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Mountain Life & Work vol. 20 no. 1 Winter, 1944 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv20n10144 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 20 no. 1 Winter, 1944 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Winter, 1944 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. MOUNTAIN LIFE W.ORK Miss Lois t.'. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢cn P-ine-two-4nt-aiw School, Ky., VOLUME XX WINTER. 1944 NUMBER I MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ORGAN OF THE CONFERENCE OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS IS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, IN THE INTEREST OF FELLOWSHIP AND MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE REST OF THE NATION Editor Associate Editor, Contributing Editors ..Alva W. Taylor .Orrin L. Keener Olive D. Campbell Frank C. Foster Marshall E. Vaughn Eugene Smathers SIGNED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION NOR DO THEY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE CONFERENCE. IN THIS ISSUE Editorials Calvary Church Homestead Project Eugene Sma.thers 4 The Farm Settlement at Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School George C. Bellingratl2 7 A New Day for The Mountains Portraits of Two Great Christian Geniuses 15 The Farmer's Federation Cooperatives Poems: The Farmer's Song of Faith My Folks Mark A. Dazober 9 James G. K. McClure 16 Orrin L. Keener Don L. West 17 The Pentecostal Churches: Claud C. William s, Elmer T. Clark, Lillian Smith, Victor Obenhaaes, Orrin L. Keener, Paul E. Doran, Eugene Sm.athers, John H. Lewis 18 Gruntvig and The Danish Folk Schools Poem: The Ballad Singer New Demands and New Fields The Consumptive The Mountain Folk Festival Jesse Stuart's "Taps for Private Tussie" Myles Horton 23 Don L. West 25 John O. Gross 26 James H. Shaffer 29 Frank H. Smith 31 L. Bowling 32 SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 PER YEAR, 30 CENTS PER COPY. ISSUED SPRING, SUMMER, FALL, WINTER Entered as second class matter at the P. 0. in Nashville, Tenn., May 30, 1942, under the act of March 3, 1$i9 5 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XX WI WeFIN. 1944 Editorial L)S II(1\\' '1'Ilt: America's welfare depends nlxm the welfare of the farmer. He furnishes the food, the material for clothing and shelter and all those things without which nothing else could 1c (lane. Yet he has fared lxxtrlv in the naticmal economy. In twenty years his debts doubled. his faxes more than doubled, and the value of his Catm decreased from thirty to fifty per cent. The proportion of otir national wealth invested in Carets decreased from one-half the total of 1800 to le.a than one-tenth ill 1920. During) the fifteen years llcfore the lepressum the farm wealth increased iv one-fourth and that of urlntt real estate 1v More than four times. When land prices increased the percentage iuc;me oil it decr~asel. The farmer as a home owner suffered must from the depression also. `\-here all property suffered a loss of thirty per cent lie suffered one of seventy-five per cent between 1929 and 1933. The average gross family income of the farm family sank in 1933 to about $(?00.00 ; cut of that he had to hay all expenses, inc:udiltg interest and taxcs. neither of which decreased. In 192() a farm agent ill the rich corn lands of Central Illinois induced 200 farmers to keep books. nly twenty-three per cent of them made the wages of farm hands after deducting five per cent on the selling price of their land-arid the selling price had lecline1 forty per cent below what many of them had paid fur it. The American farmer has item a rugged ind;vidualist. It required a rugged character to lioneer. From the cu'onial clays, when, with ill awe and a gun he built his cabin and c-eared the woods, down to the eighties when he built a sod house and conquered the prairies he had to he able to stand on his own individual feet, meet all enemies, carve out his own destiny and "win the west". At the \L~lI1Lh I FARMER I~ARES same time he "robbed the soil", depleted the forests and saw his lands stiffer erus:un, heedless of the consequences. (iovemor Drank Lowden of Illinois, the choice of Iseltuhlicatt Iarnters for the presidential nomination in 1928, said "The land of any country is the basis nlxm which its civilization nutst rest. * * * No satisfacturv standard of l;ving can he achieved and maintained unless we shall he nmre successful ill the future than we have ltcen in the past ill conserving the fertility of cur soils. * * * Less than any other civilized nation have we given heed to those primary considerations. WC have destroyed our forests and given over the land to fanning where it is suited only to a new growth of forest products. We have established farms ill semi-arid regions where the land was suited only to grazing purposes. The effort of the Resettlement Administration to deal with this Itrolllent was built upon the work begun fly 'I-heclore Roosevelt's Rural Life Commission and that of (~if(urcl I'inchut for c(mservation. Surveys show that alreuly more than one hundred million acres Of soil has peen depleted by erosion and almdoned ; another cute hundred million is so depleted that its value is only six per cent that of all farms. There is bathos in the fact that hundreds of thousands of unemployed have moved lack to this poor land, as there is also ill the fact that pioneering young farmers have moved onto it and the luxOrer lands of nuuntain, cttt over timber areas and dry prairie grass, following the laths of their heroic fathers in the ambition to make a home of their own. In Brown County, Indiana, where a great reafforestation project is under way, it was found Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK \Vinter, 1944 that population had decreased by fifty per cent between 1900 and the beginning of the depression, but that it increased through un~wlloved city workers coming hack to the abandoned farms in a pitiful effort to make a living. Less than three per cent of them were able to raise and sell as much as X100.00 worth of produce per year. In the area now beIin, reafforeste1 the farmers were able to pay a total of less than four per cent of the upkeep of their schools and about the same for the upkeep of their roads; in other words, local taxation had provided, in round numbers, only $5,000 for schools and roads and the state had contributed more than $110,000. The residents had eked out a living by cutting clown the trees left by the lumberman as too small for saw boards and selling them for wood and ties-thus still farther depleting timber resources. The Resettlement Administration ])ought the land at from seven to nine dollars lp,~r acre and at the same time offered the hardworking, underprivileged and defeated farmers good lands on long term, low interest payments that will enable them to make a good living and in clue course become owners. The secret of this lies in the difference between six per cent and three per cent for the loans and in the further fact that Uncle Sam can take the risk where no banker or loan company can do so. Down in the Piedmont of north Georgia another project relieves the highlander of his hillside acres and its corn nubbin income by taking over 300,000 acres for reafforestation-the only thing for which the land is useful. Another illustration is found in the poor "cut-over" lands of north Minnesota where 5,000 scattered farms, worth to purchase less than If the cradle of American freedom was the little red school house, its mother was religion. The spirit of Protestantism rocked the cradle in which f reedom grew. That spirit broke the shackles of an imposed external authority and freed the individual. It created an individualism that could pioneer and blaze the way for a civilization. Now, under the tides of progress, that individualism is being socialized. We are growing from a protesting individualistic independence into a constructive social interdependence. The inner compulsions of the annual rental value of good hand, is being taken over, the pioneering but defeated farmers being offered good lands on a basis that will enable them to pay for them by saving of interest and the acceptance of supervision to teach them scientific farming. On this one project a saving of three quarter's of a million dollars will he effected yearly in the support of schools and roads. Up in Montana the dry lands that help to make up the dust howl are yielding to the same enterprise. The Taylor grazing act will restore 122,000,000 of "dust bowl" soil to grass and thus save it from wind erosion. Scientific studies trade by the Department of Agriculture show that where a twelve-inch toy soil will, on an eight per cent slope, disappear through water erosion in from twenty-nine to thirtyfive years, it will require from 7,000 to 12,000 years for it to do so under a cover of grass. Thus Uncle Stint through the l~arnt Security Administration undertook in a manner befitting the problem, a beginning of conservation of both his natural land resources and of those thousands of his citizens who are still possessed of the spirit of the pioneer but are defeated through the disappearance of the richer soils that gave their pioneer fathers a chance at success. The secret of the enterprise lies in the supervision given the undertaking, the offering of credit to those who have none in the commercial world and in the fact that a saving of three per cent in interest, plus instruction in scientific farming, will enable anv honest tiller of the soil to do what his forefathers (lid on cheap or free lands in the bast-make himself a self-supporting home owner. ON ('11LIRCH COOPERATION brotherhood are creating a social order that corporate power once sought to create through the outer compulsions of authority. While religion cannot function successfully in the individual's life unless he is personally free, neither can it successfully function in society until he is cooperating in the common service of all. Cooperation is the key word to the new rural life. Cooperation in the marketing of farm products has attained a success that is remarkable in Winter, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 both the annals of cooperative enterprise and of American farming. The cooperative idea gave the Farmer the telephone and the rural free mail delivery. It gave him the consolidated school which marks an epoch in rural education, and the hard surfaced road which marks an epoch in rural transportation. These things, all put together, are creating an epoch in American rural life. They are moving it up from the provincial, individualistic era of the pioneer into an era of socialized living. American democracy was initiated in a protest against authority and on behalf of the rights of the individual. This hardy individualistic pioneer life was admirable soil for the rooting and building of democracy, but rural socialization is as inevitable as the process of the suns. Rural economics, education, civic life and inter-communication are experiencing epoch-making changes. Religious institutions in the country must undergo the same Ã‚Â°aperience. Our Protestant denominations arose in response to a demand for the freedom of the individual. They have won their fight in America. I will dare to assert that every valuable thing contributed by each and every one of the great denominations has become the common possession of all. We continue to exist as denominations because of traditions, a sense of group loyalty and large vested interests. No denomination holds a single valuable moral troth that is not a common possession. '(here is not in the things upon which we disagree one thing that will make any man a better Christian, but there are in the things on which we do agree enough to make any man a better Christianindeed, enough to save the world if only we would get together like good Christians to save it. The crucial problem in rural religious life today is that of over churching. It is safe to say that three-fourths of our rural communities have more churches than they can support; thus it comes about in all these communities that the very institution that was designed to promote brotherhood and cooperation is doing most to prevent it. If we allow the vested interests of the churches, as represented in denominational organizations, to defeat cooperation in the rural community, we are allowing them to defeat the Kingdom of God itself. Denominational organizations will do well to make a dispassionate and friendly study of the community church movement. It has no great individual leader or group of leaders such as most denominational movements had in the days of their initiation. It is indigenous to the rural community and springs out a need so deep that it cannot he denied. Whether it is to grow greatly and furnish the answer to this crying need of rural religious life remains to he seen. Whether it does or does not it is symptomatic and the situation that has given rise to it demands the best that modern church statesmanship has to give it. Howsoever it may come shout the modern rural community will have a successful, going church through which to express its religious life. If it is not supplied by denominations, it will be supplied out of the inner religious urge of the American farmer. Either some rural church now in the community should become a going concern, or a community church organized to do it. Community cooperation is the inevitable nest step in denominational cooperation for all those communities where the religious life is handicapped by over-churching. There are thousands of rura . small town and suburban communities where it is impossible to support two or more churches ; they so divide the limited possibilities as to inak~ adequate Christian work impossible. Rural communities are uniting their schools. They are fusing their citizens into farmer organizations and cooperative selling associations. The spirit of coohML tion is abroad in the land. The church that teaches brotherhood cannot afford to he the last to practice it. Without adequate church activity there is a denial of opportunity to cultivate the Christian life. Striving little churches in competition put the cause to shame. A thriving church in cooperation honors religion in the eys of all men. The same missionary spirit in the denominations that asks for sacrifice in order that Christianity may be taken to unchurched fields, demands a like denominational sacrifice in order that the over-chttrched field may have a going church. It is simply a question of whether the denomination exists to serve Christ and the common good, and will if necessary decrease that they may increase, or whether it considers itself the one and only means by which: they can be served, and Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1u-1-1 thus will sacrifice community welfare to leneminational life. The answer of the ecclesiastical mind is the latter; the answer of the community mind is the former. Church cooperation sets tip no to dpgntas as ladders into its fellowship. It rears no wall; of ntandaturv policy. It is a simple, inevitable denutcracy. It clues nut attempt to furmttlate any written creed. for by so doing- it debars these whose conscience protests such formulations. It is a simple fellow ship of those who accept Christ as Lord and Savior, working together in whatever way best serves the Christian interests of their ccnumun CC1I1lIllLlllltv. There are literally thousands of communities in this country that can have no adequate going church or Sunday School simply hecatise they are split and divided into front three to a half dozen sectarian organization,, when there are neither the funds nor the folk to support more than one. No one of the several will surrender to the others. but each may agree to a can tmunity of effort, and each, with tolerance for the other's convictions, agree to worship and work together in the name of the common Lord. Recognizing each other as Christians, they bring that recognition to the test of organic fellowship, each holding his own personal convictions while allowing the largest lilterty in opinion to all others. Their cooperation is not a basis of ccmnnon opinion or a creed, but of a ccntn tun discipleship. In every denomination there will 1c found nt.entIters who du not accept all the denominational platform; in none do all the members think alike opens all things. They hold different opinions, believe different things, but emphasis in different places and with the exception of one or two test articles of faith, are no nearer together than the members of a community