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Mountain Life & Work vol. 20 no. 4 Autumn, 1944 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv20n41044 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 20 no. 4 Autumn, 1944 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Autumn, 1944 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK A Special Thanksgiving Issue Celebrating Our "Future Program" 1. Education 7rcrt Combines C'trltnrcÃ‚Â° and 1 ~occrtioncrl Trcriniuy. 2. Flu Economic Basis for R~Ifr'r Liz~ing in The Southern Ilidhlcrud,i. VOLUME XX AUTUMN, 1944 NUMBER 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ORGAN OF THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS IS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, IN THE INTEREST OF FELLOWSHIP AND MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE REST OF THE NATION Editor ..................... Olive D. Campbell . Alva W. Taylor Contributing Editors Frank C. Poster Harshall E. Vaughn Orrin L. Keener Eugene SrrtatJtcrs SIGNED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION NOR DO THEY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE CONFERENCE. IN THIS ISSUE For Mountain Schools; Culture Plus Vocational Training ....................... A Mountain School in the Life of a Community, Frank D. Alexander, Ph. D.. .... Education Through Health Instruction, Dr. John O. Gross............. Good Neighbors, Orrin L. Keener............................................ A Cooperative Educational Enterprise, Charles C. Graham..................... Lulu School; Leader of Community Progress, J. E. Jones............ Poems by Bernice T. Hiser and Graziella Magio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Training for Rural Ministers, Vladitnir E. Hartman ............................ A Minister's and Church Worker's Rural Seminar and Work Camp, Bernard M. Taylor....................................................... Social Evangelism, Alva W. Taylor........................................... The Physicians' Forum cn Medical Care ....................................... Mountain Farms; Incomes Before the War .................................... Three Cooperative Programs .................................................. A Model Mountain Mission ................................................... Lots Creels Community School, Frances Grover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Migration and Farm Population Changes in the Southern Highlands . . . . . . . . . . . . Freedom From Want: A Spiritual Problem, Howard P. Emerson................ Vocational Agriculture in the Southern Highlands, Feaster Wolford . . . . .. .. .. .. .. Why the Pentecostal Sects Grow, A. J. Walton ................................ Strange Notions, Don West ................................................... Teacher Wanted, Many Armstrong ............................................ Editorial Notes .............................................................. A Century of Cooperation, J. B. Warbasse, M.D................................ Religion in a Democracy, Children's Bureau .................................... For Mountain Ministers and a Coop-Study Club ................................ Peace Time Compulsory Military Training, Orrin L. Keener..................... AMONG THE BOOKS Medicine and Human Welfare, Henry R. Sigerest, M.D................... The Christ of the American Road, Stanley E. Jones...................... Flickering Light, Charles T. Morgan ................................... Buy An Acre, Paul Corey .. .......... Zero Storage in Ycur Home, Boyden Sparks .............................. Freedom Road, Howard Fast ................. Swing the Big Eyed Rabbit, John P. McCoy....... The People's ~ Year Book ......................... For Missionary Education ............................ Pamphlets ................................................... Coming Events fen Mountain Workers ......................... Catholic Co-operative Action .................................. Lincoln's War Thanksgiving Proclamation ...................... The President's Bill of Rights ................................. Hindman Recreation Center ................................... 8 10 12 14 16 17 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 34 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 40 49 50 50 51 51 53 54 56 57 57 58 SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 87.00 PER YEAR, 30 CENTS PER COPY. ISSUED SPRING, SUMMER, FALL, WINTER Entered as second class mutter at the P. 0. in Nashville, Tenn., Jlay 30, 1942, under the act of 'March 3, 1879 MOUNTAIN LIFE ANTI WORK .\ ( .' T L' A I \ , 1944 ;\LWIRFR 4 For Mountain Schools; Culture Plus Vocational Training Tills lsstle Of Nlul'V'1':11\ 1.11Ã¢â‚¬Â¢1: .1N1 WORN IS (lewltcI lar-1h, tol the educational qnestinn. ( )ne of the two ntajur items in the eslansicm llrugrant of the Council of `)otitlierii Vlonntaitl Workers is that of coordinating the In-uoratns Of ntunntain schmols toward a correlaticnt of culture with vocaticntal training. :\ training of the mind without character lntilin, may result in a keelier minded exlluiltter of his fellow nten. A training of the ntincl without training the hand stay- result in an educated person without ability to earn his llread and llntter. ( )nr nutnntain people need above all to know how to llettcr earn their llread and lmttÃ‚Â°r. Thnnte~h vÃ‚Â°ucatimtal training, part at least Of the Second major llruject of the exransiun prcyram. .l binlor/y /iolrl trip; llrcy .ctudo tltc kiud fnuucf ill, tlroir oavt jicÃ‚Â°Ids. that of an economic base for 1letter living in the nuutntains is tattaht. :Most of Our mountain schools operate cm this 1rcyram. \\'e use illustrations from Warren \\-ilsun j uniur cullese because this kind Of a program is so adequately implemented and carried out there, with 680 acres of land, shops, schools, t chapel, and dormitories. The students "earn as they learn :" culture and sound education is coupled with vucatiunal training and religiutts illstrnctiun. rhhev discuss any 1-olll.em of interest, learn how to ex press themselves, to cooperate, to practice citizen ship and, nut least but hv far-that work with the hands is honorable and that hottest labor is as cli'-nifed as any white Collar job. .4 n ctr/itacmr iy oonstrarclion n~cIC; prac ti.callY all building is don, bY students. MOUNTAIN LtrE AND `'Voxtc 1lntnnm, 1944 u1: 11111 uu 1m u111u ~m11m 111e ~m 111111 11111111111 1111111ill: uu~.,1111; uu 1i Full rlor"in" q thcY earn as they Icarra, I:vcu Small %crrrncÃ‚Â°rs cent afford a ircrctor through coohoratimt. ur i Hill i, 11uu uu 1111: 1111 Ill !!li ill! !ill, iIIII, ill :11111:111111! ".\ hmol cit;rctt shcnld have the ;tlrilitv to work, the cltlturtttnitv to work. a tul the persmial qualities which cttalclc hint to participate ill. coutributc to, help intltrm-e, and cujcm the activities of life." ":\11 education shmnl1 hC nsalt'c . . . 1?lttcatiun shuttlcl teach people how to 1c, to du, and to live . . . \launal and emuticntal, as well as intcllcctttal develolmtcnt shnuld lave a place in the training ltru~ram . . . lulucatimt slumlcl teach people ll()W to d() -.that is, lmvv to work. It sluntl1 lrrm-ide the trainitt~ aft inliviclttal needs Hi order l be able to earn hi: living . . . There i, now, and cltu-in~ the postwar 1crio;l there will lie, iii-ent ttcc1 foi- notch nxn-a oltlontttnitv fen- education which prepares me ,ltccilicallv ten- carnin) a livitt~.'~ "-I~he lccttn-c-testlmch-mettturizing tvlre of learuin, does not actor in any life cxperiellce except ill the school. Teachers at all levels w-uulcl do w-cll too ltcccntte funiliar with, a tul utilize, the ntetluols 1v IlaracÃ‚Â°sl in y SOY bcalls: of crop that frrtilit~cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢.v soil (is they pno_ d tt 'c. i uuruuu mu uuuuuurum~ Ium uuu i 111,11111, u 1uu1mu1uu11 IumWuumI, muu uuur uur.m which people learn outside of school. Much i1111-uvemcnt is needed in the atmosphere of formal teachin,-. 1etnucracy must obtain in teacher-hulil rclatiu ttahils as well as in the teacher-administrative a tul teacher-aulter~-isor~ relatiunshilts in a school." DR. JOHN (lt-t I"ovcr.rrrs, I)ircclor o% tire C-omroittco oil F.ducationcrl I'laaning of the, ('tritcd State's ()f P*cc of Ed trc 0i011 "I thank (mul w-e have no free schools nor printing. And I hope we shall nut have these hun dred years. For learnin;~ has Iwoulght disobedience and heresy and sects into the World : and printing ha, divttlLIel them and lihels against the guvernntent. (iod keep us frcnn both." --The (luvcrnr of \-irl(,ittia in 1t71. .-"tututntt, IQ-1-1 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Pale 3 A Mountain School Is The Life O f A Community l~tz.wtc I. At.o:v.\sm.:n, I'h.h. P r. _IlcÃ‚Â°.rcrudrr accr.s our' of 1-cÃ‚Â° rdilor'.r star .strnlcÃ‚Â°ut.s of I -crudorhill ( nivc'r.rify. Ilc "01.r /nr-soma burr oil tho staff of I'. I -. ,-I. crud is au~.a rc-srarc-h shccicrlist for //to, Piz~isiou of l6 cal hilt crud I'ohulnliou o% tho ( . S. I)rhcrriurcwl of ,-Ictric-ulturcÃ‚Â°. The Kalutt Gap-\acuoohec School is located in the middle of the richest farntin, cmntmunitv of lvabun County. (leut;gia. Its history is intimately assctciatcI with that of Hie vtllev ill whose midst it has L:velelteI. A real ttnderstamling) Of the cuntmunitv is possible only in ill(' ligllt of tile history Of the school. ( ht the other hall(], any attempt to dive effective direction to the future role of the School in the life of the ccnnntuttity must be lased on a thorough unL""rstanlin- of the culture of its 1eu1le. Since the ltrinciltal ulject here is to indicate broadly some of the altlwuaches whereby a nututtttin school, such as lsalrun (:alt-Naccxtclmc, may influence constructively- the life of the intntediatÃ‚Â° cunununitv ill which it is located, a brief descriltiun of the culture of the valley crnnmunitv will be presented. Against this lwcl;("rntnd a short sketch of the history of the Ivalnui (',ap-\acuoeloÃ‚Â°e School. particularly as that lviaturv lets intlingcl oil the life of the ccnntnuttity will be liven. Then in the light Of this history and the basic culture of the Coll tntuttity, some sug I~)estiun; as to the school's future role is ill(, life of the community will toe made, without any intetttiun Of assutnin the policy (m-mio", role fur a specific school trot rather to show by esatnlle an altlrrnach to the ltrullems Of education ainon- mountain people. -roc: wo:ruut: or THE contntt-NnTr The \',tile v ('ommunitv is located in the nutuntains of northeast Georgia. The Little Tenne,s.~c River has its ur"itt On the illoillitaill slopes that border the collillitillitv. The soil oil the floor Of tile -alley is black mid rich. (ht the low foothills Of the nmuntains and the tipper levels of the coves the soil is a sandy clay which, while (Mai cultivated, is luo-lv alaltte1 to agriculture. Farmin is predominantly self-sufficient, tlthmg)h within recent years truth farnting) has ittcrcascl. The cuntnnntitv has a well-clefine1 status in the ~ounty. I'eultlc living ill the Vallev are ntacle aware of lrelongitt,(" to this locality group lw the definitions of those who live outside the area. Tltrontt gh c;ut the county TlnÃ‚Â° I ~ulleÃ‚Â°y is a commonly used place name. (I-he name Carries with it certain well-latcmn characteristics. It is -enerallv recognized as having, the heat farm la ttd in the county. Its citizens are proud of their moral reltutatim,' for unlike several Coll nnunitica alom- the ntaitt hi-hwav, there arc nn joint',"' or roadhouses. and "Illoollshille" and ltootle'-gity activities are less hrontittent than they am in scone other ccnnntunitics ;It We county. The ltolulatiun is tnarh:~dly hcnugo-euecnts and ,tattle. Only crate Negro family lines there. Kinshil ties are nuu1erous. :'\lntust two-thirds of the families are owners. NfanY of the families hayÃ‚Â°c always lived in the cumntnnitv. Lat,-e numbers of both hualrands and wives were lturtt there. The owner families have a strmg) tttachntent to the land. ()rigittallv, larhe tracts were held by each ttWn.er, but these tracts have heal sttlolivÃ‚Â°idecl asain and chain tlucnyh inherita tree until now the inc(liau number of acres owned bv taint owners i; 48.8. It is comttncntly reported that land values are inflated lcecause of the tÃ‚Â°nacitv with which descendants clingy to their inherited plots. Indeed, a major 1 ulrlent which the ccnnmnnitv faces is the pressure Of lmltulaticm cm soil reantrces. In 1943 for v sample of ll-1 farm families the avÃ‚Â°era;~e nutnlrer Of crop act:,.'s per person was 3.'l, whereas for tile State of (~en-_ via the average %\-as 0.5 acres and for the date Of Kansas 09.5 acres. ('lass cleavages art' mot distinct mid tlrlcar to have no great si-ttificance. There are two (Yroutlts of families in the cutnmuttitv which arc defined as different irutn the stain ltcrdv of lWolie. f )ne ccmsists of several poor fantili:Ã‚Â°s rear the cmntnunitv center ovh()se heads work at odd jobs err as section laborers cot the railroad; the othÃ¢â‚¬Â¢:r group includes several lov,-inccnne, backward fanttlies who live far up the rove and faint the tnuutttaitt slul~es. In rulditicnt, there is snne clcavÃ‚Â°aege ltcÃ‚Â°tween the natives of the iallc amt the people cunuectcI with the IvaItun Gap-\acmrchee ~ScluoI amt farm. In matters of leadership the natives scmtetimes regard the MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK teachers with jealousy. Tenants on the school farm are accepted in the churches and are given lealershilt positions; nevertheless, there is a gal n social interaction between them anti the natives. The educational level of husbands anti wives is sufficiently low to preclude any great divergence in thought or behavior. The occupational situaticm also contributes to homogeneity, fur almost fourfifths of tln,- families are engaged in farthing. Some forty years ago, the valley was an isolated community. Today, it has fairly adequate transportation by both rail and highway. Although the extreme isolation of former clays has been broken down, many, families are still isolated. Less than half of the families have a car or truck. -.\fail\, do not take either a magazine or newspaper. Telephones are relatively, scarce: anti over one-fourth of the families have nn radio. :1n outstanding feature of the community's culture is the informal manner in which people work together ()li community enterprises. ()r-anizatiolial structures arc difficult to maintain and in enterprises involving the entire commttnitv ate either ignored or never developed. Nliuisters find it difficult to organize or maintain organizations in the churches. f tt the last, community leathers have attempted several community-wilÃ‚Â° organizations ; these have flourished for a time but finally became difficult hi maintain and then disintegrated. In a conmtuuitv which is as unorgutize1 as the valley, the family-easily becomes th.e most significant social group. 1_imited observation indicated the presence of strtmg funilv ties anti cheep affecticm anumg members. There can 1c no doubt that the emoticmtllv significant experiences of the 1euItle center in the family hrottlt. \lattv of these families have low standards of living, and both mothers and fathers arc poorly trained to direct their households with the result that the health, recreational. .elucatimtal, anti aesthetic levels of the fanr ilv gr0ntlt are often very low. ( )n the whole the families are fairly large; and, since it is from these lame families that the future til-ban population of the nation may be a xpectecl to 1," drawn, it is important that their children should 1e properly prepared for transition to an urbanized environment. The organized religious life of the community finds expression in six cliffÃ‚Â°rent ccmgregatiuns or five seltaratelv organized church groups; one is a Autumn, 1~~~#, neighhorhootl church, the membership of which is in a parent church at the community center. Three of the congregations are Baptist, two Presim-t."'riall, and one 1\lethutlist. Jlemlership in the Ilaltist gruult is lat-"est, followed lty the :\letholist; the I'resltvterian membership is very small. \\'hile the cltnrch~s co-operate in scene activities, their relaticntships are not entirely amicable. The I'reshvterian Church which did nut make its appearance until 1928 is still considered an intruder. The refusal of the Baptist Church to accept a plan fur one community church building continues to be ren~t-nr 1eretl. The breaking by the AIethotlist Church of the noncompetitive preaching service agreement made when a program for building two cw church buildings was begun continues to rankle. Church life fen- many of the people is still the preaching service with very little awareness that the church is a social organizatitnt. \\ bile the religion of the people is not ettremel_v emotional, they have deep-rooted convictions that "right will prevail." and that happiness, and to some extent, health' ;ill(] a good living are the result of Christian living,. brief delineation of th. people's value system would be as follows: Their most significant value is the strong sentimental attachment which characterizes families, Closely associated with this value is a deep love fen- the land. This love ,f the land is closely related to the strung fancily attachments that prevail because a number of the present owners came into the possession of their land through inheritance. A frequently dormant but nevertheless basic value tot many of the Valley, people is a sense of pride in the \'all",_v conununityan attitude which has developed to a coil sileralle degree because of outside recognition of the better farming oplxn-tuttities which the rich: soil of the \'allev In-ovitles in ccmtrtst to the scarcity mf such. Soil in other (tarts of the county. .`\ fundamental lumest_v anti frankness is to he observed on all hands, and those who have known the people for some time say they lefiuitelv cherish their reputed ltcmestv. Industry is another virtue. N\'hile it is not as olviouslv cherished as are other values, the deep regard which the people show for those who work together with the almost total absence of any tlislain fmwork, even 1v the letter-to-chi familie ~ comiirms the ct-rectness of listing inlustrv anom the people's values. The fact that most of the ltem A tit LI] III 1, 11)44 Itlc have a basic rcsltect for the church suggests that it syntlolizes a whole complex of behavior and beliefs which give nlcuting to life. While not all of the pcoll.e have come to accept in Practice a contltlcte faith Ill the efficacy of educatiutt, for most of them the usual American acceptance of this value prevails. '1-ItH: KAlil'V G.\!'-V.ICUUCIIh:G SCIIUUI. I1\ THE LlFl? or THE cow(twlro The Ivaltott (ialt-\amutch ce Schctol was first known as the halton (salt Srhml, and its founder was Andrew Isitchie, t native ctf the \-alley ccmtntunity and Ivalon county's first college graduate. When ()lie reviews the school's history he realizes the many ltrollems which its founder. for many years its head, must have face-l. ( )nlv a native who could understand the culture of his ntuuntain neigltlmrs wind have sucrcssfolly ltui't a sclxml sorb as the Ivalntn (alt\acmochee has become. 11r. Ritchie was still tolatcd to undertake the tall: ctf building a sclttml for his ltcmltlc ltv .\1 r. \\Ã¢â‚¬Â¢. :\. Curtis, wltm carte to the \-alley in 18%? and the following year orsanized a sell()()]. 11r. Ivitchi"_ utetule1 this sch mol. It was cstaltlisltel utuler the plan of t wÃ¢â‚¬Â¢mrl: sclutctl with 100 acres of land nn which students alight work and support themselves while ill acluml. The Ivalttn (;,it) school was established in 1903 as a cuntltined c'cntetttary and Iti,glt srhutl mltera tcd under tlot~ public school system attd solltcn-ted bv lmltlic futuls anti ln-ivate cUntatitnts. It was W accttntmtdate lmtlt clay and ltcru-lin" students, and a farm wts W he mlteratccl wherelw ltctarlittg stt~le(ts nti"'ht cant their living while in school. The tarts w mull also be utilized foi- teaching scientific agriculture. The founder smugltt to ittte'rate leis scluml with the ctnntnuttitv atII to that cncl tic drew oft a cttvc nant with the 1cttltle Of the \'allcy to ltrtvile fm the itttltruvcntent of lntltlic cducatiem and the 1uild ittg ctf a high sclutul ill cemjtmctimtt with the ctntt nunt schcml system. It was Nir. desire to entlhasize vocational edttcatitm. 1ot he stet with re sistance from local people who desired to have greater attention given to literary subjects. Fttr thermore, the daily schedule oC the Iuardin;; ltultils who were expected to work a half clay and attend school a halt clay conflicted with the cuamnnarv daily- routine of local, nunloarling pupils. Within a few years the elementary grades were withdrawn and a comntttnity school was estaltlisheI at the cnntmuttity's center. This school ultimately was cctnsolilatc1 with four former neighltrhood schocIs. The Ivalnul (,at) school now became the Rahtin (alt Industrial sclutol. It was ulcratel as t Courvcar high school receiving students frnn both the community and outside of it. The latter wtn-c boarded at the school. 1)tn-ing World \\',It- I, haltutt (salt lust nttutv of its stotlettts with the result that the nomller of Uller ltovs was Inadequate to carry ()li the school's farm opera tint. \t that time, too), the prices paid for farm products were high and it was gcuul ltusincss to keep every tillable acre of the farm under cultivatiun. SO it came altuut that whole families were brought in. Some residences already existed : (tiers have been built over the years. Frcttn this scmtcwhat oltlmrtunistic trigin a faint family ltlatt has Iw,elmltel. In 1943, there were 1% families lucatel tm the srhttl ltrctlterty. liesiles a central iantt for Ittvs and girls, the school has around it a circle of 1.?00 awes divided into separate farms tut w-ltich wh mlc Cunilics arc alnlitted ill rotat:ml for feints litttiteI to five year s.* :\lthmugh ttntilics ntav rcntain on the sclutttl Carat for lterimls mf five years, rental ctntracts are renewed tacit year. \\ hen a lantilv altllies for uhnissicnt and is accepted and assigned a farm, the 1n-ents, as well as the children. undertake to carry trat a prescribed 1'.an of farmittg and a course of training as lntlti'.s of the srlxttl. Mach tantilv is givctt its mwn separate lutunlarv attd rcIttired t t operate it as a nutdel farts. :\ llttse allot ltar tt, a garden. cute acre for trail: latch, pasture ftr twm milk COWS, and firewood for fit' l are tllowccl to each lantily free tf rent. Fartn fatnilic, am cxlmctetl to Cornish lalutr to the schuml at rtta(mtarv waegcs when LILA cttgagcd in work cut their mw-n tract,. '1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢hc rules of divilittg crtls in ltauntcttt W rents arc similar to those ltctweett lvul-uwttcr and tenant in the surrctonling cunuttuttity : rctttal ten- Imttcntt latul is one-half of the crctl, for ultlalxl utte-third. The family must furnish its owl) workstucl: allot farming tools. Ileavv farm urtcltittcr-y is Cuntished bY the scluol mn a -cu-ulcerative basis. \linur repair s to ltuillin;;s, dates, fences, allot I-OadS must be dente Itv the fancily. Larger repair, and iml-uvements are Icme 1y the school. Mach family is expected to keel) a farm accctont lxtok. Ill 1928 hahttn (nap was ttnite1 with the \ a Pa-e G , NIoUh2wh LIFE AND 'WORK Autumn, 1944 crxtchce I",tit"te, a "tuutttaitt school sullmrtctl lw the ~utttlo~rn I'rcslmtcria ti Ohurch. -1-ha ill tiun ca"tc as the result of losses lw_ fire of the main lntilclin"'s of each school two years lmfmre. The co"tlri"cl ittstitutim" Was called the Ivalt"n ( ;ap-\acouchce School. The tint 1-ear of jt"timr colleoc work was added (luring, the 103-3h scssicnt. The fmllm-in, year a serrmcl year wa added nrthity the i"stitutirnt a juttinr collcfe. lonmwrl_v there were four hi,-Il school "rule; in the schcnl. \t the present time onlv the senior high ,choral ( "rales 10 and 11 ) is there and it is under the supervision of the principal of tile cnnm""ity -school. The junior high school (.grades 8 and c) ) is ltous.Ã‚Â°d in the ecminnmitv school. ,\s has lme" true for years, the relationship betweell tile cant"tu"itv school (lt"lrlic) a"d lsaltutt Cap-\acoucltee ccmti"ue; to he very close. Teacher, are cxchan-e1 and "w"v activities and interests of the two sclumls interlock. \\ ith the a"irnt of the two schools a ltrmltlctn ml the religious status of the school was precipitated. IZalmtt l ;al) had ltecn a se"ti-It"1lic, "unscctarian i"stit"tirnt. When the faculty of the N;tcrxtchee I"stit"tc c"ne to Isalun Gal), tlocv_ i":"tcdiatelv orOutizecl ;t I'rcslmueria n ('hunch cunsistin'(' of the teachers and students who v-erc I'mslwteria". 'they mr()attizerl ill the school chapel alld be-all to hold services there. \\ heft the cu"ntt"nitv learned of thin, there was ccmsiIcrallc resentment. It was ltrcdrmtittanlly I'lapti;t with a small Methodist mitturity. TlxÃ¢â‚¬Â¢sc grr,ttlos were willing for the IZaln"t (;al) School t~ Ira "rmsectaria" It"t "mt to have a new rlcnrnninatirnt crnnc in utd talc men a school which was looked "lont as all Institution in which the ccnnnt"ttitv had lefittitc right." since mates of tile orlittal cmtrilnttmrs had 1cctt local citizen; and a lcsi(,nrtterl "utttlmr of trustees Nvem still chosen from the crnnnntniW_ . Some had allcadv- shown their clis1lcas"rc over the clishlacenumn of former re'sidelits tl1rou"lt the School's, purchase of iart" site, and the resultittO mmwment of people frrnto the viri"itv of the Methodist Church. -I-he Ivalnt" (alt ce"te-r at rntc tittle :C(tnccl destittcd to become the VallcY*S Ã¢â‚¬Â¢~~rvice renter, but the fuu"dcr states that he dclinitelv attempted to cli,crtural,)e this develolnnent since it would mean that his school would 1e located i" what nti"'ht ultimately become a villa,,e ur ruv-tl. ? ) TIr,, the oa. The fuunler of the Isaltun (alt School felt that the oew issue created by the 1'reslwteria"s ccnlincl with the existing resentment toward the school rcluired attention. :\ccurcli"hlv, he t"d the former head of Nacoxtcltee Institute (ttwe co-head of the Ivalnut ( alt-\acuochce school ) adva"c;ol the idea of having a crnttnn"titv church huildity to he used lw all of the church es ICCoi-(Illl(, to ;crate scheduled arran1)entettt. It the three clctumtittatimtal "ruups would agree. Mr. Ritchie wars willin;'1 to assist in raisin') ftt"ls from wcaltltv dntur s outside the cmt"ttu1itv. -I-he Methodist a ttd I'reslwtcria" ~roul~s were willing lilt the Baptists refused to cooperate. l1tintatclv two new churches were built: the blethctdists and I'rcalwtÃ‚Â°ria"s decided to have a common lntildin;~ and the Jl~alttists )tega tt a structure of their ow-". Mr. Ivitchie undertook to raise "tony for lutth )ntildity: hv ,olicitin, fu"ds from outside luttur s. Two new church lntillitt"s were cu"structed utcl eventually paid for through local and outside cnttrilruticnts. \\ hen the littal decision was reached to construct the two Intildittgs, t formal agreement w-a, si,-nerl lw the pastors of the churches, the local school officials, the church members, school patrons. and citizens of the rcnn"n"titv and sent to the cuhcads. Mr. hitchie and :\Ir. J(`uit, redttestiy their ass ista"cc in raisin, the trecessarv funds and plcdi"g' themselves to the folluwi"", cuoloÃ‚Â°rative 1t-o~rant: "1. To promote lw a Joint movement the lntillity of the two houses of worship as herein; ltefmre described. .. 2. T" mahc the work W the three church cun()re-atirms and their ministers, as far as possible, Ill ter-dctto"tittttiotal ; and to void competitive ln-eacltin,()- services, as fur ma"v years has ltce" the custom of the cu"unu"ity. "i. -I-m use the school rise"tllv reonns fur "ntleturmittatiunal r~lWiuus services conducted In the teachers W the school and ministers of all the churches, and fur other public meetings of the school a"1 the cu"unun itv." 2 ) -Ibis a~(,'reement has lrecrmne the basis of friction C-uoycratiarÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ Ayrccmcnl (a publication of (salt"n Gap-\acooche School, (lahun l7ap, ud :\LItntIllt, lt)a-4 N/t"UN'1'A1N LIFE AND WORK Page 7 that ups of , lretwcen the Methodist and Baptist Churches. The Methodists have expanded their original program of worship services to include an additional Sttnlay in the month with the consequence that both the Nlethulist and Baptist Churches have a morning service on the fourth Sunday in violation of the agreement. 