worth, William Shakespeare, Thomas A. Edisort and gave to the world Sir Isaac Newton." Rev. G. G. Ward is working with the most. appreciative people on earth; a people with a simple faith but not simple minds; a people who know that the world holds treasures they have not been privileged to enjoy and who are seek- ing to acquire them by the route of honest strug- CONSERVATORY OF MOUNTAIN BALLADS gle and education. The mountains contain no Bolshevists nor Communists. Some of their people may appear stolid and stoical, but never radical and destructive. They are sometimes sad but never disgruntled. If their lot is hard they never lose faith. A single gleam of light in the mountains disperses more darkness than in any other quarter of the nation. Mr. Ward is happy in the fact that all of the old debts are paid and he is slowly making provision for "rainy weather". His life is not confined to October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 19 work in the local community, but his influence is extending over a much wider region. He is now writing for magazines and daily papers. And what does he write about? His people, of course. And when he sings it is of the moun- tains and of the infinite love of his Heavenly Father who cares for His Own. SHALL WE SAVE CUMBERLAND FALLS? (Continued from page 8) ground-hog, still are to be found here. Deer and bear, even buffalo (as proven by late finds) formerly were plentiful and may be introduced and fed easily, through a co-operative arrange- ment with the Interior Department and the National Park Service. Black bass, both large and small-mouth, perch, jack salmon, trout and the channel, yellow and mud-cat, are found in the stream above and below the falls. State restocking of the pools by the State Fish and Game Commission would give quick returns and provide a haven for the true sportsman. Cum- berland Falls already has miles of trails for tramping and riding. Its waters give both shal- low and deep bathing (as deep as sixty feet), boating, canoeing and the more exciting shoot- ing of its rapids. It has unsurpassed camp sites, which are used by many parties and Scout Troops each year. Its recreational value to Kentucky is incalculable. For seventy-five years Cumberland Falls has been visited by Friends of the Outdoors, by people who love the wild beauties of Nature. For several years past an average of nine hun- dred visitors have come yearly from every di- rection, from California, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Illinois, as well as from Ohio and Kentucky. Cincinnati alone contributes each year two-thirds of this total. Some days see the arrival of forty-eight persons on a single train! Many go yearly for long stays in this pine-laden air. These "Old Repeaters" now urge the preservation of this glorious playground for themselves, and for countless thousands yet to come, with the building of a new rail line and a new scenic highway to Look- out Mountain. Accommodation is assured by the present Inn, a rambling old Southern wooden building, at the edge of the Falls, and housing eighty guests. ,If the power' project (hydro-electric) is allowed to be consummated, the dam will cut off the water a mile above the Falls, bank it for miles behind and drain its waters by a flume to a powerhouse three miles below the Falls- AND NOTHING WILL BE LEFT OF THIS GREAT BEAUTY SPOT BUT A BARE ROCK!!! Shall the people of Kentucky and the nature-lovers of forty-eight states permit this devastation to Qome to pass? Preservation of Cumberland Falls is imper- ative for a State Park for all the coming gen- erations. This great Natural Park should be- long to the people of Kentucky, now and for all time. It offers unsurpassed scenery in its falls, gorge, and mountains, and its riot of tangled vine and wildwood and wild life. MOUNTAIN BALLADS (Continued from page 12) familiar to us by playing a scale on only the black keys. It is on this scale that "A Paper of Pins" was fashioned. The exact age of these tunes is impossible to establish. We know that "We Won't Go Home Until Morning" was a French song used in the Crusades (with rather different words) ; and that some of the English and Irish ballads bear marks denoting greater antiquity than their Trouvere cousin; also, it is quite certain the tunes are older than the words. It would seem that 1050 is a conservative estimate of the date of their origin. One great difficulty in publishing ballads is the ever-changing effect upon them wrought by different localities. Today one county, or family, sings "A Paper of Pins" one way; an- other, in quite a different way. It is like changing the tune of "My Country `Tis of Thee" to change a "ballet." So it is with some trepi- dation this version of one of the oldest ballads makes its bow to the public. If any one likes his own tune better, he is only too welcome to preserve and cherish it-the vital point is that they shall be known and loved. Page 20 Southern entain Life and Work October, 1925 BREAKDOWNS Prof. Gordon Wilson, M.A., Western Ky. Teachers' College Editor's note-This paper was read before the Kentucky Folk Lope Society in Louisville last April. Prof. Wilson treated the Break down as bygone music but as a matter of fact it is the prevailing music of the mountains today. In the, larger centers of the coal industry jazz bands are to be found but they are as foreign to the natives as the Breakdown is foreign to the jazzers. But a careful analysis of the Breakdown will reveal a kinship between it and modern ragtime and jazz. Jazz has been called fundamentally American. All other music is imported. 