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Mountain Life & Work vol. 21 no. 2 Fall, 1945 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv21n20445 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 21 no. 2 Fall, 1945 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Fall, 1945 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Mountain Life & Work PERSPECTIVE Raymond D. Drnkker PRODUCTS OF NEGLECT Agn Onymous FALL, 10 !5 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ORGAN OF THE CONFERENCE OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS IS PUBLISHED QUARTERLY AT BEREA, KENTUCKY, IN THE INTER. BST OF FELLOWSHIP AND MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE REST OF THE NATION Editor (for this number) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Orrin L. Keener Contributing Editors Olive D. Campbell Frank C. Foster Eugene Smathers Marshall E. Vaughn SIGNED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION NOR DO THEY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL. IN THIS ISSUE NEW EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PRODUCTS OF NEGLECT PERSPECTIVE CHURCH LEADERSHIP AND INDUSTRIAL NEEDS OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL COMES OF AGE BENEFITS OF TEST-DEMONSTRATION KENTUCKY'S EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTS DARK WISDOM WORK CAMPS IN KENTUCKY REPORT OF FINDINGS COMMITTEE A RURAL COUNTY WORKSHOP FOR TEACHERS -Raymond B. Drukker ---Charles M. Brown 8 -Mary P. Dupuy 10 -Velma Beam 13 -William R. Paid 16 -Dean Cadle 18 -Edward R. Miller 20 21 -Walter Downs 2 3 SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 PER YEAR, 30 CENTS PER COPY. ISSUED SPRING, SUMMER, AUTUMN, WINTER. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Kentucky as second class mail matter August 22, 1945, under the act of Match 3, 1879. ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS BEREA, KENTUCKY. New Executive Secretary Chaplain Capt. Glyn Morris, formerly Director of Pine Mountain Settlement School, is returning from the army after two years in the European theatre to become Executive Secretary of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers. The Executive Committee of the Council believe they are very fortunate to secure the services of Mr. Morris at this time when they are looking forward to an expanding program of work in the Southern Appalachian area, for he is not only a man of executive ability but his ten years at Pine Mountain and his contacts with the Council and its program make him admirably fitted to be the successor of Miss Helen H. Dingman and Dr. Alva W. Taylor, who have preceded him in the Executive Secretaryship. For the following brief biographical sketch of Mr. Morris we are indebted to Miss Alice Cobb, Field Secretary for Pine Mountain. Glyn Morris was born in Wales, and came with Chis parents to this country when he was three years old. He grew up in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, where he had the experience of working in the coal mines. This was, of course, invaluable in his later work in Harlan County. He was educated at Albright College (A.B.) and Union Theological Seminary, where he received the B.D. degree in 1931. He came almost immediately to Pine Mountain as Director, and served until 1942, when he entered the army as a Chaplain. He is an ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Morris built up the educational and vocational programs at Pine Mountain in a dramatic way. He introduced the Cooperative Store project, the Community Service program as part of the school curriculum, and the plan for Guidance Counsel which has made the school unique, and which, along with other progressive features of our program, has been discussed in MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. His influence was (and is) strongly felt all through Harlan County. Through the Pine Mountain Guidance institute the school secured its position of leadership, educationally and socially, in county activities. Mr. Morris was a strong leader in the Harlan County Planning council, which was one of the more widely known outgrowths of the Institute. Mr. Morris served for two terms as Chairman of the Conference (now the Council) of Southern Mountain 'Workers and was a member of the Executive Committee. He was a frequent contributor to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. n. x. Those who know Mr. Morris and the Southern Mountain area's needs look forward with faith to an expanding program of service under his earnest and able leadership. 2946 Annual Conference The annual meetings this year are to be held at the Assembly Inn, Montreat, North Carolina, beginning Tuesday evening, March 5 and running through Thursday noon, March 7. Since the Assembly Inn is two miles north of Black Mountain, bus and railroad tickets should be purchased to Black Mountain. There are taxicabs in Black Mountain for the trip to the Assembly Inn. The rates at the Inn, including room and meals, are $4.00 per day for the double rooms and $4.50 for single accommodations. Since all rooms are furnished with two beds (and some with three), the Inn requests that as many people as possible arrange for the double accommodations. The rates are set up on a flat basis; there is no reduction for meals not taken at the Inn. Extra meals are 75 cents each. Since the conference begins Tuesday night at 7:30 it is expected that most of those attending will arrive in time for the evening meal on that day, which is served between six and seven, and will be leaving after the Thursday (Continued on page 7) Products Of Neglect ANN ONYMOUS One morning last summer I was wakened by a terrible coughing. A few mornings later I heard it again, and looking out the window into the semi-darkness I could just make out the form of a slightly-built man pushing a cart up the street. A few