'I-H13 Fl'Tt'KE ROLE 01; THE SCH001. IN THE COMMUNITY What now is the meaning of placing- this brief history of the Isalun Gap-Nacooche school along side the community's basic culture' The school, as its history clearly reveals, is deeply rooted in -the traditions of the community. The native founder built wisely; So thoroughly did he integrate the school into the life of his peulle that he gave it a traditional background which can 1e tttilizeI in its future development. Almost every phase of life in the Collin untity has in scene way felt the influence of the school. After leaving the school farm, a nunlter of its farm families hw:e settled in the cuntnumity. The location of the community's service center at I)illard was in no small way determined by the school. Local people have made financial contrilutiuns to the institution and served on its board of trustees. When the candle of education burned low in the Valley, hahun (alt was fnnuled to give educational opportunity to the people, and fur marry years it has stimulated educational interest among local citizens- Even the ccmfl;cts all(] differences which have deve'ulml :lrcntncl the Institution have ultimately served to make make it a part of the life of the people. The history of Ivalnm ( alt-\acxtchee places it ill a strategic lxcsition to become a true school of the people ill tloÃ‚Â° next generaticnt. Such a school would, of cccurse, crntsidcr its lrrimarv field of operation the community. High school training with a distinctly vocational emphasis uul adult education would constitute its program. To attain an effective role as a fo'1: school, it is obvious that it must find its ulrjcctives and techniques in the needs and characteristics of the local people. Having private funds availalt'e, it could definitely consider its work es1lcritnental and advantageously accept its reslxmsilrility ill this respect because it would 1e in a position to act store freely than would a school sultlrurte1 by public fendsIn building its high school curricultnn, it would recognize the marked density ni the population on the land. 7`u this end it would have a curriculum which would serve (1) those who might wish to remain in the community but who if they did would have to adopt some type of agriculture which would store adequately support a dense population and (2) those who might wish to leave the community for Jobs in cities. The adult educational program would be directed to raising the levels of health, household management, farming techniques and management, recreation, and the aesthetic allreciations of all families in the community. To accomplish these objectives visiting teachers should he employed in as large numbers as funds would permit. [li view of the indifference to organized enterprises and the much more significant status of family life, the visiting teacher would Ile much more effective than efforts to create organizations fur carrying on educational work. The strong pride which the people have in their Valley community could lie utilized in leve:oping the program and might ultimately, he used to stimulate community organization. Tf the farm program should 1e continued, it might inc reasinglv become a demonstration of good farming. The respect which the people have for those who work constitutes a real asset in developing a program of vucat:onal training. The basic ftcmugeneity of the pulatlation, with rntlv one racial gruulr present. makes the task of developing a community-wide educational program much easier than in areas where this cntlitiutt does not prevail. There are a number of elements in the people's culture which instead of being positive approaches fur developing- a community program of education are serious obstacles. These should 11e recognized and plans made for dealing with them. The strong attachment that families have for their ancestral acres stay constitute a handicap in developing all educational program that will prepare and encourage youth to leave the ccmtmunitv. The churches with their backgrounds of relationship to each other and the school do not offer any particularly strong force for cooperation, though the effort to build a connmunitv church in which all denominations might worship was not entirely a failure and suggests that the churches might be counted (;li for a positive contribution. At least, their significance in the community demands that whatever educational program is developed, they must be considered. The tendency to define the teachers and the farm fami Page $ MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Autumn, 1944 lies as a group. apart from the rest of the crntnumity is an ctltstacle which will require finesse. in uvercnning. lh~ leveloling of a people's school is not an easy task. To gain the support of donors may he difficult for it is always easier to secure financial contributions fur buildings and equipment than for experimental endeavors in the actual processes of education. But the future of mountain schools ap pears to be more realistically assured 1y their contribution toward raising the standards of living of a couununity rather than by their contribution to collegiate education. The traditions and unique develctlnent of the IZaltun (;ah\acoochee school place it in an unusually favorable position to pioneer in a role that is chapÃ‚Â°nging and, if successful, certain to produce a better life for a whale com Education Through Health Instruction DR. JOHN (). GROSS Ur. Gross -was for nurzrl~ ~~eurs ftresideut of L'rriorr Cnlleljc (it Barbourville, lieutucly. HrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ here liars us a Story o f tlac work of the Slourr houudution which is c.rpcrlmc;lti)ig, with 11rc cooporutiou of the College of Fdrrcutiosr at the ('niVersit* V Of With tcaChillY rnctlrods iii raouateriu schools hasiul the usual c ultrrrul iustractiou on materials that tcach better methods of li2Ã¢â‚¬Â¢irrl, with. emphasis oil 1rtttritiozr. In several Kentucky mountain schools an erlucatiunal program is in operation that aims to 1111prove health through teaching proper dietary practices. Its instructional materials center upon 1rublems of diet. This stems from the conviction that through selected studies placed in the school cnrriculnm the life habits and practices of the population cart 1e changed. ()lie of the chief proponents of this view is 1)t. Harold Clark, professor of I?ducation at Columbia lJniversity. Dr. Clark has observed living condititnts in every part of the world. ]li Indian village, ageing the ~Nlagdalena River in Colombia, South America, he found natives living in one or two-room grass, thatch or wooden buts, in the most wthcalthv arrangement possible. All members of the fantilv-ittcluling any animals owned-ucculticI the same room or rooms, Yet, at the very clout of the villages was an unlimited supply of raw ntateri with which to build adequate homes. The diet of these same people was entirely inadequate. The climate made it possible for them to grow a wide variety of fruits and vegetables during the whale year-y-et, there were scarcely any fresh fruits and vegetables. Ill every part of the world Dr. Clark found populations with improper diet, living in indescribable filth and with an titter lack of knowledge of sanitation and health. (-)lie place, however, that he visited in South China was art exception. There, a school in a small village had largely remade the life of the columnnitv. Its teachers assumed that the children would learn just as nntch of the three r's if their materials were associated with everyday life. ( )lie subject studied in this Chinese school was diet. It was fctunl that the diet of the people was inadequate and through a few changes could be greatly improved. Some of these innovations required not money but simply a wider use of accessible foods that constitute an adequate diet. Children there studied science by concentrating oil nutrition, physiology and other ysultjects related to bo-Ay functions. And their work nut only developed the children but also greatly improved the health of the village. ""'hv shouldn't schools point their work directly at cuntntttnity problems" was a question in Dr. (-lark"s mind when he returned to the States. Even in the lTnited States often there is tort little connection between what children sturlv in school and the life they live after they leave school. Tit the ntuuntains of Kentuclcv he resolved to make a trial of a real functional educational program. Taut Kentucky. like other States, could nut finance so-called new-fanglerl plans of .education. Tf something different from the "old line" program was tried, it would have to be financed from a source other than the public funds. Fortunately for the mountains the Alfred T'. Sloan Foundation 44 At11L117711, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK hFl6e 9 liked the idea and agreed to finance such an exIerintent. Consequently, several experiments that have for their main objective the improvement of the health of the mountain people through an enriched diet are stow running in Kentucky. Along with the program go other aims such as the lifting of the economic level of mountain people, better housing, and scientific farm methods, but now the principal emphasis focuses upon food. The responsibility for the experiment rests with the University of Kentucky and it has delegated the actual work of tying the school to everyday life to 1r. Maurice U. Seay, Director of the Bureau of School Service. Dr. Seav, a native Kentuckian, knows life in the Kentucky mountains. As clean of Union ('allege during depression clays he lived in a region where 73/0 of the families residing outside the corporate cities were oil some form of relief ; 53~'~ of them did trot own a work animal ; -10;~ had no cow; 70% no other animal ; 40% no lugs; 11 % no chickens; and 9% no livestock or ltoultrv of any kind. ()ne county where the experiments operate is 100% rural, and 91% rural farm. A study made in 1939 ranked the county lowest among all the Kentucky county school districts in assessed valuation of property per child of school age. According to that stud v, the assessed valuation of property per census child was null- $329. Compare this with the highest ranking school district of the State which had her census child $t).850. The median fur all Kentucky county districts was $1,389. The annual sltendalle income per person in that county in 1940 was less than $100 and the value of farm land was listed at $13 per acre. The most serious problem brought Itv poverty is lack of nutritious fool. Yet, the mountains, like many foreign countries, could pi-uvile sufficient health-giving food Coo their daily use. The regular diet of lowest income families in rural areas consists mostly of pork, potatoes, corn bread, and coffee. A study of the dietary practices of the communities where the experiments were to 1e made showed that fouls consumed were inadequate in protein, calcium, phosphorus, Vitamin .a, Vitamin 13-1, Vitamin C-. An analysis of lunches that the children carried showed no Vitamin D present. (;enerally there was sufficient hulk or calories, but growing children reflected signs of mal nutrition. These children, it was believed, could have plenty- of milk, vegetables, eggs arid other necessary foods if the desire was created for them. Now the one-roomt school tries to point the way. tkccurlin- to Dr. Scay, the mountain school program is organized tea far away from the needs of the children. He heard one teacher impressively relate the story of the Holland boy who saved the dikes. In another school he found a wall-chart that illustrated in beautiful colors goats in Switzerland. Teachers in these schools, as far as technique was concerned, were doing good work, but there was no evidence of real interest. Through the help of teachers familiar with mountain needs, instructional material, full of adventures in everyday life were prepared fur the schools. A reader, "\\'e Platt a ( iarlen" told nut of keeping the water from the lowlands of Holland by saving the dike, but the need of controlling the water on and in the soil of their own farms so that the fertile top soil would not wash away to the river bed. Goats, in "Let's Learn About Goats," were not the kind used in Switzerland but the gents they could have fur milk animals on their own place. To the tune of "Mary Had a Tittle Lamb" the children sing: 1. Billy had a fine milk goat, fine milk goat, fine milk goat, 1Tilly had a fine milk goat that game four quarts a clay." Must of the studies center about food. .A buy in the first grade has a fascinating reader entitled, "Vegetables cm Parade." Here, a wider variety of vegetables than is known to mountain gardens lasses in review. The restricted diet of rural families excludes from their vardens many vehetahles of high vitamin content like suvlteans, carrots, salsify. improved lettuce and spinach and hives about all of the space to potatoes, onions, and beans. For this reason some unused health-giving vegetables must he popularized. "Health arid Happiness," parodies oil Mother Goose rhymes, changes "Jack and Jill went up the hill to get a pail of water," to: "Jack and Jill went ill) the hill to 1,ratller greens with \'alrpy. They filled the pall with tender kale, and now they all are happy." The walls of the school buildings are decorated with 1 ctures from seed catalogs. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK :1 book entitled, "John Raises Chickens," begins with john observing that his mother's chickens are tort well-groomed like the flock owned by a neighbor, Vlr. dunes, but are mixed breeds, small and unhealthy looking. Maybe, the hook suggests, they have not been fed the right kind of feed and are nut receiving proper care. This may also explain why hers do not lay eggs. So John is pictured starting to work on his mother's cold and dirty chicken house: Ire sprays it with used motor oil. cleans the nests, buts dry straw cm the floor, and starts to feed tire chickens with sour milk and corn. Later, he gets a setting of Plymouth Rock eggs and so the story progresses until John becomes a successful grower of pure-bred Barred Plymouth lock chickens. And all the time the child learns about chickens he improves his reading and apilitv to do the arithmetic problems associated with poultry raising. Through a group of attractive text books the possibilities of mountain farms to produce food are revealed. I?very farm can have grapes, raspberries, rhubarb, apples, hears, plums, peaches. Planning art orchard is suggested for a project. Particular attention is also given to nut trees. The curly "sweetenin' " that the pioneer knew came from his farm. "Sorghum Time" tells how molasses is made from sorghum cane ; it is delicious with but biscuits and batter and is especially adapted fur g-ingerltreaI. Another substitute for sugar is hune_v and a fascinating little pamphlet entitled "lluzz, Buzz" tells of bees that mountain children find in the bee trees and move to a beehive. This story opens ill) the way for beekeeping and ends with a tempting table arrangement that shows a howl of honey in the center. Fish, from earliest times, has peen a staple food Men and women are spiritual beings. All of us have seen our fellow man or woman when, in a flash of anger, there was looking out through the windows of the soul the spirit of the tiger or the wulC. Later we have seen, perhaps looking out of the same eyes, the spirit of shame or of the do-with-tall-between-his-legs. Sometimes we see the spirit of hope all(] cheer shine unt, rs in the case of Autumn, 1944 and yet fish arc rare in the mountains. The idea in the 100l "A Fish Pond on the Farm" suggests as the title indicates one is possible. Now, the I)epartment of Interior of the United States has published a similar brochure that gives simple workable instructions for a fainter to operate a fish lonxl as an integral hart of his farming schedule and to realize from it 200 to 300 lxtunds of edible fish per acre for I period of several years. The results of this educational experiment are being carefully evaluated to determine what effect it has oil the achievement, intelligence, dietary practices, and health of the pupils. -\Vill the children achieve as much in arithmetic, history, or geography from these studies of diet as they did in the subjects taught in so-called old-line schools?" is a question that must be answered affirmatively to justify the use of the new material. Those reslonsiltle for the experiment feel confident that they will. Children, they say, will learn to read as rapidly front materials alxut their own problems as they would from topics foreign to them-perhaps even better. In fact, the children should have greater speed in understanding arithmetical calculations as the result of using them in the problems associated with their foods. History need tint be entirely organizel around kings and wars since great areas of history have always centered around food and the improvement of implements to obtain food. So far evidence is in favor of the experiment. The materials have captured the interest of several educators in this country who see in the experiment an incentive to increase the interest of the children in agriculture and better diet in all of the underprivileged parts of the world. Such departures as these will hell) not only to quicken learning experiences but also point the way fee a greater en-relation of schools with life. G(-)OD NEIGHBORS ()RAIN L. KEENER a pride or a young nluther of a babe. Agaitt we have seen in the same eyes the spirit of sadness or discouragement as the young woman buried her husband or her three-year-old child. Yes, we are all spiritual beings, made-or in the process of lteing made-in the spiritual image of otir Creator. If we arc spiritual beings and if we accept the definition of neighbor as given lrv Jesus in tit(- story cat .lutuut", 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, Page 11 of the liuo,l Samatritut, then "eighlmrlittess is a "rattcr of spiritual re laticnrshils. :\s such it can never be the routine picking, up of rmllmd and lteatett trawlers e" the Jericho road, me matter how efitic'ie"tlv dente. li nothing is Itallte"i"g in the lives of the neigltl;ors, the "tere dairy of a deed utnututts to nothing, In Mll- world of tmlav cmotu"titics al-C 1a1-,`Cl-, and the stature of spiritual Man has not alw-am kept trace with the g-rcwth of his cum"tu"itics. l,e ctttse ()in, ccmt"mt"ities arc lamer, an Aivivl-ican willity to justify his failure tot he mei"'l1lon-lv miltt ask. "\\ hick of t"v aei(hlnn-; shall I love, for I have 135 "tillicnt in the l-ttitecl Mates ltcsides those in \lexicu. South America. and ('hi"a. lint the nta" of spiritual cliscer""uÃ‚Â°"t dines not ash this clttestiu", for he rec"g"ires that neighlon-liness, a" exercise in spiritual relatintshilts, clues tort itwulve help "g three-fuurtlts of t trillion 1eultle aflw More than eating a meal requires cemsumi"g all the food on twin Continents. Neighborliness is ":cesstrilu a two-way affair. The truly Considerate ltig (, neighl)ctr will nut refuse the piece of dirty candy proffered lw the u"furtu "ate little neighbor who has just peen picked up after a tricycle accident. He will accept the gift in the spirit i" which it is offered-even though his knowledge of gernts furltiIs Iris eating it. l.ovity Consideration of others lies at tlo: lxtttcmt of all true "eighlturli"ess. In this tlti"g-y age i" which we live, it is su"tetimes harder tin be tteighlutrly tin one's social elttal or superior than to those deemed of a lower social group. ( ccasio"a11v, however, the "ta" in the big, house, owner ml three farms tool two a"tcmmltiles, rosy be left sltirituallv strilltecl slay the hihlw-av of lif:, robbed of all aspiration amt purpose, without faith in his fellows or in the goulness of ( iod. Iver_v hu"t"t lcei"g needs the help ref ;;mot tmiglt1 urs. St. Paul would say Though I invite My nei,(lvlu,r tot "m ltuusc and serve him a ltetter dinner than he have "te, if there is no lave betw.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢en "s, we "-e "uÃ‚Â°relv g-oity tltro"hh mutiu"s. Thutt(Ih I unite will] others in cmn"nmitv church ~erv;ce, social gatlterin,';, and cumlterative MLliZa if We are not a"itecl by bonds of Mutual re spect a"1 Consideration, we experience little Joy a"!1 accu"tltlislt little (good. I "mv give all nj possessions to needy folk, and year mot my hoc- carrying We thins to them; At if I elm not rcailv care for the"t. "w spirit rnay still be bitter amt theirs cold or htt"tilittecl. Guol nei-hlmrs are very 1atiettt, very kind; they are "w-er jealous of each other. G001 "eighlor s do ]lot "tahc a display of thill""s, and thereby emltarrass others. -I-hey are never rode ; never self-seeking. They don't haw their fe:Ã‚Â°lings easily hurt, .nut they never carry a grud"ge. ('~cxol neigghbors arc never- glad when others utal:e tragic mistakes, 1"t arc happy to hear of their well-dui"g. They are slow to retreat tales that might lm untrue, or harmful to others; It"t are eager to Relieve the pest. 'l-hey are never ltessi"tistic ; never i"rlatie"t. Cuctl "eighltors are always "mtivated by ( hrist-like co"sileraticnt of others. :\s fen- irupersonal relationships, they will prove Unsatisfactory and illctTeCtiVC. As for professional charities and ;; -er"ment relief, they ca"""t hu cm forever; am o- a"i-raticm trot founded cm love will eventually cease to,c fu"cticm. But spiritual charity, the give-a"d-take relatimship ltetwec" hil1l nm 1eiy: "taIe i" the image of their Creator, this is essential tin social life and ht""a tt well-ltein;~. \ei,,,,h1orli"ess must "evÃ‚Â°er Mass away. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Ant a"" t. 1 944 A Cooperative Educational Enterprise Ca.,tti.oa O. lixno.w lsrrr" C-nllc't/c', lsc'rwrr, li c'"f"r l,'V .l slnn~~ of /he wcrI N, or "m""trri" collnttr' m'acho's n"t lo "r'colv Places and brings its campus hc'lh to Itcrr-mva~~ hlur u,c. kereu College is participating in a new elucaticntal cÃ‚Â°ttterl"-isc. lit fact, seven instit"ticms of higher lctrttin,- in Ivcntncl:v arc cmolreratitt'- in this i"tpc"-tattt ed"cttirmal tt"lertal:ittL,~. The six other ittatitutimt, are the Uni,-ersitv of letttuchv, the l'nivcrsitv of Louisville, and the four state icachcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rs' crllcI~Ic,, munch: I?astcr", \Icrrchearl, \lttrray, and \\-extern. Is.ach college Works with rut i"dividna1 ccnmtv III Kentucky. The (oneral aittt of each institution is the "imlrrrrvetttc"t crf the ynalitv of livilig" of ill(' people III the Colilltv, csltccially thrrnt(1h the school,';. ']'his educational project is sponsored jointly 1v the Iclrartntcttt of l:cl"caticm of the Cumtnumwealth of Ivc"t"cl:v and the (;etteral Eldticatioli Board of New York City. Ilerea College is crxrlteratint;) with i'ulaski ccnt"t_v. :',n advisory committee of the College is wrrl:in'- especitllv with the County Board of I,.lttcaticm. -I-he writer is the coordinator, aild lie has been ,vcn-lcin,- in the county four clays each week sinrc last atttttmtt. Pulaski ccrnntv is located in the foothills of the 111alachia" llcrntttains. \luch of the county is hill\-, but there is some -cotl farming land, especially it: the valley of the Cumberland River. The peo1lc arc ett`a(1ed chiefly in farmin" ])lit ltunlterin and mittitt` are carried cm ill the sottthcastertt hart of the crnntv. The sail is "nlcrlaid with limcstrne, sandstcmc, shale, or coal. Pulaski is core of the lar-c;t counties in Ivcntnchv. Its area is 076 square mile,. 'I-he roads rank front good to poor. fii1-hwav . 27 passes north and south through the cnmtv att1 Ivetttuch_v 80 runs east and west. Some crntnt_v macadam roads serve as feeders to the twor main higltwavs, lntt many of the roads are u"itttln-crvcd. which makes traveling quite l;fficult. -I-he people arc 1ecrmitto -ooxl road conscious. 1'nlaski has a lmltulation of 3t),8O3. ( f this "t"nlcr approximately 12.00() arc within the cuntlntlsc"-v school attc"dattce asc. There is a" a,'t1rapu of 54 persons per square mile. The ltulntlatilt is "utivc ltcrrtt : there arc mtlv -l4 fore,ign lon-tt 1ersmts living in the county. There are 814 Ne-roes all(] uncÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ rural sclurol atul rate 111-ball school are ntai"tainc1 for them. Schools must serve many isolated communities which tttcans a rrnnlarativelv lw(Ie nuntltcr of them. The county system has 111 core-room, 33 two-romp, 3 three-rrom schools, and 4 composed of twcl%,,~raclcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢s. Besides these 151 schools there arc four independent districts, viz., llttrttsilcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢, Irergttscnt, ~ci._ once hill, a"I Somerset. The coordinator went into the comity last Novc"tlrer with "o preconceived plans to impose tipoll any persons or organizations. He entered the county to work with the people, to help them find their problems, and to assist them in their solution. In Company with the ccnmtv superintendent and the attendance supervisor he visited approximately 100 schools before they closed in /anuarv. Two of the chief aims in these visitaticrtts. were to learn the esisting ctnulitions in the co"tttv, and tor 1nild an esln-it do corps between the school personnel and Berea Collelffe. The physical condition of the schools varied from good to very poor. The present County Board of I:d"catirm had inherited a considerable debt, but it had adopted the pay-as-vrrn-,-u plan with the idea of -ettin;, the schools ()li a firm financial basis. The IW and was enleavorin;;, with fair success, to have the 1uilli"h, painted cm the outside, but the beautification on the inside had peen left to the teachers and local communities with noticeable results in a few districts and nothing done in others. The letter teachers had gotten together scene teachin') aids, but the lean progressive ones had averted very little r"- no effort alr y this line. Apltrotimatelv core-hall of the 200 elementary teachers last ,-car held emer-enrv certificates. .'\ gcrrolly tn"nlrer had ('radttate1 front the secrrnlarv school rmlv the previous year. The lrroltlcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢m of ,vltet The S20 cent: I -1~ ell t Y rc rr t,vcl sihl pct .\"ttutttt, 1')-1-1 MOUNTAIN IAFE AND WORK accuritt" clualiliccl tctchcrs this ve:"- is silltilar to that off last year. Ivy salary scale (of teacher, rcnttitt"es tin he lmw wlt:" ecnnlrtrcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cl with that ml itulu,trial wcn-I;cr s. 'I-he 1rts:tl alarv this year is $();, a" increase crl s?0 m-cr lint year. 'I~m this amount is added 25 cent: per c(dlc-e hcmr, $5 for gmily to sell()()] ill 1')-1-4. $' fen- each year mf evlcrienre up to five v:ar.. and _'~8 for t 13.:x. or IJ.S. degree. last year a teacher with :t de-ree c mild receive $985. While this year the sa"tc teacher "tav receive S'1.300. ~hltc schmd term has lrren extended frmttt seven to cil"ht ttmnttlm for the clc"tent:trv olraIc:, and fnn" eight to nine nonttlts for gr:tles nine tin twelve. The inrrcasc in salary has hem nNA lms:ihle ti-()li, ~rcatcr state alltrerlrriaticms. Ill the early a,ritt~ a planning council was, ()r_ gauizecl tin work ()li i"tlrrctve"tettts fur the sclnrml .\car mf l9-L-1--L5. I-lti, etnuu-il was rmolmscrl of the ,Superintendent (of rluml:, the rtttcntd:ntcc ml1ircr, all Uticcr ..I the MGM (Any Teachers' .\swria timt, a ~ntc-rcxntt teacher, a L~r:ule teacher Li a emt ;olidattol aclurml. a ~,ermolarv teacher, the inn"ttv ;t~"ettt, the rcrt"ttv health officer and the ccrmrdi"t tor. -I-hi` emu"cil decided to wcwl; m major uljec tivcs Iw the sclt,rmlx; to formulate three "llides, to he "titttcyralthed for the tetcltcrs, viz., hc:dtlt, fmul. and rmn~,crv:Uicm mi the natural rcmntrce, ml tile county: at;cl to cb) wnttc (on a survey (Illes timnt;tirc. l-"clcr the l'ttivcrsit_v ml lvcttttu-l:_v a smnnwr wMrl;,lul was hcl1 for the tc:u'ltcrs~. -fltev w-crc nr,ccl tin attend, ;tll(l were ittforttteI that their salaries wn"lcl he increased if the v were Li attendance. The total c"rmllntettt was 153, wltirh was the larcat mf f-catolnm workshop in lvcnturl;v. The wmrl: lcnte Iv the lrl:uotittg, cm"tcil wits ":ecl (luring, the wo,rl;;lxrlr. The diet, (of this w-orl;shmlr arc very tmticc:dtlc in the ;cftmcrls. I~ive major crljectives for the scluurl year lt-1-1-l5 were adopted. The 1`11-St crate Was -PCI/cr %'orrolrint/." lic;ides urgin,(s, the teacher, to attend s(mle leather traitting institution or su"n"cr worrl;shul, Icr"r It',.lltittg, tcacltcrs were cmltluycd ;ill(] ""ivcn special training Li the worrl;shult. -I'hesc four pcrs,()us spend their tittle tvnrkittg' anuny the acltcrmls. :1 materials bureau has I)cCII established Li (order to Supply the teachers "mrc adc(Illatcly. This serves as hcadluartcr; fen- the htÃ‚Â°11int~ tcachcra, and the w-cchlv mceting, blare fur them a"d the cuurclittatcn-. The ntatcrials lr"rcau coo"t is open cnt Sat"rclav, and hellitt,' teachers arc available to assist the tcarlo.r with their problems. Five chuels i" the count\- have 1ec" (lc,i-nateM as coutmuttitv school.,. 'I~ltc teachers in charhe of these sclunrls live In the district. Thes- schools serve as tle"tonstraticrtt renters fur the other teachers, as well as cent"""ttitv centers W r the local 1cmhlc. llettcr livitt"', fur 1-xrth children and adults is eslcÃ‚Â°ciallv stressed in each m"c crf these hve arhiorls. The scect"d oltjective Was lrcduli%ic-utiou. Friday ()f the first week Of srluml Was clesi( IuateI as cleatt "Ir clay. The lrtrc"ts were invited to assist in "tah in~ tile achmrl a "nerre livable place. 'Stich thillp as rleattittg , the g-i-mind.s. repairing, or building, toilets, planting - shrubs and flowers, stopping, crosicm. oiling the ilmur, 1,rli,ltitt", the atmvc, and pailitilig, tile inside of the latillitt- were stressed. The L-m""tv 11)(:"-d of I?cl"catio" fttntished tile paint. The used 'S1.()U( w-mrth of inside paint the lirst two "nmth,. :\ chart for the Superintendent's ()ffiCC has been Constructed, sr that when a scltcrcrl ha, made arty acco"tlli,lt"teuts in lteautiticaticm rccug-nitiom will he "ivcn. -I-he third (1crtl was hcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢crllh. The ,chmuls are olrtainitt' assista"ce of the (-uutttv Health 1 cltartttt.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢"t, eslcciallv ill i"t"tuttizatint,- .\ stcrcl: scrlutimt of cltlcn-i"c fur water lr"riiicaticm is furnished. I'er_ scmal atul entt"t""itv health instruction is lmin entlcrclicd in the Class-wwrh. 7)ict is being, stressed. Itcrca l mllc;(,c is ,"ivitt, twr $50 awards to sch(m)IS hr fcrccl production a"1 Itreservatimtt. Three scim(d c:"tttcrics Dave lrcen rcmstrttcted ill the Count% this bast s""nttcr. ~Scluml lunches arc lrcity ttMccl. ( ircÃ¢â‚¬Â¢:t1cr lrcrsmtal clc"tlittcss is lreittg advocated. The teachers ha we ltcen ittstrttctecl Li the sit"1lc proceltirc uF hand washi",,~, and a ,(~)oolly number 4 the ;cltruls arc practicing) it. (itticlrs in lrcrth health and fcrul lave linen prepared eslreciall_v for the rural teachers. The fourth crlrjcctive Was c-onsorautintr uj 1hu uulurcrl rcÃ‚Â°.corn-co.c. :1 cuttrse ill emn,erv:tticm was tun;~llt i" tile a""tntcr tvorh;hmlr. The emtscr vatiun rf sril. wildlife, and fcn-est arc uttdcr emtsi1craticm. The scluml ihtlt dual was c-ifi,~c~rrslrih. \-atulalist" (of l,rrltcrtv was to""cl W be quite con""cm. 1'a~,,c 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE n:~D WORK Autumn, 1944 to (order m m-crccnm this destructive 1rfcclurc the teachers arc trvip to pct the people (of the ccmtatmtitv interc,ted in Mcir school lo; doily sumethin" tof impr)ve it, such as relflacinh broken winlwv lfanes, l)aintitt, , amI lmilditt" walks. Tltc feathers arc Iming, ur-el to sttlfervise the lflav 1erimls. t~, well as lave tltc fulfils practice MallIM-1-V "wuluct. \a clucaticfttal survey of the school and the ccnntnunitv has lfecn Made lm _ the teacher and the lfttlfil. this year. here are v few (of the cluestiuns: \\ a: ill(, inside m1 _vcntr school painted last year or the year lr.,in-c' Is there drinhins water on th^ '"rcnmls' Hmv ntatm toilets arc there.' 