1 f the ragtime and jazz are American, the Breakdown is more so because much of our modern music is nothing more nor less than syncopated folk music of another gener- ation. The old community of pre-Civil War days is one of the passing institutions; in fact, it is largely a past institution, for though it continu- ed as a survival for a few decades after the end of the old regime, it rapidly vanished be- fore education, travel, a new national life, and a supposedly higher culture. Whatever its faults, it had one great thing our age lacks, a means of community entertainment. For the more highly cultured it had the waltz, the min- uet, and other graceful dances, -a sort of badge of aristocracy; for the intermediate classes, who were a bit puzzled about the morality of the "round" dances, it had the singing-games, or, as they were popularly called, the "play- party" games; for the masses it had the break- down, hoedown, square dance, country dance, or whatever local name you prefer. The "round" dances still keep their popularity, changed more in name than instep; the "play- party" games survive in only a few isolated places as genuine traditions or have been re- introduced by modern enthusiasts who love the memories of the older time but the breakdown is a modern nine-day's wonder in most of our country. To most of our generation it is only a name, a means of entertainment known only through the stories of our grand-parents. Since it was such an important thing in the social life of our country for so long, it is well to review the breakdown and its characteristics, to let the younger generation know what they missed by being born "an age too late". Owing to the limits of this paper, it will be necessary for me to confine myself to the breakdown from the musical and literary viewpoints. I should like to take you back to the old-fashioned community when the people have assembled at some cot- tage or cabin for an evening of enjoyment. The fiddler is there; the banjo-picker is there; the boys are there with their best girls; even the old people, forgetful of rheumatic pains and years of toil, sit by the open fireplace and spin yarns of other days, pretending to ignore the swaying throng, but secretly thrilled with the music and eager to take their places on the floor. And the dance continues, warmed with cider and other drinks, until daylight comes, or, in the words of a folk-ballad "Dance all night till the broad daylight; Go home with the gals in the morning". I shall have to forego this pleasure of calling back the past. Those who have had the ex- perience would only have memories that might sadden as well as gladden; those who have never shared in this lost art would have little inter- est other than a sort of child-like curiosity in the crude enjoyments of a long-dead past. Breakdowns are of two kinds: those which are sung and played on some musical instru- ment, and those which are played only. It is hard to tell which came first in origin, but I am inclined to the belief that, judging by the popular ballads of many countries, the sung breakdown is the older, a species of the popular ballad, another lost art, but once the great literary outlet of the masses. In a few instan- ces I have heard sung breakdowns which told October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 21 stories in true ballad fashion. In my home county, Calloway, there grew up, nearly two generations ago, a very popular breakdown known as Old Man Garrison, which, though frequently sung without the dance, was more often given in full by the dancing throng. The one who called the figures was lusty enough to make himself heard, however, even above the song and the shuffling of feet. The ballad pur- ported to be a veracious account of the stealing of goober-peas at Brandon's Mill by Old Man Garrison and his son Bill. In the famous ex- ploit the hero, if we may so designate him, lost his knife; to keep from being found out, he returned and found the knife in a crack in the floor. This seems to have been the original story, but rapidly other stanzas were added, for the theme seemed a promising one. The other stanzas detailed the further exploits of the Garrison family, especially John, another son. No one knew who started the ballad, and it was not certain that any such event occurred, but the popularity of the piece grew until I have found people in far-away counties who had danced to the air and who knew the words FOUR GENERATIONS RESIDE HERE and music, without suspecting that any of the Garrisons were real people. Just where the air came from I do not know. I strongly suspect that it was already known in the neighborhood and merely received a new setting when the Garrison ballad grew up. Since the Garrison family of today is highly respected and respect- able, the song has long ago been forgotten ex- cept by the few who have a bit of the archae- ologist about them. Most sung breakdowns do not tell a con- nected story; if they ever did, the story has. been so garbled by oral transmission that it is, now impossible for us to follow the plan or plot- Sometimes there are three or four stanzas in succession which relate to similar things and suggest a sort of connected story. In Cumber- land Gap, for example, the stanzas for the most THE DULCIMER PLAYER part repeat the name of Cumberland Gap, but some of them seem to have no possible con- nection with others. This disconnected nature of