church. Those who put Christianity ahead of church-unity and creed will have no trouble in finding fellowship in a conmunity church program. Wen of all opinions tray he ltruthers in Christ. Cooperation offers neighbors the opportunity to be Christian brothers in deed as well as in name. Calvary Church Homestead Project, Big Lick, Tennessee E'[ -GEN 17, SMATHERS (-Ir"irr"rr" of tlrc Cn"trrc"reÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ (-o"r" rittro err Conhcr-atiwÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ I:d"ralio" Like many another rural ccmununity, Ili- Lick has the discouragement of seeing its youth grow alt, become able to assume positions of leadership and respmsiltility, and then depart fen- urban industrial centers. ( )f course, this is to he expected in these times of national emergency, but it was also true in normal and salt-normal periods. How can a community make progress whets practically all of its better youth are drained off to make their contributions elsewhere' This lcmgrange problem, as well as scene more immediate problems growing out of the period of depression during the thirties, plus a conviction that life on the land affords an excellent environment for Christian family life, supply the background out of which the Calvary Church Homestead Project developed. a'l'e were striving to ltuild a Christian rural cumntunitv. and this required the type ,of leader ship which our better youth could provide. There seemed to he little hope for even slow progress, if we had to begirt anew with each generation, and if the duality of the younger families left behind gradually deteriorated. During the depression many of these better youth were caught in the community. No opportunity fur educational advancement or for vocational choice outside the community was offered. ~1 he family farm was in almost every case too small to provide even a minimum livelihood for one family, certainly not for two. Thus must of the young men had to accept the status of unpaid family workers. Ili,- lick was in a unique situation regarding land available for settlement. It is a small island of settled land in rm ocean of land awaiting development. So the idea came to some of those who were concerned with the immediate problem confronting our young men and with the lung V-inter, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 range task of community development of trying to initiate some sort of land settlement project which would link this available land to some of our community problems. After considerable study and discussion the Church Homestead flan resulted. A friend who was interested in the Christian program in Big Lick, and who had provided From This make available to young people the means of earning a living from the land in a manner whereby they tray maintain their self-respect and at the same time pursue those natural, healthy and pleasant occupations of hand and mind and heart which may 1cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ called the more abundant Christian life." The fund was to 1e used to acquire tracts of laud, subdivide them into suitable sized farms and financial assistance for ltrevicnts conmtunity projects was interested in the idea and participated in the planning. He agreed to establish a small initial fund in the Board of National Missions, I'resltvterian Church, C. S. A., to be used in the execution of the plan. It was frankly assumed that the project was experimental and should make a small beginning, yet it was hoped that should the plan prove practical the fund would he increased. The general purpose of this fond, as well as the project itself was stated thus: "~I'm To This make these farms available to approved persons under contracts which would enable them to improve their holdings and to ultimately become the owners of these farms. The project was to be administered locally 1y a hoard of trustees, composed of certain officers of the church and the pastor, all of whom would serve without remuneration. And except for hulling the fund, the project would he entirely a local affair, eliminating to a minimum all "redtalm." Circumstances have altered the original plans Page MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1944 somewhat. The young then whom the project was initiated to help, were beginning to be called to the armed forces by the tune the plan was in operation. It was found that the large tracts of land which surrounded the present community were tied up by all sorts of legal difficulties and not available for purchase at the present. It was the original intention to purchase undeveloped land, subdivide it and sell it to unmarried young men who would begin clearing and developing it while at home, thus being in position later to establish and maintain their new families on these farms. But the situation at the tithe the plan was put into actual operation required us to purchase whatever land was available, most of it being partially developed, and to select as homesteaders young families instead of single men. The plan was flexible enough to allow us to make changes in the future which hold the largest promise for fulfilling the fundamental purposes of the project. The project began operation in 1940, beginning in a small way. Some land was purchased and a few families became homesteaders. Since that beginning gradual growth has taken place. The fund has been enlarged, additional purchases of land have been made. To date we have five homesteaders who have completed payments on their farms, there are eighteen others still making payments, and enough additional land is held for at least three additional farms, with enough accumulated in the fund for the purchase of two more farm-sized tracts. Besides, we have purchased 105 acres of timber land to be kept as a common community holding to provide some lumber for essential community needs, and have added forty-three acres to the church farm. The three years of operation, aside from taxes on land still held for settlement and on common holdings, has required less than two hundred dollars for operating expenses. The contracts with the homesteaders seek to provide every opportunity for the family to feel safe in developing its homestead, giving it every possible encouragement and protection. The contract has many features similar to the tenant purchase contract of farm security. The payments are made on a thirty-year basis, with the privilege of making final payment at any time. If the homesteader, is beginning on an undeveloped tract of land, no payment on principal is required for two years. The homesteader pays three per cent interest on his unpaid balance, also the taxes on his particular tract. The trustees have the authority to allow variable payments on principal to take care of unforeseen circumstances such as crop failure or severe illness. The homesteader becomes a member of the Big Lick Farmers Association, a cooperative organization providing farm tools for its members. He is required to use certain minimum land practices which will guarantee the conservation of the soil, to cooperate with governmental programs which are intended to assist the farmer, to allow the trustees to make adjustments in boundaries, roads, etc., which are for the welfare of the entire community. He is encouraged to make subsistence the first element in his farm program. While the project is primarily intended to assist young families to secure land, and does not provide new houses, barns, or other equipment, it is possible for the homesteader to borrow a limited amount for such purposes. This feature of the project we hope to expand in the future. But it will never be our purpose to provide homes and equipment that are out of line with those of the homesteader's neighbors. The interest is used to pay operating costs, and all that accumulates above that is to be used for general community improvement. In this way every family in the community receives some benefit from the project. We hope to be in position to assist any of our young men, now in the armed forces, to secure farms, if they so desire upon their return. And as it will probably be necessary for them to settle on undeveloped land, we hope to be able to help them with the construction of buildings, fencing, water supply, etc. Our experience is limited, but we feel that the project has proven itself as a practical and creative method of attacking some basic problems and has been of value in establishing the church at the center of our community life. The black man who cannot let love and sympathy go out to the white man is but half free. The white man who retards his own development by opposing a black man is but half free.-BOOKER T. WASHINGTON. Winter, 1944 M"uNTmN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 The Farm Settlement o f the Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School A WORKING PROGRAM OF ADULT EDUCATION George C. F3cllirvgratll, President Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School An interesting program of adult education is that being conducted by the Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School located at Rabun Gap, Georgia. So far as we know this program is unique but we believe that it would operate successfully in other localities. The farm settlement is a plan of dealing with whole families of the mountain or rural community. There are at present 17 large families in the settlement. Over 100 families have been dealt with in the history of the plan. The settlement occupies a circle of 1,600 acres around the central school farm, divided into small farms on which whole families are admitted in rotating groups for terms of five years as student farmers. A model six-room, frame coLtage, with a barn and poultry house, is furnished to each family. About forty acres of land is allowed each family, including a garden and pasture. The whole ,establishment is a school. Each farm is a foundation for the education and support of a farming family during the term of residence. Each home is a school dormitory, and each man, woman and child of school age is a student. Every acre of land, every garden, every kitchen, every barn, every cornfield is a part of the course of study. When a family applies for admission and is accepted and assigned to a farm, the parents as well as the children, undertake to carry out a prescribed plan of farming and a course of training as pupils of the School, and according to its rules and regulations. The idea is like that of any school. From a book school the student receives a return for mental labor a training of the mind. Front this farm school the student farmer receives in return for manual labor, both a training of the mind and a living for his family. Furthermore, just as a pupil receives greater benefit from a book school by putting forth greater .effort, so a family receives more from this farm school by making the most of the opportunities that it offers. It is not the object of the School merely to rent land to tenant farmers. No family should apply for admission with that object in view. The entire property is for the purposes of education, and especially education to make better farmers and better citizens. The School offers, to families that have sufficient labor to operate a good farm according to the standards of a good farmer, these three things 1. A better chance to educate their children for country life. 2. A better chance to make a living than they have had before. 3. A training by which they can become better farmers, better citizens and improve their position as members of a good community. A special school for the heads of the families is conducted by practical teachers of Agriculture and Home Economics. Its principal object is to teach the families how to carry out the system of farming and training prescribed by the Plan, and how to make the most of the advantages offered by it. The study of all problems of fanning and domestic work goes hand in hand with the work being clone each week. The study is carried out in lectures by the teachers and in conferences in which parents and teachers take part. The families are assisted in marketing their farm products, purchasing their supplies, and keeping their farm accounts. Stress is placed upon high standards of work and habits of industry, economy and good citizenship. The parents of each family and all grown-ups above schoo lage are required to come together as members of this School in regular meetings and conferences. Meetings for men and women are held at different hours to suit the family's convenience. 1. families are admitted for only one year at a time. The year begins the first day of January and ends the last day of December. Families not admitted for the following year must vacate their houses and farms to new families not later than December 31st. Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1941 ?. 1?ach family is given its own separate lxuntlarv of land and required to ulcerate it as a model farm. All of the land must be made to Yield its share of income. labor to the School at customary wages. 8. Farh family must keep a farm account hook, showing what it makes and spends and saves. O. The heads of each Cantilc and all grown-ups 3. Each farm is divided into rotating sections. Corn, small grain, hay, fruits, vegetables, poultry, cows and hugs are the main thirgs in the farming plan. A house and barn, a garden and taste acre for truck patch, pasture for two mill: cows and firewood fur fuel arc allowed to each family free of rent. 5. The home and farm must lie well kept. The entire boundary must show ln-olter care and attention. Minor repairs to buildings, gates, fences and roads mast be clone lay the family. Larger repairs and improvements will be done lty the School. . The family must furnish its own work stock and farming tools. Heavy farm machinery is furnished 1y the School on a cooperative basis. 7. When called upon and when not engaged in work cm its own boundary, the family must furnish above school age must attend Ike sessions of the School fur Adults and all meetings held for their benefit and improvement. All children of public school age must attend a school provided for thetas for nine months of the year. 10. The grown-ups of each family must he found at home and at work regularly, either for themselves on their own boundary, or for the School. Parents must keep their children in school regularly, and train them at home to habits of work and good conduct. 11. The rules of dividing crops are practically the same as those between landowners and tenants in the surrounding community. The School, however, offers the family letter advantages than those offered by the average landowner, in order to carry gut its purpose as an educational instittttiun. V'intcr, 144 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 A New Day for the Mountains Dr. Mark A. Iawher Sccr-harv of the Vatiolial Homo,, .llissinu,c C none il THE I.nNn I'ROm,r:w A new sense of sacredness of the soil uui a stewardship responsibility is an absolute prerequisite to any continuing peace in the world. This means in turn that we must cultivate men and women of strong character and self discipline to husband the soil, maintain it and improve it. They must hove a sense of holy stewardship and continuity. They must feel that the same land which feeds them must feed their children and their children's children as long as prep shall last. XA'e have peen wasters of the soil. -There is no longer too mhch good lapel anywhere in the world, not even in our own rich America. Ahd it takes good soil to sustain good people. Show me an impoverished soil, and I will show vent an impoverished people. \Ve have robbed the soil, and we have robbed God 1Ã‚Â°cahse we have taken that which belonged to ttnlwrn generations. \lhch of the soil of the world and of our own America cannot be farmed. Much that was -ucul has been made poor, much that was tolerable and could have been macho good has peen ruined. -Too much of our host land has keen ruined by exploitation Or lack of care. ne-third of the top soil which produces our crops has been lost by erosion that could have been prevented. You task me what this has to du with religion, and I reply, everything. 