1\-as vuttr schmfl ~ruttncl cleaned last year? Some of the clues ticms )()tit ill(, luntt.-s follow: Hcvv many homes arc (1 ) 1aittted (?) unpainted? Iluw many homes are screened ' I low many ltun tes have a ve-etaltlc ()arclen' \\ lvat is the chief tvfe of recreation of the vntnri people in _vntr district? The plan is to repeat this survey at a later date in order to see if )fetter livioh is in evidence. The people ()f Pulaski cotilltv are cooperating exceptionally well in this educational tindertalxllla. A number of results arc already visible. A measuralflc ()lie is the increase in school attendance. For the first month of last year the attendance in the county schools was 88.7 per cent, while fur the first month this year it was c)5 per cent. Time and persistent effort cm the part of rut aruusÃ‚Â°d citizenry will unlultedlv show other measurable results. Lula School Leader O f Community Progress 1. h_. lu_Nrs, I'ostmcrstcr-, Lida, (;cÃ‚Â°oryicr This is the stor'v n Jj how nnc school Principal, by doÃ‚Â°nroc r'crtiNiuy his so-hnul through .ctuclcnt pcrrtioihcrtinn and oJfcritrg con.ctnuctia'c lccrdcÃ‚Â°rslrih rnadc his school nnc of tlrc host in tlrr slat, crrrrl chuntlcrl ihc oonrnrunitl' frrfrrr diz'isi'cÃ‚Â°ucss to coo(fcrcrtion. ( )Ill-s is the tvlfical (wm(,:a hmvn. It is small, lfrclcmtinantlv rural. Ther: is nuthity unusual almut it mr us. t )Illluctticm cut a main north and south hi~hv-av and the Scntthcrn Railroad -iv,e its easy outlet, tuft many other places have tits some facilities. t )ill- lrtch~rcnuul is clue of large laud cwvttcrshilf amt farm tenants who ulten have kncfwn lfinclte1 amt scatriv rations. This cmncliticm retards ln-(W rcs.. lsut in spite of this, the 1,111a School Itas 1Ã‚Â°vclmlfcd a lfrcf,,ram that is tar rctchin'(1, and has lfccfntc widely kmnvn allot talked ahol-it aillollln-u)ressivc educator", lttrin~ the past two years. Prim- tof the last two years the schcfol had its mall- lips atul lcfwns. It operated as m inlelcnd Ihere were wrayles amt disputes, cat svst:m. with much hard feeling. Stiperintendeiits seldom staved more than cute or two years. In fact. sense '']'here was much stir and trutt lflc around the sclxufl. The trustees, harried by numercfus lfrcflflcms, ccmcerned themselves not only with finances tuft ;Ch()()] discilfline also. The school earned the rclutaticm over the state of lfein,- a hard lflacc tof teach. With the hell of the federal government, anti1 much wran"lin") and opposition, bonds were float ed and a new lntillin~, modern ill every sense, was erected in 1937. Even then school affairs were nct snuoth. There were lficl:crinws and strife. I)eiinitelv the school was nut utfcrin1" cunnnttnitv lealershil. The etfectiveoess of its educational 1rI;ram was seriously doubtful. Tolav the picture is different. Today the Ltila School is active. strrm ~1. vigcfrous. It is reaching clot to the homes and adults. It is ~cfinh beyond the immediate cfmmunity to other sections. It has attracted the attention elf educators aul leaders ill many places. 1)r. M. 1. Collins, State Sulocrintcndent of Schools in Oen-gia, has commended it as doing a "unique piece of work." The Department of I?lucatiun, Washin-ton, I). L., has singled it out for unusual service to the war effort. Mrs. I'aeanur Roosevelt has braised its work. .'\ubrey Williams, after vi;itin- and ,;ee'ii(, the school in action fur a week, stated lfullicly that he only wish ed his own sans could have had the opportunity to attend l.ula Ili;;h School. Many leaders and educators have ccnue to visit and tall:. It is not difficult to answer the question of how the change was effected, although it has been a difficult Job to (to. As postmaster in the town of ,, 1)-I4 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ or edu .luttutnt, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 Lida. 1 keep in close touch with all civic, edncatiunal and community matters. 1 have lived in this section all ntv life. y I have five children in this school. Jly oldest son, who recently joined the Navy, receives hi, dilllonla this s]~rin~. No one is more concerned with education than I. How has the change Conic about. :\t the end of the 1943 term, in a radii address from Gainesville, Georgia, I made the following statement, which still stands: "\\'e have just closed the pest term of school Lula has ever known. \\'e believe in sivin;- credit where it is due, and to do that we have to dive Prof. I). L. West credit fur "Ill- school's progress this year. "Mr. West has been a great source of ittfurntation and inspiration to our school and community-. \Ve are -lad at this time to have the Ul1ortunity to slteal: our appreciation fur his untiring efforts. 1\Ã¢â‚¬Â¢e altltrcciate the manner in which he has our students thinhin'- altuut local, domestic, and international ltrultlems. He has consistently carried through a lnw11rant of "I?ducatiun for Victory," His teachins and attitude have contributed to the finest and hishest type of patriotism, because he bases his tlum-ht and action firnllv oil the true American spirit, the pest AmericanJ tradition. His program has Met with the heartiest cooperation from both students and patrons. as well as the entire faculty of cntr school." So there it is, as simple as that. In reality this is the answer to how our school and community have peen revitalized into a cooperative, progressive unit. I stn certainly not one to over-emphasize individual leadership. but I realize here that the proper kind Of pro-ressive leadership call Make all the diffcrcttce in the world. In the lust place. Mr. West is a modest 1crsm. He has llollt~ Of the overhearing, doillillatillattitude sometimes associated with hard-boiled sultcrintenlents. His attitude is characterized 1v consileratirnt for his teachers, students, and patrons. \\ Mile he has definite Opinions and holds to them cly~~cllv, he sloes trot try to force his will on others. i\lan_v people have wondered how a small coil ntunitv like ours can command the services of such a man. The only answer T know is that he loves the work and contact with common folk life. He is yuun-, a native of the north Georhia tnouutains. tit, has thrÃ‚Â°c degrees, with major work on a Ph. U. But degrees have not spoiled him. Nor does he overvalue them. They merely open doors of opportunity. He has traveled and studied in Europe, especially in the Scandinavian countries. But the most important thin(,, about Mr. West is his intense devotion to the principles of democracy with its full meaning. And C mean that. He is free from prejudice and from the feeling of su1erioritv along class lines. Since he canes from the poor tenant-farmer class, his resentment against the hardships and exploitation they endure, as well as the common people generally,. drives him forward in tile ii-ht fur real human liberty all(] equality. So this is the answer-a superintendent who knows what democracy is, believes in it, has unusual ability to work with and influence people, and is determined to use every effort to make it work. Perhaps to people in the North or Tact, just the matter of one plan in a cnnnlunitv nlav trot sound important. But I state frattkl_v that this sort of thing is unusual in Georgia. It makes a world of difference clown here, the difference between a static and a progressive school, a ltichering factional community and progressive cooperation. ( )ne of the remarkable things is the spirit and enthusiasm shown ltv the students. This was not developed immediately. But after patient work, the school was able to go under a complete student council government at the beg1inning of the present term. Students actually have resllonsillility for discipline. The seriousness with which they assume this responsibility nlav lie Judged from the following editorial, which appeared in a recent issue of the school newspaper, the -17onthll' -Sc'r'zhhr'r-: 13v \'\ t NN tt: LEE, a Sh"lorrl iu tlrc SC 11001 Our Student Council had a meeting recently to take up the problem of a high school girl who had stayed out of school. ']'his girl had left ]ionic, to come to school, lust stopped at 13elltcnt and went somewhere else. This action was an infraction of Our school standard, and we regret very much that it was necessary to discipline the student in question. However, since it occurred, we are glad that the Student Council is able to take it up and make a proper decision. In this case we requested the offending Page tc6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Autumn, 194 student to write an essay nn "I low I Call Improve Jly School Spirit." S"rh a petty offense "tav seem itrsigniticant, perhaps, But at a time like this, and in a School like a"rs, where we arc tr"lv trying to r"" things democratically, we feel that it is our reslomsiltility to correct such matters promptly. This student was nut only missing classes, but she was tearing clown the high standards of the school and helping to create a" anti"lc which might, if unchecked, lead backward instead of forward to greater ln-ogress. Tlris is ill example that cart apply to all of us. 1t is important to come to ~ultcur) every day, prepare your lessenrs well 1efon. coming, give perfect attctttiott in the classroom, WId try to learn as nmch as lmssihle in preparation fur the years ahead of "s. We'll need it all later, be sure of that. For it's going to take the best we can (to t" build this world back to normal and to make the progress that must 1c made lit the fut"re. I-his is nn time to waste time. It is our helm that from tmw cnt each student will feel that he has a dcii"ite reslxmsilility for ev TIlF ThI-I: \\'Fr\\-I:Is \\ aching wcxcl sure aill't lm fill) It's filthy and sti"kitrg work IIut the weaver hrmws it has gut to he clone Atrcl the weaver will never shin:. C-ardittg wool lntlls your arm; right cntt \Vcars vm"r back ill two; But it's a step the Wool ct"'t chi without So tile weaver will gladly du. Shinning t"av look as easy a; lie You try it fm- just one May; "I-hat ttig-ht You'll sit i" the corner .cod cry, 11"t a weaver wcnr't stttv away. I veittg's :I loll- and a tcdim"s rash hor"nin", the hill, and tile fields, But a weaver would never sit down to bask In the still, fort she knwvs the viclIs. The forentertiio"ed Job,, they may bore you The sweat, and the stress, attd the strain, ervthing affecting our school. -Chic comes out in our school spirit all(] co-olreraticn. Ottr LnlaI]elltm School now has an envialtle reputation. We don't believe there is another school in (oeurgia ahead of it. \\'c want to keep it that way. :'1n1 we, the students, must (to our share and accept our reslonsiltility. .~`t special feature, uni1"e anumg high schools i" all Georgia, is the school's radio program. Under the title of "I:luratiun fur Victory," this ln-oalcast has been heard every hrilav afternoon fur the last two years. Not a single Friday has been missed, including the three vacation months of last su"mter. Students themselves prepare these programs and give them. I?verv high school student has been on at least one broadcast, and the majority of elementary students, from the first, grade up. In all war effort drives-scrap metal, Red Cross, etc.-the T.ula School has led all others in the county. Being a semi-rural coat"tu"ity, the school leadershilt has sought to deal with the problems- of the tenants and small farmers of the section. Mot the woven wcl before voll 'rho, weav.r knows it is worth all the pain. HERrrtrcr TERRY HrsEtt FOR GE'( )RGE, \\':15H1 NVAS11IN(;T0N CARVER I Ie took the warm, brown earth into his hand, -I~he warm, brown earth which matched his own dark skin. He closed his fist and felt the heat expand. The heat a Southern sun had put therein. Ile took the pare bright colors of the earth And to the world he oracle a gift of them. Ile took a plant ntcn said had little worth And fot"ul a tts.e for fruit and leaves allot stern. Rut though he did these things and many more, He did not take the braise, instead disclosed 'that it had been the hand of God that tore 'I-he lock which keeps the pooh of Knowledge closed. Good fertile fields he mule front useless sod1'his man with willing hands and faith in God. The above sonnet is by (`rraziella Maggio, 16 wears old. Autumn, 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 Training' For Rural Ministers \'1._1D1D11k I,. H_1RR191AN :llr. Hartman is a farur boy oho has clroscrr as his -work that of the rural church and its contucrruitY. Ile is a clraduatc of I)rcm l: uizcrsit~and did spec ial "orl,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ I'll rural soc ioloo/y at the (-niaersit~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ of .\-ortJr Carolina. III's scÃ‚Â°rz~iccÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ uudcr tJre Cooucil of Southern Aloillitaill !i'orloÃ‚Â°rs i's that efcscrihcd in this crrticlc by him crud also drat of adult edr"atiorr oil c-uopcrative s. To bring to the rural preachers in the southern Highlands a conception of the values ill rural life is a hart of the program of the Council of Southern Jlonntain Workers. To do this, "preacher schools," Operation. conferences and institutes have laeen planned. Invi- tccasiuntlly one meets a rural 1-eacher whit tatiems to hold such schools have come from rural northpreacher feels that it is out necessary to have an ,,ducatiOll. ern Georgia, eastern Tennessee, western forth ('ar- There are a few who Itreach a~tinst the man who Mina and south central Kentucky. C:vvl)eratin~111 is educated. with the Council of Suutlntern Alountaill Workers III sponsoring- these schools are the Home AlissiOlls (-unncil of \erth America and the t ieneral 1:"nca tiun Board. In most of the rural comntnnities there are mane untrained preachers. Main- of these men at anxious to improve themselves hilt they- feel that they are nttah'e to continue their a"ncatim ill hilt school, colle~(I)c or th.ulol;ical scntinarv as they are farmer-preachers and depend cm harmint, as their main source of inevnxÃ¢â‚¬Â¢. In ntanv places standards fur urdinaticrn require little or no academic training. N\'hile many of these men with little training have lnalitics Of leadership and have done intio.-h good they- detinitclv need to know how they cart serve their churches better and can assume rules of com ntnnitv leadership. There are also slam- ministers ill small towns why are anxious to know moo; alrunt rural-urban relationships. Dl nch of their work is with farm people. According to the census classification their churches would also 1e rural ill that they are ill towns of less than 2.500 population. 11any of these ministers are college and theulyical seminary gral uates. Their interest has been awakened to the val ues of rural life. 7'n promote attendance at these schools the field worker of the (council of ~Srmthern Rluutttaitl Work ers contacts ntanv of the preachers fur several weeks before a school is held. Letters of im-itatint are sent clot. Articles utt the schools are circulated in the county papers of the area. District. snper intenlents, moderators and clerks c church asseciations, sytudical secretaries and other administrative officers arc contacted and asked for their ev I-his is a 11r utcetivc cietetlsc-nmcha ttisnl for their ON\,,, itlal:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢clnacics. 'hhe writer has linen encunraseI ill that ',lost of those he has met arc conscious of their heed for more traittin,"- t\lust of church members desire their preachers to lte ltetter trained. ']'his is particularly true of the Snnuy people. 'I~hev want enle whit knows how to work with them ill wcnut;, people's ;;runls ; they want sonleotte as their leader who can cltallenI.-e them. If a preacher constantly condemns the young Irenltle fmntanv of their activities lie alienates them and misses cute of his rircatest cllo!rtunities. \\-hat is the purpose of tlo.sc "preacher schools" and how will the objectives be accomplished. One hnrlnse is tin help the nlcmntain preachers discover Page leg MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Autumn, 19-1-1 the resources available for their use and levelupment. These resources are three-natural, human and spiritual. The leaders in these schools desire to help them see and discover the inter-relationship and inter-dependence of these resources. Another purpose is to introduce them to all the other rural leaders in the community, such as the county went, home agent, vocational agriculture teacher, field man of the Soil Conservation Service, farm Security Administration supervisor, public health nurse and county superintendent. A third purpose is to train them in the use and stewardship of the resuurces-natural, human, and spiritual-with which all the rural leaders are working. This helps them to see possible areas of cooperation. It makes them aware of the dependence of the churches on good soil and a strong, vigorous community life. A fourth purpose is to hells them see the possibilities of their churches as community centers; as integrating and coordinating institutions interested in the totality of man and the improvement of commuttitv life. .1 fifth and au incidental purpose growing out of the others would he to help create a fellowship between the ministers within an area across denominational lines that would face the problems involved in building good rural communities. Flow does the Council of Southern Mountain Workers propose to carry out these purposes and objectives of resource education' To date little work has been done to make the rural preachers in the Southern Highlands conscious of their resuurces. \\'hile some of the denominational colleges do sponsor schools fen- the untrained preachers, they have peen concerned mainly with the presentation of a (lei ominatimal program. The curriculum has linen, with but few exceptions, the traditional one of Bible study, methods in evangelism. "insli rational talks," singing and preaching. 1\' bile there is much of value in such a program there,is need to enlarge the curriculum and to relate Bible study to the problems of rural life. The Hone Missions Council has peen cooperating with Negro colleges in the South for several years in conducting institutes for Negro preachers of the rural areas. In these schools courses are given oil such subjects as The Pastor and the Community. The Church and The Land, Istwal ('porch Filialice, The Preparation and I)eliverv of Sermons and rote 1i1l:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ and Agriculture. The Hunte \Iissl()iis Council, the Town and Country Work departments of the Federal Council of Churches and of many denominational boards are cuoperatittg with state !colleges of agriculture in schools for rural ministers. The Council of Southern Aluuntain \\'orkers desires to render a similar service in the Southern Highlands, cool) erating with schools and colleges and various denominational groups. In the area which the Council serves there are mangy- agencies and institutions interested in ministerial education. Many leaders of service agencies have come to realize the importance of the rural church as an implement of information for the people they desire to contact. The only organization to which many rural people belong is the church. The progress of their program is hindered unless there is cooperation by the chtu-ches and their leadership. They are anxious to acquaint the preachers with what they are doing; they solicit their cooperation and welcome the opportunity which a "preacher school" provides. In its educational program the Tennessee Valley Authority works with and through several of the other agencies. Some of the men oil the training staff and in the agricultural relations department of TVA want to present their prcgrant to the rural ministers; until recently they have nut had this opportunity. These same men have done excellent work in conferences oil resource education with teacher groups and have want.-,d to do the same thing with rural ministers. The Council of Southern Regional Studies with headquarters in Knoxville is a coordinating agency oil research materials in education; it is primarily interested in the translations of these materials fen- all age and grade levels in the public schools, colleges and universities. Iseltresentatives of this agency have expressed their desire to cooperate with the field worker of the Council in "preacher schools." What has been cited in regard to these two agencies is true also of the Agricultural Extension Service, Farm Security Administration, Public Health Service, Soil Conservation Service, and many of the schools and colleges. To date one such school has 1ecn sponsored bY the Council of Southern 1\l contain 1\ url:ers : this was in cooperation with Western Carolina Teachers College at Culluwhec, North Carolina. During the bast summer this college sponsored a work study Conference cm resource education for teachers. Sng _'\"tnm", 1944 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK gestiutts came front many sources-the president and clean of the cctll.ege, the teacher,. field men from the TVA, etc.that it would he profitable foi- a SI ilal illl - conference to Joe held fur the rural preachers. \Vltile plans for such a conference were lteing formulated 1v the Dean of the college amt lty the held representative of the T\-_\ fur western North Carolina, the opportunity came to the Council to help ill the planning ml the ln-ugram and to direct the conference. This Coll fcre"ce or -preachers School" was held at Western Carolina Teachers (-allege ( )rtuler ?-(t with twenty-five preachers ill attendance reltresenting fu"r denominations. Meeting facilities and rooms were provided 1y the college. Scholarships were provided ly the Home Missions Cuttucil to cover the cost of meals. The only expense to the preachers was a small registration fee and the cost of transportation. Most of them drove to and from their homes daily which made it impossible to have night meetings. In future schools they will lm ettcu"ragcl to remain at the School fur the entire period without Interruption. This will "tal:c it ltussiltle to have night sessions. All of the men ill attendance at C-ttllwvhee were enthused and stimulated 1v the 1rugram presented. 'Chew desire to see the school 1e all annual event. Several of the preachers ill their devotional talks and i" speaking to those who led the clisruss;cnts said that this was the first time i" which they ltal clearly seen the relatiuttshilt Itctwcc" God. Alan a tul the 'Soil. -they became Coll servationt cu"scious. ~I~ltev felt they had received a lthilosulhv of the soil, a ltltilusctlthv which could Ix", seen ill action cnt held trips, ill -panel cliscttssicnts, movies aild illustrated lectures. In all of the devotional addresses, the rclatiu"shilt ltetweett mall and Iris "tt"ral resuurcea as a steward of what God has given was lra"tatically and forcefully presellt""d. :1s the writer was ltrcltari"g this article a testimonial letter came from one of the preachers ill attendance at Culluwhee. In part he says: "1 Iave I followed alt Cullcmvhee.' C-mtservatintally sltcahing 1 Have. 1 have ltrcaclted ill both my churches u" "Give and it shall he ( ;ivcÃ‚Â°"." 1 have talked cover crops, cruet rotatint. cct"vcrsiu" iota pasture Of steep land, etc. :end I find t irie"llv response! It is a real joy-." such reactions a s this illustrate the necessity. of wi""ing new converts to the gospel of soil conservation and ltrulter lance use, cu"t"IU"itv cuctlteration and 1la"tti"g as a lout of the gus1el of Him whit is the cslmettt of the more altu",ant life. A Minister's And Church Worker's Rural Seminar And Work Camp litÃ¢â‚¬Â¢.RW \Rtt Al. TAYn.oR \Ia"y rural m"mat"ities need imltruved facilities for religious services. Wc are unity the term "religious services" ill a wide settsc so as to include services of wurshilt, and Ililtle stuclv. a"d also the cumolete religious ministry of service to every lthas^_ of 'co"t"tuttitv and Individual life. Churches, manses. 1laygro"ttds, roads, telephone lines, cctmmu"itv freezer and locker plants', and many other thin, liced to be built or improved. \I"m rural ministers and workers enjev wctrlsn'- u" such projects. They like to Collie to a cctmm""itv ill the way that tteighlxn-s collie to the assistance of a farmÃ‚Â°r whit needs a barn raised, wurl:ing together to do a jolt which ()Ile or a few alone could not get do Ie. learn-raisi"gs were great occasions. A lot of work was du"e. Besides evcryu"e had a good tithe ill the neiglllurlv f,ellowshilt which was a vital part of such a" aitair. -I-he work was itttlmrta"t. It 1ru"ght the pectltle together. The fellmvshil was equally important, spiritually, to the flidividiials and the Coll tmunities involved. The work is Important. The fellowship alld stttdv are i"tlturta"t. such Work a ml fellwvshilt 1rw:e to he a spiritual tonic, valualtle for the iudividuals and the cmnmuttities involved. 'I'll(, secettul annual Camp at Alpine was held this stimmer. Ill spite Of the snags struck Ill(] the uncertainties which prevailed up to the last "tinute, and the cmer gÃ‚Â°ncv aIjust"te"ts which had to he made clue 20 war and rover-luadel schechtlcs, the canter was ltr nnuu"ced a success by its evaluating cu"t"tittee. 20 A10UNTMN U1111 AND MIRK It was held the first two wcela ml All-list. Attending were ministers, a doctor from the forci, " mission field, Sunday School missitmarics and I'l vmctt. 5u"m brou"ght Jthcir Wives and Children. The total ell rollntcnt was tlttv, cuunt;ng one-day visitors as well a s fall-tune cambers. Iurntitc"-ies which ftrmerl_v hmuscd the boarding departineut of tile school furnished livittf; quarters for the cambers. There soon clevelultcd the spirit of a large rural family, with plenty of work to chi but time left over fur living. Meals were prepared cooperatively. 7 )fishes were washed the same way. The melt foul: their torn at these tasks along with the women and young fall,. Mach camber cared for his own Fool 11. :\ nursery school fen- the Smaller children Was Conducted so mothers could lie free clttrin" ccrt;titt hours of the clay to participate in group activities. \11 the cambers were givnt a Complete ltlmsical check-up. Vespers were Conducted. \I ell lbers Of the grct"lt ,hared in the l.ea clershilt ml the aftermum ,e"tittar and stttlv periods'. There were discttssims W the post-war Itrcltlems u( the rural church, religious education and ccnnm"ttitv survey won-k. \lattv Contributed tot the Scholastic ;ltd wmr,hilt activities Of tile canip. Much actual labor was clone. A Ion, clur"titcnw building in serious need of roof repair was attended to bv au energetic grump of men. _a tennis court was lte(yun and left to 1e cctntlrleteel ln_- the people Of Alpine. Playground equipment was built for ill(' small children Of tile C',11111) and the ColflultIllity. At this writing, two-a ttdm-half "umtlts after Callipers w'e"t hollic the ltlavgro"nd is still i" service by tile latter grentlt--csltecially the lcntg roltc swing' fastened to a white oak litttlt alcove the ca"tlms stream. fW chs fm- traveling libraries were got in shape I)y the wcmtett. Ivr two clay and a nigh the mett went to a ccm"ttuttitv scveutv miles away to help build a new atone church. lFie',l stone linscarred by ham"ter c"- Chisel was used. 1a"v loads of such Stone were picked ill) and trucked to the 1uilliug site. Campers were over-night guests of lural citizens of the ccmmtunitv. Next year wcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ hope to enjoy t cmnllcted swimtnittg pool while building, a new link i" the muttntaitt road. In the seminars We hope to (li,,(' deeper into~ the stulv of Significant objectives fur rural parishes. 'I-here i, a planning- ccnnntittec which is s,:cl:in~ to cttlist (nttstanlittg leadership. ~I'ww ln-m A"ttt""t, 1944 posed features arc a special course for the wives Of rural wn-l:crs and lacilitics Imr Icarning and prtcticin- weaving. It is si,(Iniiirant that the li"attcial side Of wwrl: camlr at :\lltitte alas follow, the ltattcr" of a ltar"raisi"g. ThcreÃ‚Â° is not a great 1t"-de" cut anvcme. '1-he I'mslwtcrian loar1 of \aticmal \lissiu"s. ( l.S..\. ) spcntsurcd the ca"tb a"d lntd,gctcd scene nnmev for it. The rclrtirs to~ ltuildittgs a"d the i"tlnwvcine"ts "t;ulc cut the ;'~rcntnMs w-erc worth non-e than this runt left it was of real lmttelit as it was used to hell: ltav ca"tpcrs' irattslxtrtaticm cmsts tc: the field and expenses of special leaders and then' funilies. Cantlter livid their own board hills just as visiting neighltcn-s used to lwing WO with them for meals at a ltaru-rai,in,-. Tllese expenses were heltt low- in this rural sÃ‚Â°tti"g, and a"muute1 to cmlv $1(1.0t) for ()Ile 1ct,su", ~l 5.()() leer a, Married Collj)lc. and ?0.00 fm a"t entire family. Ancl ltl.:Ã‚Â°tttv of milk, cream, butter, fried chicken. 1estcla ice crc"n, apple lric, etc., were enjoyed. I'tÃ‚Â°rhaps the fmlluwity clucrtaticms irmm "The Parson's Hulida_v" (hews slvcct of the c"nlt) will help to exllaitt mfr ccnmictions: "']'Ile custeut at Work c"nlts, and eslteciallv Ministers' Work camps is much work ( : ) and muolt tall;. I" both Of these the camp thi; year has eaccllcd. The 'jtclc-ef-all trales' about tile calliplis Supervised tile Of the cottage roof. .\" elegant 'ltrcfaltricatel' Iraq: 1urch has been erected, a stew raili"g has been add ed, rt dinner-bell pole has been left ill) and culvert in front of the dislccnsarv is now ready for ittslcc tiu" . . ." It is the lnn-lotse of the 1la""i"g gnntlr to rnal:e the ca"tlt a more a"1 "mrc Valuable thing. rt real spiritual mltcricucc for both ccno"tuttitics and inclivicl"als. .144\"tu""t, lr4-1 :\lom-ratN LIFF, AND WORK Social Evangelism v.~ .