the breakdown ballad, if we may use a term still used among those who sing them, suggests their kinship with the "play-party" games, in which the words of each stanza in many of the games are independent of those in other stan- zas. Several of the breakdown ballads are used for both the square dance and the playing- games. One of these is The Girl 1 Left Behind Me, which has added a stanza or two, merely to give direction to the players: "ALL down in the middle and round both sides, And balance on the corner; Swing, oh, swing that pretty little girl; Promenade with the girl behind you". or "First you swing the opposite lady, Swing her by the right; Then your partner by the left; Promenade with the girl behind you". Page 22 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 With either of these two stanzas the ring of partners sing, "Oh, that girl, that pretty little girl, That girl 1 left behind me; I'll weep and sigh till the day 1 die For the girl 1 left behind me." It will be seen that this refrain is from the bal- lad, the folk-ballad, and not from the playing game. In this classic there meet the folk-bal- lad, the breakdown air, and the singing-game, just about all the contributing elements of the breakdown and its kindred. By far the greater number of the sung breakdowns are of the disconnected type. Many of them seem to record nearly every reaction of the community, and there will appear in the same ballad, or, at least, there will be sung to the same tune, stanzas ranging from the most ridiculous to those which are nearly serious, from emotions which are cultured to those which are most barbaric. The old breakdown now so popular as a song hit, `Tain't Goin' to Rain No More, illustrates this tendency of breakdown ballads to sing of everything, good or bad, respectable or shady. As a child I heard it, every hearing adding some new element THE FIDDLER from an adjoining neighborhood or some newly improvised stanza. Since the song has been revived, the same thing is true of it; everybody who sings it is tempted to add a stanza or two. Some of these are obscene or of too local a meaning to be kept, but many are in accord with the original, so far as a popular THE I3_r Ã‚Â°d3O PICKER ballad of any kind can be said to have an ori- ginal. If one could live for a few centuries, I wonder how many times `Tain't Goin' to Rain like Sir Roger de Coverly's coat, would be in or out of style. Another breakdown ballad which I watched grow is Whoa Mule. In many of the stanzas Miss Liza appears as the central figure, as in these: "Hear them sleigh bells ringin', Snow cam f allin' fast; Got that mule in harness, Got him hitched at last. "Whoa, mule, 1 tell you; Whoa, mule, 1 say; Keep your seat, Miss Liza, And hold on to the sleigh". Another stanza alludes to Miss Liza in a slight- ly less complimentary way "Oh, 1 went down to Liza's house, Liza a-sittin' in the door; Shoes and stockings in her hand, And feet all over the floor." October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 23 Others were still less to be quoted or sung in a mixed or cultured audience. We children used to add stanzas of our own making, rather .crude ones, but startlingly like the traditional ones in the spirit. Even the inimitable Turkey in the Straw has this same way of adding stanzas wherever the air is known and sung. Local versions of this ballad often are a bundle of meaningless "If I Couldn't Pick 'er I wouldn't Pack 'er" jargon, which probably had some point at the time the stanzas grew up, but which was trans- mitted, as in the game of Telephone, as it seem- ed to sound. But all versions like some such formula as "Well, as I was a-goin' down the road", or trail; or some reference to a wagon-tongue, whether it was jumped by the old cow, busted by the old cow, or bust by Old Bill. I have never known any philologist who has told very clearly just what Turkey in the Straw means, anyway. Breakdown ballads have characteristics in common with folk-poetry of all nations. They show distinctly their folk origin by their having no personal bias or touch. Even though indi- vidual stanzas are the work of some certain person, whatever characteristic of the author they may have borne when they were first sung are eleminated by oral transmission to places unacquainted with the author's personal feel- ings or opinion. It is this impersonality which distinguishes folk-poetry from other kinds. Over and over again there appear common- places, expressions or even whole stanzas which are shared in common by all ballads. In four or five breakdowns I have heard the stanza: "Rain come to wet me, Sun come to dry me; Stand back puny gal, Don't you come a-nigh me". in Kitty Puss this stanza is followed by an ad- ditional "Black-eyed beauty", which probably had some local point originally. Frequently there occurs incremental repetition, or a re- peating of the exact words formerly used, ex- cept for a word or two which are added to ad- vance the story. Take, for example, Turkey in The Straw, which has in one version three suc- cessive stanzas beginning with"Well, as I was a-goin' down the road". changed next to "street", then to "trail". This is very much in keeping with the old English and Scotch pop- ular ballads, some of which are often made up largely of incremental repetition. Some breakdowns are, after all, not the most typical ones. The singing of the words might interfere too much with the calling of the fig- ures of the dance, and, besides, it takes too much breath to dance and sing at