1f we cannot sense a stewardship responsibility in Cod's holy earth, then stewardship as a Christian doctrine is hopeless. Thirty years ago, Nathaniel Shaler, noted geologist of Yale, attempted to arouse the American people by saying: "Of all the sinful wasters of man's inheritance on the .earth, and all are in this regard sinners. the very worst are the American people." The rise and fall of civilizations is largely a record of economic exploitation resulting, in an impoverished soil. :\ permanent, prosperous agriculture is vital to the rise and ntaitttenance of a civilization, as well as to a rabid recovery after war. But a tragic fate has befallen the tillers of the soil in country after country where exploitation of the soil has loch to erosion-ruined agricultural lands, whose fields have turlied to rocks or become riddled with gullies. \\'ar is largely the result of the reduction of vast rural 1olntlatiuns to poverty and destitution. The future security of this vast rural population in the world must be sought in the control and improvement of land and land resohrcessufficient to supplv all the requirements of the people. I hazard the shggcsticm that, if one-tenth of the wealth and Of tlnc human resources that are mow being devoted to war and the preparation for war had been directed toward conserving and enriching the land resources of the earth, the productiveness of the earth would yield sufficient to meet the requirements of this generation and its increase fen- generation's to come, and there would he no wars. Tile possibilities of the earth, when its r,,sntrces are fully husbanded in the advanced knowledge of soil conservation, are far beyond the imagination of mankind in general. How much better if the vast energies of the human race could 1e directed toward such a goal Of conservation than toward destruction ! \\'ithoht the maintenance of a permanent satisfvin- agriculture and the conservation of national resources, neither we not- any other nation can long endure the forces that have lestroyel civilizations of the past. The church has an lniperativ: responsibility in this realm of the stewardship of the soil. "The earth is the Lcnol's and the fullness thereof." I am one who Relieves emphatically that the church is destiumel to save the material and spiritual gains of mankind front the ruins of the destructive annihilations of the war, but T also am convinced that this can pest be done lw savitt'- the inherent values of the soil in time of peace. THE Fcolrcm cc T'uoia-twt W One will deny that tine economic problem is ltasic to the present crisis. Here 1 recognize that we enter upon extremely controversial ground. We may avoid it by dealing in generalities, but the Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK v\ inter, 1944 time for generalities is bast and someone must run the risk of being score specific. \\-hcn we do so we become involved i" a discussion of ccn"petitive capitalism and the profit motive, and the moment we do this someone gets the jitters a"d cries "comma"ism" ! \\ ell, I a"t not a ccnnntunist; I cannot accept the economics of communism., and I cannot accept its political scste"t, but l ran perfectly understand cmnmu"isnt. \n1 1 would say here and now that you will tort bet rid of eonuuunism by criticism of the communist. The only way in which that will be done is to do a better jolt than the communist is doi"g i" "tecti"g the bread and butter ln-olzlent of the people. The fact is that our mocler" wars are primarily economic wars. N\-e fight o"c another i" the markets of the w-orll. fiirst with cotton arid coffee. corn and wheat, a"1 when we have exhausted cn"effort with these resources. we torn to guns and ammunitio". \\-a fight first in the "tarlzets of the world with raw materials a"d natural rescntrres, primarily rural. Listen to -;ttlart Chase as Ire states the "Goals for America,--- i" his recent book, 7'hcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ Road We Arc TrnTÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cÃ‚Â°liuy: "If you hold your ear close to the ground. you call hear t muffled roar echoing around the whole world. It does amt come from bombs, er thunder ()li the Isussia" front. It is the voice of the people demanding security a"d an .end to the paradox of lzle"tv. It is the revolt of the masses asking hr the fncl which farmers let rut upon the groutul or clump into the streams. This sulztcrra"ea" roar is the must powerful force in the world today. Statesmen who listen to it will be uplic](1. Statesmen who shat their ears will be buried, "o matter how lofty their sentiments about frecdcnn a"l initiative. "Science and invention have put an alequat~e standard of living within the reach of every family in the great industrial nations. Ultimately- it will be within the reach of every family in the world. The mass of the people know this. Yet the standard of living which they might have does not come through to the great majority of them. Why does it not come through? 1t is there for all to sec--thirteen million bales of cotton in storage, 500 million bushels of wheat in granaries in the United States, sixty million bags of coffee burned in Brazil-why does it not carne through" The authorities reply that the market cannot tolerate it, or that the laws of property forbid it. Do you think these answers, however legal and logical, arc going to satisfy the masses .' They are asking a revolutionary question which demands a revolttt;onary answer." The Archbishop of Canterbury outlined the task of the church as it faces the economic problems inherent in the present world order. He is convinced that nothing less than a federation of the "aticns is necessary if we arc to end international anarchy and establish scone sort of internatintal authmritv based upon international law. Then he paused to express his core ;;rent fear and to state what he Relieved to~ be the outstanding obstacle to such a federal goal, and I quote: "But 1 do trot believe that a federal system can of itself secure justice or even abolish war unless the economic life of then is ordered on principles more expressive of fellowship than at present. The trend toward war is inherent in the internal eco"omv of the modern nation. The essential evil in the ordering of European life has been the Inversion of the proper relatio"s between finance, production and consumption. It is evident that the real object for which goods are produced is that they may he enjoyed, and this in most instances means `eonsunt~l'. The consumer is the factor of primary importance, whose interest ought to be decisive, for his is the only truly human interest i" the whole process. Yet food is destroyed while men arc hungry. Why ? Because they have not the means to stake their need constitute a market. So the primary aim of producing food turns out to he in practice, not feeding the hungry, but making a profit. The profit motive has become the dominant motive. It is this which has led to the sacrilegious sacrifice of rural England to urban interests and subjects it to policies framed for urban conditions. It has turned than into an economic animal." Read the terrible indictment that John Gunther makes of the appalling situation in Puerto Rico in his Insiclr Latin rlrrr.eric-a. Read the facts regarding the miserable conditions of our share Winter, 1'01-1 McF'N'rMN LIFE. AND WORK Age 11 croltlcrs of the South. heui a recent bulletin frcntt the \ irginia :\Ã¢â‚¬Â¢yric"lt"ral fvxltcri"tettt :tatio" o" "Rill-al Poverty in \ir"-inia." a"l you will realize that this ltasic ltrctllem mf (nn- cco"nrtic rural lxtvcrtv is not Only a" evil of flu, countries of the Axis in cottrast to the countries Of the Allies but ntc cc,"t"um to all, which mist lm rcnutvcd fl-0111 all ii we arc tot have a civilizttio" worthy to be called lltristia". There arc tlmsc who twill doubtless be asking. Wh_v raise these cl"cstimrs Of the rural church, the sharecropper and the migrant now? \\'e have a war o" m"r hands that we "tust fight to a victcrio"s finish lust ; then we cart give attention to these rather matters. The answer is that unless we do raise those questions nom, there will be little chance m raise the"t later. It is true we have a war on to secure Irecuu" ruin clecettcv in the wtr11 ; but we ttcc1 ;tlsm to rctttcmlter that this includes the lntite1 `rates "c loss than 1?t"-oltc or Asia. The Conditions to which We have called attention arc just m much t violation Of decency and ht"nan rights as attcthip we are Ã¢â‚¬Â¢eching to correct in 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢:uropc Or Asia. ( "r in tlmvcrishccl rural areas, m"r "tiscrtltle sharecrcrloiryg' and cai~r~nuw call loudly for Col_rectum and reform. The fn"- frccclmtt, are just as ttcccsw"-v Itcrc as they arc elsewhere in the world. But what lt,iltltcne1 in ('ongress when the Anti-Poll Tax Bill was up for rmtsiclerttimt ' \ mirurritv grcntlt talked it o"t of existence, and tloc argu"tettt is. (h"t't talc the time Of Ocmgrcss with these things; we arc hay lightittg a war fccr dcnutcracv. I lmw lmllcnv and h vlmeritical it all sound,; in the ltrcscttrc Of these Violation', of every democratic prittciltle a"d mar lxrvstccl :\t"cricrm way of life! ( ttr 1xms in the artttcd forces arc net out to waw ,c war i" defense of mar slants, our l~eona~c, our slnn-ccrol~litt~ and ttti,(rancv : they arc fighting to bet rid Of the forces, both at lu"te and abroad, that make these conditions possihic. This is a "mol time to rai~c these questions. If we fail to t"ake ;trtic"latc at present these needs as part rat the war effort. We shall he false to our trust as Christians to lrri"` a lrtt;-or rttcasttrc of life, liltertv atul hal)l)ituw, to the l)eml)l~ in the United Mates v-Im no )m, arc del n-ivecl of these essential s. Ist'xat. I.trn. AND WAR I?vrxco:Nco The effects of the war cmcr`ertcies upon rural life are now ltc(linnin' , to 1e felt i" various and scrip"s ways. \s the War Continue,;. these will he "t"Itillicl and intensified. \\ hcttevcr these crisis periods ccmte upon "s, the u "take serious inroads into rural life, and institutions such as the church arc those Most innrteliatel_v affected and with drastic results. The ltroltlcm mC farm lahOr is now serious. :\ sautlling, study has 1)',-c" inadc in sixteen Counties in ( hio where the situation is typical Of what we might expect to find thro"glm"t the nation if a lame-scale study were cmul"ctc1. ( n -1%7 fartus there were ?1-1 hired mutt ill ( rtoler, lt)-11 ; in (ctmlter, lr)-1?. cm the sanuÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ farms. only 13(t. In the same period the loss Of males between the cries of eighteen and furt_v-five in farm families a"nnt"tml W ttvctttytthree locr cent. But the net loss in man lower m these farms was reduced to eight tree cent lw ill(, efforts and labor Of children oh school tr,~e. wcnnctt of the farm ftmilics, and older "w". Add tm the aluw'e the further lcltlctim" of rural lalmr lm_ the appeal that is lmitynade 1v war i"1"strv l;cca"se of the increased cotttltcnsatio" i" ccnnlariso" with the r:'"""teraticm ltctssiltle in agriculture, also the altlreal tot rural youth in the offer W technical training that will Make lxossille a more rcmuncratiw;Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ i"ccmtc in itulttstr v. It should not be a "tatter Of surprise that ntt" m rural people arc responding, to these calls. The result is that mates town and ccnuttrv ccn""t""itics are king rapidly depleted. Ivcce"t co"tacts with rural ccnttnt"nitics no wiclclv distributed sections Of tile Count]- v-.\rizona, ha"sas, Iowa, Missouri, I'c""svlva"ia, New York, and '.dew Fng_ land states--reveal that all alike are affected lw this n"-al decrease. The rural churches are finding this problem expressed in several ways : transfer W utcmlershil. ditninish~cl attendance especially of youth uul men. depiction Of (official leadership, and reduction Of illconle. '['he outlet ten- food fen- the future is also nut cnmttragity. 1111m dairy lar"tcrs are selling their dairy herds. Tha catty in t"mst instances are being sold Jfor the meat market and are not changing hands to other dairy farmer. The reduced production of those pri"tary tmods, milk, butter and cheese, is Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND \Voxx Winter, 1944 beginning to disturb the authorities in Washington. The mountain areas have been seriously affected by the drainage of youth into the armed forces and many others into the war industries. What this is doing to the institutions that most of you represent is something about which you are better informed than myself. The problem of adjustments that is necessary now and how to proceed to put them into effect will not be disposed of early, but I am sure that there will 1c a frank facing of the issues. Thousands who have gone out of the mountains during this war period will not come hack anticipat ing to remain. As never before they are being trained in technical skills for which they will not be able to find a satisfying outlet in mountain life as it exists today : it is a real question as to whether much of mountain life can be so reorganized as to provide this outlet. This raises the question which i 'f we are to be honest must 1e raised. Lt is this Has not the tithe now arrived to reappraise the mountain situation, to be realistic in our thinking, and to recast our philosophy and program ? Are we justified in maintaining a program that encourages so many of these people to remain in a land area that cannot provide the economic resources necessary to maintain the standard of living and culture which we are accustomed to think of as American ? Are we justified is subscribing as we are by our present program to an educational system and standard that is em a lower plane than that which we boast of as our American standard? An educational status and system that is undemocratic, because it limits the people to a standard of education that is conditioned fly wry meager resources, and requires them to become mendicants, depending upon the help of mission hoards and philanthropic agencies. And. of course, the same thing is true of the health and welfare work. It all boils clown finally to the question of finding an economic basis for these mountain people. We have been told from time to time not to hurt the feelings of the mountain people by any reference to their poverty, but we cannot escape the responsibility that now rests upon us to deal realistically with the problem. The question in a word is, are we more concerned to maintain our institutions, to continue to play "Lady Bountiful," or are we concerned to snake such adjustments in our philosophy and program in the mountains as will enable the mountain people ultimately to stand on their own feet, self-supporting and self-respecting? 