~ w. T." t.aK :\ church held a great ttteetin(I . It wont marry, "tmv it li1 "ot wio. It did art utthear1 mf thing it III e,tigatccl why. The Gospel was the Mower ttntm atlvaticm. they said. 1 ct that lonvcr had failed to rcaclt utanv. It ltal been 1m-crfttllr 1"-cached u"1 win,cmtelv IT a r F ' to 6 " . _\"l they f cntnd their own "te"tlters lrty-in- the w-a~()e and collecting the r mt. -I'hcy found tttatw ana1r1e to enjw- the sermon. More did tort feel at hcnne i" the church ccnmltanv. And they found other causes peculiar to wa(,c of IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢;vidmttlv snnethino was needed lte,ide; 1-eachinl). "_ Th'n. had talked with and prayed for treaty in vain. I?videntlv ;emiethity 1esicles ltersu"al we"-1; was rh ttcclc'd. The - v fou"1 few ntett Mast thirty-live h."1 1cett watt. "- - The_v ccmclule1 the reran must he saved while a u'' 1m in the Suttdav school. tw I"t tltev fen"ml few 1ovs bust fifteen ill the Stt"1.y ttt' solo ttl. \"d they tout"1 "tauv lmvs in the tmvtt. .I-he_v fnut"1 attotlxÃ¢â‚¬Â¢r town ()ettinl(, them with the Itov Sccntts. \"d at"tther with the Intticn- 1-. 11. ('. :\. \"d another with m,-anirecl ltaaeltall. And others in tther ways that the 1ovs liked. And they said we mill bet them W n-att1 they did. \11 it ":cle1 was a man uxl a plan. ~n they added a social .soraiw to their evatt,)elis"I. le, -I-hey did it thrmt~h their ~unlav sch ml. c,j 1-heir church me"tltershilt was small for the lmlnt laticm mi their town. .they concluded to quit Itlauning the preacher at"l hcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ ittvcsti,(~atc. ill I-hw- ic,ut"1 to() t."w ch"rcluÃ¢â‚¬Â¢s ccnttltetity. ~tt The _v ccmcluc(ed li) cmtlxÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rato at"1 start s(ntwtltitt"'. li"t that i; a lm,~ story a"d t"tt ;111 told \-Ct. Tluw fmuttd half the lteoltlc ltclmyol tot t"t church. 11- `nnoe were ( ",atcl hardened 'till scnttc sin hard t f ettel. cl: Iut s()Im" were ctlett-"tit"Iccl, ,m they it"luired Yttr l- thcr. in -Lhc_v di,cmvcrccl tl"mst LI() vtI'c-can"T, in tltcir church. Thev welctmted evervcmc--why did mot the lulu"-cr.,, he cc"te ' - - Ã¢â‚¬Â¢al So theÃ‚Â°v invcstigatccl further alontt tho wmrhitymett. li~ 'I'hev fcm"d wades uneyttal to the I-I. (~. (f I ~I-hey tout"1 "ta"v loon- lunge; and rust-lmvtt cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢tols earners. The colic] uded that wt~cs ltad so mtcthin(-) to chi with it. :\t"1 that the place a matt lived in might keep him from 1ei"- a Christian. Also) that churches inclined to seree classes Instead of cnn"tuttities. .l.ltev saw "u way cntt cltticlayv revival meeting would mot lo it. Sc they cmclttIed to use social wacruqcli.rrrr also. Ihey asked fm- sec"tnts fmm tile lrol~hetv as wca as the Psalms. ['Ile\' also ant a series trmn -Mantes as well as Paul. The_v heard LIMA alout the ILin~lmtt of (wl as well as 1cÃ‚Â°rwnal salwttitm. I~lte_v used the Bible and preaching to reach the "ei`ltl;c"-h ())l needs. Th",v_ al,() served as well as lWewhecl. and thw_ started snttethin, . The preacher had all illspiratioll. 1 ie ccmclulel to study all the cases that he minis tercd utttct. - \t"1 he found it eve" more i"tlo"-tant to atttdy those wlonu he did not bet to tttinister mttm. Il~ tmnh a widow out Of ;t 1mtr lutt,e and l;"1 nci'-hlun-hmol tot save her twm little girls. \t"1 he went k"-1 to fit"1 a widow with five girls in the place. I lc I"-ovidc1 is"- a family with tylhmicl. And he fotmd nci;;hlc"-ity families with it-arid much dirt at"1 had mill:. Ile lturied a tubercular father, at"1 fcnmcl his children infected. I lc ccmtitn-ted a ltercavel nmther Mid fuu"1 the house full of Hits. lle asked a lthvsicia" w-hv a child died ; a"1 the dmtor was sarcastic. 11e said "-I-ell them the I,r"-d :,riveth and the Lt"-d ttl:oth awt~.." ?2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Autumn, 1944 And he knew the nurthcr loved the 1ahc lint did not kttctw- low- to 11111-se and fecd it. Ilc said to himself it is even %ter to) 1wevent death than to cmntcn-t the l,crcavel. \ttcl it is even ltcttcr to keep ltcmltlc well than to visit the rich. So he ltreachcl main cut the )xtclv as the tcutltlc (of the tul. And he used science as well as loctrv to cmltcllislt his clisecmr,c. And he added suc-iul ministry to his pastm-al work. Ile ltnmmtccl uuttlter.' clttlts with his StilldaY school cradle nMl. I lis church jc,i,tccl in the Christmas Seal ctutllaigtts. I Ic induced the nuwic-than to show health films and did tttanv other things. In fact hi; church 1c(,,,ut serving the cnttuttntity-. I'cmltlc rcslontclecl like the-N, did to ill(' millisIr-A, of 1 csus. \\ ithin a _vcar Ile found mail\, revival n,eetin, cunvcrts hack-sliding, The revivalist said it was the fault mf pastoral uucraiott. ~,cn"e (of the church Ulicers ltclicvccl hill]. -1-he pastor ahcd then] to ecnttc with hint and in vcst"atc. '-['Ile\- W nitcl scnttc loin cumtiottal natures: the Soil was thin. Tl,c_v ictmul wmtc had um fmutulatictn in religious education. They found worldliness ectnld not he cured in a three weeks' allwal, -l-ltev_ found some ill homes where no one but a saint could he a Christian. Some told them they cÃ‚Â°aruestlv tried Ina life was to() hard. - Others wept and asked how religiÃ¢â‚¬Â¢m could live in their evil ttei-hlon-hncul. Scnnc watt ltacl: to the salum cool pool-hall and answered with silence. The pastor was cleared lw_ the officers. But Ile ecmvicte1 himself fur nut preaching, a social mCs.;uyr. He asked himself \\'li\- 1astmrs had nut united to clean ul the camnnuttitv. 1Ic said to himself : "I have found a ,few- 1rcdesti Ilat1W ll. It v-as a Crn-elmmting awl AwNhinning, of people lw the ltlacc they were 1ctru in and lived in. So) he led his church to f meet itself in service of its ecnuutuuitv. 'I-he_v turned frcnn Sectarianism to rcli-ion of the "lturc and ilildeliled" type. 'I-hc_v found aÃ¢â‚¬Â¢mtc church machiuerv that took powcr and lnunt,,('ht uo gist. 'They found some new itwetttiots and attached them -to the (imltel's lwt-er. -I-hey added social srlz~at(urr to personal salvation. And that church rev- w-ithcntt pride 1ttt the hinri cluut drew- tttmrc. Thy Kingdom Come . . . On Earth Deal` Jlastcr, ,tan ~I~lw ltraccr Ile mfr,, May ()ill- lives lte the lcavcu That shall Make these beautiful lll()tlllt-,Lins of ours :1 part ctf the lviugdom of T-leaven. Ma\ the IM-c-light 11lcant f1-()IllU\ .ery hearth li) the lnskv mctt-tide. My caclt tf us seek his ttei:;hlctr'; pmul, \ud all in lmacc altidc. l.et us rmtt mot the sickness that warps men's lives And cultiwUc ~mtd health, liauish lmvcrtv. misery, waste and vault, IW t never wmrsltil, wcaltlt. Let u hircllc tile forest,,; ()f selfishiles", And cut dm't-u the thickets of hate, Plant seed. of happiness and food will Isonud every (';LI-( leu gate. 1\lav the We W lteautv and l;c,m1 good-times Snutlter the "weed,., ml w-run~ ; JIa_v the sa clttcss ctC nxtthers with tired eves Give way to smiles and a sunk. - '\lav a visicnt of the w-urld-that-can-lte lttslirc, cukiuIlc ycutth Too lm-c and serve the C()lllllloll good And Rattle fm- the truth. l)enr Master, Ina v 'I'll\- prayer he ours. May ()Ill- lives lm the leaven That shall make these ltcautiful mountains of ours \ hart of the Ivinglenn mf Heaven, WRKW L. KEENER _\uttumn. 1 t4-I ni MOUNTAIN LIUE AND WORK The Physicians Forum On Medical Care "II-r' ha"', trwwhlc'tf, so to shcaGÃ‚Â°, cr .scÃ‚Â°iund hill of ri,ulrl.c utrdor- z.hiolr cr ma~~ lor.si.r o% .scÃ‚Â°rrrrily card /'rn.chrril a rant he cÃ‚Â°.clrrblislrcd far fill -1-t'gardIcss of .stcrtiuu, rncrÃ‚Â° or or-rcÃ‚Â°rl . . . %-Itr right to crdw/rratc rmo(iwr! rcrro crud 7/ro n/"rortrrtriiY In crc-hitvr trttcf CH . jry flood lrmrlllr; ilro urotlrt to crrlwltrcrtcÃ‚Â° hrtrtt't'liult from Ilrc cÃ‚Â°unuuri fwrr,; of old of/c, siolzaos.c, ucci,lau! and rrtronrCloyrncÃ‚Â°nt . -I'rcÃ‚Â°sidoul lW o;cÃ‚Â°mÃ‚Â°lf fn .llossaclr to C out/r'c.cs, Jturutrr~~ 11, 1 t-I F 7-17c I'lwSici;uts I"erum, re ln-esentitt,, a crass scctitnt of liltcral mctlical mltinicnt, tal:cs a Vi,-toms atul centtrnctivc interest in the ltrmltlcms of medical care. The War has alrca1 focussed attcnticm ttlem the iwcrl Imr tnclical care far the ntajoritv of the 1'olntlcttima. \\ c ltclicvc that the 1cst-war era will '.nttlh,tizc and intcn:i(v these llccd,. 11W "enurtl lntlrlic dcntands nturc aml ltctter ltcalth service:, ])ill, cm the whole, is ttualtlc to 1urch,tsc theta rm all individual ltais. \ well planned program ctU medical care world ltcttcfit the Itulrlic autl ccnnrilmtc tm the cmnunnic slalilitv of lthvsiciatts. \H altln-oach to a ,mluticm mf these lnmltlcuts esiata ill a Iill for a \atimttl l'nilictl Social Insurance ~wtem which is kttowtt as the \\-a"ner-Jlurrav-I)ingcll hill, S llltl mid HR gaol, tumv lmforc crmwrc,. -I-he \\ a~ncr-llurrav-Iiu;~cll kill is a lrlau to c:xtcu1 the hcttclits (of ill(. ln-escnt Social Security Act. It 1rttviclcs for: 1. .\ new l"cIcrtl W -,tent (of I Icalth a tul ln,urattcu, incltulitt, (~ ltrm-isims tur Ilcttcl-ns. Smcitl Security I'rmtcctiun for Persons tare Scruicc. .3. 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢:xtcttsitnt ctl ( evera(1r and lncreasc in I;ettcfits fan ( 11 .\,)c and Surviwnrs Insurance. 1. Ivclcralizatimt and FIvtensicnt of l'ttemltlovtttettt Jnsuraucc to rcltlacc the I?Nistitt" State W -stems. A Ilcxv tLed I'ultlic Assistance Prwjain. the creation of a Xcxv \aticntal System of I'ttltlic J"Il tlrlc-nuntt ( )fliccs, a Fioancin" I'ruwram tllrmt~h I'avr mll and \\-t,-c Taws, and the Cre utitm o1 a l 11111e1 \aticntal Social Security W -s latcruity The Physicians Forum presents the ftillwvin duesticms tttd answers to explain how the individual will receive hi, medical care ii the Bill is enacted. \\ ill you he able to afford a doctor' :Mwa_vs-nn1 no tteel to wait to see whether Johnny's fever will (,o away lry itself. Yom will be able to call a doctor at puce. \\-ill woo be allowed to choose your own doctor Yes. - Yom can choose any doctor in your cuttttnuuitv who is affiliated with the ltluI. 1-cat can go to the same dmtor who is pair physiciall 110W. \\ ill the lmtctr cuttte to see vent at lnmle if y-()U are too sick to ~c to his office-, Yes. And he will see -\-()li at lum1e as uftett as the sickness requires. \\-ill vent he allowed to have general medical check-ups tot see that vuu arc really in ~cocl health' Yea, regular check-alts are necessary to reduce the nuutltcr of sick people aul to locate disease before it is sualtecteI I)V the ltaticnt. \\-ill _wnu- dependents he taken care of as well Ves. The bill provides your wife and delcudcnt chillrett with the same ltettctits which it provides for you. Will it he ltctssiltle fur you to sec a specialist' Yes. \\-hen the doctor tvhu i; treating vutt heels that wour case needs the attention mf a specialist, he will refer you and there will lie no extra fee iu,-ttlveI. \\ hat will happen if vun have t7 yt tot a husltital ' . Yom will he entitled to 30 days of husltital care Ill ntv core _vear. Thirty clays is notch lcm1'cÃ‚Â°r than the avera-c tithe a patient spends in a hnsltital ill arty (7110 ','Cal'. \\-hat if poll need au cleraticm , Will you have to ~u around to your 1 rienls and lturrow the numey to pay the stirernl , \u. The aurycon'S fee will he paid 1v the Insurance Film] along with the hospital fee and the lalon-attw_v work ueedcI fur diagnosis and treatttteut. Is vmur wife lrwitt', t lrtlt_ ' Is she worried about how to pay the doctor's fee or the hospital fee .' Both will 1c paid fur by the lusurattce IW nd. f rum the very be"innino of ltreguaucv. Pa,, -4 Mutt Vr:m LIFE 41\U ~-\'oxs .=\utttttut, 1Q44 I)icl the do ctor say wnt orally sh multl have a chest X-ra`- ' - _ _ 1-o" will nut need to figure mt1 lmw to bet the "to"ev. The kill provides for necessary laltttraterv work. incltxlin- X-ray;. - _ \\-ill \-()it "cel to ,(Io to a clinic ltcr.:"se _vuu cannot afford a private doctor -, \e. 1-0" will he entitled to the services of private physicians in tltcir oflices or in \,()in- home, or i" the hospital. You will lm ltavin"', your share ctl tile medical rusts lw a "oilontt 1avtttll deduction. Medical rare will tort 1e charity, but smtuÃ¢â‚¬Â¢thin"', to which wan arc entitled. 1\-hat hind W "tcdical care will vent receive' I;cttcr than tmlrm. The great major-itv of hmlors in the l~nite1 Statcs will serve t"ulcr the plan because 100.00(),()()0 people will he insured. Since the Insurance I"llild will pay the Cost, your doctor will lm able to ;;ivc vtm the ltc"ciit of all the needed lalutrttcnw. X-ray. specialist a"d hospital services when lice lel. The financial harrier ltctw-ee" the paticttt and the medical care he need: will be ,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢limi"atcd. \\-ill doctors 1c able to earn a livi"~ll ltrtctiri",(_,~ under this I?,ill Yes. The Ili11 will increase the average income and the ectmcn"ic stability of the ".clical ltrolessitnt as t whole. llove will the Insurance I'llild he set up.' The \\at,~ncr-\ltmrav-1in~cll bill provides for a sin-lc payroll deduction of h per rent front cmltlm-cl persons and aft equal a"tou"t front their wathlmcrs. Self-emllove;l l;crscms would lay 7 per cent of the market value oh their service,. 1 t/2 1cr cent ;f the 0 per cent would be applied to medical care costs, the balance to lm used for the additional ltettefits such as I)iaaltilitv, loumltlu_wtcot, ()1l \~c a nd S111viwn-s I"s"ra"cc, ctc. Mountain Farms; Incomes Before The Cdr Knott C ntntv. Ivc"tncl:v : Two-thirds of the families "ru,s income less than :1,000; 11 % loss :has 5500 ; net ittcmme au-cragc. S51 K or x?.00 per week per ltcrstm ; above includes thins raised and used cm the f"-nt; cash i"ctmtc front tarntÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ averageel :173.()0: 60`,r W the farm: averahc1 less than $?.U()0 in val"e; 15 less than $1 ,()00. Average value of tit(' farm htnttc, $.i31 ; a1 other huil(ling's, ,Cl?-LOU: onto-fourth W the horse; m-era,(Ie ICSS than $?00.00 Li val"c. Average ;WaSgC of tillable land. 13 ; ccn-" yield, 1') lt"sltels lmr acre=averagv my 175 lt"shcls per farm; tore-ciglttlt of the farm yield less than 1 5 lntshe',. ( "c-seventh had no fruit; core-seventh "o "tilk; tore-third produced less than one-half pint per day per person. The livcsteel: average per farm was-work animal-, one a"tl mtcfourth-cuu-s, one and core-third-ltigs, lour and core-half-chicl:c"s, 33. (hte family mot of fifty use lumtc-rcwrn wool. Average cost of ltnuc, S3-4L). Iltmtcs avcraged ()lie an(I one-half person.,) per coons. (ira_woa County, IW "tucl:v: (lot of living leer lamilv, X730.00--17'~ ln-mlucel oil farm ; average per person ; food. SO.00, or OC per person per meal ; c lothitt" y 28.00 per person IXT year ; child tinder five, $10.00 per year-six tin clcctt. :20.00; health, $?10( per year fen- the fantilv ; education, culture and ad w"tcemcttt, 10.0() ltcr person: i"sttra"cc, $1?.UO per fantil_v. Average nundwr children per family three. laurel Count v. 1W "t"cl:v : Cost of living. $O8t).()0; 53 ;f ltrcclttcccl m farm, acÃ¢â‚¬Â¢era,, gc per ltersn". $80.00. or 7c per ltcrstm per steal ; clothing'. SIO.OI) per lxÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rsmt; health, .`,nl(.00 fen- the family; ed"cttint, culture a"1 alva"ccme"t, $30.C0; i"surancc. 53.00. \veryc ttu"tlter children per family, .`i.1. .\vera~c cost o hoinc, $-L-4U.()0. ( W crtmt (ontntv. ~Rnnessec: Average farm aureate, h?.-1; c rmlt acrca,(,1e. 17-c cn-", 1 1 acrealtav and forage, -L acres-potatoes, tore-third acre. Yield corn. 10 bushels per acre-potatoes, 135 1ushcls-oats, lU lt"shcls. `hc"a"ts f0~'/~ increase in five years. Average far"t value, $82K00. Fentress Cutmtv, (hemtcssec: :W -crage farts acreage, 5-l: value. $7t)1.00: in crop. 17 acres-Corn, 1 1, hay and fnaL)~c, 5 ; potatoes, one-half acre. Crop total on avera~c corn, lc)0 lt"shels-potatoes, 50 bushels. 23QI population received relief of which 70'/ were rural millers, lalxcrcrs or tenants: -171 rural 1elntlatio" "tittcrs a"d laborers. Mines lar,(,,c_ lv worked out: m"ch of ti"tlcr cut; -10 /r of land tillthle but only 10~/~ farmed: soil secondary. 1ttcretsc in terra tttrv ill five years -L()~/(. wsr.;l Jualmls _uatli .scl I;1t; -_txtc a.n: s""ut_! ()OS "ts"mst.\\ ~m .C~ls_tant"-~ ay h. '00()'OOL$ -~l_tt:m cI jtnumur. S "')MAIN _uatll l"t: 000'000't~ c1 asolo Jo ssautstul lrlo) t: olt 't"tO t: -wsst: Int"n1ru t: (qui sa_tlastuayI Iazt"t:a_m OA MI .iatl.l. 'sjuapnjs 000'OOI 1113LIJ a.to" t LljtA, ulo-c" ,,li([ -uttta OOt' -~l_trau a.tr, aaay1 .~taxyl. 's"(1" tra Sl!s.tan -tun atlI 1noclv sas"ot[ "tp_n;ucl I LI,) 1) 11 IS' atlj fir. Ia ~_nala lt:Lll sl_talj-o.1~1 lnmlr. .tul slt:a" t .ttayl .vla_tatll `ut.tnaas 'atsrl ant~r_taclcx" t' "c (In[,) "tlt.tt:ocl t' out s~"ahnls Anollaj ',,'fit jO I' p,-)ZI -m:s.to .~t;_h~yn:.t~s loll: alrlq,)o;1 JO .v.tcys s,clla-\1 aat_t1ra~f It:a.t atl I ualntIs t; se.t1 mQ tlta atlI uatl_\\ .,', '.aal, a_r~n t: snlcl ah:.t .ilnat t: t". s_ta clttta" t cli-m0 01 Ita)ua.t a.": slcttol asatl,p _la.t.w\c)cl .a"tlmsr`. '.tawu luamo Ã¢â‚¬Â¢lota-auc1: 11011(k)LU msltr Ilnmls [ ca"mla" t I"13 slcuj JO ally yJtM "t.mlz I'.'tlllns p"t; saW.o;.ul .v_tt:ut.talan .vh"tal "t ",)t" lu.)c)l sts 1a"":.tl ,)AI! tl lout: : _talma_uls _taztltl_ta_~ IME NM[ r :.taltn:lcl mo_t-at"t t: : s1uatutlm:lh: .taitltl_ty tly_w aal" tacl "_"" M c_t-cmI t: : "mlltas t"matla.ta y r, : ( sa[nut t_"usst[~ jo .vllclns r. a.tnsst; cy) Ã¢â‚¬Â¢l"/>f t ~tt.~'ncol an tal aM aaua~~ ~A') mu.tlnmtlo_tam SO ltsacl lnj asn acl "t:a lo-c" t: s.v:.IA _tatljct a.tt: a.tatll l"4 a.\\., say_t.~ "u:_t u.tI slt"n"""oa atl1 JO _mpa.ttl It"t: ."/>lsrcl.mp ._tatlm[l 1"""t \ wail 'mlluula_t .p jm;~s"I 'a_ty .icl )A()Is' antlt:_iaclcm [n"' .utlluul _tal"ao sit ~scl u.tn"cstl~ +o sÃ¢â‚¬Â¢I_tt:z( ~ ay1 "t ~_ta~ua,~ .yuuuu"to,~ altar"t"tna1S SZ a.~ud NmoM aUv HA t7 mv.L4.-l"IV, tt(l 'm""att\. Pale 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND V'oxm Autunm, 1944 j 1) A Model Mountain Mission The churches of the United Brethren support a model work in six counties iii south central Iveutuckv. Instead of a center at which all work is clnte they sultlxn-t a staFt with a welfare Worker and three pastors w-hu cover a ha1C dozen church centered community areas. Following the of the 1laster who was teacher, healer anI alnmner, they evanfclize, manage church lmyrams, chi wc1 fare work, care for the health W the people aml major on chillreo'a iotcÃ‚Â°rcsts tln-cntgh rccrcalicnt. cclncation, scluol lunches, lcntal service, vacttiom and BihlcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ schools, and in all thity, do whttcvcr their hails litul to chi that will he of lmmefit to the people. `,1-c predict this tvlo. m( ccnnntunitv-wide service will increase as 1ttltlic sclmnls make am_ increase of ntissicnt School-, less ttcccsarv. Thr, Ipaly Clinic. (.uinr/ In (-IrorcIt. lul;iaq (-urn .S'lrrrol; !)nlls. Dull c_rhibil _\"tu"ut. 10-1-1 1\IourrTAIrr Ltr: AND ~\'oRx Pale 27 I Whiny a cabin home. TIro Vursc oil llorscbock. Lots Creek Community School several thousand lulltrs each year ten'`-,"-I the high school equipment and the Imardill"', department, rather similar to ) linlnrm. ~Ite must lave htnt,ettutthers, a librarian, a woulan to supervise the means (they have a lut-lunch rumt for those who crone to schmcl and do not Ward there), victory gardells, a part-tithe nurse whm is oil call all through the comnnmit_v--i" other words, it is quite a little establishment, in ;bite u( only two lntilclittg-s. ;;he be-an with one shrill one. hut alottt six v:`ars ago built a lamer clot"titnr v where her event office and living- quarters are, and where ()lie other adult lives, lresiclcs 12 or 15 girls u" the entire top floor. The 1iggest Irroltlems at present are those of transportation. The \\ l':\ built the dirt road there, is quite passable, thcntgh rather hard cm a heave-, low-swum type of car. Iuringthe winter she mast walk ur ride horseback for two miles, but almut four miles of the wÃ‚Â°y has been lisecl ltr.aty well. The ]li" cl"cstio" of the future is just what cha"-c the completed road will ltri"l;-either chilclren,will ltc transported lw_ school lets out of I_otts Creel;, or .else others will 1e lrrnt~ht ill. the has the lrel;itmitys of an interesting little settlement there for any core who would like to help build it u1. FRAM-ES WROVI,-,S llm one courageous wontau (trill a mountain high School. llrrrry n rrtunrrtuin school "or.s built the sanro zvaY. Mmut ten years ago, Alice Slcme luya" the little Settlement ill order to furnish a high school for the children of that creek. There was "o road for them to reach another hi-11 school. Today there are -two elementary teacher, (lrtth Hindman g-raduates) an(] three high sclmul teachers (core I li"htta tt). I11icc Slone herself is a "ut""tai" girl vrluuse fa"tilv echoes ircntt C-a"c\' l reel;. She i, ln-i"cilral, and ha', a ,mall lortrclity clolr"-tmc"t of Ith lams atul girl;, :crate tevctttv err m. .\11 tltc teachers, i"cludin" , herself, arc rcr""tv-17ail, hut SlW raises 11-of(crro II -urkor. School Itruolr. F'ao-e 2$ Mournrvm LIFE AND \Xoxh :\utumn, lt)-I=I Migration And Farm Population Changes In The Southern Highlands TIt.~ lest scientific. soclolo,,Ical and economic studies ntacl:~ of this 1)1-ultlent that have come to our hands arc the ltulletins of the hentuckv .a-ricultural I~;aleriment Statitm at the l-nivers,tv of Iventuclcy in I.evin-toll. The most recent is a sumntarv of a study of "Farm Population Changes in Eastern K~nntuckv, 19-IO-19-12." a I'rolgress lZel;ort to-ether with an analysis and an interpretation by Dr. Howard 11-. Beers, Professor of Rural Soclo,Ogy in the University, entitled "Effects of War On Farm Population in Kentucky," (IW llet;n -IS0), issued in April, 1O-1-I. -I-he field study was Made lty the Iscntucl:y :\~ricultural Fsloariment Station ill collahm-ation ovith the Division of Farm 1'olntlaticm allot 1Zural \\-clfare Of the United States I)elwrtntent of _\g)ricttlture. Specific limited areas in five counties were selected fen- the h cruse-to-lvtuse study as bell~ tN- lical of the thirty-five mountain cetunties Of I?astern IW stocky. 'these areas were a'so entirely rural as the ltoltu'atiun of the Iventucl:v Highlands is almost w-lutllv rural. Here is a brief suiuman, Of the finlin's. The loss of pOlntlaticm in the thirty-three counties was nutrc than the total lain they had Made in the previous decade between the censuses of 193() and lc-10. The mioraticnt curt was lur(elv that of individuals who still maintained their ltemtes a ml connnttutity ccntnecticms. The lamest nuntlter were l)ctweett the ales of tifteett and thirty-four. -I-he yOull('er men 1tr-elv went to the national service tool the Older into war production. The nutttlter in LEGEND Percent Decrease: 0-9 (r) 10-19 (r) 20-29 Percent Increase: (Amount InAiceteU) ilt,-- thirty-live Counties ill 1142 is as 30'-,,()10 rural faun folks. -I-Iris w-as 85.000 fewer than the nuntler reported hy the 1940 census. The nt:~r.~tic;n curt was largest in llms;~ ceutttics nearest the industrial areas, least ill those like Leslie Cunult_v in the S ;tutlt-C-etttral aecticm of the state, eme Of the nure remote, mountainems and thicklylmlntlate1 Of the nutuntain comities. 'hhe numl~:r Of men 1e_ twcen the ages of fifteen and thirty-lour was found to have decreased )w 40 ~r but the women 1y only 23c%r. In some counties three too fntr times as mauv went to industrial lm(luctiont as into the ttaticmal services. Frcnn one-half to two-thirds of those whit left most of these areas were between t1 ales Of fifteen atul twenty-four. -I-his, of coarse, included thos.t~ who went into the military Service. The lc)-IO census reports that "the percentage of farm lxtlntlation tw-entv-live years Of ahc and over who t had completed store than eight years of schmtl ratyccl from 5;~ in JIu-tin to 1 1 % in ( wslcy' l uuntv. In every county but cute the majority had less than seven years Of ;chmoling, the percentages ranoing frnn -15 in ('lintcm to GR in Martin ('(nutty,. -1-h e social ltacl:gruttnd of these chan,)cs is yivett in the follevinw lru-wralths: "'l-he social urrianization of rural 1eeltle in Eastern lietttttekv is centred in the funilvÃ‚Â° and neil-hbctrluxul. I?ven now, isolated ly toloralthv and poll- communication, life in the mountains retains main, characteristics Of early American rural society. Ill all of I?astent Kentuclcv, sentinrtmts of edualitw anions neighlun-s, loyalty to kinfolk, j," i: xm"vl tu s.tt[nt~~ mny .njl [~".nttttum .ij[t:t.).ul;~) Ilnmo a!\\ ~`Ã¢â‚¬Â¢["":jtj'ttl u_tatlltuy "t[1 ttt "ctttt:"lts .t"t"/>"maa [t" r: [r.t.xts .,t[1 )c aln:"t tt.;.;c[ lo.i OA al lr:t[1 satlm~s ajclt:"Ir:n I"( )Ill at[J sr: jtalntat""utaa_t a.tt: It"r- "lira) tm:~tnunn .nlI to a)tj "t alt:j s at[ 1 t; [t.tr. -a_t tit apr.I . )Is'l,c[ at[I ant` lllls '~1'[ct a_"c" t .") s.n:a.v ua1 Ak " aur. .iat[I aj"j.m 'tla"l_u 'a.)""" c to "na""cur "u sat[mIa lct SO ;_tas r. satl_t"jl atjn .~ut_tnl [ta"scr tuulrl( , It .u"t_tals'.I [t:_t"lj"at.ty: .ilanluav[ at[.I. ..~;lanaj `"t.wl _tat[ ~n[ to "cttpa_tt[ at[I li[ _)jI,)A,)( lct Ijtw .i ;t[~ : t"aut.im[clt"a"n lm acnr:aac[ 'LI[A t[ )o j_"att":ls lr,.tn.t at[1 ttt attt[.~a[t t: I ua.~ -a_"I .il"u loo j[t.'ik .aatl~ ."/> t.k t[ "o"a t[~t.a Iala"Iuct.t )t [t"v: 'aa.tc) .tctcjra s,.ilt""""tum ar[~ ~.W [tiara j[tM sat~tA t lm: asat[_I. ~saa"ls" t: It:.m[ _tajt"" tuuI u_Lacl ctl, a[~lrlms 'sast."l_t.yua jtn:l_uclttu acl ll!.'k asetll fit.. ~saa_t"osa.t lsa."y jala[la[) to I I_l LI s0-II aL u~a "t [n": 'a[n:o.t .i_tl""c" In 1"auulml..~.rlt at[~ 'samlm:."l a r:j[t~ `'tttn_tas" m-["ts ltttt.tat or sl"ct.ir:j "t_tr:) jo t"ttlr:zt" r:`_toa.t ;t[~ 'I "o""l"rlta ~w"n:_tl m uoyahas"t at[1 's."Iutltluul "t_":~ _m[ro lcc uotzau.tls -"m )Lp wstuttl "t.n:) at[l "t satrtlmr.j ".tajx"t pt " o;ctno_"l at[ r `s"t_":~ ctr _i I IMA l.r"ja In t"us"aiva at[ 1 ut;;t.u [naol )o s[t:t_taltttt r[1 tM ttaj )m 'sa""ttl _talla cl pt " mpn_tlst"m at[)-LI( olt:["clml jta [tt":clsa -)LI~ Ict lt";ttt -So[clot, antp"jo_"l _to) .i~ttt.:rl_tc~olclc~ .ta~~m Ijtw I rtlr slaa" .ilt""" t""m :"ctt.trn c,1 [tai[r:.~ acj a.tatj .ir:"t tutt~ua~~\- ~_tr.." rah a."t+acj t":th _ta~p: " acts t"olr:j -nclctl t"_n:~ a."x" aA t:t[ ll[nN .ipuzuav[ "t satrttmt" -"u" jt:.tn_t .ituott Irtll st "ntanjmut.t eau at[,j,,. ,yaa: )o s_tt,t.i ,:~' _t:,["" t"/>trr:Imlcxl at[z jo t"ul_"/>t I ULt l ""/>_y twa c l staj sso[ lttaaa.t atja )ct llr' t[m:a\ ~.il;~tullt.v tt_t"la_t o1 sI ttt:_t`"""" _tajlo "t:tj1 i[a[tj ssa[ ac j jly sitn:_t" tututt _t.)`,'"ny~ watt"t"" t -t"c" jr:_t"_t W tt.tnla_t W "r:tjl _tatly:_t sHc"lr:nlt1~ ,[cjt_trcl""m jaas n1 _". ':,at: .i.~tli )J,)ItM ttu:t"a_t y ac j ll!w ' .')ttt_w[ um j_t" )m s.ir..a at[1 ttttt_tt:al [1!111 w-I 'S ., "I r.A~ ~ ty"j W [at"cys"."r: a"u"acl m[_w I)tW St IA~( lfr'"ta [Mr: s"t_tt:) 11.x[ OAMI cnl.eX HOW( _e~ [)In: "a"t ~sctut pt "otltsctclsip aril Jr:tl1 [au"tsat: ac l .it'"t z[" ,ys_ta_tctcjt:j .":w jtu: s_tml~m [t;ztlu[ctt" -a[ to jnna at[~ cal tt.ttt~a_t jrn[n:.t ~ Z:.s~.~,xL ; ol"o_t. j.ttt[1 at[~ :a.tnrj",t_tt: )o ono _illttatu:t"_tacl tt":"ta_t co. a~"l:.t`tut"" [r:_ttt.t spaclsa clno_t [tt"ma s at[~ : satlt""t" -aura jt:_tn_t ttt slut:_u'"u ja" _t"la_t p [tcml[ r: s-loacW o cltu.t~; ls_ty at[,j, - s_tra.i ak a~ r: ""Ilt.w ttctosa_tclajt .u[ [ta.mo[[o1 1"a" t.inllttta sit ;tttl.~ajt [r:"ln:_t I~ ~ ptla."I s.tatllm :.n:_e\ .tt[l )m .~~ol.) .)Lt l P: U""rjs jr:t.tlsnjt -"t alr:t[On"tttt t": JM lta_"t aI( lctal art"y 'M I If S' 1,)L a.n:.;cl .tal)t: a)tj .iat"nt"""0 jt:_t".t fm tuolr:zt"W_"t -a_t at[1 I nmlr: st"olsa"i It":1."/>cl"" auras asu:.t saojt ~t 1"c[ '_u:.ek aril sttu"ut.4k p Nt sta jt:" otlrtt aril tit )Aml _tat[ ;"oo[t: "ou1 sanl .u~ ILI( ct_t o" s"-)A t:aj s_tat[[us lntr: s_taÃ¢â‚¬Â¢[."tAk )u li( znclt.tjuc,a s,.iÃ¢â‚¬Â¢[~n~uav[ u_tajsr:',l" :.iÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ja"ltiw[ li[ "oty:[nclo( [ t"_n:,l tut _n:.\1 jo sloa)1,,[.. lal~tltta Li tIallnc[ aril ttt "stuns -"p"().)" s"[ "t SMc~llc~) sr, cl"attt""t.t _taa[[ .t~l ,yatt"u[ fit: ajjtssml ste.v " of[1 aIMSIII( j J Ak antW "jm."l a_"o" _to! s,)e(,[ aril .mots .iltt"tl_"olcln aa.tt:j ls."k .ttat[I ajclnacl "n:1t"to" t .i"t:"t cy ztJ~no."j 'Ã¢â‚¬Â¢I_tuw _11:.w "; tll 'l.uou as"a)aj pill! amn.tas .i.tr.~tlsl~ ~a[n,jno at[j ILI( _t1 j["l a uo_t~s .i" r: LI tr: r: OA ar[~ .snAk '_tananut[ 'l[ .tr:.\\ [[-"/>\, l"r: )SH,)la[ Ir."culrtt to s.it:[ at[l ItILIII Jo~ ,y1"a.ta),[tjt a.n: satut~.. ~ta[1 1"a" t - [ta[AM ) "/>lm ttr: [" raj _t, t[lo aril "u inn: ~'cluo_t .0 S_tt:"t -t_ul aril )0 1_"ulclns I) I( m[1 '.C[t"":1 I)tW alas "cttl" '"cttltln:_tI tuln aa"r.t[a_t [tLIM j arm at[j to t Ianjctnttt t[a"[_v haj":naml umsnj um ~. ~alc[tas "aacj ~uu[ In; t[ 113LI I .i1at.xs t "t 1t":tja p a"o st:nA at"t~ at[,I. ~satlt.mlat: _tatjlu .C" t:ttt [" t: 't"o~t:lt["[rtl.,_t ' ~ atla.t j_"tAk JME.pa_ttl laanjct_tl"t c"":_to.ul ..ott.W_t.uta jt:_ta[a~ s"m.n: \ ~ '.il.ta.vl p.s tttlaa~ A" a" .ir.j_ta[t"" l"ts lu t"/>t~alclal aril [t"i: 'sauna Sm 'tttI Ill tls [t" r: '"cnsa.t a t[1 )o IS l_n:cl a""ts "t a"u"" t .ia"cttu "cxl" as"a[tI,- :lair laa"tlt.n: .ijl""a_t atl,l. .' "tntj p s[.tAal lta_ta_~~a[ IM n[I t AN I t" t.tacl lj"ct. saa"utsa_t "t:th .ijjttch:v a.mt" tl_nm~ [tasr:a_t.t"t .[.tn~"ay ".talst';j Ill ajcOacl )o .rat[ -"Ill tt at [,I. '[m`ra.mal I ".,tua.vn" [t.tr..aIno '1"t:1_"/>clu" a_"c"t 1"cl 'ltau_tn1a_t sitar[1 I m .it":t" s,0~'ly )Ltj `ut_tn~l ~.i_t~snlttt `sit[ttr:clsa "t Ã¢â‚¬Â¢j_"t.tk ."y SX "unl "":1""cn" .tt.atjl lia[ .Iclctacl 'a[tt:aal .tr.Ak I sctcl ls_ttl at[~ ~ "t_tn(I ~sau"" aril to ;a`n.e~ tl`ttl las a"uml 11' sa.)Ã¢â‚¬Â¢[_to.m : alas -lnt a~tl .Mta s[I" l arlI t"ct.r) In' _mjt?s I"r. s.tatllos "nu.i ~'m:.\1 [l.rct_1\ rs.t4 at)z sit 'oat[,I. 'Sa"ttt" t[1t.w aattat_tacUa tu a_t Is.tt[ .tan[1 a[clctacl "n:1tuutut of 1,t~`no_"l t[rat[M '.") ut"tt" "at[1 ["r: `tu_tac[t""j .icj ~s.t([ lal.mllt: st:_w .ilat.xts atlst[""r.) ~".mu;_["s-)L)s r: )u "_t,llt:,l .ij.tr:. atl,p '.v_tnptao a ~jra[..il.tra" _"/>~ ~ut.t -_t"",t "aac[ aA rtl ca~"rtla z"t:l_tucILU t '_tananutl-[.. . ~ ~l'acl `laa_ta m[1 acj .ir:"t ln:u.t s"[ j"t: 'tta.t[tjtt[.