the same time. In general I have heard the sung version given independently of the dance, for the song per- sisted long after the square dance was frowned upon. The breakdown, par excellence, is the purely instrumental one. Even some of these have acquired words locally, but we know them chiefly by the tune or air. As Turkey in the Straw is the prince of sung breakdowns, so is Arkansaw Traveler the prince of instrumental ones. It is hard to think of Arkansaw Traveler Page 24 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 without a fiddle, just as Turkey in the Straw is wedded to the banjo. While our scholastic friends are measuring everything, I should like to have them measure the influence of these old tunes, redolent with the flavor of olden times, a survival, I suspect, of real Cavalier tunes brought from merry England itself. Not all these old airs bring such memories as these two, but we have to admit that they have allur- ing titles: Soldier's Joy, Love Somebody, Old Aunt Peggy, Sourwood Mountains, Pop Goes the Weasel and even Little black Dog with a Green Toenail. Though the square dance was gone, except in the mountains when I was a small boy, it was fortunate for me that my older sister had for her beau a genuine fiddler of the old tra- dition. His brother was equally good as a ban- jo-picker. Though neither sang, we were often ,entertained with evening concerts, all the way from The Downfall of Paris to Old Man Garri- son. There came into the neighborhood for a winter a journeyman fiddler and singing-school master, who organized a fiddling band. Doodle Dan'l, as he was called, brought with him break- downs from other sections where he had labored in the capacity of an Ichabod Crane and re- vived others which had shown signs of weak- ening before the onslaughts of the three church- es of the neighborhood. Aunt Jane Under- wood,-peace to her ashes!-knew enough folk-songs to have been the despair of Pro- fessor Francis Child, the great ballad scholar. She was my mother's best friend and often sang at the request of us children the songs of an earlier time. Some of her songs were "quick and devilish", to use a good old folk phrase. But the prince of musicians was John McCuiston, an old negro who had absorbed from the life of his time the flavor and philosophy of break- downs. He and his banjo were seldom sepa- rated, even though some of his religious breth- ren deplored his worldliness. John was in demand in the summers to play for merry-go- rounds,-then called "swings"-for barbecues, for Democratic rallies, for bran-dances. In the winter he furnished the vocal and instru- mental music for the merry-makings in cabins and even in the aristocratic frame buildings which represented the highest type of archi- tecture in that remote neighborhood. I always identify `Tain't Goin' to Rain No More and Whoa Mule with John Mack, as we called him; they sound like him and like the loud click of heavy shoes on cabin floor or barn door. John knew two dozen or more stanzas of each break- down, enough to last as long as breath itself, especially since he played the whole tune over between each two stanzas, a typical trick of fiddlers and banjo-pickers then and now. But he is gone, and I fear the art he knew has suf- ered in being handed down to his descendants. The fiddle is not a violin, whatever their superficial resemblance. In the first place, a violin is a high-brow instrument, one on which you take lessons under some famous musician at two dollars a lesson and on which you learn to play HumoresqueÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ and Melody in F, Consolation, and Mendelssohn's Spring Song. A fiddle is a folk instrument on which one plays "by ear" the traditional numbers which can- not and should not be written down in cold notes. The violin knows how to wail, to dream, to lose itself in reverie; the fiddle knows how to set feet a-patting, hands a-clapping, hearts a-dancing with joy. The violinist stands when he plays; the fiddler usually sits, for a foot can pat better thus. The violin is often pedigreed like a Kentucky horse; the fiddle needs no ped- igree: it is abundantly able to take care of it- self. But, sentiment aside, the fiddle is not played A STANDARD COUNTRY STORE OWSLEY COUNTY, KY. as is the violin. The fiddle is tuned E A D A. Most breakdowns are in the keys of G, C, D, and A. The primitive scale of music is the one October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 25 more used, the most-frequently-occuring notes being do, mi, sol, do, and just as in the Negro spiritual. Triplets are common: they seem to quicken the feet. The breakdown can hardly be thought of without the fiddle or the banjo. Think of a square dance to the music of a modern orchestra, even a jazz orchestra. Be- sides the fiddle and the banjo, other instru- ments used were the jew's-harp, the French harp, the guitar, the accordion, and the cast- anets, or bones. I suppose the patting of the dancers awaiting their turns should be counted as a part of the music, being a sort of drum to add to the rhythm. I have enough of the savage in me to appreciate very highly the tuning-up, which is as distinctive a part of the breakdown as the breakdown itself. This gets the feet limbered, starts the blood coursing in one's veins, drives away cares and worries. The breakdown voice is also the ballad voice, a phenomenon fast disappearing. It is not sufficient to know the tune and sing it fault- lessly; there is a tone which cannot be caught and