1'\ survey made some test years ago of the territory represented by this Conference revealed that there are two-thirds more people in the area than can 1e supported by the land and resources that are available, and that even when the changes had been made and a name suitable agriculture had been achieved, it would not support more than half the present population on a desirable minimum standard of living. To quote at some length front an article 1v Amanda Stone Thorburn that appeared in the l CouraerJounnaf, Louisville, Kentucky: "\\'e are an education-conscious people, but it seems to me that we arc beginning at the wrong end of the question. We seem fond of doing that-else why our low educational rating when we are one of the oldest States of the Union ? We have had opportunities thrust upon us : we have had the challenge 'pure Anglo-Saxon' blood hurled in our teeth for decades-even for centuries-and I am dealing in no heresy when I say that the pompous voice of the tax-fattened politicians is drowned out by the husky, uncultured drawl of those men who are literally and positively a 'mired spoke in the wheels of progress.' "You see, I know them. I know them intimately. Beside ltlazing hearth and under pepper-festooned roofs 1 have listened to mouthing grannies all(] ancient sires laying bare before my pitying eyes the story of a drab, oppressed, half-bestial existence. They aren't to blame. They know nothing else. How could they, hemmed in by impassable mountains, cut off from civilization by swirling rivers and unltridged gorges-even barred froth social intercourse with those few `low-lanlers' with whom they might have come in contact? I have welcomed them into this world and I have seen them go out. I have rejoiced at their simple weddings, and 1 have closed the sightless, staring eyes of their dead. Up steep, backbreaking trails 1 have followed pine coffins to lay disease-ridden bones to eternal rest under the quiet shadow of The Pilot and I have seen the burden of ignorance, poverty, disease ano Winter, 19=14 MOUNTAIN LtFF AND WORK Page 13 deformity grown more intolerant with each passing year. W,etallc, we plan and we theorize-why don't we do something? Plain words-but we have a need of brutal frankness if we would accomplish our purpose. We have boasted and crowed and bragged of our perfect past and that same ancestor worship put China to sleep for 4,000 years! "We deplore our birthrate as a nation and we let the finest stock of America 1e strangled in its cradle by social diseases too terrible to he mentioned. I'ellegra, hookworm, trachoma (Dare I add starvation?) have been constant visitors in those cabins where, an eternal guest in the chimney corner, rocks back and forth the grisly death-head of the great white plague." Foreign missions have long peen concerned with the practical aspects of agriculture and rural life. Rural reconstruction has been a primary blank in the platform of foreign missions. Alen such as Sam Higrginbuttom have given a new meaning and purpose to the work of the missionary. There has not been enough time as yci for this broader program to reach more than a small segment of the populations of these foreign countries, but enough has been dune to merit the conclusion that nothing less than this kind of concept of missionary work will suffice in the future. blare over, rural reconstruction will he more in demand when the war is over than before it began. ()III - foreign missionaries will he in the forefront of the leadership, and the demand will be far beyond the church's ability to supply the leadership that will 1e needed for this task. I should like to suggest that nothing less than this same kind of rural religious leadership will 1e needed in the United States. The time is full ripe to create a. new and exalted sense of the rural ministry, the rural church, and the educational and religious mission to rural areas. This cannot come from the rural ministers and rural churches alone. It will require the support and encouragement of city ministers, city churches, and above everything else, of the administrative leadership within the denominations. Now T realize that there is nothing new about the problem I am stating; it has been with us all the time. What is new, however, is that the crisis in which we find ourselves is sharpening this issue and, what is even more important, demanding; a decision. CoNCt.ustoh Democracy is the most difficult, it is the most dangerous form of government. It achieves progress in the hardest possible way, in the belief in the individual, that the process is as important as the result. That process is the realization of the fullest potentiality of each individual citizen-not merely his most convenient use by the state, not even the service rendered to him by philanthropy except as this helps finally to his richest self-realization. Social service, education, and religion are not only- truly democratic but truly Christian when they seek this end for mountain people as for all people, namely, that they shall be given a chance to achieve a rich, satisfying personality on the basis of self-realization. 1\lay we express the hope that this conference will rise to the occasion, come to grips with this fundamental problem. If the mountaineer is to take his rightful place in a democratic society, it will 1e necessary to help him to selfrealization. -5 U (VI b1 ARY As a final word I ant summarizing- a few suggestions that grow out of these observations. T o some they will 1c difficult if nut impossible to accept, but they represent a sincere conviction, so I let them stand. (1 ) That we must now begin to think of our approach and program for the mountains oil the basis of prevention as well as of cure. (2) That we must now begin to educate many of the mountain people to get out of the mountains and into other areas where an adequate economic base for life is more nearly possible. (3) That we should cooperate with agencies of government looking toward a letter development and rise of mountain resources, the introduction of other types of agriculture and animal husbandry and industry that will provide a better economic living for those who remain in the mountains. (4) That we should press for a more equitable sharing of wealth in both state and nation with the poorer mountain counties in order to provide a higher level of education oil a more democratic basis than is now possible. 1'a-o 1 4 1\7uuhr-:m LIFE AND WORK ';'inter, 1944 AIot~VT_m I.trL nN'o WORK Page 1.5 Portraits o f Two Great Un opposite pages we here present lon-traits of Dr. George W. Carver atul Tc)Yuhil:u lsagawa, lmth geniuses belonging to minority races, the mie li6m, under the limitations of white 1 rÃ‚Â°jttlice and the other endangered because of the crimes cf its fascist military clique. Dr. Carver was rated b_v Eleny l"n-l as a ljeater scientist than his ltosmn friend I?dison, and Ilcxil:er T. Washington after years of close association said no greater creative mind ha1 ever been given tts. A visit to the (-arver cousennt tells the story of Christian Geniuses the products cal his genius, devoted to agricultural chentistrv as a mean; oI improving the living con diticms mf the ltmorer Eolh of the South. II e took the lovvlv vast uul the peanut apart and reconstructed nmrc than 100 uses for the yam and 300 for peanut. 1-Ic discovered scores of edible wild plants and ln-culuc~l many faints and colors from Alabama clays. ( )lie has to read IZacl:ham Holt's biography to .realize the vastness mf his creative contributions to the common welfare. In all he did was a Chris tint lutssim. Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1911 liagawa is one of the greatest and must revered saints in modern Christendom. Multitudes followed hint on his American tour and he left behind an ittfluence for religious zeal made practical through cooperation and especially the coulerativc movement. He is a great evangelist and social reformer. He calls the cooperative movement "the ecnumtic expression of Christianity.- 1 iscovering that not trees :,.aid 1e grown cm the mountain sides of mountain ous jalan, where millions live in poverty and good soil is scarce, he said "henceforth f breach the gospcl of nuts." N'l-e present the portraits of these two great Christian geniuses as appropriate to this number of AI nuntain Life and \Vork, devoted as it so largely is to religion and, like our coming conference in Asheville, to "The I~_cunmtic Basis for Better Liv ing Ig The f\Ionntains." The Farmer's Federation Cooperatives 1 rwwut I%arnrrr-'s hcdor-crtinu rtrcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cÃ‚Â°tiuy ill flit, lirrnnrrntcriu Inou of Svlvicr, N. (~. The largest and most reinarkahlc cooperatives of our mountain area arc those of the I~arnter's Federation of Asheville. I)r. McClure, their founder and president, will toil the story at our corning conference in Asheville. His work Megan as a rural ministry to mountain people. Like the circuit rider who discovered that liming the land increased the crop yield, and seeing there better hnues and churches, said, "henceforth I 1-each also the gospel of limestone," Dr. McClure founded this hetleraticm and developed its cooperatives as a Christian service. Wa asked him to give us the essential, up-to-date news cm the Federation and here is his reply. .just recently we got together our figures for the year 1943 and find that our total sales through the Farmer's Federation warehouses were $3,219,781.07, this includes the sales made through the Hatchery which while operating at a capacity of more than 300,000 was unable to supply the demands for chicks. \Ve have recently increased the capacity of the hatchery and now arc hatching= 462,000 eggs at each Winter, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page li setting. Fverwhicl: in this hatclterv has the inheritance fur high egg production. 1?vory cockerel in each supply flock mast come from a hen with a record of 250 or more eggs per year. \Ve have just closed our Burley tobacco market ill which the Farmers Federation has always taken an active hart, and this year tile Asheville market paid an average price to the producer of $50.94 per one hundred bounds. This Is $5.14 higher than the average fen- the rest of the Burley Melt. The reason for this high price is the quality of the tobacco, NVe attribute the clualit_v to the many years of work that has lte.en clone 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢v the farmer's FeleratilÃ¢â‚¬Â¢u in the matter of making the right seeds available and in educational camltaigtls cm the growing and gruling of tobacco. FAIWll:ls'S SUN(i ( )F FAITH III life's glad aln-ingtitne we plow the soil Which ( icxl made with infinite care. ()lie ought not waste what can't he replaced, So let us hat leave our fields hare. It takes but a season for ()lie to lose The best in a life or a hill ; So let us 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢e each a gncul trustee ( f the fields that are his to till. We plant the seed in the field prepared, ,1u1 He sends floe sunshine and rain ; t\'e work together as partners slmuhlFur each needs the other, 'ti,, plain. Well all know the law of the harvest, sere, That ntan reaps whate'er lie may sow ; Let's sow good seed-plant, or thought, or deeIAn1 the Father will make it grow. We stir the soil 'heath the summer sun As Truth stirs the conscience of man Else worthless weeds tale what good life needs, As sin turns a life from Gocl's plan. The increase is always tire gift of Him Who makes both the f suit aild the flower: As plants seek light, we must do the right If we'd share the Creator's power. ~Ve bring the blessings of harvest luuue The Lord's .Acre Department under the leader ship of f )uuomt Clarke is making steady progress. i\Ir. Garke has recently gotten out an attractively il lustrated booklet describing the Lord's Acre flan and its possibilities. The February l st issue of the Farmers Federation News is our Lord's Acre number. This copy contains actual reports from twenty states in the Union as to progress ill the Lord's Acre plan . The difficulties in keeping supplies on hand for the war production of our people are great. The people of \Vestern North Carolina are putting everything they have into food production fur the war program. Sincerely, y1b9F5 Cr. 1\. 1\ICCf.IJRt: From garden and orchard all(] field; ( )ur hearts are full of Thanksgiving joy fur all that the good earth cloth yield. \Ve face the long winter of life with faith, I' or 11e path supplied every aced. They who are near Him need never fear Ifim, The Lord is our Gml, indeed! 1 love the lcmely mountain home The garden fenced with rails The corn-latch up in Lonesome Cove And ridges streaked with trails. I love the spring, the apple trees, My mountain-mother's way ()f tucking bed-quilts over me The end of every day. But things I love I cannot hayÃ‚Â°e, There's harder stuff fur the-Just now anI then my thoughts go hack To how it used to he. Now mother's hark is heat with toil, N1y father's steps are slow. He totters weak behind the plow Along the cottml row. Page 18 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1944 the Pentecostal Churches Information Sorvicc for JarrrmrY First, 1944, m"rl,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢cs a rcsrtmrcÃ‚Â° from ('S Crusrrs rcports of "Trends in Chmrch .llcrmhcrship Rclmccm 1926 and 1U-1119-12". It fiends flit, uacrmyc imcrecrsc as rcportecf to be 25.5 ~1( .. That of the Catholics curt the older- demomrimatiorrs that kcch foirlY crccrrratc statistics runs somewhat under tire avorcrgc; the morc emotional and dogmatic I'rotcÃ‚Â°stamt bodies ro,port larger gains, dmc, mo doubt to immdcrlmatclO hcht statistic-s. The 1'emtccostal drorrps rEyort claims of fl-0111 ten to t2t'r~nfv timrcs drat of the old historic dcmomrirurtioms. ht'c askrd several rmorrmimim ministers card three others with ~~enrs of e-rficricÃ‚Â°mce to give its their arralY.cis of tire reasons TollY. "'e have had extreme emotional groups in religion since the clays of the \\-esleyan revi . . vials. But the current mass religious phenomenon dates brimarily from the latter part of the 19th century. This was the time when the established churches, Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist, Baptist. etc., coordinated their Sunday School, A7issionary and Women's programs and concentrated their efforts in the painted frame churches of the towns and the stone and brick churches of cities emphasizing what the sharecropper cane to call bipeorgan, stained-glass and silk stocking religion. The rural people were isolated by coats in religion, the poll tax in politics, the buggy instead of the old hay wagon and later by the automobile. So isolated, they could only- develop a program and a doctrine in terms of their understanding. This understanding and their reaction might be snnnnarize1 as follows: (a) They saw the people in the towns and cities with good "store bought" clothes. They themselves could not have good clothes. Their breeches were made out of jeans; their shirts out of hickory cloth. The women knitted the socks an(] made the underwear. The man with good clothing had a faulty attitude towards his country brother and referred to his people as hicks, lie 'erdn-wells, hillbillies, niggers and pour white trash. Therefore good clothing carte to represent style, worldliness and evil. They rationalized : " I'd rather be a door-keeper in the house of the Lord than to dwell in King's palaces." (I's. 84:10.) I f we would represent the people of the South by a pyramid, a line might he drawn considerably above the center to indicate this traditionally Southern, institutionally "Christian", group. The real South is the people represented by the base of the pyramid. This group is served by the untrained, work-aday preacher. A relatively illiterate man but one who is basically honest, sincere and zealous: 1. He has responded to religion as the good. Good has been very imperfectly defined fur him. Sometimes it has been maliciously defined, and given tine present complexion of affairs, we might say, usually viciously defined. 2. He is a man without a price. He is preaching because he feels that God has called him to breach. He knows there is evil in the world and he is fighting it the host way he knows. He is the nttn who trudges across the nnuldy fields and breaches today as his predecessor slid in the clays of the Underground Railroad. 3. fie is a natural leader. There are no "'grapes of wrath" Caseys among these preachers, but there are elements of Casey in most of them. They are close to life. They have an uncanny wisdom which shocks and mocks the middleclass church leaders. 4. This man is the man who is speaking to real America. Iron tarpaulin teats, brush arbor, leaning churches, basement churches; in garages, in parlor meetings and in the plants of the industrial centers he is speaking everySunday during the year. Front slabs burrowed frutn neighboring saw mills, front gospel tents, every day and every night during the long summer months of the South he is speaking to the people who will be used as the instruments of reaction or who on the other hand will become the democratic instruments of a free society. This man and his counterpart, the exporter, often referred to as the "zorter", will determine in a large measure which way America goes and whether it goes fast or slow. He is WORK Page 19 today carrying on the biggest program in America. He knows lures- to carry it (n. lie has carried it ()li for years and without funds. Hitherto there has been no group which has made a sympathetic approach to this man and his people. No effort has been made to but a more timely content into h;s 1-cs~2nt mindset without putting him on the defensive. The church has dismissed h;m again as mt "intltussilrilist", a holy roller, a caste. IBt these people have preen uprooted in great numbers. :Mechanization of production, curtailment of production and high birthrate, have forced them to migrate pry the hundreds of thousands. Over a period of years. Detroit and other cities have taken m the complexion of these groups. This new popu lation has come predominantly from rural sections of the country or from the homes of parents who are from rural sectIRural hural people generally have something of the same outlook manifesting itself in the following characteristics: (a) they are individualists ; (lr) they are anti-city; (c) the Protestants are anti-Catholic; (d) the Southern whites are anti-Yankee: (e) both Negro and white are anti-Semitic ; ( f ) both Negro and white are anti-union Or non-union ; ( g ) all are anti-middle class, especially anti-miclass cn- institutional religion. \Vitlt these newcomers have come their natural leaders, the work-a-(lay preachers. There are some 3,000 cf these entl1(ryecl in the plants of Detroit over 1,000 alone in the Ford Local 600. These are the leader, which have the ear of the new mass population of Detroit and vicinity. If tlnev were enalrle1 to relate their religious messages and religicrus prmgrams to the issues which affect them and their people in the terms of mÃ‚Â°at, bread, shelter, clothes, health, freelcrm, justice, security, they could clarify the issues of Sojourner Truth, Klttxism, Racism, lTnionism, to an effective army of people. These basically honest leaders and the earnest multitudes of people they serve have never been enabled 1y the church nor any other stable group to understand the forces which exploited them, victimized them, and divided them. The church nor any other group has enabled them to discover amp appraise favuralrlv any program with which to (rlllxsc these forces. gust this is the program the Peoples' Institute has undertaken. Cur approach is to establish classes fur the most dynamic of these leaders and by means of visual-aid education charts, developed strictly from a scriptural bas's, to teach them the broader implications of our Judeo-Christian heritage.