~ t[lt.w jtaltn\ o.m-_tano sitjtjt"cj t" cttm -atut r: SI ILI)SI s"[ 'l,~a.t.) at[1 cl" a_tnlw.tIs a"":. y 'llt:ttts n st t[a_t"tla ~su[ 'asncttj Itawtcj _ut a'ml lh'"ts t: i[jt:"sn t at"otj s,_ta"t_tr:) 11WItHIMLI atj,l. ~a)!l [t3 W) s pt ~.n:cl jr..t`al"t " r: a_n: am"ala.t-I [as p s~ulr.t[ jt"t: GZ D',I Imo ~ aUV HA r-1 Urv.cvno; Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND NVoarc Antunm, 1944 Freedom From Want--A Spiritual Problem HOWARD 1). F-IMEIRSON T. l'. -4. The idcers in this article yr'e"' out o f cr uerk' uuif Yiull correcrf, or "c oruruon maor^iuy," which Dr. Harcourt fl. Morgan hers bc'cn fircscufiny orally to a rrumbcr of groups ill this region. Dr. .llorgau is z,'cll kuouu to rucnrbcr.s of the Council of Sorrlhcrn _llountcrill Li'ar'l,'_ cr-S. His ICl('(rs oil r-PSOIIr'C('S and ho- a' "CC SIr01ll_l ifs(' tlrc'rlr have llllh)'PSSGII hCll'(IbollC'll 171rsrdlc'sS rucu, scicrrtists, doctors, and eugiuocrs; he has told the'nr to visitors from I?ucllcrrrd, China, and South alrucricer, zt'ho carne to learn about thc Tl-'rl. HC has ber'rr hreseutiug his cozrec'pt zceekl~' for uearly a yrar to what 17c calls cr Suudav School workshop. I'robcrblv never before haze phosphorus, clrloroplrvll, enrryy, and flat' undcrstcrucliu.g and rrse of resources been subjects for disc ussiorz witlz the conventional rliltious lesson. The point of view was expressed before the war by a lealittg business magazine that America neeled a unifying spiritual purpose, something to satisfy what it called a "spiritual vacuum in America." `'4 ar has given us a temporary unity of purpose, but scene fundamental peacetime incentive will be needed to keep it alive afterwards. A common intcrest in building ill) one's community, state and country might he the basis for such unity. In fact, such lit interest might bring its into common understanling with all nations lit the world, for if there is one thing; which Americans, Russians, hritish amt Chinese might agree on, it is that this generation's Job, after the war is over, is to build a hotter life from the resources available to us. The biggest part of that job is to provide freedom from want. It has been further suggested that we can prÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ cccd to solve problems like that of freedom from want lrv materialistic means. UoId is material; hence the problem would seem to be a materialistic one, ulmitting of a materialistic solution and not requiring us to await the achievement of spiritual purpose or filling a "spiritual vacuum." However, i f it can he shown that what appears oil the surface to be sor obviously materialistic a proposition as getting food to people is in essence an indivisible combination of the material and spiritual front beginning to end, the occasion fen- renewal of a spiritual outlook lit all things will have green made. This article is written with the idea that tile, Southern mountain worker is interested lit a prugrant in which religion underlies his activities in education, agriculture, health, and public welfare rather than being treated as a Separate unrelated activity. 1 he thesis is expressed that the time has come when we can begin to integrate knowledge, break ing down artificial compartments separating subject matter fields, including the barrier between matter and spirit. Both are part of a single creative process. '1'h,-, very fact that man has the idea of freedom from want for a11, at once suggests that we are dcaling with something that is inure than materialistic. The idea grows out of belief in the brotherhood of Mail. 'hhe degree to which the idea of freedom frrnn want is tied in with the belief that all people are brothers and is lit turn deeply rooted in more fundamental spiritual conviction will determine the extent to which we carry the freedom frnu want idea, whether we confine our obligation to our own ccnntnunit_v, our own country, or extend it to other countries, other races or even to future generations by conserving soil and resources. Alan has another inner urge which makes this a spiritual problem. That is the urge to reel: truth which has built up science and technology to the point where the idea of freedom from want may actually be practicable of fulfillment. In spite of the fact that man has lived cm the earth fen- a 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢m- time, he has only recently learned what it is made of. It was nut until the year 1931 :1. 1). in our history that we completed an inventurv of the 92 elements of which our earth and universe consist. In that year, two scientists at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute identified the last of these 92 elements and culled it "alalramine." It take's its place with iron, carbon, copper and the nurrc cummun element", which Illan has used for many centuries. \utu"tn, lt4-1 Mot- r.m I ,I FE .w o '1\ oR t; l'at'e 31 \\ c have learned further that the amounts of these cle"tcttts "ul the encry- associated with them elm not drape, that the runt total of the matter a ttd cttcry- in our universe is the same trove as it was thousands of years a,u, accorclin", to What scientists call the laws Of mmservatiun Of matter atul encr;;y. The latter- is also l;ttuwn as the "lust law of tlter"uolvnatnics,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢. .\ secu"d law- of ther"uolvnantics states SUlteS; Usable furors to disordered, dispersed fart"s. 5tutlihht v-arnms the rout of a hu":e a"l its interior, and tluÃ‚Â°tt the heat passes off into ra tulum Wa~ted Motion of the molecules of the surrounding air. Its useful "ess ha, disappeared furw-er as far as man is concerned. \\-a lturn a piece of coal, and the carlxnt i; Oxidized, a mI carlnm dioxide and much Of the heat evolved disaltltcar ill) the chin"tev. \ ccmcetttrated usable form Of ~ney~v lets peen lia,fm,ed and while the carlxm still exists, h'e can never ilse it a,witt for heat. Iran lteccmtes iron rust. \ pallcm W ,("asmline drive; a car tw-cnt_v miles and is yore I orcver. \ll thin au):,usts a" mhli-at imt to ntal::Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Ittllest asc of rcsmurccs lccfmre they are clislmrsc(l. Ill the lrn-uMc ..f tile talent,. me Mall Used the IllO]W\- prmcluctivel_v W oral;e nmre; .utoth,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢r 1ttriecl the mu"ev "nusel. Suppose he had thrown the numcv aw.w . I t we consider the sccrntcl law Of thcrnuolvttamics, we lave the clmicc of mal:in() Ilse Of 1-csoill,ccs procluctivel_v or of thnnvin,() them awav. If we 1nt't "."c li)(. sua'; enet;ny, it is p nte ; if we ])III-11_ the ttat"r;tl o)a frOIlI OUF od Wells, tit(' ClICI-1)\- IS lost forever: if we clunt use the every- available to "s in rtuntin() water OF 1'rcnvin'0 trees or Ill the elements in the land, we in effect ;I talCIlt ill tile earth, mr v-urse still, lose it entirely. -I-ho trmtettdous, complex, creative proces's lw which clettmttts uul emr~y have 1cccntte available or car use; the innate c"rioxitv i" mail to find out alm"t thcttt and the creative Ill-e to m-yutire to its(, the"t, all stt,~-ust that Our resources arc not here to he v-astccl mr to lre left "n"secl: that there is, i" last, a I:itul of ,i" i"wnlved in nmt tttilizin") them to lntill a ltctter cmtt"tt"tity a ttI a letter wen-1l. I'eultlc in the Suutltern liihltlancls and in "taplmrts W tile World ltrm-. "(~ivc us this clay OUr daily ln-caul." In many cm"ttrics. 1-avera today du mot -o nt"clt lccvcnul this core Ietitimt. l-et the rInswcr to this prawr, the feeding of ourselves aml of people tln-ouwhmtt tile world cart be accomplished only tltrcnt(1h the activities W matt', IA- till,,; kIlOWled()c "ul use of rcsottrces. \\ a need to know lung- i"disltcttsaltle in nature's scheme are the elements of ttitr cyen, carbon alld ow()eo in the air ; h_vlru('en and myctt ill water: and ltlxcplun-u; w id rather mineral elements in the Soil. fen- it is from these that all our focal is Made. \\-a need W know have the energy from the sun, actitt", cm the chlorophyl in the thousa tins of little green leaves of ()tit- free, arch plants, transforms these elements Of nitrog:n, hvclro-en, usyen all(] carbon ( from nature's pantry-, as it Were) into the fats, sugars, starches and proteins which are the ltasis of the foods which nta" can use. The farmer-ltrculucc'r ltecantes the partner of nature in m cntcrltrisc which has spiritual siI(Initicance. IIe already knows this, ltccutse he has alwms staved close to nature. His county as`nt has lccrtt uWc willuntt artificiality t~ 1"ilI cnt this in ittstillip the idea Of stevu-dshilt in the use of tire Soil. -Hhc f;u-11](T "mre than atw rather lWrsun cmnnectccl with the fool production lmccss utulcrstanls that the 1aic chcÃ‚Â°mical clcntc"ts in his Crops which `iv-c them n"tritive or food wdue Were not sttltliiel lw his cttcn-ts, but have ltccn accunntlated in his soil lw ttatm-al 1-ocesses mwr a ntillicnt wars or are auailal)le fl0111 the ittexltattstilIc ,entree, of air "tl water. l le may luOt believe that these proccsscs w-crc set in motint just to ace"tttttlate the means for feclin- his Futtilv, hut that lterltalts the arse"tltlin~,) Of these clentcnts and the development of men Who tttu,t feed cut theist are: harts of a larger process. -l-Ire ln-escrvaticm tool 1rocessin" of fcxul to est:nd its use mwr time and cli;tance is a moclcrn technical achievement of the scientist and a"riineer, whose cuntriluticms will be needed if tile world 1.11, to 1e fed. \11 ccmttecte1 with tltc program Of "utrilima-l~h_vsicimw, dictitia m, mttriticntists, :olttcutnrs -seek the ka~i, for ;t halattccÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cl use Of Starches, stt,1)ars, fats, ltrmtcins, minerals and vitamins. -I-his funcla tttc"tal approach ()tias even I)reuter ,igaiiica nee if tlume ccn"tcctel with it feel they are Dart of a crÃ‚Â°utive plan which always i"tcndeI that smntc clay matt would learn to feed li intscÃ‚Â°lf and his brmtltcrs frmn resources which, trout tile he"Jullill'-. ltaw ])('ell Waitin,() availaltlc for this use. Pa-e ,i3 Mot-N-PAIN LIFE AND WORK Autumn, P-L4 \inetv-live per rent or more of the elements in food cane from the inexhaustible sources Of air and water. 'I'llI's is of great s'-nificuwe. but Of air (Well mare significance is the part ltlavel by the clvttamic soil elements ttsecl in small quantities ly ltla nt, which can then draw upon lat,(1,c antuuttts of the air and water elements. ()lie pound of phosphorus from the soil helps a leriume 1laut to grow ; in the process, live bounds of ttitrugeu are taken out Of the air. There is plenty of the latter element, 20 million tans over c-ach Square mile of la ml. When the larn~~r aver-crops his soil or let. it wash away lm erusiu tt, lc has to ])li\' plant nutrients (fertilizer). (n the lta;;s are svntltuls N-I'-Is (Nit rugen-I'lmsltho-us-I'utassium). If the sult1lies of these particular chemical elements were as limited as tit,-, reserves of some of the 9? clentents, man's levelotnaent would end for lack of food. Provision has been oracle that they will not lm unavailable if man will Cooperate in their conserva ticntand use. Phosphorus and potash arc found in lame concentrated deposits in a numlo:r of parts, of the world, accumulated at the 1ottum of ancient spas. Fourtifths of the air is nitruheo utd man lets fairly recetttlv learned to "tis.. this clement frcntt the yair iota useful compounds. Prior to leartting this technical process, farmer; have rotated Crops with le-tnncs to restore nitryen to the sail. Alan a tul nature lave thug always been luu-tners in rt trentettclmus enterprise. In the past when ntan ha; cnttemllatml the wnolers of the process of which he is a part, he has fe'.t awe and reverence and huntilitvthat is, he has felt relil;ious. I le has said of GA, "Hallowed lte Thv \a mc..Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ I1ut when man learned m tal;~ ttitrcycn Out Of the air hy himself, he felt self-sufficient aml more inclined to boast Of his own achievements. He legau t feel that all prohlellis Could be Solved ltv al)l)licatim of nure and more science and technolo()y. Yet the "divine curisuity" . which started man Oil Iris scientific discoveries comes from an inner to Vie, the seeking 1 or troth, that is part of the whole scheme. Professor 1). W. Brid'(1111all, in an address as retiring ltreaid:r,t of the flnterican Physical Society. speaks of the "craving for understanding.. present in same human beings. The scientist, to a high deorcc, just as others has a strntgly developed s:mse of lteautv or Of conduct. And the character of man, which determines whether he will ttse his scientific knowledge and technical capacities to create or destroy has peen built ulxn the instructicm Of rell'-iolls leaders. Technical ille'll who have developed methods foitakity nitrogen out of the air and for ln-ucessinf; the are; Of phosphorus so that these two elements can he used to build alt soil and the capacity of our land t feed ourselves and others now find that their levelolmtettt, arc lteinl- used to kill instead of to feed ltwltl".. The scientific textbooks from which past hmnvled,-c was derived for the development Of those new processes Contained nor liscussirnt of :\ntunnt, 1944 t\Imwr.wN 1AFF AND WORK how to bet the results of sciettco Intot what we feel to be their proper use. In his address a; retiring president Of the :1ssuciatitnt few the .\lyancentcnt of science, jaauvrv 1. 1943, I)r. Irvine I.anhnm"r said he saw- ..nc uljectints to recognizing that the held of science is limited . . . ( )ill- morality comes to us largely 1n- tradition or reli-int . . . :\ sense or nuralitv and clecetuw_ , even if not scientific, stay hells win the war." More ()cÃ‚Â°neral roc pgttitiutt that science does nut cover the whÃ¢â‚¬Â¢tlc field of knowledge and experience would ctltett the way to a frill integra tiun of man's understanding of resources. 1 n rcm nectitnt with food resources such a unified con cept would include knowledge of the sources of foul elements, the laws which govern their use, and the feelinhs or attitudes of al)ln-eciatim uttl ohligation which will letermitte what uses elm about these resources. Thrcnt(h such ;t ccntrelct, rcligicnt ccntlcl find its way ]lack itttn lailv life with the whole Of Our econcnnic activity, all ltrofessicnts. att1 all ,ci',nce, as the means fur Carl-\, our spiritual purposes cm earth. The problem t f cyualization Of teacher,' fry between the races in the Sontth is cmnltliratcd ly the atttluritv grultel local school hoards. Its :1rlcansas. where several counties are attctttlttittg elttalizaticm, the director of school will tinistratint reports that there are 2,537 separate school hoards ill the state and that in theta there is no ncticealtle trend on behalf of ,,(jualizatloii. IIc fnrtltcr says. if there arc more than 2.500 separate school districts in Arkansas, how man v arc there in the entire Stnttlt, where the sa ttte rttlc lat;gely prevails untsicle of North Carolina' Its South Carolina there is agitation foi- eclnalizaticnt and the L-. ~. District Court has enjoined (-ltarlestm authorities frnn discrintinaticm. In the state at lame little progress is ltcing made as vet. Law suit.,, to win equal fray for teachers without regard to race lave peen Woll nmv in six southern states, Texas Iteittg the last to join the procession, The others were -fennessee, \-it;g-inia, l,1uritla, hentucl;v attd I.unisiana. In T,ettnessee three of the four largest cities give equal pay, Memphis ltcin"', the omlv la-harcl, and Seekers after a better tuulerstanlin, of this concept of lru-tnership would learn to identify and appreciate as divine the maw- commonplace facilities of material life. _\s the creaticnt of the universe M Id of ntan is divine So also are the I-cwisicm created for life; the elements and ctnnloutuls of nature cm which life is maintained ; the etteirunntental facilities of life such as soil, air, water, heat, and electricity ; the generation of life with its varying esltressims its the vast rcalnts of plants' and animals and man; and the ccmcclttiun of universal laws which assure life's cuutinnitv. The result might I)c that the minister and religiotts worker of the future would recognize forth material and spiritual resources as Gud's cmtributiun, and man's efforts at political and ecnunnic m-ganiza tins including ntudcrn 1nsittess enterprise 1ropcrly directed as tttatt's ccnttriltuticnt to a point. ln-ugram. He might eveÃ‚Â°tt preach sernxuls on nitrugctt all( l enct;gv a tul chlorophyll ; ()li mail's ultligatiun to use material resources fur spiritual ends ; cm the t;uals to aim tmvartl is addition to freedrna bunt want. the Mate I;oard c lulttcatim insists m elual fray where they sulmilize a rural school. The \-irginia legislature Voted a ntinintunt of S,V()0.00 fen- teachers its that state, '1-ennessee follows with $050.00. IW ntucl:v and other states are sowing to vote extra numev to try to keel) the teachers, thonsancls of whom are le-axing- the school roost for More remunerative work in defense factories. In 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢luritla Miami held out against the state Sttl-eme ('cntrt with a separate lwv suit. In Solid) Carolina tcachcrs' fray was itacreasetl lntt it was fmntd that most of it went to the whites, the colored teachers getting about one-pal f the av"ragc salary of the white teachers, often ()ill\- altout $-100.00 a year. Its Nashville the 7-10 city school teachers held an interracial meeting to put ln-essurc ttlom I'.--h. :\.'s, anti the general ltultlic to get their ntittintnnt raised W $1,200.00 per year. This city, the Athens of the Stntth, is on the lower rounds of the salary- ladder for her city teachers, the maximum bcillg about one-half that paid in Louisville and 1lemlthis \Im Nr.w l.trn: .wo \\ oao Vocational Agriculture In The Southern Highlands Ivr.vs n~:u \\ m.ruuo 1)cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢Cartrnont of _ l yri,-ul(rtr-cÃ‚Â°. l3ormn C-ollcÃ‚Â°oto Ill rerettt year. a ttt"ttlcr of a~ricttltural aIl encies have Made wtluallc and lustitt~ ru"trilntticnts to rural itttltrmo"tetu in the Swtttltertt nun"ttaitt re-imt. Since wOcatimtal education in ,t"riculturr is an ilItC"I-,Il hart Of the lntltlic scluxcl ystcnt, it has out tense into the limelight to the extent that the separate ag-ettcies have crone, mid has cleiinitely nut received the recognition which the lnwg-rult scents to deserve. Probably a reascnt fur such lack of recynitiuu is that departments of vocational aggricttlture itt mu"ntaiu high schools have been estrtltli,hed touch nu"'c recent]\- than they were ill high schumls Of the nun-e lawn-c1 farming re-iuns. SincÃ‚Â° the valet Of these dcltartmettts has lwen "u"-e clearly realized. the eslattsicm rot tile j)FO,,(1raIu has been very rapid, and will unlm"ltccllv he yrcatlv accelcratcd v-hc" qualified teachers Of wccaticmal ag'riculture arc u-ain avai'alt'e. The purpose Of this article is to wplaitt briefly the nature Of the wmaticmal t(Iriculturul l~ryrattt and scene specific ccmtrilnttioms which it ha, Made to ~ the rural sectimus of the Al)lrtlachian re,,(Iio. -I-he ln-~~~ratn W wmatiunal education in a~ricultttrc is carried cm hV the Michel- of v-ocatic tai a,11ricullurc-, who is a rer;ular tneutlter of the hilt schcutl staf f rot tctchcrs. 1 Ic is responsible for cOlidlictill') all the activities included in the wmaticmal a""r iculturc ltrpra"t. This includes Ihc teaching Of alllav classes to lm_v, re"')ularlv enrolled in high schnul, the teaching of part-time classes fur lows living ()li farms, tart Wlm have rout _vct entered into the Farnti"h ltusi"css for tlluillselvcs' and -the te cl ill" of evcttin, ll ur adult classes fen- farmers who arc uleratin~ farms citltcr as owners c"' tenants. The teacher is cs-cf ficim adviser fen- the Future 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢'armers of America, the ur"attizaticnt W which rtll re~ularly enrolled students in wwatimtal aricultttre usttallv ltcl~m, . Ele alw serves as supervÃ¢â‚¬Â¢iwn- of the far"t practice ltruhrants which all lmw tal:itts wOcatirntal agriculture in hil;h school must crtrr~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ m in relation to their high school work. T" addition to thca.~ duties he has 1ecn rcalonnsiNe for null crutts Other activities i" the ccnnmtutitv. such as the or -anizttimt Of 0.~.~~ 1. ccn"-scs to train V01111,(,1 Men Autunut. Ic1-1-1' for participation in tile: defense ln-u""ranl, the c"-~;tniirttimt of fmul prmluctiont and machinery rcltair ccn"-ses, anti the purchase and illstalla.tiutt of cclttilnttent for cmtcluctin"', all the Nvw-k included ill the wccaticmal u11ricttltttm l~rpr.un. ( )titer ditties, s"clt as estallishin,,~) ca tttterics, "urserie, ltarticilaticnt in ,crab drives, and war hOlld sales will ltc ntcttticmecl ill the felluwin, 11 I)a ra,' ral)hs. -I'he activitics of such teachers hayÃ‚Â°a covered all the state, Of the vatic"t, lout reference will he utacle cmlv to those clelartme"ts of v-ccaticntal agricnlture located in the "uuntain counties of the sntthertt rc"'Jnt. These include Cc"-ty-One counties in lW ntttclw and all avcrai~)o of alj)rasintatclv au equal nutultcr in \ iria. \\-"t \-itYniv, Noah Carolina mid -I-cttttesscc. \\-lent the urgent need for increased food pru clttctimt Was realized at the ltegittning, of the ltr:sctti ccmflict, tile teachers of wctticntal rt-ricultttre were 1 ,tÃ¢â‚¬Â¢,iytul the task of Organizing, W cxl 1"-culuctic;n courses itt order to provide svstcntat_c i"structic.n in icmd 1"-mlucticm. In the mountain counties Of eastern Ivc"tucl:v, 945 such murscs with a total ett rmllme"t of ?-l,t)-l8 adults were cOntcltwtwl, and mt:cit Of tile increase(] ltrucluctimt ml fool can he trac-:i directly to them. Similar ccrarses and result.,; uc curred ill all tile ether ttuu"taitt areas Of ill(, I-C,-ioll. -I-hose ittclttlecl farts machinery repair courses. ill,,, purpose of which v.-as to ],:CC]) farm ccluilmtettt in wun-hin- ccmclition while the farm "taclti"erv lac tcrrics Of the natimt sere engaged in the lcrmluc ticnt of essential war ml"ilnttent. ']'his not ottlv Made it lmssiltlc t~ have wtachiucrv ill Condition for fooo)d 1"wdttctiu". but tatt;;ht tanners lux to repair their own "tachiuer v, therelw saving "tnclt tithe slut ntunw to he used fen- other purposes. :1 careful r ecmrd in cme typical high school farm Sit()]) course shuwl that the farmers had saved $l.s()0 tltruu,1,1h purchasing, the materials and doing their Own t-t._ lair wcrh. 1ccause Of ill(' Fatiollill(I Of frond necessary- to provide ttterttts of preserving, the fruits, meats, and VehCtal)lÃ‚Â°s ltrmluced for hmue use. 'I'hc facilities in the m;~ra, e hmoc w-ere found to lie i"aclecluate for this lash, SO the 1"wlle"t v-a: Autunm, 1944 lyIouvTmN LIFE, AND NVORK Page 35 solved by the erection of community canneries in all the communities having departments of vocational agriculture in their high schools. The coilstructiun of these canneries Nva", promoted by the teacher of vocational agriculture and built with ccnr trilnttints lw the people of the community. The value of these canneries will probably average between $5,000 all([ $6,000. The equipment is pro vided through government funds, but the buildings are provided wholly lay the community. The canning is dente under the supervision of the teachers of vocational agriculture and vocational home ecunomics. The people of the community prepare their products for canning under supervision. The only cost to them is for the cans and for their share of the operating costs. -Many of these have a canning capacity of 2,000 quarts 'Lter day, and the production for the season has amounted to 80,000 or more quarts per cannery for several of the larger cstaltlishntents. rfhcsc canneries are also usually equipped for butchering and cutting meats, with electric meat grinders and meat presses. In these ultcraticnts the farm folly learn the must approved methods for processing- their food products. M.ust bovs studying vocational agriculture in high schools are iii-se1 to include farm imhroventent ln-ujects in their farm practice programs. ()lie of the most popular of these has keen the imln-uventent of the farm home grounds. In order to encourage the boys ruin to provide suitable materials for planting, several departments of vocational agriculture have established small nurseries in which all the common shrubs and trees are prolucel. Funds for this are usually raised through the sale of seeds, feels, or services to the ccnnntunity. Small seedlings (cur or five inches high are purchased in lots of several hundred at only a few cents per plant. These arc planted and cultivated until large enough to transfer to a permanent location. ~hhese are sold to the ltovs and girls in the school at extremely low prices in order to encourage the landscaping of their homes. The lanIscapiny is done uncles the direction of the teacher of vocational agriculture. A tvlical example of such a nursery is the one which has peen in operation at the high school at Kirksville, Kentucky. Since that time ntanv of the lxntes of the community have been completely landscaped at a cost of only a few dollars per hunte. .Another similar project has been conducted by one of the departments of western North Carolina for a number of years, in which the production of evergreens for borne planting has linen particularly emphasized. During the past three years, departments of vocational agriculture have not only- brought about increased production by their members, but they have aided the farmers of the community in secttring much needed farm help by training farm workers atul Oy acting as a clearing house in locating and contacting efficient workers for the farm. A typical example of this is the organization known as the "Jeeps" which was originated 1_v the teacher of vocational agriculture at Candles, by Carulina. This is an organization of more than 360 farm boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 20 who stand ready at all times to assist farmers in atn_- kind of farm labor. Most of the labor is clone by piece work at a set rate per quart, bushel, etc., which has been worked out with the farmers of the community. The lows and girls are charged a small fee for transportation to pay the cost of opcrating the truck in which they ride. The functioning, of this organization has largely solved the farm labor problem in the C anller community. Similar organizations have been worked out in other farming cnnmunities. Since cu-operation among farmers is considered of prime. importance, future Farmers give consideralale time and effort to practical co-operative activitics. Whey learn early the advantage of buying the equipment and materials needed in carrying on their supervised farm practice programs. They also learn the advantages gained by disposing of their farm products co-operatively. As an example, cute Future Farmer chapter is eastern Kentucky recently purchased several thousand baby chicks and 60,000 pounds of seed, feed, and fertilizer in one season. The Wayne County Chapter of future farm ers in `~'Test Virginia bought 19.875 baby chicks, 8,200 pounds of potatoes, and other supplies for their farm practice work. They sold, co-operatively, 42.000 dozen eggs and 1,250 hounds of broilers. 'hhe cooperative business of the chapter totaled $13,130.00. In Kentucky, the Future Farmers have their own state livestock association, and during the past season purchased seven double-decked carloads (1,650 head) of top quality ffestern ewes and distributed them to Future farmers through the state. -"te_u .i1 UIII tt"t"~ It"t: [c,mlas sit ttt asatll III( ulJt.a ac[ o~ [r."t_kp: t":a .ilttt"t"r" cr.) lrt" a [o:rtps LI.', t t[ [r._tux ()it Mall .ilantsnl.t"ct.~ ancr.tcl stur..tot.tcl _t,)"t_m.l a.ty -";[ ["tz a.tnl~[nm.t 'J'n tM!( tlt:.mA aril t[ ') nc~_ttl~ lm.v.)ttlar. sl["s,_t ar[,I. 'attuta ctl a.6 :) aril rtt aEtl [r._t"_t .tallatl t: _url lrl tl ayl "t s.talma[ )It1 at[ .i[[.)u["mir"" [lt.w .it:[ -crz yr s_tatu.n:y a.t"1";~ ar[1 [rt": '.ir.[tcy ~m ~.tatu_tr.l .~ts~,)_t ~o_ul [nn: 1"amp l~uu ml1 `ouum.)arl .i[[t -.h:.t a": .ita_talsa.i yt ~s_tauu_tr.:l )-tll jny )Lt.I. -,).tatl.v -.).Ia I" t: s"n:l unrtu tt_tatllny aril III SLVIII, :,;"t.wl a.vr."I"tt crl s ;mull ,)[tr[Aryl_u.w ._tml~cn .it"'t" .;"utlr a_tte rm_r,)uty lcr s_tat"_tt:,[ a_tui"y "t[~ [r" t; a.t"1 -ln.n.t ~')' t: JIM( u1ract.v pr .tatl:)t:.~ ar[1 ~nc[ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢a.tnl["m_t n "t rump"_tlsttt .)tlrt"a~s.vs tl "cr.tt[l "t"t_tt:4 pr ssau -t~stu[ ;tl~ "t s_ta"t.":l a.waacUu_ul [".: ~ttas.)_ul "n;al crl st a.tn~lnm_ot: lt:"crth:arn ~"ulat:.)1 ~c~ ,.maa(c[cr..i_tr."t -t_ol atl~ 'as_tncro 11 'a.)_t"os sulk ""/>_t~ ~s_mlfc'l' [t "a -nml~ c;n\ I crl a"o t"m_t3 p auoattt "t.tt:l t: ant:rl nar" att.n:l .ttarli r"/> s"tntl t: )IML tt .i[a_n:cl )LIM s.ta"t.":l i"t;[\ sl.aU_ul _ttatll LI[( .y rl.)t:a s_tt:l,crl' [rttac"cnll r: st: tl,)uut ar, pr a""/>attt tn: ln:rl a.t,tl s.nrc[ .i" t:r" ll"s -a_t t; st: l"r 's_ta["r_tc[ Inn: s.ia[.t"1 )c t"ul.w[m.t1"r mil ml .i[a _tr.l [a1t1c[~_t1wta rt"t")-l f ,\ JS,) .\\ "t [cronl_)~ tl .'() tl [ otlÃ¢â‚¬Â¢l"t:_ty .mil Io a_t"1[nm_t~t:~ [t:"oth:acr.vacr ~"attt -1_n:clalo atl.l. ~S.talut.h aA qn,),)sur0 try _uta s_ta"t_u:l yr cltut_t.a"na OLI 1 crl ttcttian[ur_"l ytactol tut sst:la tutta.~a "r. lt~~nt:~ _taclat:a~ 0-I III ltm.~ r. tM "ou1u.)ctn vrl.l. warlIA'0'1 s[r.t_taln" t .n:.tcts p"t:~ laas lrat ~ 11. 1 aa astap_t"cl In"' t"rtlt:tacrsso .s.ta.W o_t` crlnuul lt:ar[ II-1 _ttaclJ )AELI .i;tll ..wtN ~samltamcl pr sa_t_t: y_ nw.t` _ta"t_tr.l a" o .n:a.v salt [thin lrt:a_tcls st:rl s;rl,[, 11 11111 -aura )It 1 to )s'I_I( l.t,)1ua lrn:~_uolttu "r. art"raa r[ st:t[ ~rtt -.em_t` oltacrcl 1["a ;.t t: w: p(m IIIss."/>ns a~tnl a_taw iarl,l. 'aaolrprcl .'It t.mlm.ul ttt [r.)ls.r_ta~ut s.ic;c[ ~a[ yr. a_tn~lnat_t W: [r."nrtlt;,rr.v yt .tar[m:.)I )tt~ '.ih"n"t -t"c" laa.t.) ll!IC Ã¢â‚¬Â¢)tll tt[ ,)_tnz[".)t_t`t: [r."crtI ttacrA Icr .tmlor..)~ atl~ j cr sl.utp. -,LI~ tl"I tt~_tth lrar[st[clt:zsa "a.ol 0 nrrl rlatrp.~ sat_1 0 11111 :a .ilttnnutucta aril 1 nn: ~_taut_m,l ,_tn~ny ~,n11 .Cc[ ttnur_t sua[t_"; ~-)' lucttlos ay t['() li( _n[1 1-to l '""" vin\. y w.t.v.l i[r"r alc[tsscxl a_": :,)Lt,)[ "l lr"ulas 'aatl"t"t"tur.) vmttt ty s.t, lclta[.) .ta"t.tt:,l -).III 1";[ aril .ic[ .alc[tan;nr. aln:ttt [r"t' [ast:rla.t"tl ~lltul .i_t":[ ,)tup ~m as" atl1 .s[ lra.w_"ltttt .i[~r.,)_t` "aacl a.vrr[ allhe.) .i_tn:lr aril satut"m:r [I :.ta.v.)