hardly imitated. Too often we Southern- ers have been the victims of literary men who thought to enliven their pages by transcribing the Southern drawl. The alphabet as now constituted is not sufficient for making a print- ed page look like a Southerner or sound like his voice. Our alphabet represents articulate sounds, not those overtones so rich in our every-day speech. Just so the breakdown voice can be represented only on a talking-machine, and even this is not wholly satisfactory. The ballad voice was either inherited from the ballad-singing ancestors or trained unconsci- ously by those who knew the true ring of bal- lads. When breakdown ballads are printed or when they are sung by some one who v ishes to show his erudition, they lose their most elusive characteristics. This sort of rendition reminds me of the pathetic efforts of a man I once heard trying to tell Uncle Remus stories, even though he had never heard a real Southern negro talk. Professor Francis B. Gummere, of Haver- ford College, the great scholar of the popular ballad, pictures in his book The Beginnings of Poetry the village bard and the village throng entertaining themselves by improvising a song on some event of interest to the community, acting out the story suggested, while the bard plays a sort of accompaniment on some crude musical instrument. When one of our sung breakdowns is used to furnish the music for a playing-game, all these elements are present, almost in their purity. It is easy to take Pro- fessor Gummere's hypothesis and show how dancing, and playing on some musical instru- ment,-gave rise to our present-day break- downs. Some have left off the playing as such; some have left off the composing; some have left off even the words; but all are related, and all are typically of the folk, by the folk, for the folk. Here are a few of the books which help suggest the treatment I have given the break- down 1. John .A. Loinax, CoÃ‚Â«,boy Songs and Ballads, Sturgis and Walton. 2. Francis B. Gummere, The Beginnings of Poetry, The Macmillian Company. 3. Helen Child Sargent, and George Lyman Kittredge, English and Scotch Popular Ballads, Houghton Mifflin Company. 4. W. W. Newell, Games and Songs of American Children, New York, 1883. 5. Guido H. Stempel, A Book of Ballads, Henry Holt and Company. Ballads and Folk Songs, The Macmillan Com- pany, 1912. 7. Adelaide Witham, Representative English and Scottish Popular Ballads, Hough- ton Mifflin Company, 1909. "Do not act as if you had ten thousand years to throw away. Death stands at your elbow. Be good for something while you live and it is in your power."-Marcus Aurelius. "Culture for its own sake, is the worst form of self-idolatry. Culture as the preparation of self for the service of others, is as the pre- paration of the plot of ground entrusted to us that it may bear harvest in which many may rejoice." -Professor Gardiner. Page 26 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 Goitre in the Kentucky Mountains By Dr. Frances Rother, of the State One of the important health problems con- fronting workers in the Southern mountain field is that of goitre. It is well known that goitres are far more common in certain regions of the world than in others, and that mountain regions are usually goitrous tho not exclusively so. Surveys of the school children in certain sections of the Kentucky Mountains have shown a very high percentage of goitre. In one coun- ty the incidence of slightly enlarged thyroid glands varied from 35`/ to 75`/o in the rural schools inspected, and at one of the Child Health Conferences for pre-school children held in that district, every mother present had a perceptible goitre. By "goitre" is meant an enlargement of the thyroid gland. This gland furnishes an inter- nal secretion very important in regulating metabolism and indirectly controlling many bodily functions, both physical and mental. "Simple goitre" is an enlargment of the thyroid gland from overwork, due to a shortage in iodine, occurring especially when this deficiency is present at time of particular strain on the thyroid. Such extra demands are made nor- mally at puberty, especially in girls, during pregnancy, in the nursing mother and during various infections. Goitres are "toxic" when oversecretive or abnormal secretion becomes a poison. There are also goitres which are tumo- rous growths in the thyroid gland. Simple goitres often apparently cause no symptoms except for slight disfigurment; but this disfig- urment may become great, the mechanical effects of pressure from a large goitre may be serious and many goitres at first simple later become toxic; or thyroid deficiency, as shown by sluggishness of mind and body may develop. And every girl or woman with a goitre may become the mother of a child with a congenital goitre or a cretin child. Cretinism is a condi- tion of dwarfism and mental deficiency, caused by deficiency or absence of the thyroid gland. In certain of the worst goitre sections of Switzerland, cretins are common. Happily, this condition is not yet common in this country, Bureau of Maternal and Child Health although it is by no means rare. Other evi- dences of social deterioration have been shown in some cases to follow the occurrence of goitre in repeated generations. Of late years it has been shown, at first by studies in Switzerland and in the United States, later by data from many other countries, that there is an inverse relation between the iodine content of the food and drink and the occurrence of simple and the