-CLACDL C. ~Vtr.t.tnnts, Apostle to flit, sham crohhnYS, now in Detroit ttu(lcr the nushici('s of the PYCSIy'teYinn church, TCnr-kiny ncnorrg the hrtndYCd s o f InY hY('n(-keYS o f tire share cr-oppcr. )rrourctnin and 107k, illo-ollic III-ball g1'011P5 iv'lt0 nl'C tl!('1'L' /lrst 11071' ill Tour Productioll .'oYh Imp who will r(Ã‚Â°tnYU hone, to c(2rrJ, Oil their ntiui.rtYY. Ills ntcÃ‚Â°thod i's to base (III Icachilig on, scrihlnr'(rl duotntiorrs, list, simple language crud substitntc social hnssion for their tt-,rurl emotional nh_ ponl. Finding- themselves ill at ease in the presence of an effete and prosperous bourgeoisie, their emotional natures unsatisfied by a middle-class complacency, their economic problems disregarded by those who have no such problems to meet, and their naive faith and simple interpretations smiled upon 1y their more cultured fellows, the poor and ignorant revolt and draw apart into groups which are more congenial. They elevate the necessities of their class-frugality, humility, and industry-into mural virtues and regard as sins the practices they are debarred from embracing. Those pinched by economic circumstances look askance at theater going, card playing, and "putting cm of gold and costly apparel," but indulge in the same when their earthly fortunes improve. Their standards of conduct are invented from the simple lives they are compelled at all events to lead and which are congenial to their simp'icitv. They give free rein to their emotions and attribute the pleasant thrills thereof to a divine agency. They look for an escape from their hard lot into a heaven of Miss and comfort which is foreign to their work-a-day existence, and usually picture a coming t'Mie when the judg-~ meat of society shall he reversed and they- shall change places with the prosperous and comfortable, who shall 1e cast clown while the pious pour shall be exalted. They espouse their tenets with almost fanatical devotion and regard themselves as the true beloved of ( ~ol- Thus the sect is born, out Page 20 MOUNTAIN Ln:i: AND WORK 1Viuter, 1944 of a coutlrinaticm of spiritual need and economic forces.--1x. I?l..Nlr;tc -f. (-t.:w:, i" "Thc S"ral( SCrts of ~1mrica.'. C-o"rtcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢sv of the .Ibi"gdo"-C.olzosb"r-tl'rc,c.s. The rural church in the South has been in the main a gregarious expression of lonely, impoverished, hard pressed, sometimes dangerous) situated people. It has been a mirur of their tastes, their feelings, their conflicts and their needs. It has peen, except in a few of the older cities and in a few of the more wealthy and mature suhregiuns, a rough, unhaven, tulaccmy, ripsnurting, hell-fire and brimstone, shouting to (:ud, ungrammatical affair. .1 local ritual to a local God. To a few it has brought peace, to more it has brought panic, to all it has brought a chance to give outlet to feelings which needed to be let nut, feelings that run the gamut from plain sexual hunger to guilt, fear, loneliness, insecurity, hate, utter terror, deep pi ety, hunllle mysticism, and love of horseplay fun. It has peen a religion of a people who are at once exploiting and exploited. It is tilled with amhivalences, inconsistencies, hypocrisies, and hard llargainings with the Lord. It has been blind and pitiful, cruel and bragging, persecuting and hunted down. It has given the world th a \Tegro spiritual and the white revival song: "Were You There \Vheu They Crucified My Lord", an(] "Brighten the Corner \\,hell You Arc." It is all its people are; no snore, no less. It would 1e a hilarious spectacle were it nut heartbreaking. But to one witnessing its outer forms, listening to its songs and its sermons, little realization u( their significance can come if he has oat at some tinge in his life participated psychically in these religious manifestations and in the life of these people. This religious feeling-the complexity and strength of which are barely suggested here-restrained and encouraged alternately by economic pressures and historical incidents, has borne strange fruit. But as time has gone bv, it has tended to he pruned by the upper classes into a trim pattern, at its worst a strong support of an exploitative status duo with no spiritual content; at its best a means of achieving various ameliurations of society's surface ills and of giving mystical comfort to those who can take it. During the past few years, a change has begun to take place. (_)ut of the profound need of the people have sprung a group of young southern preachers, educated, intelligent, courageous, devout, whet arc using the Gospel like a two-edged sword, felling the enemies of the Lord. Thev belong to no sects, though largely Baptist, Congregational, Presbyterian and Methodist. They have nut the slightest interest in forming a new sect. They are for th. most part "theologically scntn1" if that interests am-body. They neither breach nor practice hate or violence. They ))reach "the love that 1asseth understanding" and actually practice what they preach. Tlne "enemies" they arc (clung by (Iced and word arc soil erosion and waste, ignorance and disease, racial hate, starvation, apathy, unemployment. Their "two-edged-sword" is made of God's `Vord and their own energetic and cooperative acts. They believe filling a man's heart with love is easier after filling ]its stomach regularly with food. They are here and there performing in the name of the Lord small miracles in rehabilitating entire communities. To one who has sometimes lost heart at the present and future of the church in the South, it is au encouraging demonstration of creative (_'hristianitv.-Lo.t.mv Sntoru, Editor of The So"Ilr ToclaO. The responsibility for religious leadership in a school which is traditionally religious-minded cre ates an obligation for which most 1I us are inade quate. Reference has been made to the type of religious life which is prevalent through this sec tion of the country. Perhaps, the most effective single illustration is to be found in the type of hymns which constitute the overwhelming nature of the musical diet of religions groups here-for example, such gospel hynvs as "Won't it he NVonderful There," or "Blessed Jesus, Hold 1\ly Hand." The music of such hymns is distinctly contagious an(] is not far from hymns music. As such, it is perhaps a type of folk music. Judging from its popular appeal and the vast output of new songs each year, one senses an obvious call fur this type of sung. It grows tut of the monotony of common life and the hope of escape. Out of this background come most of the students of this school. Religion is something one "gets". It can't he acquired in a big revival, cul Winter, l0=lq. hfouhTm:. LIFE; AND W'oxh Page 21 urinating in baptism in the river. We have been told that the reason parents hermit their children to come to this school is that we are not religious and, therefore, cannot pervert the attitudes of young people. Gradually, students have come to sec that there is a connection between the entire level of social life and the "(,olden IW lc".-y-ic1'nz ()tat:NttntÃ¢â‚¬Â¢s. I'ni"cihal, I'lcasn"t I-fill ACarlet"11. T0 get scnnc basis fm- answering this question, I got the following data regarding one of these churches. The data and conclusions are 1. 7'/tcv work hctrdc'r and with morc -,cat. It took 2.068 evangelists. 778 bishops, and 562 deacons, or a total of 3.108 "preachers' 'breaching 213,000 sermons and backed 1v the rest of a total n;emlershilt of 80,000 (60.000 in L-. S.) to bring in a net gain of 1,731) members in the year ( 1 t)-1?-43 ) . Despite the fact that 31,000 were reported as having route kind of conversion experience and 11.000 were "added" to the church, the nwt gain was under three per cent. "'That goes to show," reported the head of the organization, "that many of tire people are Slipping through our fingers and drifting away from God. ? . %7ret, shortÃ‚Â°. This sect has 1(21 churches in the United Mates and the ultlroXimate value of all their church property is curly $3,51)2.000; yet it ccmtrilmttel $170,000 in tithes and offerings in the year to support the supervisory. missionary, and charitable work of the church (as compared, says its heal, with 7.000 in 11135). 3. Sclf-dcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢"ial is cure of their tenets. Not curly du they ask all mcniltcrs, including Pastors. to tithe. but they stand for "modest apparel" and against "the wearing of unnecessary jewelry fur ornament or decoration.- Thev also Oppose the use of tobacco. 4. They strive to l,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ceh their `. spirit"al r/ertcnator-s" working and to rrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢"rlr the oncoming llcÃ‚Â°"cratio". They urge every family to conduct family worship "at least cosec a day and a t a time most convenient to the household." (The family 1 called on, unexpectedly, was doing this at 5:00 1.m.) They conducted 1,1113 Sunday schools, with an average attendance reported of 27,710. 5. Tltcy beÃ‚Â°lirÃ¢â‚¬Â¢vc i" dial"c' lreali"I/. -There were 50 brief requests, with addresses given, fur prayer for sure n- more ntemlrers of a family to he healed of one m- mare ailments, all in one issue of the sect's periodical. (Must of these wwre from `southern states. ) ( )f course, many recognized that God has always clone most of the health-restoring, even in the bast fifty years, and the pest doctors admit that many of their patients are in need of spiritual rather than physical "treatment." 6. 7-hoY arc' diffcrettt. They "disclaim and repudiate the title 'llulv Rollers' " and regard it as "slanderous." but they deem it as proper to shout "13allelujah" at church as souse others 1o to applaud the exposure of the villain in the movie or the success of eleven huskies is depositing their leather hag full of air behind the goal posts. 7. Eternal life is evidently Conceived Of as reluiring the resurrection of the physically (lead and nut nterelv the conning alive of the spiritually (lead; eternal punishment, as crullers physical suffering, rather than infinite spiritual suffering consequent to a realization that one has wasted or lost life's uhlorttmitv to work with God in the building of an everlasting hingdcnn of Love. 8. Tlrc'v arc democratic, "There is no inner working circle in the Church of which the laity- has no knowledge." The church assembly does not consider itself "a legislative or executive body, but judicial curly." The highest paid official in the natimal organization is reported as gating about the hay of a county School superintendent in an average Countv. $3.250 a year. ()xlzrn I_. hrr.lvtat.. Much publicity has peen given to the remarkable claims of these bodies to rains in recent years. No separate figures are given for our Southern Mountains, but the general opinion is that these groups have experienced in this section a growth about normal for the country as a whole. It must 1e remembered .that the oldest of these groups was organized in our section and is relatively old. This group was organiz~-d in Nlonroe County, Tennessee, in 1828 and their leaders then fully expected to evangelize the whole section. There are now estimated to 1e around twenty-five sel trate groups of this type at work in our mountains. Even the census figures shed no real light on this, for in every ten-year period sane new groups are reported and some old groups have disappeared. Page ?? Itluu:vr,m LIFE Ants N\`oxm \\ inter. 1944 Some of these have only a few small congregations at most and srnne others are relatively strong, both as to numbers of ccmgregations and as to total members. There arc no reliable figures as to membership in must of these groups some of which have no membership rolls at all and definitely claim that there is no visible church. Hence no valid membership roll is possible. :any figures that have preen Given out, therefore, are mere guesses or at the best mere approximations. by are they able to report such large gains? There are two observations I want to make: First, some have very unusual methods of attracting the carious to their services and great crowds often attend cut of a spirit of curiosity. Many of those who attend are people who arc net accustomed to attending church and some of them are deeply impressed, in much the same way as their forefathers were in pioneer days at the camp meetings and under similar conditions. And the second ultservatirnt is this, that in these services there is an informality liked 1y the people and a sincerity nut always found in the services of so-called regular denontinaticms. The very simplicity and definite appeal of the gospel preached there finds a response that is genuine. In part, at least, it is the old issue again of our pioneer clays. It has been my observation that in those communities where the regular churches have a real program of service, one which calls fur sacrifice cm the: hart of the members, and in which opportunity is Given fur as emotional outlet lm an enuttiunallv starved people, these sects du nut even get a start. PAUL I!,. DORAN One of the explanations for tl-e amazing growth of the Pentecostal churches is the crisis situations of the past twenty years and the fact that the Pentecostal type of religion provides some "escape" from the hard realities of everyday life and offers a sense of security, even though both the "escape" and the "security" tray he ultimately false. First, there was the economic crisis of the depression. Later the whole cultural crisis created by the war and the burden of both fell heaviest upon the disadvantaged segment of our population, which has supplied the temlership for the Pentecostal movement. This may not he the whole explanation, but it is certainly aJRasic part of the reason fur this rabid growth. Our older churches cannot meet this by direct attack, in that we cannot offer an "escape" or a "security-" which we feel to he false. We must meet the challenge by indirection, by making our own churches more fully Christian, and by aeeking to help the disadvantaged segment of our people to achieve higher economic, educational and cultural levels. We must get out of our shell of respectability all(] class anti down into the road of life, where we share the struggles of the common man. I?t7c:r.lrr SvaTttERs First: The emphasis they place oil the Bible as the word of God. They do not try to reason out religion or philosophize about it; they simply, take the Bible for what it says. This is simple and easy. Second : They Relieve tremendously in the Supernatural a tui live in a state of exl)ectanc_v and a dependance upon 'it. Third: They 1;iieve strongly in the cuttversictn of sinners both young and old. They believe that every man is lost, in this world and the next, until he comes to a definite conversion. \o man is too bad. too old, ton poor or too ignorant to he saved. Their emphasis is upon the adult and when they get the adult they get their children. fourth: They stress the work of the Itolv Spirit ill making known God and His will to man. God is to he felt, and the emotions stirred. As emotion plays a large hart in other Ih aÃ‚Â°s of their lives so it does in religion. fifth: Evangelism is their 51g- emphasis. They Relieve the time is short until Christ will return; therefore, they must hasten to get people saved. Since the time is short they can sacrifice everything fur they will nut have to sacrifice long. They must quickly get people ready for the return of Christ and for heaven. Sixth: 1'hev believe individuals eau get saved in the worst of society and that you du not have to wait until you get society saved. '1-heir emphasis on the individual rather than society, counts largely for their large numbers. Seventh: Their willingness to work