~ ttl olm:( .ilt[t:"I [rcrto t: s_taut.tty ml ,r[r[t'["ear. ott[t:"t [rt": ;~)ut.itul .ic[ .ilt""tt"tut.r ar[1 ttt a,1ln"t ar[1 Vr Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,)tlt[rnlr ~atla la.m."ltttt ~_t,)ttt.tt:y .r_t"1",[ aril Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.i[.~uutay '_t"clsal"l.\\ 1\ ~`a~wao ~'uttta.~a aril pr s.tacl"ta"t 4["ln: )Ltj y [nn: cta c[" taut ttnur sit ml ,)[r[t: -[n;A t: a[m." t JU aw r[.)ulM s_t ;lstt[r acl.y-l" t:_ta aa.tul .t"at l~ast~rp_tncl [rt": sluuy [~.)~:r._t _taylr:rlo _ta"t_n:.~ a_t"i"`i at[1 't"u1t'nlt~ sulk ~aaru cr,[, 1",""lt"Ira ttt.ir_uls .i"cl cy [t_utl fir. ~ lent [r["cra ;_tattt.n:l llt:ttts i" ta" hall [t"url t:tttt _tt,\ l~a.\\ to [rcnl.y y tl I .i1 -uncy~ .upt~rl_I )III )cr s_tat".n:y a.tnln.~ ar[,I. a)iolt~s,ul _ta.\ a.tat[A\ s.taut_mj cy aatn.t;s _t.)lnt.~.t~cy l"t: 'a"":_t` -o_uL .ilt""ttut"ra a.ur_ul(LI t rrz al_uy la _tta t[I ttt ._ta1h:r[.~ _ta"t.n:,l, a_t"1".[ lit: to lazt:vtl:l"w sI ~str[,p ~ ~.)tlt.yot: Al:tntuntum l[t: "t .).n.v_t,)s . p aaurz_uulttu ar[1 ~"ztit:a_t .)_1 111[11 m_1 .~t: tit um~r..otla [rt"rtlracrn "t ~_taln:x l n:m_ta"t\ "t it( th:ztt"' _tcr .t ;rllo .it": " rt[1 c_tatu_n:~ `" o"n: turtl:.taclrt-cr.o aJcn"m_ul In "' _talÃ¢â‚¬Â¢crl ml a_lo" t u"/>I a": rm_tattt\- jor s_taut_my ,)_ntlny aril 1rtlj s_ta[n:a[~ tu.n:~ AMM t lcr "crt""lo aril ~t 1[ wa.ya~ -""n[I _u y 'o'"utt_tr.~ 1_n:vs .vatlI "atln\ s_tac[t"auw nna_tu(,l "t.":.l It:u"a"[lttt ,)"tcr.ac[ .illrttsu Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.tacl"ta"t .t:,"t_":,l a.tn1n.l ~[ut: 'nt:a.tny "t_n:,l .)t[l tit ~cltys_tac["t,ut lrl"rl s_talclta[a _ta"t_":`I o_tn1n,l arl1 1 r IS(y\ s,"t_uL _t,)tt " l `"t.w,).)a.t .ttarll "t `sl["aa_t .il[t:"s" tla"lw ~.i[aA t1t:.taclo-uo sZau[rct_"t _tarllcr inn: ':acrlryrcl 'c"/>rtl -p .ttatll [[as ~_t.;ylrrlo _t.)tu_ttyl a_t"1",l .itm[\ ~.il~nl -"w[ " t s_ta"t_":`I a.t"1";l .v[ ataa,l. "t s_t.)[raa.u[ tt"/>.ta i[anth:_taclcr-m [rasnr[o_tnU a_": .)[~lr.-~ _talraat pr slnc[ -.";o [r..t,.~.;~ .na.i rl.)r-.l %ntmlC tit s.taIclt:tlo .ta"t_" :,l a.t"1";l lrlay_t":.[ 1_u,l It": .)[s[ a"Irsa.ty at[j It[( _t~ .aoh:yrrl lraas~[ratltl.taa pr a[mct[_"'a "anas la~rya_tncl s.talchala .t.)ut.n:,p a_t"1",l rtaal_t"[I 'rtttt _tt,\ lsa.\\ "[ w.uu[ .)tl~ .tl turtl"clt.tlst[r _ty .r_tn~ln_o.t t: [t:"oty:ao.~ Io aJrtautJ_uola[ Sit( _n:A aril crl .i[1_)a_ttl [r,clcltys pill! t:"nu"tl\ "t S.tapaa.ul Li[( .y [rast:rl.r.t"cl .)_t,).\ ,)sml.l. \"t"nttt, 1944 1\Iow-r_w LI rt: _m n WORK Mige 37 Why The Pentecostal Sects Grow A, 1. WALTON PircÃ¢â‚¬Â¢otor, l)cyar'IrroÃ‚Â°ut of lW rcr! C-lun-eh, Jluihudi.sl ltnurrl of Homo, _11issions kc]on-ts show the sect. are u"tgruwittg old estaltlisltc1 clmtrchcs. Their ]rcrc,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢trtasc mf ",)ruw'tlt is rctnarl:allc. It is a ratio W '0 to I cv-ca the ulclca clntrchcs. IS the IIIov-tlt real : Will it O)Iltiil IC' -flee answer lclcncls ulcnt a more ltqsic clucalicm, .,\\ by do these churches -row ,u rtl)irllv'" It is worth noting that whether ltcrce"tycs arc cmiwling cu- Nanning elc]ret"Is tt]tu" what- they sect: l Inwvc at"1 the Itqsc 111)(m which they arc Im""ited. The snmlL,"r ill(, ha`c the less illcrcasc is required to t"al:c au excellent shuwitw. 1\evet'thcles, , it mast ttmt be rwcrlt"tl:ccl that Ole~ciTtwt ]raft. forth ltca wmalin- a"it to secure results may be much -rcqter frr the snrtllcr ,ccta th;nt for the 1tr-cr clenuminati~~"s. Tle lamer 1,~rmtlt has the aclvantq;;c crt lm;~cr year, mf ittflucttcc. "mrc ]mssillo cmtttcts. and hcttcr taqinccl lea"lcrhil). f 1-lm 7'hco,, (;rora 'I-trey elm not ,(,rcw- as q acsttlt oO q cliGrcitt tltcmlrt;;v, tcqc'ltittg, ()I- I)CCuliarities. The fundamental m1asi; cliffercncc ltctv-cc" Christian -rmt]s is nut sttfficiettt m- sufficic"tlv clear ill the "tit"ls of :ltncrican IcoQc to acccmttt fen- the ]rhc"cmtcnql gruw-th or the lccav ml qt w church. Christian churches gcttcaqllv ltclic:c i" G)(1 as the heavenly lather, i" ~csus as l.orcl and Savior"-, ill rc]te"tq"cc, ccntfcs:icttt, at"I a life that is q vcitttcss to the retrewin' qt"1 chan-itt Imv-cr ml the S]nrit mi Ica": ill q ccm.ccrntccl life, at"l tlt:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ church as t Imol_v ul faithful helievers ()f which Christ is the Hcc"I. These ltqsic troths arc vi;;mrously ]rruclqi"m1 by these sects. Too he sure the 1ugtyge of inter]tretttimt and illnStratims Used arc ccnu""m to the Social amt cultural envircntnm"t id the class of ]tan]tlc Served. _\ lifTcrcnt ]rlwascmluy-, with ctttlltqsis on a svmcwltqt clifTcrcttt set of right at"l want;; ]taqcticcs, rural dct"atrcls fur q "tmac vivid mat"tca mf w-itttess ore e"tlthasizecl. Fiuwcwr the end ill view ill crmcl"rt, inner atisl;tctirm, at"1 clcwutirnt are Very much the .Line as that W all C-hristiut grmuls. I-hey Seek ri-lit relations to (fort, ctmclttct lteccmitt!,~ the ( hristia", q"cl zeal ill ln-enrmtin~ the cv.ut;;clizatim of rill tttett. The w"]rlIasis is crltcn ()n Childish hc"(611nings and nt.utv ttcg';ttivcs, ])u the end amtght is a '-mu1 Christian lice. 11'Inrl is Grua"(lr.' t iamstlt is tltc result mf ]m.sscsity lifeÃ‚Â°, r)loÃ‚Â°vity the laws mi livi";; which demand essential Imol, cxcrcisc, acljut"tcnt 1t chattg-c and lwrsi,l;nu'c. \\ lu'r_ ever life is, u-hcther ill ]tlqttt, quit"tl, ]pcrsutt or c)I-(1autizali( m this lramccss of "ruwtlt mltcaqtcs if "'jmvth takes I)Iacc. \1-hat is the vital life and the luu1 of these clturch:w' It Seem" clear that tltcsc tremble--tt least marry ml thct" Itqvc h;"1 a Icctttiu ttal ccml:rct Wit 11 ( lml, amt Iltcv read, tact"mrizc and talk the Scriltt"rcs with fattaticql lrcrsistcttcc. (_:mII)lCd with this their lcaulcrs arc trcnuntcltmslv is carn,est cool sect: to tart the zeal and cnmuims ()f 11161fOIIMVCI_S to I)rcut fCI_V()F. Tlvc;e citorts Icqcl to rcalcnt; lwticil,qtiont ill cmtc-crt:ol listcttittl;, ia,~itt,~. ]tru~-itt, . :ual duilv ccmMttct utter tl" Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ l).Utcrtt clccltrccl lwJthc lc;ulcr. I'qrtiri])ationt "ttlcr this rcalunS lc;ulcrshil) hindlcs cntihusi,tsm, clcclxws c(nrlldc"cc, cl;rclm],: ;hill ill rcslmo.c,. -I-he cc,aa;utt ctoltlla,is (nmÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cd for each (me tot he a witttoss and q pn:;ental wmrl:ca (lichens tlou sense of t"iasinr mad many ax-10cm the ctt"dicntal itttmsicqtim" of crua"lor, and feel ccmtItcllccl tm cntm,tntlv cwuyclizc MN! witness. To think that etttottimt, zeal and fcclittas arc itttcmlccl a, olds witltitt tltcnwclvcs is W t"iltuly thc,c Itcmlrlc. There arc thmc wlm view tIlCIII as ends, hill they arc the esccl)tim Ã‚Â°wnt as in other t,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ligionts ~rcntlts. -I_ltc,c factors are Stirred with great encl-y as q Insia mr Means to secure a tvlxÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ (of rcli,1,iMus csIwriettcc and luilv cmndttct understood as I)ICasing, to (4ml and ltcst i(,r the imlhs cmcertted. \()t all w-lm arc 11rcttlv "M-01 live (-)lit, ill clail_v ccn"lttct IllC ]nta]mSc of the lcalcrs. Thi; tvlrc mf lnwccdurc will ittcvitqhlv attract ntruw w-husc ct"utimt, arc easily Stirred- and lark stqltilitv. rhhcsc 1cru"s live cltantclctnr lil:c lives. -I-hcv viclcl cnm)timnalk- too cvcTV vivid ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢tt~-irt,ntttcnt. r that, we see the"t ocrV rcalntsivc to the (,)rmt]t fcrwtr of rclig-irm. and cI"qllv acs]mttsivc to tltc stimulation mF NvmrlIlittcs;. 'I-htÃ¢â‚¬Â¢sc churches ca"ttctl tic jttdgcd qlmtc lm inch lrcrscnts. 7 caitc this uacill;ttin," ~r~tulo ccnttact with thc~,c ]cmlIc w-ill cm"vittcc muc that tltc avl_Ã¢â‚¬Â¢rag'c faithful rcs]untÃ¢â‚¬Â¢c too tltc tc,wltitt"(, rcccivccl is ltig"h. and ~Iw-~~tion to Standards taught tt~tttllv ;u"rntnts to lracjtt Pane 38 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK dice or even fanaticism. Prejudice and fanaticism with them are to be recognize(] as eccentric expressions d loyalty which, antler different tutelage, might well become "good will" with zeal in the best Christian sense. In Brief Review Wa might summarize the implications of this statement lty saying that these churches grow because their people ar~; deeply in earnest about the experience they- have had of God, their leaders emphasize a vivid portrayal of the Christian message, they are encouraged to have a deep devotion for the Scriptures and to put much emphasis oil their use in worship and ill daily life, they are kept stimulated by constant repetition and reminder of their reli Strange DON WEST Scene people wonder where I got my strange no dons. I don't know, maybe rack yonder :n that little lox cabin on Devil's Knob in north (~eorgia's mountains, where 1 was born. ( )r maybe between the plow handles, wiping the stinging sweat out of my eyes down the cotton rows of the low lauds where I toiled as a sharecropper's son after we left the mountains. I don't know. There are a lot of things I don't know. I've been a preacher, and I've preached the working man, Christ, who had strange notions about the poor and the rich and the slaves, and whom the common people heard gladly. I've been a coal miner, a digger in the dark earth under Kentucky's Cumberlands. I've eaten the miner's bull-dog gravy and washed my coal-stained, sweaty body in his tin wash tub. And I've wondered about the man Jesus and our attempts to pen him up in stained glass windows. I've wondered about the uncertainties of a coal miner's existence. I've been a school teacher, too. And I've wondered about the "Boards of Education," the "tewthook committees," and "book purges." I've been a farm owner and farmer. And I've wondered why it always seems like the folks wpm work less get J more and those who work more get less. That's a strange thing to rte. I have a notion it shouldn't he that way, and folkssome folks, anyhow--say I have strange notions! But now I'm a deck hand oil a Mississippi River Autumn, 1944 6 I gious life, and they- are fed on a vivid contrast between a life of sin and salvation and between the rewards of a good life and the punishment of a sinful life. The bower of the vernacular, of simplicity, of emotional emphasis of this simple faith and group participation add earth to make make their procedure effective. These people have no munopolyÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ oil earnestness, the Scriptures, the Christian message, faith, the fact of the wanes of sin and zealous loyalty. If these tools, used by persons with limited learning can secure notable results, what might they nut accontltlish if in the hands of learned people they are used with equal zeal and loyalty! Notions steamboat. I wear the rough clothes of the river man. My hands are torn and scratched by the jag-fred ends of a tow wire. l take the midnight watch with the other "roosters." I've learned to "make up tow," tying the huge )targes weighted with hundreds of tons of scrap, oil, sulphur, into one compact unit pushed by a single boat-to Pittsburgh and the steel mills, to make weapons against ltarharism. )h, I've learned a lot on the river. I've learned how the salty language of strong men is the same on the river, in the mines and mountains-and underneath lies a deep concern for a brother! The boat rolls. She rucks and strains against contrary waters. One sits on a Gavel in an idle moment to wonder. A few inches below, the river's little tongue-like splashes lick upward. Seems like a hungry thing, sloes this river. ()lie shrinks at thought of what might wait clown under these pretty little splashes. One thinks of .the many strong )xxlies swallowed ill) lay these devilish little splashes! The river rolls like a monstrous thing. He roars, does this "Father of N\'aters"-a handle of little powers rolled together and splattered trot across the face of a nation. Back yonder in Harlan, Cumberland River is a clear spring trickle dribbling out of the side of big fine Mountain. I've quenched my thirst by its crystal dripping. But down here-the Mississippi! In L etcher, Kentucky, a mountain woman gourd _'\utunm. 19-I-1 MourrTmrr LIFE AND WORK Page 39 dips water front a tern shaded spring. A mere dribble slides clown 1v the cabin where the cloches huddle all(] wadeand on. :fir Hindman, Troublesome Creel: splits. Mountain folks say "Left hand fork" and "Night hand fork." In blazing summer a kid burns his toes on the dry sands of little Troublesome. But down here-1\lississily ! \\-et, terribly wet, a whole lot of wetness. Kid, you'll never burn your toes on Mississippi's bottom. ( )lie just sits here oil a tow lice and wonders. In the long night watches of other years vvÃ‚Â°arv ltoatmen along the river have dozed and cursed-cursed the river's rucking, the everlasting downward pull. They got $2.5 to $-IO a month in wages. They cursed the river, cursed each other, fought each utherscattered their little lives in, as many directions as the contrilutaries to the great river. They hadn't learned the lesson about the "Father of Waters." They hadn't learned the lesson of all the little streams dribbling together to make the one mighty river. But scene wondered, and others wondered, and more began to wonder. .end it seemed simple when they came to thick of it, this thing of two being stranger than one; this thing of tiny lriltltles ntal:ittg ante 1 g, ttnn)tling, roaring river; this thing of man's concern fan- his brother. Strange ii0tions, tit(, hind Jesus taught 1y the waters of a far away land years ago. The men on the river began to wonder. Their first steps were full of sturnltles. The dry earth always sucks tilt the first drops of a trickling dribble. They tried independent unions, the old L. S. U. T say they stumbled anal some get hurt, and the hurt still smarts in a few places. Lot the notion was there-strange notion - anI it 1urnecl through the weary hours of the long night-watches. Then came the National Maritime Onion. It rolled clown the river and up the little branches. It rolls today, even as the river rolls-the mighty VTississillti. It gathered up the little men who'd peen splattering their lives around and cursing. It lmnlle1 them up and flung them out upon the waters of :llississilli. It macho little then strong and gave direct]()" to vain cursing. :1n1 the Union had at its heart the love for a 1-ether. It ltaal the color 1linalness of a , lesus religion-strange notions! pros, the cedar hlinlncss of a Jesus religion--in New Crleans a ship's crew protest,; the cannpanv's discrimination against Negroes. 5'cs. Negrms arc black, but what about the "one bloodÃ‚Â°" creation? In Texas Citv a crew compels t company to hire Negroes it had discriminated against. "We," those union men, nwstlv Southern, declared. "have no objection to sailing with colored members in our all-out effort to win the war against fascism." Yes, the war against fascism, the major item n the agenda! The only item fur present discussion! And isn't that like the pesos religint?-the war against fascism-over yonder and ovcr !raÃ¢â‚¬Â¢re! The war against evil that breeds hate between colors! Olle just sits oil a lrtrgesile wondering. Has ever a church its the South held alt its "services" in protest against \regrues being, denied full privilege of the "one Mood" creation? 1-Iave the pulpits ever declared an all-out war against inequality, discrintination ? And shall we measure the church by this Jesus religion .' ( 11. front many a Southern pulpit one may hear words, words strongly tittered: "C. 1. ( ). ltniunstools of the Devil !" 1lany a preacher may tickle the ears of his listeners with such proclaiming. .atop oil(, sits here ()li the stcantltuat listenittglistenittg to Jack Pickard, old ricer lmatntan of so many years he can't remember. Jack knows the river as now know the thing that's meant most in their live,. "Yeah." says Jack, "1 rode the boats whets they said you couldn't organize. They paid us twenty-five to forty a month, fed in a tin plate and worked us as long as legs could stand under our ltodies. Pant went on watch when you boarded the boat and off when yam 1ackcl ycnr bag anal left her." man who role the river ten years ago anal came hack tulav would think he's on another planet," says lack, "it's all so different. Anal the Union made the difference ! In the old clays food was kcal, living aluarters were crowded and dirty, there were no conveniences, but now-well, you see!" Ves, Indeed, I see. The I)uncan llruce (the boat I rule) serves excellent food. Living quarters are clean. Sheets and towels changed twice a week. Hot showers and $115 a nunth fan- deck hand wages ! And other lutats are like: it. Years oil tl,. river have taught these men "strange nntims"--yoars when they live in "jungles" along the kinks of Mississippi. lunging for a boat to work on. 'they lived and slept and clawed mosquitoes. Bellies shrunk, total eyes went blood Shot, but those: stra"rie notions kept gnawing as lcep as their hanger. The river rolls a"d our tow ploughs upwardto 1'ittslur;;1t and the steel mills Nvith materials to fight the Axis. ( hte sits here in wonder, looking -let-( )s, the (lark hills of old Kelitticky-the dark and ltlttexlv (1nt"nl, of Bootle alld the early settlers. ( "c wcmlcrs at the strange notions that stirred a people to bull alt roots, in the old cuu"try a"d dare the (lancers of a" untracked willerttess! These were clays fur men with strong hearts. Alld the river is a place far Strom, hearts a"d 'Yhe ctmntt"ttitv of Arthur's Kilo]), Ill IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ra"klia ('()""t\. ~ it;gi"ia, has 1eco clcscriled as ltci"g very Isolated -because it is Situated u" the tint of a "ttt""tain rage, uljmini"g the ra"e oil which the S kvline Drive runs--in the IflucÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ Ividgc Mcnuttains. The -mn""ttitv is not oun" tll:"t twcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢"ty miles Irmn the cm"ttv scat. IW d;v Nl()Illlt - tluntt live miles fnntt li)(. stall town of I)Wunms dill-atttl ttmt far distant fl-()Ill h(ruml;c. A rmatl r"ns to within a mile :("d a half fl()Ill sdutctl--lmt that last tmc aml a half mile "utst lte travelled alt the "xrn"tai" tat foot. ht top of the "om"tai" is a small cmutn"titv mf alnntt ilitectt t:n"ilies-mat a shiftily- lxtimlati(", for III",\ earn their livin;; frtmt mrcharls. There is tm church, li()]- a nv cttmmmtitv activities. The nearest store is almut three mils away alld the mail rmnte cmttcs just to this store. There is no nurse of course-:t few years L')O a teacher moved III) there. His wife was a nurse attd she was called upon frequently while they made their home iii the commumtY. The sdmttl itself is near the hutnes-m of two lty school lntiltlin~s left i" the ctntntv. The roof "td flntr were repaired within the past fear years. The Intiltlity will ltrmlrtltlv I)e improved what ctnt 'I-III~: "(:(s I'I?1, c)II, IN l1TS" The great JalruuÃ‚Â°se Cltristiao leader, 1`;agawa. ln-tuolin~ over the ltovcrtv of his people Who have sm little land for their uvcrltolntlatccl "un"ttai"tt"s cm"ttrv, clisctrvcrcd that nut trees would wt the "uu"taitt sides. fie esclai"tcl, in his Illullor iMOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Autunm, 1944 bodies. The river and the Union are splashing the Jesus religion of brotherhood out across the face of a nation. (one feels good bending over here on the swaying barges, running a ratchet, wading thrtmglt river mad, tying a tow to a sycamore sapliy. One is proud to he on the river, to know of the ~)'niou. Fur cute l:uows then that this Jesus reli;~icmthe great stone rolling thrcntgh history, is not lute"d by the fetters of stained glass windows or churchly steeples. There. can he pulpits in other places, et'e" a steamboat pulpit ! How stra"-e indeed arc: the notions, of freedom! Teacher Wanted Lititnts allow it to be (lone. )~:duiltnc"t is very meager- t few library books were carried up there by the, school supervisor two years ago. There is no cloak room-(tnlv one room in the. lntilding. There is no community spirit here-school did nut ulte" last year because not teacher could 1c inuul. The schctml Superintendent wrote, one of the patrons, but has not heard front him at all tun- did he hear front attvltuclv is the cunnmunitv when scluml failed to open this year. There are alutut seventeen children of school age in the ccmn"""ity-in the seven grades. Board for the t:Ã‚Â°acher could 1e secured at the home of a vcÃ‚Â°rv nice family living "earlty-a neat home descriltecl as clean, ;III(] respectable. Board would he cheap. It was recommended that the SOF committee tale this cttnmtu"itv as a ltruject-make it a spo"sttred school, work toward getting, all agencies working, there, with clubs organized fur all ages, etc. Wa need first a teacher with a missionary spirit. Salary will be paid by the county, accordinl() to the certificate she. holds. , hh: children cannot he ltr(tught out to other Schools ltccause it is ten far away for them. \IAR1' t'\R;\1S1'ItONt: I.('IRlllnll, Ftl. tats way, "He"ceÃ‚Â°furth, 1rcach 'The (mspel of tits.' N tit s will brow oil our mountain sides as walnut trees ltruve. but Mountain people necd cooperative clubs, of which we told in our last issue, to process and market theta 1rtilitalJly such as at All) ne, 'Ce""essee. Autumn, 19-14 i\lum-r-w LIFE AND WORK Pa-c 41 Editorial Notes Sig"ta Phi (iannna. a "aticmal wcnttan'a scn-oritv, contributes a generous fatal fur the health and medical care of niotititalli children. The Council of Southern 1(cn"ttain Worker,, is (,IVcii sttltcrvisio" of $500 of it this year. `I-he hentttch_v State Department of Health olerate, :t clenttl trailer which greatly exltelites the care of tttunntaitt scluuI children l- ~oin " to them instead W rccuiri"g them to come to the cmu"tv seat or other town. \\-e offer cash to local county officials, wImAlier County Court, IloarI of IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢_lucvticm or so"te pool will or(anization oil the condition that they will at least double our contribution- 1r. ~. I~. ( )wen, state director of this work then chooses counties with no dentist, or at best with oil]\, a"r, and sends tit(, dental trailer them for the work. His report on ()wsley a"1 '.\lagoftin counties has just been received. ()ur co"triltutim W $l(i5 ltreught dental treatment to 1,03 children, covering 3,705 treatments. This wntld prohahlv have cost the children close to X5,00(1 had tltev received the treatments in dental offices ; but dental offices were tart available, nor are their families able to ltav, alid dental defects are serious. The 1residettt of the .lmerica" Dental Association says that t)5rl of the ,American people have dental defects, hilt that only 30%r of them arc receivin,(, dental cane. Commissioner 1'attl \'. lIca\utt of the W:\1C says that there are at least 23,500,000 Americans with chronic diseases of some sort. The distinguished Naval and Army physicians reslomsihle fur these facts join lttÃ¢â‚¬Â¢artilv in advocating a federal ltrohratn to teet the deficit in 1-eve"tio" of diseases ill(] 1Itvsical (lift icultics, flowing front accidents, "talttutritiott, ill health, etc. 4,100,000 voting men between the ages of 18 and 37 could nut meet the health tests fen- military service. This is oneyuaritÃ¢â‚¬Â¢r of all the men in the armed forces plus those who have hem classed i" 1-!\. Ten her cent of all the reriistra"ts now numbering, over 22.000.000, arc found to have sonic physical defect. General Hershey, head of the Selective Service, thinks there arc 5.000.000 mc" of military age who "are not physically fit to assume their responsibilities as citizens in war." TTe is es pecially alarmed over the large number that were rejected fur mental a"cl et"mtimtal difficulties. It is of interest especially to o"r re:ulers that those fro"t rural areas were foe"d to have a lat,-er incidence of defects amt ill health tltao th mc front the cities. No 11,-trrc, arc given Cur o"r "uamtaiu area. ])tit witlonu lcntltt, Itccause Of i"ulcclnatc "tcdical care, .tltc ittcilcnctÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ of clcCcrt; and ailmc"ts a"l ill luÃ‚Â°alth wntl1 be perhaps the l:u- est of am in the nation uulc,s it w mild Ile allioll" sharecroppers. The, rclturt dives tit(' l:u-`e,t 1ercc"tage for the Suuthcast, which would talcc ill both our "mu"tai" a"I the sltar.ccrolltcr areas. -What does the tcliallt purchase program (of III,,Farot Security \dmi"istratiu" do for rncnt"tai" farmers and how do tltev reslonul' Hero arc the facts and li;;ures fur acvc" Illolliltall) counties ill Tennessee. l.oatts nruk-h5. I'avmettt. made_ wW.0.37. Gains in ,ales of Cartn prnwluce-$75.')ll. ( )"lv nine of the h5 wÃ¢â‚¬Â¢cre in arrears cm their ltay_ tttc"ts when these tiwure, were taltu'ated. In thrtÃ‚Â°e lliIIlc -L"ettnessee counties, where the la"cl is richer. tvith payments clue of $1?l.')'-1 a total of $?)-1.-113 hacl b'-'cn reltaicl. III `fett"essee as a whole 1,272 1oatts were made. With S?85,fo5 clue X031,5?? had peen paid, and the. gains in sales antou"te1 to more than a million dollar. In `fet"mssec alone WI':\ did the following ccntstructicnt and other work tlnwu-h the entltlm "tent of people whn wunld have otherwise ltcen thrown on charity. W'e were unable to procure separate fl(Itil-cs for the mountain areas ])tit it i; safe to say that they- received out of all hrctporticm to percentage of population as in same nun"ttai" counties as high as 70 per cent of the population was at scene time o" W'T'f\. Co"structicm covered 35.000 miles of roads and streets, 1,000 bridges, =Ic),100 culverts, 170 lntillings, 2-10.000 sanitary privies, (i10 miles of tnal:tria control ditches, 5 major air ports and 3 intermediate landing hells. For the school children 3,152,3c hounds of fool was dried. -1,4-t5.8'l7 quarts canned a"d 55,556,193 lmtchcs were served. i ~ag c -12 MOUNTAIN Lirw: AND \Vulzm The International Cooperative Alliance, rcltresenting the 100,000,000 cooperators' in forty litfcrcttt lands, arc gathering a l'recclom IW nl. "I-hr directors of the Cooperative Lea-vie of L'.S.A. ill their recent meeting ill C'ulnntltus. ( )hio, voted to ccmtrilnttc to that fend. Its lturltusc is to assist cmtlterativcs that are sulfercrs fl-0111 the heel of Ilitlcr and either war tragclics to reculacratc :uul revive their work. So far as funds allow hell, will be given to ituliviInal coop illcililm-'s. Wherever 1ossiltle for rcltavment, the nuttt:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢v will lm loaned to he returned and used a s an educational fund in the land front which it came. Sim Tstu, one of the secretaries of the Chinese Cooperative League, is now ill this c(ttntr_v to study American cuolcrativcs and ]tell) front this ell([ oil the organization of them in C-pitta. He says there are 750 ccntsuntcr coul,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.crative stores in free China with nture than a half millint mentlcrs doing a Itusincss 01 aluvc 10,000.000 per month. He reports that iuflaticm in the Ohiuese monetary system is greatly exlteliting the organization of ccutltcratives and trading oil the barter basis. Authuritics give great credit to the Chinese co-ops for the making of blankets and all sorts of materials for the support of the va'imt Ohh tese "ghting men. Certain 1ttsittcss then have organized a \zt.tittnd Tax I?dualit_v :lssuciatiott fur the express pill-pose ui lultltving to get state legislatures and the congress to levy taxes nlon the savings dividends of cooperatives. ( )Ile of their directors claims they rcÃ‚Â°ln-esent a million independent business men all(] that they, out of their pockets. are sultlturting the War While cutbcratrn-s only shout fen- it lint do not help ltav for it. This at--tutuÃ‚Â°nt is a complete misrepresentation of the case. Cooperators du pay taxes exactly the scone as other citizens lint a savings dividend is tort a profit in the same sense that an independent private enterprise calls its margin above the cost of mnuluctittg its Itnsiness a profit. IW sincss men should appreciate the fact that cooleratives charge their own members the market price in order that they may enter cntly into fail competition with the itulelenlent business matt and not cut prices as they easily could if they chose so to du ittstea1 of returning a savings dividend. .1 group of cooperators have a thousand dollars in the treasury after they have paid all expenses, hail themselves four or Civc per cent oil the money th`y .\utunnt, 1't-1-1% I have invested, laid up a depreciation fund and, usually, devoted frcnn two to five per cent to edncatiun, recreation and social welfare for its ment1ers ; they divide that thousand dollars m the basis nut of the amount of stock they hold in the capital investment as private business would, but return it to the purchasers on the basis of the antunnt they purchased. That is, they have saved them that much ultcm their purchases. I f the effort to tax this as profit succeeds the cooperatives would simply sell at cost instead of at the market price. Thus they would enter into direct competition with their neighbors, the independent ltusincss man and that he would not like. .1 CI?\'1'~hll c)I~ Cc(I'1?IS:1TIC\ .I. I'. \\-,%tttinssr:, Al. I). htc hundred years ago a little group of twentyeigltt cotton wcav.Ã‚Â°rs in Isuchdalc, I?nglanl, ol;cuel their cooperative store. 