most common form of toxic goitre, and that forms of goitre are largely due to iodine starva- tion. Idione in the diet is obtained chiefly from the drinking water and from fruits and green, leafy vegetables; both the drinking water and the fruits and vegetables from goit- rous regions are found to be deficient in iodine. This makes the prevention of endemic goit- re, theoretically quite simple. The taking of small amounts of iodine should prevent it, and practically the results obtained have been bril- liant. The precentage of goitre in school chil- dren of St. Toll, Switzerland, was reduced from 87.6 /. in 1918 to 13.Yh in 1922. Excellent re- sults in goitre prevention have also been . ob- tained in this country. It makes little dif- ference in which way the iodine is given, so long as the amount given remains small. In parts of Switzerland and in many cities of the United States, chocolate iodine tablets, contain- ing from one-twelfth to one-sixth gr. of iodine are being given to every school child once a week throughout the school year. In dome cities, the entire water supply is iodized at cer- tain times in the year. In Michigan all table salt sold contains a very small amount of iodine. Iodized table salt is strongly recommended by health authorities and much used in many other parts of the United States and in Europe. In its use we have our most convenient method of administration, as not only the school child- ren, but the pre-school children and the ex- pectant and nursing mothers are reached, and there is no danger of overdosage. It will not cure existing goitre, but except in most susceptible individuals, will prevent it. Store- keepers, when they are made to understand the (Continued on page 29) October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 27 Friendly Books For Quiet Nooks By Florence Holmes Ridgway, Berea College Lib)Ã‚Â°ary THE RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY Of prime interest to any program of com- munity development is the school library. Prop- erly conducted it may be one of the vital factors in the happiness and growth of the people, both adults and children. Fathers and mothers, whose minds are alert, are always interested in the books which their children find absorbing. When the darkness of winter evenings enfolds the hills the farmer and his wife find a quiet joy in hearing the children read the simple tales of childhood. Many parents, whose early advantages have been so limited that the pro- cess of reading is a task, possess a deep love for the printed word. In most communities there are a few of the older people to whom books come as personal friends; and always there are young people drifting between school age and "settling down" time who enjoy books. If it happens, then, that the school library has been organized with a thought for the grown-ups, there will be many a book carried home to par- ents and older brothers and sisters for the brightening and broadening of their lives. "Books are like windows, they let in light." To bring light into the lives of the children and in- to the homes of the community should be the creative thought for any school library, how- ever small its beginning must needs be. As these lines appear on the page the writer is not remote in thought from the dreary shel- ves of books one often sees in rural schools. About them sometimes lingers a sort of tomb- stone air mournfully recalling better, by-gone days when the school library idea found a wel- come place in some worthy teacher's plans and "pie suppers" paved the way to achievement. Truly any attempt at a school library is praise- worthy but so many are the problems in con- nection therewith that no such undertaking should be visionary. Most of the country school houses afford no place for the protection of the books; the children are untaught in the proper handling of them; the majority of the teachers change schools every year and many of them are not interested in the development of reading oppor- tunities for the school and community. There- fore, the plan may have its perplexities and dis- couragements and no panacea can be found ex- cept the educational growth of the community. Yet, in most cases, these difficulties may be made of smaller proportions if at the be- ginning the kindly interest of the community is gained. If there be a community organization it may help greatly in promoting the library. From its members may be appointed one or more of the most dependable persons to act with the teacher as custodians of the books. Especially would this be of value during va- cation months as the books could be protected and also made available for use during this long period. At the outset it is also most important to win the happy interest of the children in the care and use of the books, both in the school and at home. One method which has been found very ef- fective is the use of "Book Brigade" honor rolls for reading books and giving reports of the same; even the wee folk responded heartily. Not through the number of books read but in the thoroughness and variety of reading should a place be won on the honor roll. The supreme object should be the formation of good reading habits among the children. In these formative years of the child's life lie enfolded the habits of a life-time. Naturally children want stories and stories have their values; but there is a wonderful range of fascinating books for child- ren which will capture their interest as much as the story once they are guided into these