among the pool- and illiterate who have peen neglected by most of the other churches. '.I~hey will work in homes or anywhere they can go, and do not demand expensive buildings and' equipment. JOHN H. Lwvts Winter, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 Grundtvig and Danish Folk Schools By I\1m.ES HORTON Highlander Folk School The Folk High schools, which have plavel such au important hart in the development of I-enmark, can he traced back to a love affair between beautiful Frue Constance and a young minister, now known as Bishop N. I'. S. Clrttncltvig, "pastor, poet, historian and educational reformer." Grundtvig's happy childhood was cut short by t period of six years spent in a grade school, which took away his childish enthusiasms and faith in people and loft him, as lie afterwards said, "a narrow-minded, conceited snub". In 1900 hlie entered the University of Copenhagen an awkward youth whose country clothes and )utland dialecty distinguished hint front the majority o f the students. It was after lie had graduated from the seminary and was tutoring in the ]ionic of an army officer that an affair of the heart shocked Grundtvig into greatness. The father of the eight year old boy, whom lie had been employed to teach, was a solemn captain who spent most of his time away front home; but True Constance, if an artist who painted her can he trusted, was "lively, merry and romantic." She was mach younger than her husband. Young CTrundtvigr taught his pupil in the comfortable living room where the vctung wife read and worked. Much of the time they were alone; she seemed delighted with his company. Sudden]\, a powerful flame sprang up from the closed heart of the voting minister. He had come to see too deeply into hrue Constance's blue eves, and before he knew it, was violently in love with her. The captain's wife and her friends were amused, but (,runltvig wrote in his iiarv : "She, becomes more and more necessary to my happiness . . . what will the end be'" W'e have his own story of how he conquered "the roaring mountain torrent" of his passions, not by love for another woman trot by loving more deeply, what lie called, "the higher idea." This was his first great emotional experience and the hopelessness of the affair tore away his conceit. His creative powers were released, and a powerful and sustained source of emotional energy was uncovered which enabled him to strike out, almost single handed, against the economic and spiritual poverty that enslaved his people. He plunged into a study of Danish history which he was able to trace back to Thor and Odin of Norse -Nlytholol '. The vigor and courage of the old Vikings, from whom the sleeping masses were descended, and the heroic exploits of the Norse gods, who once inhabited the mythological North, furnished him with subject and material for nunr emus poems and hooks of history. I_ilce some of the ( )ld Testament prophets, Girttncltvig condemned the idle rich fur "dancing on the brink of IOenmark's oleo grave". But lie soon realized that nothing lint continued selfishness could be expected from the owning class. However, his study of the ancient chronicles had given him an insight into the last that suggested a way out. It was trot what was done for the people but what they did for themselves that would save the masses and, thus, save Denmark. Wars had stripped Denmark of her vast possessions, which could never he regained. She must gain inwardly what she had lust outwardly. But first the masses must lie awakened trout their death-like slumber. Grundtvig's blind faith in the docile sharecroppers, who were contented with merely enough to keep body and soul together, made him feel that, once awakened, this class would save the country. 'Chore was little justificatim for such faith; but all other levels of society had failed and this class alone remained untested. With a fierce determination and all the energy of his intense nature (7rundtvig set himself to stir the masses, whose curly desire was to 1e left alone in their ignorance and misery. His genuine love for people and his sense of humor saved him from ltccomin g a fanatic. As a minister he criticized th a rationalistic theology, claiming that it was lifeless and had no meaning for the common people. His own religion was so simple that he was accused of having no theology at all. Gruncttvig insisted that the first thing was to 1e human. "(-)lie cannot 1e a full Christian without first being a full human being", lie said. The church, already unfriendly Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Wiliter, 1914 because of his interest in the masse,, closed its doors to him. But one more famous name was added to their list when at the age of sev entv the king insisted on making hits a hishop. "All great men have been bishops", said the kink when Grttn1tvig protested that he was not a good churchman, "and, of course, you have to he a bishop, too". A new kind of education, which would awaken the people by staking them conscious of their historical past, -was foremost in (irttndtviri's thinking. The regular standardized schools, taught by cloistered minds, could tort he life giving. The function of education, to him, was not just to impart knowledge but to call forth a new hope and to release a new spring of energy from within. It should 1e for the entire personality and, therefore, emotional as well as intellectual. Ile had in mind a national university where "voting, people might lteconte letter acln aimed with lnnnan nature, and with themselves in particular: and where they will receive guidance in all civic duties and relationships, getting to know their comttrv's real needs. The love of their country shall 1e nourished by their mother tottgtte, their nation's histow_ , and lm Danish songs. Stich a school will be a well of healing for our people." It was left to a practical educator by the name of Christian Kalcl, to put Grunltvig's theories into practice. hold sintltlitierl the idea ;ill(] conducted what he called a loll: High School in a farm house. Fifteen students brought their bedding and paid their fee of X10.()0 for the five nutnths term. ,M1 were ()li an equal footing : Kolcl and the students slept in the loft above the school room. The fixed program was soon discarded and the teacher attempted to meet the problems of his students as they arose. His chief method of teaching- was lty lecture and story telling, and 1y personal example. He was so interesting that neighbors often carne in to hear him. Once whets a student comhlainerl that he enjove1 the lectures lost could nut remember them, Hold replied "lint should not worry altont that. If we put a drain pipe in the ground we nutst stark the place in order to find it. (ant if we sow grain there is nn need to drive in begs, for it comes ill) again. S'uu may be sure that whatever you listen to with pleasure, what has found soil in you, will come up again when yon need it.Ã‚Â°" Examinations were distasteful to him. He saw no good in l.earning fragments for examination, and besides, he felt that the progress of a creative mind could not 1e measured in that way. V'hen, after having been ignored fur years the state offered to make a grant to his school, it was accepted only on condition that the state did not interfere in any way with the instruction of the students. He felt that the desire to learn was more an incentive than grades and credits fur his students, whose ages ranged from eighteen to thirty. 'hhe Fall; School idea spread through the rural areas and the slumbering masses were awakened by the "I_ivittg Word". I_iterrtllv thousands of timid sharecroppers poured into these democratic sclutols. l-niversitv graduates, who had turned a deaf ear to appeals to do charity work nnong the poor, Jumped at the chance to -teach in the folk Schools, where an ttnrlerstanding of how people think, their work and their hopes was the primary qualification. The schools hurl marry things in common, such as teachers and students livint,= to Ã‚Â°ther on an equal footing, lectures and songs, few looks, and the lack of entrance and wit requirentents. But each school, which was usually built around the perscmalitv of the director, hurl its own definite purpose; all(] never was the purpose of any Folk High School vocational. The schools did not propose to stake better farmers, letter artisans or even better cooperators. :1n awakened ntan or woman was a better farmer or brick mason or house wife lost not because they were trained for a vocation. The schools offered net vocational training. Regardless of what particular principle the schools were fighting for, the purpose was always cultural. Christian hold emphasizes the purposive element when he write:; of the three most important schools of his clay. The first was a borderline school which attempted to throw up a cultural barrier against their enemy, the Germans. hold describes it as "a fight for -l)anism against Germanism". The second school chantlticnterl the struggle of the peasants against the land owning nohility. "_1nl.Ã‚Â°' Ivld commented, "both could be gmxl as lcnt, a s they were useful." The third school was his own and there the light was for "life against death." Along side the new schools fen- voting, people arose the children's "Free" schools, which have '\Vitner. V-O-l MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 greatly inHucnced the state educational system. These schools were the natural outgrowth of the spirit of eluratintal freedom that dominated the Folk -;cliool movement. orutultvig had pointed out that a straining ctr cramping of a child's mental powers would hinder rather than develop personality.. Perhaps it was the dark memories of his own interrupted childhood that made him insist oil a long childhood during which a child would 1e allowed to develop naturally. But again we mast torn to Christian hull for he is largely respunsiltle for the development of the idea of freedom in Danish education. Ile is as well known as a teacher of children as a pioneer in the loll: School movement. There is a modern ring to his idea that a child should not read until he feels the desire for knowledge; or write until he wishes to cypress himself in writing-; and that what a child is forced to du dues more harm than good. Here are some of his comments on the education of children. "The soul of a child asks for help to grow." -The school room ought to lank like an orlinarv sitting runn." "Watch the child and wait fur the right ntument." "(nly a stupid teacher regards the child's mischief as malice." "\\-e should give chillrett the knowledge fur which they have use in daily life attd preferably knowledg=e which they can use at once." K old taught that children should learn life through the medium of the story. He was so entertaining that otter mothers went to school with their children and sat knitting while he told stories. Thus began the relationship of schools to the home. It was 1Ã‚Â°scriltc1 1v one of the professional rural grade school teachers. (who, like all others, lives all the year in a lunte built fur him in ecnlnectirnI with the school) that in 1)eumarl: they did not have compulsory school attendance but compulsory education. The tcnclencv is to make education less and less a matter of the state and more and more a matter fen- the parents, who should control the schools to which their children go. Ile did not know how this Would work ()tit in the United States where the educational system has been taken largely f=ern the Prussian system designed to torn out Soldiers: and where teachers ntttst depend ttlxm politicians fur their jobs. Many of the Folk Schools have outlived their usefulness. They- have inherited the theory- that each school should have a goal or definite purpose, but some of them are looking backward trying to conjure up enemies long since vanquished. The externals are the same as of old. But fighting ghosts of one's grandparents' enemies dues not call forth the "Living Word"-and it is the "Living Word", or the spoken word dealing= with a vital sult ject around which the Folk Schools were built. At present the genius of tile Folk School is best seen in the \\'orl:er's Schools, where the purpose is clear. `hhe fight here is along both the economic and spiritual battle line. `v`v'hile these schools arc owned and operated by the socialist party the purpose as stated by one of the directors is that "the Worker's Nigh Schools do nut take part in the wage fight and neither shall they take a direct hart in politics. It shall lie their purpose to enlighten the workers . . . and to meet the worker where ]its greatest life problems lie." Workers are being prepared to live in a new society which they are helping to build. ( )ne gets the feeling- that here is a battle front worthy of present day Christian Kolds. Unl.l.n1) SINGI?h He sang in quiet places :Hong his mountain ways V here wrinkled human faces Showed tracks of weary days. He sang his songs of living, (f corn in rocky soil :W d men and women giving Their lives to honest toil. He never heard the praises Of fame and loud acclaim Which oft the headline raises mound a polished name. But he saw furrowed faces and gripped the calloused hand ()f men in quiet places Where lonely cabins stand. DON L. \VEST MOUNTAIN LIFE AND `YORK New Demands and New Fields JOHN 0. GROSS, I)cp. of Educational Institutions Jlctllodist Church For marry _vcar.c I'rosidrnl of (-uiorr Collr'p', cr mountain school in h'eutuc l,'v. The Mountain Worker who has witnessed the breaking of the lung period of mountain isolation and the pre-empting of some fields of educational and social work by governmental agencies need not weep like Alexander the Great because there are no more worlds to conquer. New occasions still teach new duties. While the mountain region is DO longer isolated from the wheels of the world it is yet greatly insulated from the electrifying influence of life-giving ideas, both old and new. Children from mountain pontes ride new highways in modern school pusses to new school buildings, but at their homes their parents labor with such 1 -ohlems as poverty, disease, and ignorance. :Mountain workers may well rejoice in having increased assistance from the government in dealing with mountain needs. This shifting of part of the load long carried by private agencies makes it possible for them to give attention to some vital work ]oil(, neglected. Personally. 