'hhev had spent t year and a half studying, formulating principles, and raising the necessary :1-10 to put their lessou;s into practice. The aliening of their little place oil Toad Lail, was a ccnnmenccntcnt clay ill the Great University of Hard hnctcla. The colors of this ancient instituticm were black and blue. -I-he Class of lg-I-( went into action to ltring all the world tinder the iuflttence of the schooling they pact enjoyed. Now, after less than a century. over one-fourth the population of the earth are in nwmlershil ill its cooperative societies. Every country and the remotest corners of the world have been l,cnetratel 1v this enlightenment. In the LTttited States there are rover 17,000 Consumer Co-op societies and 8,000 farmer marketing cooperatives carrvittg on the tension work of the great lTnivcrsity that gave them visitnt and luau. Slowly and cluietl_v the learning- inaugttratcl at IZctclulalc advances. In the countries althruachittg the higher civilization, the cooperative method of business is moving, em toward becoming, the predominant way of production and distributl0l). Under the teaching of competition to get things away from others, the natural results have been poverty, unemployment, and chaos. The oncoming civilization, with its economy of plenty. with its education fm- tnutttal aid, arid with democracy as its gt"ding star, offers a way of peace to mankind at this gracious season, Auttnnn, 1944 11Ium~Tnm LIFE AND WORK Page 43 Religion And Children In A Democracy I'rnaidc~d hY l-. S. I)cpartnront of Labor (C7rildr-cu's hurcau) Altlrusimatelv cute-half of the children and youth of America receive no formal religious ittstructim according to a report, "helio-im and Chilclr:n in a Ienucracy" prepared for presentation and -roul discussion at the Wpile Hunse Conference ()li Children in a Democracy. Yet religion is ln-esentcI as -one of the fundamental essentials of the preservation of a d;nucracy. Teachin- reli~icnt to the youth of the land is termed "an nnsulvel problem." Religious leaders of the country have been called into the conference to help solve this problem, which is thus defined: "how to utilize the resources of reli(,iom in nteetin(,, the heeds of children without ill any way viulating freedom of conscience or the principle of seltaratiott of church and state." -I-he reasoning of the report is that personal and social integrity is even more vital to lemucracv than phvsical fitness, technical efficiency, and well-informeI mentality, and that there is gravc yuestiou as to whether "a merely secular code of ethics can carry this load." "The child needs to have a conviction of hi; own intrinsic worth as a person and also a cotviction that he has a significant and secure place in a rational and moral universÃ‚Â°," the report sets forth. "Whatever else we may hells the child to achieve its the fulfillment of his needs, we have not met his greatest need until we have helped him to build a practical lthilusolthy of life. . - . Historically matt leas achieved this ctul chiefly through art, hhilusolthv and reliniun." But of present-day America the report makes this analysis: "In scientific discovÃ‚Â°erv. technolo-v. and material achievements there has peen Ithenuntcnal progress, but ill appreciation attd achievement of values-in art, morals, and religion-there is a great cultural lad . . . . This cuntcmlmrarv historical situation is the more important since in the light of social psychology it is difficult, if not impossible, to assist g~ruwing children to achieve a convincing and imlocllin,sense of values in a prevalllii~; culture ill which ends have become greatly olrscurel by the techniques of living." I'rimarv responsibility fm- religions (level ulmlent of children is placed with parents, and religion is regarded as a matter of family heritage, each child 1ein,- "introduced to the religious inheritance of the particular religious group into which he is born, as he is introduced to his mother tongue and other aspects of his particular culture." But serious question is raised as to how the child's religious needs shall 1e met as he grows older. It is puittted out that reli-ion was once a part of the integral education of children in this cuuutrv, the first schools having- been religious schools. Put as a result of several factors, such as the rise of the district school, increasing curricultnn demands, and sectarianism of American religion, teaching of religion was escluled from the public schools. "In the historical perspective of more than a crnturv and a half, we reaffirm the principle of American democracy which leaves the church and state each Independent in its own sphere," the report says. However, it also notes, "Historically it was never intended that the separation of church and state should deprive children of the resources of religion." The situation which grew out of sccularizatim of the lntltlic schools was dcscriled as follows: "So deeply have certain religious groups felt the need of bringing up their children under the influence of religion that they have attempted to carry the entire reslonsibilitv of education ill parochial schools at their own expense, ill addition to the public taxation fen' education. Other churches have adopted the Sunday School, an institution rn-iginallv designed for the under-privileged, and giving a meager amount of religious instruction on Sundays. In more recent years individual churches, or churches cooperating- in given communities, have provided instruction in weekday schools conducted in church property on time released front the public schools on request of parents. Churches in many com ~.vr..a all) .ml l.~lw: ot.nal _talI `. lnar.t ay l It,%\( p " m s ;.,. ' .ol~ `~. l_a; al~ltl ~: p 'w,s atli m `ut"a)stl sc 1[ :.wrl.x.l .M mtl~ asa"uUlt:y at"a_ul"s ,,L1~ at. it.y.\\ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢a"t yst: nmA wl.n;cl .oun0 s.a:.wl1: [ Lt,) ul.ss cyf. Isa_uy .W a Alm) Ascrul T y;a~ .W a twill _I')tjj.wJ sLalo .W lu\ yo,.;'tllat"c .U_ta.v emu till, [ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.ta.wa_tpC ~mlro ,ou a)aa.captt `"ul~m\ 'l'lc' t" t: :latlcla-t ,.cvl~l m ~mol~ alyl.sstll.m_s, 1s( )I o .nl~ w lta[.\\.. 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'.~'!t/lir.r// r! y_1.~~/urr v/ /rr rli.rllr'. ) '%r/?f/ urrsur/n j ~I Ii ,I , 111 fl!t" c/l .y.yu"mm_ulcf: '~l lu": C pr ..oar, atll ttoa.sslacl "a.tlyulo t"ullmo ~~y iray:mtha m: pr c)~OI w mtlt l~anan.,ln.~ pry ~l.~~ti.ss mm:o"lyl ~tuo`'tla;l to l~.~t~my) p:myt:u.t,W p .,clt p Lp_u:w.y[ lm loam -1_oe1.,( l Nt v .sl[.onitttr ;t: mlta ~_ta.v.p:y.w t"ut.m_tt; -to muW'rla.c uo a.waoa_t mun:ltulrU lrly,, .:yt peti atlt `uI om uc III "":fin: ul "tÃ¢â‚¬Â¢laas a_tr, s,u.,u,a ~r lt:~.o, .vlalt:"oxu_Uclr halt .i.y:c"y~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ mmll IA( I'M .ll,l. mil inn: wlmxl.os ~aL11 ~s"~lo.molo mil tlml.ss ,l"a mitt ..~sm.manlS cu,., tl.,_t"tl,, muo_n:.v aril y m l -u"/>a aL lI 1rr asctas 'm.un_t` L c,:h: w a.taL l, tla_t"ilo _m c~aI lacl It:.Wcrlmatll _u:l"mt.":l _u,ml OAy,.,clSa_t.a 'lInc,.a inn: it,-).[ ltlulo _u,mll _u y ...v,~ul.,r u) A'"tÃ¢â‚¬Â¢la,os .,-.tt: altur_t ' a" m tla_t lit: nlaul.ss sl"a "cmn -"m0 ~~m as"a: ~"t.wn.t. t:~w ).I,)tlj t"alclm.ul salt .p va"a..t" all ~mla,y .a.o: a.ss "ml.ss ,outs at[) lt: '.vlalt:o -ty_m,i.. : ~'mya~ 'ln:,ult: ,clml .sma .z_uula.t .ml.l. 1 % fifil,[ nutm)n\- Ã¢â‚¬Â¢i;tct,\\ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢xv :.i.mp wm:!rly t1 ml.a .u":"t p wn:.~ aril "c )am .ilz.o,t_mWm .v.ta.v "a.tl[up atp to sl.:ao u() ~yo_t atll ~.muof,a_r prul.,; l~m: tl.,_r"tl., ~c~ .:acf.y .tmu_W.v .)..ml~ wul~,y I w"n:.t n_ul _mxll pcr 1.",)(l _n:ln'a.c t: ~I ; :lrmul,,: .olclml atlt m oa.w :t " ml.nt.tlwu ~""W l,t_t v.mml~m a"u,: ul ~suml:.n:.v _t,noum'z .oil `m_utl almul., :" m 'tl -a_t pal.t"lou" a.srtl ~.vla.pt:.oulM 0 .vllt:.t,.o,W sayu"un .Autunm, 144 Mot1N-rntrr T.tl:r AND 'out: 1'arie 45 Peace Time Compulsory Military Training ()RHIN I,. IW :l:,ntÃ¢â‚¬Â¢:u Professor I\-r'curr Soo's this is not pm'tr_v but cr. pIrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢n pot into rlry"rc. Histn-v teaches all who'll heed her, men have tried that way before; That's how Prussia started clown the road that led to this "`urea War 1809 Napoleon licked her and she started to prepare (1`u defend herself "llainst others any tine' and an5Ã¢â‚¬Â¢w hcr.e ; 1R(U came old llismarck, who just speeded ill) the plan chill the ( ;ernlans taught the goose-step to each allle-lxulieI man ; Put your minds in their "strait-jacket" till all 1)eutschlancl would say "Neil !" I,re we follow in her foot-steps, let us meditate a while Peace-time universal trrtinin- here'1 mean Hitler won the war, We'd become old Prussia's converts like Japan in ')4. Rome was once a free republic till they put their faith ill Force; 'I-hen the people lost their freecluut. Let us never take that course. No. let's keep our nation healthy, keep its finances in hand, Iveep the civil glowers master in this free and blessed land. It's air-Mower that's decisive in the battles of today; Wa can have a strong world air-force without "ollln Prussia's Way. Some, it's true, thing: con- protection is a think of tanks alga ' gttns, Put it's really having fewÃ‚Â°cln"r that makes freedomlovint; sorts ! Let them have their games and studies, and their freedom too, fnrsooth. No, in IeaceÃ‚Â°-tinge we don't want the Army- training all our youth, Teaching them to fight-and L~amltle, lee licentious, and drink lumze, Teaching them the arts of dun-men, which we hope they'll never use; Making them kow-tow to hold !)raid, du the goosestep, and feel fear These are hall enough in war-time, glut in peace they've nol place here! Let 's live every child its )gir111-ri);11t, with the best 1)1'f'-ilatal care, Proper nourishment when l)-roW111,11-Start 'enl well and keen 'ent there; Have a doctor's service h,nuly, and a dentist's service, too; Have a hospital in each coultty--lmw hilt half our counties chi; (iiv. each ofÃ‚Â°i.-hlmrluool a lilntry; a place where all can play 7-each 'em how to wore: and worship, and to elm both every clay. 'Tis integrity and spirit we must giiard with realuns cart'. God save us front Prussia's footsteps, is this ear ileSt voter's prayer. We can't follow Christ and Caesar, Faith and Force: we have to choose. When we teach all youth to goose-step, then democracy we lose. Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Persia, Sparta, Rome and-Hell I Ere we take the path they follow'e'd, let us hesitate a whsle. Neither (ienmerals nor Congress have the moral right to say How our absent fighters' little sons shall train some future clay ! Let us practice our d.enmcracy, to Liberty lm true ; Wh_v should the arm-chair settle what the lighters' scats shall do? Every histmrv - knowing, frcc'dcntr - emit;; pat not Should hiss Those who seek to -ivc' democracy this trait'ruus J udas kiss ! Page 46 MOUNTAIN LnrE AND WORK AMONG THE BOOKS Jlt:.ttlctl;r._ AND HUMAN N\'t~;t.rnxr, by Henry 1?. Sigerist, M.D. 149 pages, $2.50. -ale Press. 1)r. Sigerist is Professor of The History of M~;~clicine at johns Hopkins University. This little volume is a fitting aldcndunt to his Civilization and I)is:ase which was reviewed in the last issue of Al uuntain Life and Work. It is a compact, searching and illuminating discussion of the relation of medical practice to human welfare-a vigorous criticism of the current practice which so largely confines the help physicians cart give to curative rather than preventive plus curative practice. He calls attention to the fact that must of the progress in health education and medical help that has raised the average length of life from twenty-five to sixty years is much less clue to the practice of fee taking doctors than to those who work on salaries, such as nurses, teachers, health information services, governntent paid health unit physicians anl to scientists other than physicians. He challenges doctors to take their practice out of the competitive field into that of social welfare. He reminds them that health is as much a sociulugical as t technical medical problem and that poverty is a fertile source of disease, that slums, had working conditions, commercialized and patent medicine nostrums, plus all that results as a failure of medical practice to reach the causes of human suffering, accounts for more uncured human ills than doctors practicing on the fee system cure. 1n New Zealand, where doctoring is as free as edu cation, the average length of life is sixty-six years. Health and medical insurance are tort new; it dates back to 1883 and, in spite of the opposition of the American VIelical Association, is ;;rowing by leafs and bounds in this country. It simply means the benefits of the medical and health professions are rescued from the privilege of those able to lay atul are extettleI to all the people. l )nee education was limited to those who could pay; now it is ext:Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ndel to rich and poor alit:e. The benefits to all of the remarkable science of medical practice, 1ltvsical eaaminaticms and health insurance arc on the way. America lags ltehind nul the medical pr cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢fessicln, whose science has made the must remarl:altlc progress, is the chief hindrance to it. When tit(" art of healing is removed from that Of a ntuttev Autumn, 1944 making business to that of a social welfare profession the physicians' function in society will come into its honorable own along with that of social welfare workers, educators and the increas;ng lust Of public servants. Their art is cute of the finest, their science one of the most remarkable, their charity is ;;onerous but the manner of cunluctitt, their business is for the benefit of the profession rather than the welfare of those whol must ncel their help. It is high time that the people who suffer took over the business of managing the lmsiness side of medical practice while the doctors manage the art of preventive and curative ntclicine. Dr. Sigerist sums up his contentions thus 1. Free education to all the people, including health elucatiun. Z. The lest possible working and living conditions. 3. The best possible means of rest and recreation. 4. n system Of health institutions and medical per srnmel, available to all, read and able to advise and hells in the maintenance of health and in its rcstoraticm when ln-evcttticm ha:; broken down. 5. (enters of medical research and training. He asserts that s:clmess insurance (where avail able) brings doctors to many thousands of people who never sever had them before, and that it increased the llhvsicians' incomes materially and says that he "is convinced that medicine, lih~o education, will ul timately become a public service in every civilized c()ttllt I'~-." CHRIST OF THE AmERICAN ROAD," by E. Stanley Jones; Pocket size x;1,00, Abingdon-Cokesbury Press. \o Christian or apostle of righteousness is speaking, today in /\nrcrica to more people than the author of this very challenging book. He puts its theme in the following words, "America is (~ool's demonstration center, where Ile ha, brought representatives of all the world to try out oil a small scale cmrlun-at. living. If these representatives of all the world can live together in t sound, enlightened and pro-ressive way as mte family, then the rest of the world can lift li,) its head in hope," The central theme of thÃ‚Â°_ pool: is the Kin,L~)dorn Of (~ul made real in :1mer:ca's suc:al, eccntomic, political ;ill(] civic life. lle holds the church as the Autumn, 1944 11u-NTA t N Lt r. o: AND N\'ORK Page 47 divinely ordained instrumentality through which this is to 1e accomplished, but severely criticizes it fo adopting set much of tile culture of the times and the land rather than being apostolic or prophetic in its demands that the teachings of Christ 1e implemented in our cunmutu life. First, the church is tÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ 1e criticized fur its divisions, which though they had a logical rise, hayÃ‚Â°e ceased to funct1ion. TI teir clivisicms sulpla ttt the terms of righteous living, social reform and the coming of the Kingdom of (iod. He says too often the church has cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ntformed to the culture of its age rather than leading the age to conform to the culture of Christianity. An entire chapter is devoted to cite of his favorite themes-that of a federated Protestant church. He outlines it in scone detail and is apostolic in his aIvu cacv of it. It would mctn that the dennninatiuns federatÃ‚Â° after the manner of the states off this Lniun, each keeping its traditions. Sentimentality- and historic allegiance make it intltussiltle for them to join in organic union lust he dues Relieve they could join in all the common tasks while each maintains its atttontcmm. This, of course, wntld mean a type of cooperative unity at the top. Some of us are cntvinced that while that helps. real Christian union must come front the lmttnn ill) through the cooperation of local churches or t church fur a contntttnitv rather than t ccmntttnitv fur several churches. Allowing each to IrÃ‚Â°serve its revered creed and polity as it may wish, at least until they are willing to surrender it, he asks that there be curly one test of fellowship and that is Peter's cunfessicnt that "Tlnnt art the Christ the sort of the living God and the Saviour of the World." Ile protests vigorously all racial discrimination as contrary to the Biblical teaching regarding the fatherhood of G1 and the brotherhood of man. He warns that that third of the world that is white and Christian against a possible third World War ltecause the-\, refuse to recognize the elualitv in l;ersu tt and right of the two-thirds that are colored. Cuolmratim is the he_vvvurI of his message regarding the working nut of unity anon- races, classes and especially churches and -he stroindy advocates tlt~e ecrnnnnic cooperative movement as a t_vpe and syntlml of that Cooperation which should include evm internatintal relaticms. Ile 'IF(IlICS that in ;lnterica the ltrincilles of democracy all(] Christia ttitv arc two streutts that should become one, and while each has evolved great progress in human welfare, there is as much vet to do as has been dune. This reviewer has to take exceptions to the use of the word totalitarian, to the attach upon relative values ill ethics, and to the emphasis upon the altsulttte. For instance, which should we have demo in this war, let the little people suffer Hitler or go to their rescue at the cost of war. For the Christian to live ttl) right now to the idealism of no war is compelling- hint to choose Hitler and to ignore the fact that he is his brother's keeper a tul refuse to go to the rescue of the little people Hitler suppressed and enslaved or of the [ews he is murdering. We are ncm-plttssel also at the story of his imter voice. We have preachers in our nmuntains who believe (:ucl puts words in their mouths. ()lie, is en langeruus grcntnd when mystical voices take possessiOll of his mind. lo.tcrr.rtm, LIGHT, lty Charles 'I. llurgan, Ilerea College Press, 1943, 94 pp. $1.35. .That I erea bas been passing, through Challges dill-ill- the past twenty-five years is common knuwleclge to all who have followed the levelol)ment of education in the South. This is natural in a large dynamic institution in a region which is dewelulting through the education and the times. Some concern, however, has peen expressed reg-ardingthe direction of this change. This, too, is natural in the midst of colifficti,mg conceptions of ,,ducatiOll. Charles T. llorgatt, a graduate of Ilerea, Alunmi Secretary-, offers in this brief hook- a challenge to clarify the policy and direct the beam of Berea's light. The title of the book, and the analysis of Berea's educational aims, philosophy, tool practice call fur a forthright statement of what Berea is to be. ()lie is impressed by the sincerity of the author's altlteal: hu has been through the program, he has served cut the staff as spokesman fen- his .11nta hater, and has read widely and thought seriously alttt the issue,. In writing lie deals directly with the policies which he is cmwinced must he alt-cred. It is harllv pÃ¢â‚¬Â¢issiltle to understand the nature of the cliscussicnt without a review of the I~,rea of the two lreclcccswrs, `\ illiam (nmlell IW st a tul Willia ttt I lutchins. The forntatiÃ¢â‚¬Â¢m of Ilcrca ttttder Dr. ~IumTntN LIPE AND WORK Autttntn, 1944 Frost took Pltcc in the period front l8t)7 when he Gmt"1 a small lctumtittaticnttl atllege of tea cliticntal teaching jflollralll valued at about $200,000. lie left it with properties valued :n-cmt"1 $12,000,000, anti an elucatintal ltrpra ttt at"1 lthilmulthv that have distinguished it tlunmgl"nu the world. '.To lift wcictv from the lttttcmt." was the plea, consciously following the cducatirntal views being levelctlcd at Northfield, 1~It. Holvohe, Antioch, llamltcm and 'I'ttsl:e;;ee. He"-acc Jlan" and Samuel :\rmstrcmg were his spiritual tool cducatimtal companions. *"tun- the 1lctutttains," \\'illiant Guml.ell Frost, Flmoittg Revell, V)37. :\ few selections frcnn Frost's statements will lie easily recognirc1 as his principles: .'\\'e train thent to get tract: and Improve the mnutttai"s, to "takc the nmmttaios a letter place to 1c Imrtt in . . . c"tltltasizc rare it"lustrial courses . . . ;tgriculture ;it all 'LMjC (if 45 de-rccs mid household ntanagctt" wt lU miles tram a Store . . . tot protect and cherish all that is ltcst in tli- ln-csent tta"litit ms,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢, "To ltcclcllc eclucatitrn to those whit camntt get to .school." "To cooperate with rather Schools to make the public schools effective.." Frost was aware of the temptation that collies, hr Schools when tltcv lMmt~ arclttirecl wealth and lutwer, of the tcnclcocv of faculties to lm tied to the camp"s, to books, to their own ltacl:grctund rather than to the interests of the students, willing to sacrifice earlier college ideals and obligations to attain academic respectability "mmg institutions committed to favored group.s. Like Armstrong amt other 1 unccrs in ft"tcticmal education. Frost had to depend ulxm teacltcrs brought ill) in other points of view. unable to (11-asp the philosophy anti unltreltarcl to alllv the ideas m tire different clcltartntettts. This too was quite natural, fete ltrmgr,"ns arc prat matte over to shit ttcw pleas with trot lung 1crictIs of trial at"l adjustment. To develop a ltryra ttt of edIICatl0II to Solve tile problem of poverty ill the Sctrihorn nututttaitts is net simple order. It is So nt"clt easier to start at the tote, ])()ill ill idea; and ill lwmltlc, operating ltv decl"cticnt rather th."t i"lucticnt. Fmllmwing Frost ca""' ;t period of ccnnltrcttuise with the ft"tcticmal type ml education. The area was accepted, kit the teaching moved toward the general culture. A rift h; tweeze work education and the scholastic Megan to appear. 1%lirl,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢rrirry Light is a plea to hasten the process. lie pushes the Frost tradition farther away anti follows the example of the "Great Colleges" ill the hopes of making Berea great; the Harvard, the 1-ale, or the, Princeton of the iliountaills. Morgan wctulI bull the program from the uccuhaticmal and professional responsibility to produce the "well rum"led man of broad svntltathies and sound julgntcnt." (1t.10) . The quotations and references arc drawn from excellent atithorities--l,owell of Harvard, Prescott of Chicago, t'ale's plan of general preparation-all reinforce his plea for rrrlturcÃ‚Â°. "We should see to it that our luw,cr division reflects a brilliant cultural richness from the nutntent a student sets foot inside it until he leaves it." ( lt. 1 O ) Next to this classic culture appears irrlrlligcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢nt .ccÃ‚Â°lJ clirortiou. A"1 here he trots his finger on one of th.e sore shutsfuze many "don'ts": too many negative standards of conduct. too little scl f-control. Murgan clues not ask fur reduced standards, ill fact he wants behavior on a higher level ; better academic work, "puree exacting care of the person" . . . ill the cane of rooms . . . more exacting ill dining room dcltc"-tmettt . . . ill the deportment of men and women student,. ( lt. ?S ) ill seeking the lest from educational experience ill rather institutions there is no effort to lose the character of l3erea. "Every college should be itself," he writes as lie begins urging a "singleness of purpose.- Tlo: central theme of the hook is played about a plan to define this self. In delitleating this singleness of purpose one fears that much of the lierea Of I~ rust is given tilt fur that of his succcssmr. The "battle of the vocational versus the academic" is described with scone care. In questioning whether Berea is a college or a Itusit"Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ss he regretfully observes "a new recipe becomes more important than a new idea." (lt. 331. Well, isn't a new recipe a new idea' lvight here the discussion reveals the Complete 1":eal: with Frost aid those who firm ideas ill services, education ill making life a dentunstratiun of balanced budgets and well conducted practices. Culture tot these pioneer men Consisted in living well, lindittg values ill improved human relation Atittinin, 1944 Nl(.)(;N]'AIN 1,11,F AND WORK ships. lluun. 'havcrne is in itself a contribution to culture in the way it is operated, and all educational laboratory of first imlxtrtauce if properly ntil izcl. in all area where the Irmltlcttt Of diet is So serious. where the per capita Income is the 1w-,,,t in the nation cctnrern fur the services that make better living possible might properly 1e regarded as all integrating; principle rather than a distrar tiun. "What terea needs right now is integration." (p. 37) True enough, but about what what~ What is to he the focal point of integration' What is to he the nature of this culture. "Education must not keep students too long out of the stream of actual living" . . . too long front the realities of working lif.e." ( p. -11) Is it not possible that Berea has the a ltlturtnnitv to ntruduce the realities in making better use of the very distractions which bother 11r. Morgan .' The fart remains, however, that the emotional frustration which is demonstrated in the close of this chaltur is that the unity of purpose has nut been found 1y all Berea's students and stuff. In the analysis of the organization of schools the writer shows a keen sense Of the confusion which has resulted from an evolving program which has not adapted its administrative divisions to meet the confl1icting practices in educational pol1icy. Through high school we attempt to offer education accurdin,- to the needs of students. In college the program is tar the selected few. Berea would clircct its efforts toward selection if the advice of her alumni secretary is followed. Vocational edu cation will Ile reduced to secondary position. The great value in this book is in the questions it raises. It is a demand fur clarificatitn of ltulicy. In times such as these every institution n.Ã‚Â°ecls to take stock and study the demands of the future. -\\'hile ntanv readers hope to see Berea realize her gr,~2atness in bringing her vocational education in line with the demands of the region she services, and integrate her culture about the life Of the communities reached by her 1rugrant, they will lm grateful to Charles '1'. 1\lurga tt fur his sturdy workmanship in calling apron his Alma Mater to clarify. FRANK C. Fos-rFR. B(-v AN ncxF, by Paul Curev. Dial Press. 204 pp., $2.00. - - The author bought all acre and followed the modern example of a home in the country while you work li] the city. This Look is a record of Ills experience giveu to thosc who would follow his exatttlle. It tell: Imw W Save $5.00 a week to It"lcl Your own lmuse. where to select vmur acre, or nun-cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ ii lxmsiltlc, what to 1lattt cot it, how to proceed III every rcgarcl, with warnings witlmnt end over the itttl-artical things that a ttc will chi if he is overidcali,tic and tort willing to trail mightily for the result: he will reap and appreciate. It is full of button-, even hilarity at tintcs, over tltitt;;s cone ntav try to do i f he is l ~tul"a tt alutut living in the cmuttrv. kill at the scone time, it is a record Of the deep satisfaction that comes tot the rit_v matt in a rural lwellin") with a sttltsiatntcc plat ut1 a right heart\- will to talon- with his tnuxle there as he clues whit his mind in the office or elsewhere. Our cities arc spreading coot into the e:uuntrv and everywhere cm the hettur recaps one finds cottages surrmunlecl by shrultlterv with a garden and often times with the ltrovcrlial chirl:ctt and craw. This atithor say. tltcrc should alum he a pig or twm attI with all the accoutrements Of ;ttlsistcncc living. We wtaywell hope that ttmv with shorter hours workers will Move to ~ the cmmtrv 1v the tens Of tlxntsatuls when this war is over and get away from the smoke, nctisc amp the crowding of the city life, giving their children a chance to grow ill) ill fresh air, sunlight, honest chcn-ing and the cnvirunntent of that hart of our heritage which was the gift of (furl, as certainly li() city ha; ever peen. zr.xu STORAGE tN YO ux ouNtr, hy iiuydcn Slrvrl;cs, 1-ft pp., $2.50, I)cntllelay. I)urau, I'ultlisher,. \\ ith the canting Of cheap electricity, especially in the `f\'.\ area, the growth of quick freezing and frozen food storage plants is greatly on the increase. 'rcnnorrow, once ltrion-iti,s and limitations are removed. we may ltoltc to see a TVA fabricatim of plants fur dwellinh henries come within reach of arty dweller who can afford a refrigerator, a stoker and other modern ,electrical conveniences. 'I-his is a story f progress Ill the field of quick freezing and the preserving process of refrigeration for food. It is a most interesting stcirv ht those who would like to Joe saved from small package lturchasino as well as for those who would like to live at home by raising notch of their own food. 'this, like "Ruv all Acre." is a very- practical book with 'age 50 1\-lm n TA m I,rrr; w n \\ uko \l 1'~-I-! i a world of ill ",traticnts, technical aclvicc a"1 light ""1 leading ulutt the practical prohlems of home refrigeration and storage plant, a story of the evr 1"ticnt of freezi"g dev1ices and directions fur the ltuilli"g and use of the plant. lozt;r..tutlt Roa]), htIir~mAKa F.vs~r-I)ucl, ~,-;lcr"t u .l'carcc. $?.75. Narrative art gives a powerful expression to history. The critical periods cf our history leave lcmg "eecled (lei trrcratic treatment ill ,fury. But only ill recent years lave writers of outstanding altilitv, such as Henrietta huckinaster and Howard Past. entered this field. 