new realms; delightful little biographies writ- ten for childhood set ideals of valor and achieve- ment before them in the lives of real people; beautiful books of nature which awaken the child to the discovery of wonderful stories in the fields and woods around his home; charm- ing little volumes of verse which stir joyous rhythms in the child heart; absorbing books of life in other lands which make our children Page 28 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 friends with the little folk in the far away places. Thru art, history, the Bible and many other subjects runs the splendid range of books for childhood, more beautifully enriching than ever before and truly laying foundations for the more abundant life. Keeping the books reasonably clean, saving them from injurious handling and from loss all may be made matters of engaging interest to the children. In one school where books were badly treated "Book Scouts" were appointed and conditions changed greatly. The im- portance of clean hands when using books should be strongly stressed. One very success- ful teacher allowed no child to use a book whose hands would not pass inspection. Such lessons in cleanliness have a far-reaching effect in the child's life. In another school where the children had not awakened to a genuine interest in reading a club was formed and named after the great friend of books, Lincoln. His life was studied and the use he made of his small opportunities for reading books was stressed. An attractive magazine picture of the young Lincoln absorbed in a book, was neatly mounted and hung on the school walls. An honor roll was used, some competitive work introduced and interest no longer had to be prodded. However small the library may be at the start a very simple but definite system for the loaning of the books should be used. In no other way can track be kept of them. The books should be kept in a closed case and loans made at stated times of the day or week. If there is no case in the school room, a wooden box hinged and fitted with a padlock will serve the purpose temporarily. Prompt return of books should be required. A one or two cent fine per day for over-due books is customary but may not be a suitable plan for your com- munity. Instead of a fine the child may be de- prived of the use of the library for one or two weeks with wholesome effect. Library books should never be allowed to float around the school room. Not only are they likely to be lost but the children grow less appreciative of them. Obviously the matter of selecting books for the library is extremely important. Standard lists for schools may be obtained from the State Library Commissions which are located at the capitals of the various states. But even with lists in hand the needs of the individual school and community should be carefully weighed. When perplexities arise the advice of some librarian, familiar with rural school conditions in your section, may be helpful. As a matter of economy books should be secured in editions having strong paper, clear type and durable bindings. There are firms which specialize in excellent editions for schools and they usually make fair discounts. Books of small and medium size will attract more readers in the rural community than the larger ones. As a rule it is best to avoid subscription books; they are usually expensive and often not of standard quality. While the greater number of the books selected must needs relate to tht subjects taught in school yet a fair portion of the number should be allotted to books which lead the children into other fields of interest and may give enjoyment to the home folk. The following list is offered as a suggestion of what may be done with approximately twenty-five dollars in buying books of standard quality for the school library. The selections have been made by one who has had the privi- lege of traveling thru the happy land of books with many dear, bright-eyed children of the hills. Primary Grades Stickney-Earth and Sky, books 1 & 2. Jones-Keep Well Stories. Fox-Indian Primer. Smith-Eskimo Stories. Perkins-Dutch Twins. Faris-Bible Story Reader. Steven son-Child's Garden of Verse. Carpenter-Stories that Pictures Tell, book 1. Porter-Peter Rabbit. Anderson-Fairy Tales of one Syllable. Perrault-Mother Goose. JEsop-Fables. Intermediate Grades Turner-Our Common Friends and Foes. Stickney-Earth and Sky, book 3. Blanchan-Birds Every Child should Know. Booth & Carter-Mary Gay (health) Stories. October, 1625 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 29 Carpenter-Around the World with the Children. Baldwin-American Book of Golden Deeds. Judd-Wigwam Stories. Calhoun-Litle Folks of the Bible. Blaisdell & Ball-Hero Stories from American History. Varney-Story Plays Old and New, book 2. Dodgson-Alice in Wonderland. Craik-Little Lame Prince. Dodge-Hans Brinker. Mabie-Fairy Tales Every Child Should Know. Wiggin & Smith-Posy Ring. Advanced Grades Hawkes-Trails to Woods and Waters. Seton-Wild Animals I Have Known. Andress-Boys and Girls of Wake-Up-Town. Mabie-Legends Every Child Should Know. Baldwin-Story of Liberty. Nicolay-Boy's Life of Lincoln. Wallace-Boy's Life of Grenfell of the Lab- rador. Keller-Boy's Life My Life. Tappan-Christ in Story. Alcott-Little Women. Defoe--Robinson Crusoe. Spyri-Heidi. Thurston-Bishop's Shadow. Mullins-Boy from Hollow Hut. Hawthorne-Great Stone Face. Ruskin-King of the Golden River. GOITRE IN THE KENTUCKY MOUNTAINS (Continued from page 26) situation, will often sell only the iodized