1 doubt if private organizations such as church-supported secondary and elementary schools with limited funds should offer duplicate or competitive work to the state schools. Instead, private school leaders should carefully study present trends and direct their service toward neglected needs. In addition to what they are able to do independently they should welcome the aid of both the federal and state governments in bringing to the people of the area such help as is necessary in making a more satisfactory life. Public health programs, educational services, reforestation of submarginal lands, moving of stranded populations front cut-over timberlands or abandoned coal regions are obviously responsibilities too great for our private agencies to carry. Despite the intimation that some of our favorite fields, such as education and social service, are being pre-enllrted, mountain workers need not feel that their previous efforts have failed. The opposite is true. The new movement for education now spreading, was lighted ltv the torches of humble NVinter, 1944 private schools. These schools, by helping mountain people to have faith in education and a deep desire to learn, paved the way fur the present educational advance in mountain life. hurthernxre, by pointing out the limited finances of local governmental units they have helped to create a conviction that equalization of educational opportunnies is the necessary and desirable thing. The constant increase in the per capita spent fur public school reflects this. It would, of coarse, he untrue to say that the services of all private agencies in the field of education are no longer needed. In most instances the tax-supported programs in mountain counties meet only a minimum of educational demands. Vocational education lags behind, and the cultural offerings such as music, art, wood-working of a modern municipal high school are missing from many mountain schools. Yet, instead of continuing dual systems it would be wiser to cooperate with the state in sulltlving some of the necessary teachers that cannot now be afforded by some counties. Some of the smaller high schools might have regular training in woodworking through the aid of a "trailer shop" that is pulled daily to different schools. ()then teachers is such fields as music, art, or home economics could itinerate from school to school. And the private schools that remain should experiment with new ideas, methods, techniques, and new types of curriculum and thus he able to contribute to the state institution's patterns fur bettering all educational services. There is also the possibility of some church suppurted secondary and elementary schools which desire to continue their services to a constituency that is nut strictly local to locate their work near a college of their strictly or of some other church. Must of our colleges are doing teacher training and need laboratory schools. The move would make it possible fur such schools to enrich their own programs in(] then contribute also to the Winter, 10-1-1 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 larger field of education by assisting the colleges in the training of teachers. The educational qualifications placed m the faculties for such new work in teacher training would nut he in excess of what should 1e expected Of teachers in these schools. Many private colleges have a difficult time meeting the certification requirements of the Departments of 1_ducatiun. Certainly all of them wish to du a quality of work that will not merely he acceptable but also highly desirable. Ili fact, teacher training in private institutions of higher learning will nut he jeopardized if superior work is clone. The indirect contribution that a Christian teacher in a tax-supported school can make to building Christian citizenship is so valuable that our churches ought to strengthen this type of work. The late llishup Warren A. Candler, of the former .Methodist Episcopal Church, South, ante used the following strong language in enforcing his conviction about teacher training in the Church-related Colleges "The only means of itnlrtrting religious influence in the common schools is for the colleges and universities of the church to graduate men and women of the highest religious character to teach and exert Christian influence in the common school.,;. Otherwise, this religious influence cannot he supplied, and increase of knowledge without growth of religious life will bring disaster to the nation." \Vhen scene of the present agencies are relieved of the responsibilities of educational work on the elementary and secondary level, they should give attention to the education of adults. It does not need to be said that the educational ceiling- of the mountain area is low. Adult ignorance is one of the greatest problems before mountain workers. Too long have we concluded that the ability to read and write is infallibly the marl; of the educated person. Adults, to be educated must, of course, he literate, but education should also bring a knowlelge of resources and skills for using them. Furthermore, adult education is essential if the formal work being clone with the children and youth is to be effective. Pupils, fur example, who hear from modern teachers that vaccination against small pox is the sure preventive of the disease, often face a needless dilemma when their parents decry such teaching. Progressive ideas may he neutralized or killed is hcnncs unfrienllv to them. Adult educa tion takes the program of education up to the front line. Now, after several generations of educational work one can no longer say that educating the children is the sole panacea for mountain ills. The importance of giving adults skill in meeting their life situations may he noted especially in connection with the greatest problem of mountain lifepovertv. Trained native leaders who would 1e allle to deal with the poverty of the rural area do not, eaoept in rare instances, return to the land. '1 he people why remain oil the land, much of which is unfit for agricultural purposes, do nut have the ability to change the conditions. Many are unable to realize the minimum requirements of sanitation, health, sociability, and spiritual development. In fact, too frequently mountain people despair to think that their situation may 1e bettered. They will not he able to understand without some definite guidance that such means as resettlement, refurestatiun, improved farming practices, may assist them to a higher level of living. In recent years, what promised to 1e a modern exodus of a stranded people from submarginal land, where the gov.ernment proposed to buy 57,000 acres of steep land, failed because the move had not been preceded 1y au educational program. A Muses was needed to live with the people and prepare them for the march. The shifted cmphasis from education to religious development would in a short time in itself provide the needed leadership for the work. In fact, one of the fine lay-products predicted would he the lifting of the office of the Christian minister to an attractive, digniflel level. Preachers who are pseudo-1uliticians, horse traders, farmers and trainers are not permitting success and worthwhileness to be associated with the ministry. When the church adequately finances such work it will attract to her standard scene of our splendid young mountain leaders. Private schools in the mountains before the war found that the supply of trained, qualified teachers was adequate for their work. And in a short period this would he true of ministers. It ntav be objected that the entree fur progressive churches is limited and that the attack on the spiritual problem, because of the religious predelictions of the people, will have to continue through scene indirect channel and not the church. The presence of the Evangelical and Dutch Reformed Page ZH MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Wlilter, 1944 Churches, which are not indigenous to the mountains, partly refutes the Relief that the people will not respond to Outside churches. The valid spread of the Holiness movement in the mountains with many emphases foreign to Calvinistic bodies also shows that a church that incorporates into its 1rugram some of the characteristics of floe pioneer church may still succeed. The most challenging opportunity before the progressive churches today is to set tip a comprehensive program, eliminate denominational ccnultetiticm all(] thus bring to the mountains a church mar enough to the life of the people to be understood and sufficiently potent to lift the social and economic level of the contmunities. A few years aria the extension work of the mountain colleges was listinctlv associated with non-credit courses. The work most colleges do now off the campuses consists largely of courses for teachers. It is to be holed that the future eclucatiunal objectives of the colleges will also include non-credit courses to their adjacent territories. Rural sections that have few cultural Opportunities will welcome the dramatic and musical offerings from our schools. Much of this work may be done without a cult greater than that of transportation. Several colleges and some churches have sponsored what is known as the "liume Chantaucfua." Programs running fur several days have peen given 1y the organizations in nearby rural communities. Some private agency that is searching fur a real challenge in the field of social service ntav find it in one of the ntuuntain "slams." Persons who have contrasted mountain life with city conditions have often expressed a feeling of gratitude because there are no slums in the hills. It is true that there is nu lwusing congestion. but oil many of the creeks the Itululaticm is So dense that adequate garden space is not possible. In such centers are found the poorest houses of the comity, the lowest level of poverty, and an anti-social ltolntlatim, sometimes with man v vicious characters. The name of the stream, because of its crime record, becomes an expression of contempt by the whole cutttttv. Frum such a place persons, inure often juvenile delinquents who have had little Or nu formal school training, rove to terrorize large areas. Fur a nmnntain slum a "Hull House" can be visualized as a real need, anti it is conliclentlv believed that it, with its welfare wurl:;rs, will he far mare effective than many shrifts. One of the neglected ullxtrtunities of service is antung indigent children. In the mountains the birth rate is high (the number of children under five years leer age for each one thousand women is alnust luultle the number fur the country as a whole) and the nxn-tality rate among mothers is excessive. Hence, many children are lest to the discretion of communities. Since few orphan asylums are located in the region some mountain counties make contributions to institutions in ether harts of the state for the care of their Orphans. Now, in the hoarding clelrtrtmettts of ntanv of the private elementary and secondary schools, a large part of the students are either orphans Or are from broken prunes. Some school plants arc splendidly fitted fur such institutions and they could be transformed to do this kind of work with little difficulty. It is suspected that the financing of the program would 1e in ntanv respects easier than some present forms of educational work. Certainly it would be less difficult to secure local sttplort. During the nest decade there will be needed a form of service in the hill country that may operate under various auspices tnl tape on different forms. It is the call to help a very large hart of the population who desire to live ()li to it selfstibsisting basis. ( )lie of the first steps in this connection will 1e to discover the effective way to use the remaining resources wisely. The pioneer had ample virgin resources fur his cash demands but his descendant has lust little timber or coal with which he can supply his needs. Plans that will save the mountain people front economic devastation will include resettlement projects, reforestation, an enlarged agricultural clemonstratitm service, cooperative marketing, a system of parks making the mountains a gigantic vacation land. but it is doubtful if they can lie realized without something inure than aolarrtc'cn- leadership. I.eal.ers, who will be able to awaken cumntunity interest and arouse a portion of the trained citizens of our towns may have to lie lnivatelv financed, lint it is believed that their work will arouse sufficient interest in helping to male provision for the new day that the expenditure will lm unquestionably jnstifialtlc. \\'ittter. 1Q-1-1 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Pa-e 29 In reviewing hack issues of Mountain Life and Work, one finds that mountain workers have been discussing for a long time, " \ ew 1)cntanls and New Fields." Frequently transitions have been necessary and time shows that the surviving insti The Consumptive Iv Iwn rs "t don't take notch stock in these here-lt'tuuedlicated doctors," said uncle Ed Robinson to his nephew as Doctor Cunningham rode by, while they were waiting at the mail box for the rural carrier. "An' after I tell _wnt nty reasons why, I'll jest leave it to you if 1 paint about right. "Now," continued uncle F.d, while his nephew, not knowing what lie was expected to say, prudently remained quiet, "'[here was Bill 5cluires, Ilarve's oldest boy, that married uncle Abner Holntes' second girl, Annie. Old I ever tell vuu about Bill's experience with them town doctors' .'%\'ell, 13111 was taken with a shell of cctughin'lemme see, that was two years ago this fall. I3i11 an' Annie an' the two lxtvs had jest finished liggin' the lxttaters. Bill fell to cuughin' an' like to a-never quit. I reckon maybe he'd cooled off too quick when he was all pet ill) an' took a little hit o' cold. 13i11's cough run on for two-three weeks, gittin' wuss all th' time till 1ill had to finally quit work an' sttv in. :lnttic tried to doctor 'im ill), give 'ins lame-set tea an' outer thinks that she kneweI about, an' done the lest that she knowed how. Rut, instead of (,ettin' better, as everybody expected he would, thinkin' it was nuthiu' but a cold, Bill got wÃ¢â‚¬Â¢uss, an' tlt' longer he went the harder he coughed. 13111 begins to get weak, an' his appetite was nerve too goad neither. :1n' cm account of havin' to cough set much he didn't 'pear to get enough sleclt. He ltegins to pine away. tu' after one of them shells of ccntghin' he was clean wore out. "Annie seen that Bill was gradually gittin' wuss an' wuss, an' so she sends over to Hacklebarnev fen- 0l1 Doctor blc(iinns. \\ ell. Doc come over that night about nine o'clock an' examined Bill. He looked at his tcntguc an' felt of his pulse aft' hcared tutions have been preserved because of a willingness to meet changed circumstances. This particular period now reveals some imperative adjustments and it is hoped that they may he discovered before the programs now being carried out are contltlct.ely exhausted. him cough an' asked several questions. Then he says, s 'c, 'I aint savin' kill's got consumption. but he shore has got syntlttnns of it.' "Now, to meuticm consumption to 13111 an' Annie was like hurtin' a ctle sore that hadn't hardly healed np vet. both of 13i11's uncles on his mother's side that was millers by trade died of millers' ccmsttntption, an' his aunt hizzi~ cm his father's side went with hasty consuntltim before she was scarcely twenty-two. So Annie an' bill both begin to think that Bill's clays was numbered. 1)ctc Mc( inns left 13111 sane physic nteiicine to take, an' give 'im scnnething for his cough, an' told 13111 to keels quiet, an' told Annie to let 'lm know in a clay m- two how 13111 was gettin' along. "Well. I )oc collie back two-three times to sec Dill, lust he couldn't seem to he'ls 'im none. "()lie evenin' when several of th' neighbors was in to see 13111, ill' th' wasn't many evenin's that they wasnt somebody there, for Bill was well liked in the community, :lnnic finished washin' the supper dishes an' ccnte its th' room, an' said that she was a-gain to send over to Martin's Cross Roads for that young city doctor that had hung out his shingle there that summer. Tibbs, his name was, an' come from some hi,- doctor school over at Baltimore. 'Annie said she had saw 'rot a few times, an' had Neared her aunt lieckie speak of 'im several times, an' from what aunt 13eckie said she didn't think much of him as a doctor. Stuck ill), an' thought he lcnuwed a right smart more than lie did, ail' wore Sunday- clothes every day in the week. Annie said she wasn't much in favor of havin' 'im, but said that if anything was to happen to Bill she'd always blame herself that she hadn't tried all sources of he'p, even if one was a young city doctor, Page 30 Mm s rvtN LIFE AND WORK Nk"inter, 1944 "So the neat day Annie sent one of the boys over in the buckboard au' fetched this new eldicated doctor over. Well, he was everything aunt Beckie said he was. Hair as slick as you please, an' combed straight back like a woman's, an' wearin' a suit of clothes right there in the middle of the week that T~11 pet never cult a cent less than twentyfive dollars. lie was real pleasant, though, Annie said. Asked a hundred questions about the `patient,' as he called fill]. \\'hen he was taken sick an' all about it an' had he ever had any `attacks' like this before. Then he opened up his leather case an' took out what Annie said looked like two gtnn tulles fastened together at one end, put one of these in each ear an' the ends that was fastened together he put down on Bill's naked chest. He told Bill to breathe in deep an' out main. 'Inhale' an' `exhale' he called it, an' moved this Contraption ever Bill's chest. "After while he says, s'e, 'The patient shows symptoms of tuberculosis.' Thent's his very words as Annie told me. Consumption, I reckon he meant. `An' I advise you to take him over to Hopernount to see the sanitarium doctor. I'll leave him something to relieve his cough. Give him plenty of milk to drink and fresh raw ergs to eat and don't let him worry any. Let me know how he gets along.' Well, Annie was for sendin' Bill over to Hulemount right off. But Aunt I3eckie wouldn't hear to it. She said like as not i f Bill went over to that sanitarium an' didn't have consumption he'd take it 'before he got away- from them that already had it. "About this time I come home from my other place in the upper end of the county where I'1 been most of the summer an' fall, an' hadn't saw Bill yet. Annie sends for me the minute I gets home, for she knowed my judgment was considered pretty good in case of sickness. I went right over as soon as I fell nty team an' et a bit of supper. "Bill was asleep on the lounge in the front room by the fire when I got there, so I went in the kitchen where Annie was loin' up the evenin' work. She tells me all about Dill's case from start to finish, an' ended up by sayin' that if Dill had to go over to the sanitarium her an' the children had jest as well get ready to go to the bore house. Then she breaks down an' begins to cry. "Pretty soon Bill has a had fit of coughin' and we went in, an' the ninute I looked at 13111 after I'1 heard 'i mcough, I sayd, s'I. 