1%rcÃ‚Â°eÃ¢â‚¬Â¢donr Road is ()ill\, rate ravel anumo several, dealing with critical period-, of hiatrrv, )tv the satin a"thor. I 'ut with lÃ¢â‚¬Â¢r-coÃ‚Â°donr Road, the a"thur of C-itifou Tom Paint', fete Low Fr-oulir'r-, 'l-hc l'uvrrurluished a"1 other hooks, takes his place as the le."ling historical novelist ill America, ill 111v opillioll. Ill "ta ttv watvs.Frccrlnrrr Road is the most stril:ins anu tg last's Collection of otitstai)(1111' hooks. In it, he lays liar, a much ill] srelrresenteI a"1 distorted period of our history, ripping away the sc"timctttal falsehoods with which most writers have cloaked the IW cu"str"cticnt period ill the South. This is the story ill Fr-cÃ‚Â°cÃ¢â‚¬Â¢clour Road-the struggle to ace whether irecdcn" for the ex-slaves a tul the miilions of poor ncnt-slave-ltcrllittg whites was to be a reality, cuwhether the slave masters were to block this Freedcmt hY urea"s of the Ku hltw Klan and other such foul methods. Needless to say, we realize now that this freedom was Hocked for "eneratiuns then to scone, with dire r:sults from which the motion eras not vet recovered. Ill the char"-tcr of (iirlernt Jacksrnt, the Sotltll Carolina slave who had fought with the Union armies. Fast sums "lt the deep yearnings of these ex-slaves for land, homes and freedom. In the re lationship of ( ~iIcutt with the poor non-slave-hold ing, whites, a harntuniuus, mutually f rienllv and helpful relatintshilt, he portrays a promise that may yet lteconte a reality. - ( nly today when we realize the deadly a"ticle"tmcratic nature of the Ku 111w Klan, as we have witttcssecl its colluluration with the German I3"nd and other pro-Nazi gruttlrs, can we fully apprcciate the words of this ex-slave, Giilerun Jach snt, 1leacling with a tired 1'reaidettt Grant ill behalf of his people: ... . . It took "te a ]oil,, time tin rcvalize what the Klan is, hove it operates, why ii was mga"ized. I know nave, just as you know. -l-he Matt has rmlV cute ln"-puse, to destroy dentucracy ill the Smith, to hill off the independent farmer, to split, i" so sluing, the black man from the white. The black man will become a 1ecm, not to, dsficrcnt fro"t the slave he was before the war. ,\li(; because he is that. a slavw ill effect if " rat it: f;.tt, the white man will 1e drawn clown with him. :\ few will become great and "tightv, as before the war. But u"Iv a few. bur the rest of us. poverty, h"nger, hatred-such hatred as will become t sickness for this ttation." l-rorclorn l2ocrcl is 1ermcate1 with a luvi"g yuality of "t"lerstanli"g, a getttlc"css and luntcstv that cast a warmth over the entire story a"d its characters. It is false in a ccmtlmlli"g andJccntvi"ci"g nta"ner. -I-here is no offensive language. It is happily free from the abuse of revert to lour letter out hrntst- words. Howard Fast eras truly written a great travel of sleep significa tree ahout the South. 1)u1r L. \\-rs~. Swm: THE lire-I?reo RABBIT, a novel lrv julm I'lcasattt :\Ic(-uv. IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢.. I'. Dutton and (-u., New York. $2.50. Swm; rm; 10;-lo-rn IW rst;or deserves ccmsideraticnt for two reasons: In the first place, it is an interesting a ttd c"jovaltle story ; ill the seccntd place, w i; an attach ulo;" c-crtcriu attitudes a"d character istics of .come reformers who try to salvage huntanitv fur "Christ and crnnttrv..-people who apparently want to do the right thing hut use the wrung methods and succeed ill missing their a* 1y a generous margin. In this rcsltect, the book is art attempt to reform the refur"ter. Al r. i\Ic(-uv's main criticism is Concentrated against the type of reformer reltresc"ted 1v 1)r. Peabody, president of t fictitious Cumberland Mission School. A few sentences front the book will give you the author's attitude toward such people. "There was a subtle triumph ill his eyes which recmh"ized ill all humanity, even ill the newt it""tce"tseetning- person. a latent capacity for evil." He had given "the best years of his life to wrestling with the devil." "Tens yes were: set a little too close to Autumn, 19-14 AIoon-rArN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 l the nose, which emphasized their fanatical 111-lit." (These statements are rentinisccnt Of Hawthorne, loth in sultjcct matter and in style. ) The main thread oh the story concerns Artemis Collins, a modest, shy and sensitive mountain boy who goes to the Cumberland Mission to experience the wonders of educaticnt. He has heard rumors about the school. and in his mind the place has taken em I?clctt-like splendor. Whm he hears that he is accepted, he is So excited that he runs almost all the way to the School. ']'here he forms a wlutlesmrc friendship with his admiraltle classmate, :W ne WhitefiÃ‚Â°1l, who u((ers much encuura"ement, as well as some a((ectiun and helps Artemis to 1eliev.~ in the glorious dreams that arc in his ntinl. But there he also comes under the influence of his teacher, seductive \liss 1)arnell. (As Kiplinh would say, "1Ie learned about women from her.") Closely related to the main action arc two sult1luts. (hte deals with Artemis' farmer brother, Zell, and Zelt's gIrl-rrlelld at the school. felt is typical of many mountain people's practical nature and thc;r attitude toward social equality, and his realist;c uualitics are in sharp ccmtrast with his brother Artemis' idealism and with Dr. I'calxod_v's impractical way of lnutgling thins. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢I-he other sul-blot deals with Artemis' roommates, who are enga-el, among other thin;;s, in certain night excursions to the student dioittg hall store-room. fur the purpose of procuring rations with which to supplement the insufficient meals allowed ltv the school. The various activities of these ltctv_ s are vivÃ‚Â°icllv and delig,litfulIv handled. The santc is true of felt nt1 the comical night watchman. It is with these sccundari- characters that Mr. :McCoy is at his best. It seems that the author just turns his lien loose and lets it write the stn-_v, with many a flourish of rollicking good humor. The main flaw in the 1uoh is 1)r. 1'ealmolv. The author shows him in too had a light. No doubt, some social reformers do have too much of Dr. Peabodv's fanatical light in their eves, and perhaps a reading of this hook will revealto them a few of the traits which good social workers dm not possess. Yet this book, although it is a novel dealing with a fictitious situation and imaginary characters, stay have an adverse effect upon certain en dowed schools in the Southern mountain region. l.:wntr.vct.: 13owr.tl\c: Tnr: I'r.uto.r's N'E_,\RBOOK, 1944, printed Ill England by the Cooperative Wholesale Society, and to he ordered in this country from The Cooperative Lea-tic, 107 W. 1 Zth Street. New York, N. Y., price $1 .00. This year book is of extraordinary interest in this centenary year of hochlale. It tells the story of a century of British cooperation, has several pages of a pictorial review and gives some account of the movement duriu(I 100 years. ( f special into rest are twenty-two pa ges of cooperative facts and-1 ~figures for the hundred years cooperatives arc celebrating. In addition there arc articles by several of the must noted English writers on economic and social issues of the cooperative movcntent. FOR MISSIONARY r.nocn~rtolu. The Friendship Press, publisher of books for the Missionary Education Movement, continues to pour out t stream of useful volumes as t contribution to missionary education. Iterc are some of the latest: THE CHRISTIAN MISSION IN OUR DAY, 1y I.uman J. Shafer, lf7 pp. cloth $1.00, falter GO-cents. 'this is nut primarily a study of Christian missions, either at home or abroad, but rather of the mission of Christians to the world of our tine. The author believes we are in the midst of a revolution in national, social and economic affairs and that the way out is through the Christian principle of cooperation. Nations. races, and classes must all learn to droll their prejudices and their seeking) fur self agrirandizement, their efforts to take aIvantage Of one another and learn how to work together foi- humanity's common end of peace, pl,nty and a realization of the Christian principles u( brotherhood. Before the churches, as the instrument representing Christianity in the world, can eifectivelv lead society toward these goals, they must themselves learn how to cooperate. A diviled church is an ineffective church for all purposes that lie 1eyund its own success. The churches must learn ]low r to become efficient instruments for 1r ingin~ in the Kingdom of Clod and not an end within themselves. The motive in the missionary enterprise that has gone into all the world is the Pa,,c 5' MOUNTAIN LIFE yaw \\-ou1: Autumn, ln-I4 motive that should dvnamize the churches at home ill relation to society and its multifarious 1ro1lcnls. lie clues ]lot find the cure ill the much vanntccl free cntcrl-ise which means largely that the strong arc free to exploit the weak, )tut ill the cooperative ntnvemeut, which is democratic and Christian without sacrificing any of the ISliraticms of the individual to realise the best in his own life. This little hook is one of the ablest volumes that has conk to our hands ill many a day. BLIND soars, by Ilcnrv Smith I,ciler, 1-I6 pp., cloth "1.00, paper OO dents. Dr. I,eiler Is Foreign Secretary of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America. which really means that he is the representative of the :\Incrican church.cs cooperating ill the Federal Council fur the World Council now 1tciltg furmulatccl to cone into lull being) after the war. 1Ic has traveled very widely throughout tile Christian world and says, "'hhis is not a book written from an arm chair. It is a record of experience which represents some years of experimentation." It (Irmws otn of prolonged contacts with people of many races. Thus with many people and different races it is really a study of inter-racial re:ations ill the light of Ohristian teachings and a ringing challcngc to the people of the churches to lay down their prejudices and remember that God has made of all nations one people. Ile finds nol pure races, no superior rtd.Ã‚Â°s. but ill each thinris of worth to all, if they call but be discovered, implemented and knit together ]li cooperative endeavor through `cuol will. lie tells of ill .'\nlcriran who found himself on an ocean vcwage ill a cabin with a foreigner, who immediately took ]its belongings to the purser and asked that they be locked ill) as lie did pmt trust the other man, a foreigner. The purser said. "A11 rig-ht sir, the other man brought his all hour ago." , The author finds the solution of all our social prejudices ill the ytld:n rule brought into effective practice. SPEAKING or INDIANS, bv 1?lla 1)eluria, 163 pp.. cloth $1.00, halter 60 cents. Miss I)eluria is a member of the Dakota trine of Indians, more familiarly known to most of tts as the Sioux. She is a graduate of Oberlin and 'I~~eachers College at Columbia University. She spent some time as a secretary of the Y. \V. C. .a. She is now doing research work and teaching ill the. Department of Anthropology at Coluullia lTniversity, specializing on Indian ethnology' with special reference to the language of the Siow tribe. Her hook is not as easy popular reading as that of Ruth Muskrat which we reviewed recently, but is much more given to a scientific treatment of the customs, the tribal organizations, the social ethics and the ways of the Sioux tripe. Because of the Custer massacre and stories of Indian forays, thinking of this people as savages one needs to read this volume to find how humane, intelligent and resourceful they were ill seeking the ways of 1Ã‚Â°ace among their own people. It is perhaps true that ill most cases there would have peen no massacre of whites unless there had been clan provocation. The whites ettcroachel plum their land, ltrokc their triltal laws, acted without reference to their ways and custcmts and sought to drive them front their old hcnnes. Her descrip tion of the organization of the Dakota trine is a fine study ill the anthropology of our 1rimitivc red Americans and is excellent medicine fur all those who still live under the Shadow of the pioneer's declaration that there was "no good Indian but a dead one." \\-a find them very human beings with love of fatnilv, tribal loyalty, and preferring 1caceful ways to those of war. THIS Is 'cur: INDIAN, ltv Farle F. Dexter. ?8 1l., 11W3'/Z, with nearly half of the printed pages given to illustrations. paper 25 cents. ".l'his booklet, m' illustrated pamphlet, is Ixtlntlarly written and is especially valuable to young llconlc of the intermediate age. It gives the history. sociology and personal experiences of our First Americans, especially of their youth, ill a fascittatin;; manner. It tctuchcs cm the ways of Several different tribes and gives two full illustrated pa-es showing the location of the various Indian people ill America. MISSIONARY EIWCATION FOR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL AGE, by Lotilse. 1). Griffith, 03 pp., paper 35 cents. A treatise ill five chanters, by aft experienced specialist ill religious education, of ways and means to teach missionary things to the junior high child, or those early adolescents between the ages of twelve and fourteen. p;a.t ~ 1ct .t_n; s)ttat"n.tccl) c[lll wl"u_W c"nsa".wt[~ ["n .ipnI s -I( )j sI snl t; sn [~a_ta(Im st a"t[1" m .ilnt~s ,)LI ,[, 'a.";k[a.M "n""11[ ay _uol1;[ otl.w I[n n) js,) _ta1 ut To _taJJtau t: st ~I. y" c .~r..M aL[I " ct a_"; s" ccussa."lajt [t"n satut;t I o sd"[sj."al at[j [[t: [.t.ta3["s IS"t["t";T auuaut~ [[t;"ts j" t; o "Mm at[ 1 '_tocxl ,t[I i[.t"1M "t s.in[ plo Inl at[,l, 't"n1t:.t4suuutpr. sit DoT .suoo1sa.~sns .i"n" t tjJt." _i~t_tnaas [rtxa~ To 1_uclclns "t Iumua1r1s Iutof t; ttoc[" . jaa.i.~t; .a.wtj .iatj T ~.zculLl [Lm ssa" -is"[ 'a.tn~["m.t n To ca.m~r.~"asa.ulat p '.ilastM .i.taM 'd" a[tutu 'ltazt"n._to an.M jmnciol ~tttttunlcl lntutjnu .i.tn1ttnjoA t; o~ [t_tnool "t"" t:[cl jnuoo~ett s, I "alt -sa.td atj1 LLIO-11 suotIrt.tIn_"Idt: ma_tpi[~tm ssa_t~"oy 's~"aa y ~J~CI 'uo1.~3'utt[sn_\\ '.\\u\ ~1~ 1sIZ-OOs) 'uon1rt.-Octs -'111 LIM'[( I I I ~ t I I E N 0 L I ~ I ) ~sa ncl ZZ Jcc a"t[~nc, ilntJs t; LI I tm sand t~ '_t"c[n[ jt"n ssa"ts"d 'am n~ s"[j "t [a[nlaul ~_~'tttA tj lnt_xus Tt ," .ta~lnI ~"tltr..\ -a_ul aLlj IMP III,-A"tt"t_uAua ~1ttnuttuut.t tl tuutl~ 'a""/>tj Ill ~t"[ [ctcot[as "t ,i[t" i 4011 `"nt~t;a"[ta j["[a j~ s"ta[ -clo_"t a t[1 ct~ [a~oaa[t st ansst .s"[,I. 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"tAt[ ),\1jl!A0(tO-()') oa laIltctr -t"c" 'sJstlna[n lsyon1 y~ clno.t", n )ct 'a[.ids )ItIoj -tzl( l 'a ur:~lo.ta~ut a[t;~-["n-a.w. n Tu [)."taa.t at[,I. w[_"y\ mad '.yuno,) jt" t:[Ã¢â‚¬Â¢lm;[ '.i~t,~ .'Aa,\ '~.uxl.ia.tacl -na,l, '.i~t"tt""t"y) a.w~tt.talo-o,~ ln.t";[ 'a~C 'sa ;'ncl IZ ~ut.w;.) .it:l~ .C l 'A.c.w.mctccy) w N oi,c.v.~.tcyl '.~ a "[.~r.~l a t[~ a""m[aAk 'lcutl_tat[io"t t[)t.h ja"a[_t" tl-.tang tta~jcc os 's_tat[bout "" a"t"/>"t _tno ant[1 "a.ut.tcl st;t[ as". -t.taclw.l wujM [t" t; MOL[ . tns~~njo sn l[any sn `.ij""nT t; aA ntl cy ~'() utsuml. To .i~tssaoatt ln." " t ;n[~ "cuI" stmt[dt"a t[ I lAk ,.'. "n[a .i~l "a_t[["[a" To .i~tlr..m" t at[ 1 ["n 'sac"a na 't"uln["Icul 'a_ty[a.u .sl"" y 'a.t"1 -In.~ 't[)[natl p st"a[do."t atj~ Tu s~na_t) _unpttn atj) s.m~cltt[a a.~tl ttj -a.n;_t os st )t as"naac[ saa.t"osa_t jo i~_ta.~ccl III( .tT ssatt~na.t o; ast_t `"[matt-[ t; ')[t[ wojm ascujJ aft;.ttlala.7) a,\1 -s.tat[pn" A()t [" y Tct )li[ n [" t; "a_tjl"[a _trmlJ _"y uoujt;Xnja )Ill[[ 'slt_tn[tutzJs ")tttAtl _tcuul 'sat[""nT a .n;l amnt[ y [nta) a_tn~lna ap li[ . jo asut[T :loa~ucta tlJ.t"l aatpn_"l jta~r..tulta at[,L =~muu[a icl _tci a.)"ntp .v[ tta.tlt["la ,),%rti aat It[mn[~'~ - .yt,) Ã¢â‚¬Â¢l.uy0, .Mad '.a.\ \: t"tst[n;11 'n.t.tat"\: p t"u~t;_ta[ta,l lomllua.tr., l [a"c";[, l a t[,I. ~.~0~ 'sa`ncl pfi 'tu,utn:,) y .i.n;[\ .ic[ 'c"mo -.i.N :.tav, l i:mvvo,l m _ts;t.m,~ v ot:c _.iN c' i.c..t() ~5 a.Jn( [ t;o_U awÃ‚Â° -dA o'T NT .101V . - tt-dl '"ttmjnt. 1'a-e S-1 llcmwr:mN I,FF=t? .wn \\ uFCF; AtttuttFtF, 1-1=1 Corning Events For Mountain Workers THE ANNI'Al, MEETING. The Fvecutive Committee a""mt"ces the a tmual mectitt" Of the (,(nmcil of S(ntthertt JI ut"ttaitt Workers will he held at t;atli"lntr;;. `he"ncsscc'. 1e-in"iFt" the "i"ht Of the 15th a"(1 clusitt- tltc afternoon of the 17th of March, 1945. THE OF'1'uK'I't'VI't'Y SC'll()()I. The 19-15 session of the ( )ppol-ttillity School of l1.,-reu (olle()e "tarla its twentieth anniversary. In 1925, Miss Ilele" I)iyntatt, then Sccret,Lrv Of the Ccmfere"ce of ~Sottther" Motilltaill Workers, and President William .1. Hutchi"s, tried the uttiluc cxlteriment of a three-w;el: folk school emlte(1Iel u" an academic ca tttltus. The ( Itlxtrttmit_v School, as it was named, proved its value, a"(1 has cnm tinueI to 1c offered each mid-winter. The lculers are ntemlrers Of th; cull(Ã‚Â°ge staff who ttse the "liviFy w"-(1" a s their "teclium, a"d wile lielIs of new intercsts a"(1 11LIxFrtu"itics have 1ce" Opened to the live hu"lrc(l "tetF "ul wn"e" (if the -~ontthurtt 11m"ttains who have atte"cle;l. Craft " td vocational interests are filled thruu;;h the it"1"strial arts lwr (1rLm of Icreau, a"(1 toll; music, dames vt(1 full: (lanci"g give zest to the informal vet tt"ifiel ln-olyram. The directors at-,,, hiss \Iu-y I)ttluv at"1 \Tiss :Marie Marvel. The new scss;cm will 1c held lelruary (-2(, lt)-f5, where a rcu"i(m of its old students, will lm featured. .1tw inquiries may he addressed to ( )ltlon-tunit_v 'School, I?,erea Ccllel . Berea. IOe"tuclv. TnF: CHRISTMAS ('01'NTRY DANCE SCIT001 licrccr, Ivcntrmlp l)ro. 26, 19-/-/-/kr. ?0, 7-l The Cotutcil, with the coulteraticLtt of the :\()ri cultttral Extension Service, l~nivcrsit_v of 1W "tuckv. and of the Department of Sociel(yy, Berea Collc-c, a""mu"ces the sixth Christmas C~uuntrv I )ancc ,School. The school will 1c held at 1erca, IW tt t"cl:v, Tuesday, I)ec(Ã‚Â°"tlrer 20th, 1()-1-1 thr(nt-lt Sat ur (lay, I ccemlter 30, 1()-1-T. I' ( ' R /' () .S'/. 1. `the f till Of ()rntl dancing, a nd sitt"i"h. ?. Guidance to leaders of (1rouls ltlatmint; tm at tet"1 the :\lmt"tai" 1W 11: Ivcstival, April 13, 1-1, 19-1-1. 3. I"str"ctio" i" the Use of recreation materials suitable fur teachers, social workers" "tittisters, etc. /'/v'()C; /v'_ I.l/ : The ltrcyra"t will he selected from the following activities : 1. :\mcrica" square a"d contra dances; Ilavpartv "anica. ?. I?tt;~lish co"tttrv, sword ill(] Morris (lances. 3. Children's singinh Mantes. -1. (jro"p sinlging. 5. I)iscussicm of recrcatioo lucsticms. /',11x7'/C-//'.17'/().\': \\-hilt all who, attend the Country I)ance School wiil he eslLectc1 to join in the activities, any- l)er_ so"s who do trot desire too strc"uu"s a program "tav freely choose a limited schedule. .I(-C-OJl.Il(Jl)wITlO.\- _l.\'l) COSTS: ('n"fortallle lo(l')inh fur a limited number may ht, secured at Boone `tavern for $1.00-$1.75 per night ; at Tourist I lames for 75c per night. 1\leals wal he served at Little :\la"""a's hitche"-Breakfast as c"-(lercl, T.tmclt, hOc, 5ttl1er, COc. .a lee of W .()0 will be pa-vahlc to cover expenses. ,S'C-//C)/._~I/iS ////',S': It is important f("- t-cutnl; people in the Suttthcr" Hi'Ahlatuls to take ()li reci-catimial leadership ill the'.]- uw" 'school, church, Or community. Ill order tol encntral()o them to lm so, the Council of Suuthcr" 1lou"taitt Workers is offerino two Scholar ships, not to exceed $12.50 each, f("- the Christmas (~ot" ttrv Dance Sclutol. \1llicatim blanks stay Ile ultai"eI from Frank 11. Smith, Berea, Ivy. h'l:GIS%'R.l%'lO.\' I)la'll)LJ_\'l:: The sell()()] will not he held unless a sufficient re,)istrati(nt to cm:Ã‚Â°r expenses leas been received by 1)ece"tl;er 1, 1944. F//vST _1.\ /) /.,-IS%' .S'/:S.S'I():\'S: The lust meal will he supper (m `Cueslav, Dece"tlter ?l. at t :00 p.m. This will lm followed b\ a W cu"trv I "tce I'artv in Woods-I'etmi"ta" Attditmrium at 7:30 1."t. The last went will lre 1reakfast u" Snn(lav. Iccemlcr 31. 1()14. /./..I/) /:/v,S//1/': 'I-he leadership will lte shared lty various ntent ltcrs Of the ~rottlt i"clt"linn Mane 'NIan-el, Ruth S. White. Airs. hav"tu"I JIcl.ain, Hill Klein, Frank Autumn. 1104 \Im wr.wn I.rro. AND W(WK loge 55 Smith. ancl, it is lxrltccl, Lynn lW lu-lunt~h. ( a.c of the chief vtlues of the Scluml will he this sharing of reslonsiltility. For information address: Fraoh FI. Smith, l;ms -19-1, Berea kerea, Kentucky. rot: .vsnu.v, rcn.r: rnarm.n.. ;\Ir. Fruth ll. Sntitlt, I)ircctur. atmouttccs the mvt Fmll; Festival will lrc hcll, a, usual, ill Berea, \l,ril 1-1th-150, 1115. The ln-ug-rain and fuller anmntmentent will appeal- in the \\-inter issue of Mountain life and Work. Write AIr. Smith at 13crca, hv., fur information. 7'/ro.co tz.~o hic-turos of rucr-catinnal ploys at Hindman ( nnrrnunily rorrhr illusfrcrto both flit, typc of z"'ovk that pinnwcrirry mountain school (loos and tlrcsnr-t of folk r/czrrrc,s onjoyccl al flit, Folk 1%ostivczl. A Pt,,e 50 :\Ic,m-r.mv LIFE AND WORK Autttntn, lcry O:\'I'11()1.IC C(()I'I:IS.\'I'I\-I? :\("I'I(N From Land nncf Mono For tww clays the lla i"haltita"t: Of the vilia~e Of \\ atlchrtlia,- Iuw-a, have lrcen wclcuntin~ guests from all parts mf the United State:, the \\ est Ittlies, and Smith America. I"ll"s were ilvitt- evervw-Itere-from the church steeple, the lx"cha Of the lunne W the village, items the schmO, atul irmt the co-ol score. l.rm" litres of car m the stateltatrollel highwav, cuulcl Oe seen from the air, ts crmw-ds tf ltctlric arrived freest the nei(hlon-inLe Counties ()f 1mva and Nebraska. The (,ollllllllllit\and lli1()h Schml I;a"ds tctml: terns in lrlavi"s lolrular melodies. UarnuÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rs pmt ill) earlier than usual to do their chores. Guests housed i" iarmluuses vtlt"ttecrel to help, lmt ma"y Of them, CitYhred, slid "mt trust the crows a"d livcsttel: tt close range. 'l~he event Was the ccm"nenutrtticnt Of the IZuchclale C-c"tettttial. Tile people of \\-cstlthalia are al"mst tt"rcntscictts mf the imlmrta tree of their achicvcnte"ts. Last vetr the total a"xu"t of 1ttsiness dome thnntyh their Co-( )lt was 8200,000. with a aavin, mf ??'% , en- $-F-l.()00. I Y tlmt ;anuÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ amount of business were cLme 1v all mf the 3%,58% small imwtts a"d villages in the l'"ite1 States with a ltc'It"latim (Of under 500, it would amount to $7.x%1,_ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢100,000-"mre than 7.x%1 "tillicms mf dollar;-cool ii the same 'Llll()tlllt were to he saved in each little Community. the ,avittg, would amount to $l.fo,708,000. - I f there were a Credit U"iu o its every NIll, with a delmsit elual to N\ estlthalia's $80.000, the a~;,re-at", Capital would reach the sta~~eri"h a"nccu"t cot $3.0 28,;00.0()0. This villagc. risitt, fl-()Ill the fertile smil mi Shelltv ('()Illlt v. the ltrculuct Of Ictw-a's riches. relre,e"ts the we"1:"tattshil of men's lt"uls-the mutlonn-in" of fault deep i" their ltcart. The ball park was erected bY the people with It"mlrer fro"t their own woods. The ltricls ctf the lreantiful church, lntilt i" the late 70's, were made lm the pioneer s. Across the street a illmlern C()-()]) store replaced a littw One-man'; ;tore sis years aim. I'racticallv evervthin,() in the wa y of 1uildin~; has been crntstrttcte1 by the w-orlsi"y tu.gether of o"e generation "- the other. This story was lrrtuz;ht out in wurI and ';Oil" as Jlonsi,2~nor Li(Itttti ittterviewe1 nom, women and cltillren of the \\-estlhalia Cnnumunity ()li the Satttrlav tti,()ht ln- grant. R)m- Iv. Ier-en"ren, Alalla-Ill" Director, Credit Utticm \aticntal \SsOclatloll, Ittc., 11aliscm, WIS., stated that he lmlieved there would he a rabid levclulnnettt c Credit ttniuns within parish "'rcntps as sucm as the war is aver. The .\-crtiorrul Cu(holic Rural l.itc C uufor-cnco ""cler the Ivnantic leadership of Gather I-iriutti will htll no national Convention this year out of respect fur the war policy re-arclitth co"f.erences. 13ut a group wider his leadership is visititt- various sectiu tts of the "atiu tt huldin') five-clay ce"fere"ces with church leaders. They emphasize C0_ Operatives, the attraction of rural life and the necessitv of givinz; suste"attce and fou"datiu" to rural livins. ()"e Of their 1rctherhcxls has established a "tclcl farm and cxleri"te"tal laln-atrn-y near Cincin"ati. The v say that "The schcutl will tort Ile ;ill agricultural cone;,: in the strict sense. but will uttÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ w~ courses that will prepare priests and la y"tett for rural leader-1111). .\t the same tints cn-iginal research can he carried out cm a small scale. \o tlunt,-ht is entertained of competin- with static lal;eratcn-ies ur state i"atituticms; rather wo-l: will k, planned its ccm"ecticm with these estab'ishments, ntahin", ttse of all the assistance they afford." ".\ financial lnw;1rattt to hells ke,q) Catholic families o" the land a"1 to settle _vcnt"~ ltenltle u" farms will also lrc utulertahe"." "lla`er. l.i-tttti entlthasises the font amts mi the Cntference: toc care for the ttnler-lmivilcgel Cathmlic; livitt" cm the la"l ; to l:cel cm the la tul Otthmlic, who are "cw u" the la"l ; to settle "mre Catlmlirs cm the land; to ccmvert the rum-Catholics oil the land." lie says: "Anterica" family life is in peril a"less we realize i""nediatelv that lathe \merira"t cities are toot rel"-cxhtcity themselves "td that (MIN' Oil the la std c"- thrmtgh a system of hemtesteaclin, will fathers and mothers tied the at"toslrhere that Is really ccmlttcive to la"tilv life." In the session cm ccxtlreratives, tribute was 1 til to the i"tlc"-ta ttt role of Catholic leaders i" nova Scotia and in the United States in aullurting, and ettctnu-aging, the growth of the credit union anal Cooperative move"tcnt. Lincoln's War Thanksgiving Proclamation year that is lrawitt" tu\var1 its close has peen tilled with the 1lcssings of fruitful lields and healthful skies. Ta these bounties, which arc so ccmstuTtly ettjm-cc1 that we are prune to forget the snore: from which they curve, others have been added, which are of so wtraurdinarv a stature that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften the heart which is 1Talitual;v insensiltle to the ever-watchful ltrclviclcucc of aluTi;;htv God. In the ntilst Of a civil war Of unequalled may li tu1e cool severity, which ltas sometimes scented to foreign states to invite a tut provoke their a~~ressions, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has ltecn ntaitttainecl, the laws have ltccn respected and oltcwd. awl haruiou,\ has prevailed QVcrvwhere, except in the theater of military rclnflict;while that theater leas been greatly contracted by the alaucitt,- armies Mid navies of the U16011. \ecdful diversions of wealth and of strength from the Iiclls of peaceful industry to the national defense have mot arrested the plow, the shuttle, or the ship ; the as has enlarged the borders elf our settL'nuÃ¢â‚¬Â¢nt;, and the mines, as well Of iron and coal as of the ltreciun metals, have \-iellcI even more :wiulant~v than heretofore. Icpulatiun has stcadil\ncmasel, notwithstanding the waste that has been made its the cantlt, the siege and the llattlefidd; and the ccluntr\-, rejuicin'11 in the cunsciuuaness of au;;mcntecl ,irenloh and vl,oor, Is permitted to expect continuance of _vcars with lame increase of free dcmt. \u hnntan counsel htth dcviseI, nor hath any mortal hand worked clot these great things. Thev arc the ~raciutt, hilts of the Most High God, who, while Icality with us in anger for our sins, lntth nevertheless rememhet ed mercy. It has Seemed to the fit and proper that they should 1c sulcmnl\-, rcvcrcntl\-, and gratefully ac hncvvl.~(l(1ccl as with cmc heart and 11c voice ltv the whale American people. I do, therefore, invite my fellow--citizens in every hart of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojcnu-nin, in foreign land,. to set apart and oltserve the last Thur,clm- of \u\Ã‚Â°ctnher newt as a day of thanl;s()iving and praise to our beneficent Father 1,1,11cohl's Birthplace who dw-elleth its th;: heavens. Awl I recommend to them that, while ulierin5 ul the ascrihtious justly clue to Him for singular deliveranccs and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our nation al perverseness and disobedience, commend to Ibis tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners, or sufferer s in the lantentalIc civil strife in which we arc unavuiIalTly enga-ed, all(] fervently implore the Interposition of the almighty hand to heal the wounds of the nation, and to restore it, as soon as may lte consistent with the I)ivinc purposes, to the full enjoyment of peace, harmunv, tranIuilitv, amp union. In testimony whereof, 1 have hereunto set my ha ttl, and causcl the peal of the United States to 1e affixed. Dune at the city Of Wasltin-lcnl, this third clay of ( )ctul}Ã‚Â°r, in the year of our Lord one thousand ei,11ltt htuldred and sixty-tlu-ee, and of the ittdclenlencc of the United States the el ghtt--eighth. Abraham I-1,11colit I'IlI?vll)EN'1' kOUSE'\-I?I.T~S 1311.T. OF RI(;II't.1; "-I-he right to a useful and rentwtcrativc jell its the industries, or shops ur farms Or mines of the \atiun ; "-I'hc right to earn cncnt111h to 1 -tviclc ac(!( luatc ucl amp cluthitt() and recreation; "The right of every fru-11)(21to False and sell his ltrocluct at a return which will ()IVe hint a tul his fan1ilv a lcccttt living ; -Itc ri(,~lvt Of every ltusittcssman, large and uta11, to track in all atnu;lthcrc of frcclont front ttntair contlctiticm alld clomtinaticnt 1y ntunctlolics at lumtc or altruaI ; "l'hc oilght of every family to a decent home ; "The right to adequate melictl care and the opportunity W acltic\-c and ettju\- r-uud loealth; "-1-he right to a "clod education ; "~I'lte right to aclcluate lnwtccticnt from the ccemcnn:c Ccars of ulcl ale, sickness, accident tnd ttnentlluv tttcttt ; "_\11 of these rights spell security. And after this war is watt, \ve must be prepared to move CclrwarI, its the intlTlctncntttion of these ri'lht,s to ncf goals Of hwnan lwltltincss LIld well-being." At Himdman The Recreation 11C)11S1: is a brown, solid, and friendly structure =- _,e and well loved by all who have ever climbed resting high on a 1ii11side in a nest oÃ‚Â£ honeysuckle tr~ winding trail of stone steps that leads to its rimes and golden 1roomsedge grass. It is a happy clf) 4 -PAULINE RITCHIE.