salt. They can easily obtain it, as most of the salt manufacturers will supply it. It does not dif- fer in tast or in price from ordinary salt. The chocolate iodine tablets or small doses of sodium iodide may be used by the mothers for them- selves, in schools or for existing thyroid en- largment, under medical supervision. It should be remembered that certain forms of goitre are made toxic by the administration of iodine in larger dosages, so treatment of existing goitre should always be done under the direction of a physician. COMMUNITY ROAD BUILDING Page 30 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 xsuss= THE MOUNTAINS IN PROPHECY "1 will lift up mute eyes unto the hills from 2v7ac7ace cometJz mg help." Psalms, 121:1. "In His lands are the deep places of the eart7z; the strength of the hills is His also." Psalms, 95:4. "And for the chief things of the ancient mountains and for the precious things of the lasting hills." Deut., 33:15. "The righteousness is like the great mountains; thy judg- ments are a ,great deep; Oh Lord, thou preservest man and bca-st." Psalms, 36:6. "For ye shall go out with joy and be led forth with peace the mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing and all the trees of the field shall eLz;~ t'zeir hzn's.''' Isaiah, 55:12 "And it shall come to pass in the last days that the moun- tain of the Lord's House shall be established in the top of the mountains and shall be exalted above the hills, and all nations shall flow unto it. "And many shall go and say, come ye and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways and we will walk in his paths For out of Zion shall go forth the law and the word of the Lord from. Jerusalem." Isaiah, 2:2-3. N1NNNÃ¢â‚¬Â¢NNN October, 1925 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 31 Educational Directory of the Mountaills We solicit educational and other service institutions for the Directory. The purpose is to acquaint the world with the different kinds of institutions that are serving the moun- tains, to widen the connections of the institutions and to get funds to help support the magazine. One insertion costs $10.00 while a contract by the year secures four insertions for $20.00. The following notices represent the general form for this Directory. Crossnore School, Incorporated Cumberland Mountain School CROSSNORE, N. C. CROSSVILLE, TENN. REV. C. McCOY FRANKLIN Pres. of Board of Trustees DR. MARY MARTIN SLOOP R. R. PATY, Principal Business Manager REV. C. E. HAWKINS, Regent The school is under the auspices of the Ten- nessee Conference of the M. E. Church, South. The School is supported by Conference ap- To give a well rounded Christian education propriations small scholarship endowments, and through an accredited High School with standard -ifts from Missionary Societies, Epworth League, vocational training, to mourtain boys and girls Sunday Schools, and individuals. who are not financially able to attend a more The school is literary and vocational, and expensive school, and who must be allowed to offers standard High School work. Students are earn a living while they learn a trade. admitted to the Boarding Department who had A NON-DENOMINATIONAL SCHOOL completed the Sixth Grade. Over half of the students work their way. All students work at Connected with and supplementing the local least two hours per day. public school, urder the control of a Board of If further information is needed address com- Trustees who comprise the Corporation. munication to Principal. BEREA COLLEGE And Allied Schools BEREA,KENTUCKY WM. J. HUTCHINS, D.D., Pres. VI. E. Vaughn, Sec. H. E. TAYLOR, Bus. Mgr. T. J. OSBORNE, Treas. Co-educational institution for young men and young women of the Southern Mountains. All grades taught from elementary school thru stand- ard college degrees. All students earn a por- tion of their experses. Cash cost reduced to the minimum to meet the needs of the greatest number of promising young people; taught by a Christian faculty, from the leading Protestant denominations; supported by endowment and public contributions. State Teachers College EAST RADFORD, VIRGINIA DR. JOHN PRESTON McCONNELL, President Trains teachers for all classes of schools. Gives special emphasis to training of rural teachers, rural supervisors, specialists in rural educatiop, and rural leadership. Strong courses in community organization and co-operative efforts. Much emphasis on Home Economics and Homemaking. Two-year courses for teachers in the elem- entary schools. Four-year college courses with Bachelor's degree. For catalog and full information, write the president. Page 32 Southern Mountain Life and Work October, 1925 Special Offer to First Year-0% Subscribers Get the first number and build an encyclopedia of information on the life and work of the Appalachian Mountains. The traditions, the romances, the struggles, the ambitions, the occupa- tion of the great mountain region are sufficient to keep a magazine teeming with interest to the thoughtful reader. The resources of the hills, the scenic beauty of the landscape are alluring to capitalists and vacation hunters. All of this and more will be written about by men and women who know the facts and will tell the truth. There will be an occasional story that will grip the imagination of the reader. Here is the Proposition There will be very few advertisements in this magazine as we will not seek to give publicity to all sorts of things that are upon the market. 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