'He paint got no consumption, an' ,you can pet your loots on that. I've seen too many cases like him to doubt it. An' what's' more. I says. I got a remedy over hone that'll cure 'lm up.' ",Ã¢â‚¬Â¢\n' so. I sends one of Annie's boys over to my house, an' tells him to tell nutther to give 'im that quart Cream-ofKentucky-\\'hiskey bottle of medicine cm the upper right-hand shelf over the fire 1 tl ace. ",~nnie wants to know right away, if Bill hain't got consumption, what complaint has he get. 'It paint nothing lout a bad case of brown-kids,' I says, `an' I have cured up cases lots worse than him with my remedy.' Then Annie wants to know what my remedy is and how I makes it. "`\-ell, it paint no secret. ~\Iy grandmother learnt it to me, an' her mother learnt her, an' her mother's mother learnt it from her mother before she left the old country. An' here it is. Gather the hearts of nine mullin stalks. Do this in August, for if the September wind plows on it, a mullin stalk paint got no more strength than any other common weed. Cut up the nine mullin hearts and put 'em in a big keele, an' hour over 'cm nine quarts of rant water. The' paint no strength in well water nor spring water neither. Put in nine tablespoonfulls of brown sugar. Then cook the whole batch up together an' let it simmer for ninÃ‚Â° hours. Strain off, an' Mile it clown to about a quart. Some people puts wild cherry hark in the remedy, but I sticks to the receipt as my grandmother give it to me. Take a teaspoonful whenever yon get a shell of coughin,' or several times a clay. ""'ell, Bill begin to get better right away. Lentme see, that was before Thanksgivin', an' by groun'hog day Bill was clean well. Jest last night I seen Bill down at \'hess's store, an' ast him how his consumption was. Bill laughed an' said he b'lieve1 he was the healthiest consumptive in the whole state. "No, I can't put overly much-p'tuu stock in them eddicated doctors. There comes the mail carrier now. Dlr. Shaffer is a retired railway nreril clerk and cz rcÃ‚Â°yrrlar attendant (it The Ohportrmity School at Berea. NVltttt'r, 1944 MOUNTAIN L IEE AND WORK Page 31 Mountain Folk Festival The ninth annual Nlountain Folk Festival will he held at Berea College, Berea, Kentucky, April 14-15, 1944. The first meeting will take place in the Seabury Gymnasium on Friday, April 14, at 1 :30 p.m. Affiliation and Purposo-The Mountain Folk Festival by its membership in the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers is affiliated with the Country Dance Society. The Festival is to encourage the preservation of folk materialsongs, games, and dances-and to unite, for the fun of non-competitive recreation, groups throughout the Southern Highlands. Membership-The annual Festival membership fee is as follows: (a) Group membership ............. (b) Membership with an individual who is not associated with a group .. . ...... $1.00 Eligibility for election to the Festival Committee is liatited to leaders of member groups and to individual members. Also the privilege to vote at the business meeting is limited to members. No registration fee is payable by members. Rcgistratiott-Groups and individuals who do not hold a membership in the Festival may not vote in the annual business meeting, and are not eligible for election to the Festival Committee, but may participate in all other activities upon payment of a registration fee as follows: Group registration $2.00 Individual registration 1.00 Folk Gnruc.r-English and Danish, as well as American singing games and dances, with its have come to be a tradition. The "Open Evening" has become a major folk dance event in the South. Dramatics-At former festivals we have had ballads dramatized and folk plays presented. Such plays not only enrich the program at the Folk Festival, but make a valuable contribution to the dramatic material on hand for use in mountain schools and communities. Plays may he original or otherwise. It is suggested that groups selecting nonoriginal plays to present should submit their choice to Mrs. Raymond McLain. 509 West 122nd Street, New York City. P2tppetrv-At the 1943 Festival a good be ginning was made with puppetry. Ballads and folk tales are most suitable material for puppet plays. It is hoped that a number of groups will present puppet plays. Those who are intending to do so should write about their plans to Mrs. Leila E. Smith, Chairman of Puppetry, Box 494, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. lllusic-Persons who have some skill in playing records or other musical instruments are requested to bring their instruments to the Festival. Miss Gertrude Cheney of Berea College will give particular attention to the use of shepherd's pipes and recorders. Groups are asked to bring interesting versions of carols and ballads. Miss Marie Marvel, of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, may pre consulted on musical questions. The 1943 festival illustrated the great value of our musical program. Social Room-At the 1941 Festival a social room will again be provided for rest, conversation, and quiet games. Inrporatyit Notes for Leaders-(a) Groups that have songs, singing games, or folk dances which they consider would interest the Festival should make this fact known. Opportunities for such groups to present these special numbers will gladly be provided at the various sessions. (b) The leaders are asked to see that their groups participate only in the dances with which they arc familiar. .Icrortrrrtndntiort and Cost-Boone Tavern and Tourist Homes will furnish comfortable rooms. Minimum rates: Boone Tavern, $1.00 ; 'tourist homes, 75 cents. Berea College will provide meals at $1.35 per day. The first meal will be lunch, Friday, April 14, at 12:30 p.m. The. last meal will be breakfast on Sunday, April 16. Dress-At recent Folk festivals an increasing number of groups have adopted a particular color for their girls' dresses. Would centers that expect to do this for the first time in 1944 please write to Mrs. George Ridstrul, Brasstown, North Carolina, (Chairman of the Program Committee) before definitely choosing a color, in order that new colors may fit into the general color scheme? In any case no new group should choose blue; nor should an Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND \-Voxt; \\ inter. 1')-1-1 old group change to blue, as that color is already sufficiently in evidence. If possible rubber-soled shoes should be worn. The girls will wear cotton dresses with full skirts; lovs should wear white shirts. :also each boy should bring a pair of white docks for the "Open Evening". Girls are encouraged to wear their festival dresses at the Country Dance Party, which will he held oil Friday night. April 1-I. Folk l)crnces and Siuyinrj GenroÃ¢â‚¬Â¢s-In recent festivals it has been found increasingly difficult for leaders to secure all the books and victrola records. This has peen clue chiefly to two causes (a) The war stopping importation from England. (b) Expense involved, clue to wide range of hoops from which the selection has keen made. However, it has in actual esleri.ence peen found that attendance at the Short Course or the Christmas Country Dance School largely solves fur leaders the problem of materials. Full information, if desired, may 1e obtained as to sources, etc., front Frank .H. Smith. Box -19-4. Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. The great and powerful writer Joseph Conrad once said DIy task which I am trying to achieve is, by the power of the written word, to make you hear, to make vent feel-it is, above all, to make you sec. That and no more, and that is everything. Jesse Stuart's new novel, TAPS FOR PRIVATE TUSSIE, is unquestionably a great achievement. It makes you hear; it make you feel; and, above all, it certainly does make you sre. Some of the thing; it males _mnt sec, however, are not too pleasant to look at. I~ or the benefit of any who may he shocked by this book's honesty, I shall quote two statements made by the author Lew Sarett at the end of a lecture, given a few years ago at Berea College, on the subject of regional literature. Mr. Sarett was asked what he thought of Jesse Stuart. "I think Jesse Stuart is sitting on a gold mine of material," Mr. Sarett said. Then a lady asked whether the speaker did trot think that Mr. Stuart falsified his material, and 11r. Sarett answered : "`\-hen you have your picture made, you want the photographer to take the warts off. Jesse Stuart does not take the warts off." TAPS FOR I'RI\-A'1'F TC:SSII, deals with a family of Tussics-better known to their neighbors as the "relief" 'Pussies, whit, at the lteginning of the story, are living in a country school house and eating government fcuul. Then Grandpa Tussle's son, Soldier Kim Tussle, is kill,el in action and his body shipped back to the hills, where it is burled high of a lonely ridgetop, beneath the colors of the flag. Vittie. Kim's widow, receives ten thousand dollars of insurance, which comes to lie referred to l)v various members of the family as the "Kim money." They begin making plans immediately for spending it. It means we can rent a house and 1av our rent." (irandlrt said. "It means we can have new house pluunhcr too," Grandma said. "And it means we don't haf to eat relief grub no longer," Uncle Mott said. "And we can vote any ticket we want to." Grandpa said. "B-gad, I's anus a Republican until this relief thing come along. It looked like too good a thing to pass u13." So, the Tussies rent a sixteen-room "mansion" and furnish it completely. They troy outfits of fine clothes and plenty of good food and begin living like folks. But they are nut alone in the "mansion" fur long. The other Tussles know a good thin when they hear about it. Family by fainfly they come to "visit," until the pig house is packed with forty-six Tttssies. The men are mostly like "Bert Tussle, who amid kill a beef with his fist but had never done a clay's work in his life." %'\ ith abundance of food and whiskey, they proceed to "raise whonpee." "'I~als" fen- Private Tussie must he the tapping of their feet on the hardwood floors, till all the varnish is danced off. They knock out the windows and burn the shade trees. Grandpa and Grandma try to get these relatives out, but they will not go. However, when th:~ "Kim money is almost all gone, the owner of the house and the sheriff chase them all out together. The relatives all go their own separate ways-all except Uncle Winter, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 33 George, Grandpa's much married brother of many wanderings (a sort of mountaineer Odysseus). He is in love with pretty little Vittie, much to the disappointment of Mott, who is in love with her too. As night settles over the gray hills, the Tussies trudge beneath their weary loads in a sort of exodus from the "mansion" to the shack, which Vittie and Grandpa have bought with the last of the "Kim money." The next morning, when daylight comes, Grandpa with much pride of ownership goes out to look at his property, and young Sid, who tells the story, reports as follows Grandpa stooped over and lifted a handful of the rot-leaf loam from the ground, looked at it with his soft blue eyes, played with it in his hand . . . "It's wonderful to know that this land is mine," Grandpa said. "It's the first time in my life I've ever had a deed for land. I raised Kim, and Vittie married 'im. Now he's dead and for his death Vittie bought this land with the last of her money and give it to me. I'm a proud man to own land!" I thought I could see a light a-comin' from Grandpa's face as he spoke of ownin' land . . . I know that he was happier than I had ever seen him. "I need me a plug mule," Grandpa said, "and a little clearin'. I'd try farmin' in my old days. I'd farm corn and terbacker." We wish that Grandpa and the other Tussies had exercised this kind of judgment earlier in life, for we recognize the tragedy of Grandpa's coming to a good conclusion too late. I shall not deprive the reader of his exciting enjoyment of this boot; by telling what happens from here on. Suffice to say that, with the "Kim money" all gone and government aid taken from the family, the Tussies face a desperate struggle with the cold, hungry winter, as well as with each other, as the story rises to a high and bitter climax. TAPS FOR PRIVATE TUSSIE is not based upon any mere shell of pecularities of a region, as too many novels are. The author, through living with these people all his life and through much experience of writing about them, has come to a thorough understanding of them. Consequently, this last (and best) of his writing is neither bitter nor sentimental. It is wholesome good humor combined with tragedy. When I try to think of some piece of writing with which to compare Mr. Stuart's novel, one book and one only comes to mind. That is Chaucer's CANTERBURY TALES. The Tussies have much in common with Chaucer's Miller, Reeve, Pardoner, and Wife of Bath. This similarity is only natural when we realize that the Anglo-Saxons of which Chaucer wrote were the ancestors of those pioneers which settled the Appalachian region. The stock is still preserved in an almost pure strain. Many of the people, both in their ways of living and in their manner of speech, have about them a certain Chaucerian flavor. To be sure, not all the inhabitants of the region are like the Tussies. Neither were all Englanders of Chaucer's time like the Canterbury pilgrims. Furthermore, Jesse Stuart's attitude toward his characters is very much like Chaucer's attitude toward his. Chaucer observed the fundamentals of human nature and recorded them truthfully yet understandingly. He showed the roses among the thorns, and he showed the thorns also. It is to Jesse Stuart's high credit that his writing, too, like Chaucer's, reveals an attitude of both honesty and sympathy; that his characters have that human quality of being both gentle and harsh. All in all, TAPS FOR PRIVATE TUSSIE is a powerful book vividly written-probably the greatest piece of writing that has yet come out of the mountain region of the South. The significance of its content and the artistic quality of its presentation are partly testified by the facts that this book, even before publication, was acclaimed the winner of the Thomas Jefferson Southern Award for 1943 and was also chosen by the Book-of-theMonth Club as their selection for December. All who enjoy a good story will read Jessse Stuart's TAPS FOR PRIVATE TUSSIE. For those who are at all interested in the people of Appalachian America it is a "must" book. LANDRUM BOWLING Annual Meeting of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, ASHEVILLE, N. C., MARCH 7-9, 1944 Official Headquarters-Hotel Vanderbilt Tuesday, March 7th: The Program 11 :00 A.M.-Meeting of Conference Board. 3:00 P.M.-Meeting of Each Conference Committee. (Members call at Headquarters to be notified of place). 7:30 P.M.-President's Address, by Victor Obenhaus, Dr. Herman N. Morse presiding. 8:30 P.M.-Social Hour with Folk Songs and Games led by Miss Marie Marvel and Mr. John Connet. Wednesday, March 8th: 9:00 A.M.-Devotions. 9:30 A.M.-Report of the Committee on Future Program; Discussion. 10:30 A.M.-Business Meeting: Report of Executive Secretary. Report of Committee on Finance. Election of Officers. General Business. 1:30 P.M.-Symposium and Panel Discussion on "The Economic Basis for Better Living in the Mountains." Dr. Alva W. Taylor, Director. Participants Dr. Richard E. McArdle, Chief Forrester for the Appalachians. Dr. Carl C. Taylor, Chief of the Division of Rural Life and Population, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Dr. Paul Vogt, Senior Social Scientist, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Dr. James G. K. McClure, Founder and President of the Farmer's Cooperative Federation of Asheville. Mr. Howard P. Emerson, Representing the T. V. A. Mr. F. O. Clark, Chairman of the Conference Committee on Agriculture and U. S. Farm Advisor for Campbell County, Tennessee. 5:30 P.M.-Annual Dinner, S. & W. Cafeteria. Hon. J. Melville Broughton, Governor of North Carolina, speaker. Social Hour, Folk Songs and Games. Thursday, March 9th 9:00 A.M.-Reports of Committees on Religion, Health, Education, Recreation and Adult Cooperative Education, with discussion by members and from the floor. Meetings of: Regional Com. of the Home Mission Council Tuesday noon. Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, March 9th, 2 P.M.