days later I noticed a young woman with a dragging limp pass the house. She was accompanied by two little children and a girl of ten. Also new to the community was a lad of thirteen or fourteen who was obviously undernourished in both body and spirit; he looked as if the smile muscles of his face got very little exercise. Shortly I learned that these six people, the man with the cough, the lonely lad, and the woman with the children were all members of the same newfamily-cdme -to-town. The man, a pleasant chap from the "back country," had grown up only a few miles from a center of cultural opportunities; but with transportation and communication what they were, he was as far away from it as Guadalcanal is from Washington, D. C. Coming out of one of the hundreds of underprivileged communities in Southern Appalachia, he could not read and could sign his name only with difficulty-yet he was under forty. With such handicaps, he had to work at an unskilled job; hence the push-cart and the broom. He had only a few teeth, and a couple of these were so loose he could wiggle them with his fingers. Going to see a dentist when he was a lad would have been an all-day trip even in good weather; besides, there was not money in the family budget for dental bills. How can any man with several children pay more than he gets for a day's work just to have one tooth filled? The family probably could have afforded a toothbrush if custom had made it a "must," but the signs of neglect indicated that the habit was never formed. "The worst mouth I ever saw," remarked the kindly doctor who examined him to find the cause of the awful cough. Without teeth to chew his food and unable to buy strained vegetables and other "baby food" even if he had known about 2 them, the poor chap was making his stomach attempt to do the impossible. Hence the terrible cough as he came up the hill each morning-or maybe it was a combination of digestive disorder and the cigarettes he smoked. The lungs, the first suspect, were apparently all right. The young woman with the dragging limp was his second wife. I was told she did not have that limp before she brought her first child into the world twenty miles from a hospital, with only a neighborhood mid-wife to attend her. By the time she was twenty her third child was born; then there was the responsibility for the lad of fourteen and his ten-year-old sister. Her situation would have been difficult even if she had had the best possible education and had no physical handicap. She, too, suffered from educational neglect, as one could see when she wrote a postcard or signed her name. The lad with the face that seldom smiled had finished the sixth grade, but he was not in school. His on-going out-of-school education was such as one might expect under the circumstances: no books, no reading of any kind in the home; no radio; no church affiliation or Sunday school attendance; no vocational training; no wholesome play. Already he was occasionally doing things which might have secured for him free board-androom at one of those state-supported institutions where "community bad boys" swap ideas until each knows all the "meanness" that the others can teach him. To see the ten-year-old sister holding one little child with another standing by her knee was a sight to make one feel like smiling and weeping at the same time: like smiling, because she was a "little mother" to them and they loved her; like weeping, because she was a little "drudge" denied the chance to go to school because she was so useful. The whole family situation seemed pretty discouraging-to participants and on-lookers alike. What could be done? The obvious first step seemed to be to get a set of teeth for the breadwinner of the family, for if he took sick, the family would be in even worse predicament. When the subject was broached, he admitted he needed the teeth but said he "couldn't afford 'em." When several interested people had pledged help enough to assure the teeth, another obstacle was discovered: the man was dentist-chair shy, so shy that some one had to go with him to have one troublesome "acher" pulled. Obviously it would require considerable encouragement to have the other eight or ten removed. There were other financial problems. Two people with third- or fourth-grade arithmetic ability can spend money faster than one of them can earn it. There were complaints and accusations between the parents, not always in private and to each other. In reply to a direct question, he admitted that he as well as "she" spent money unwisely. I urged him to talk things over with her, choosing times when relationships were at their best, and I mentioned the resources of prayer. "Yes," he replied, "I guess He will do His part if we do ours." The oil of religion eased the friction a bit. She promised him she would get some work as soon as she could leave the new baby, and thereby add to the family income. In a few weeks she got a part-time job-and celebrated by spending her first week's earnings on some new clothes for herself. Having little schooling and being the mother of three children is no insurance against being attracted by pretty clothing---- not at twenty! Cool weather came; the children's clothing was thin and not too plentiful. With babies playing on the floor, a heating stove and coal had to be provided. A loan from an organization designed to help people in such circumstances solved the problem, temporarily, but as things worked out, it is a good thing the loan was insured. "When are you going to have your teeth out?" I asked the man one day. "Well," he replied, "I want to go to _ _ _ _ to visit my oldest boy. He's just sixteen and it's his first time away from home. I haven't seen him in six months. They can't spare him from his job to come home, so he sent me money to come up there to see him." The son sent money a second time, but the visit was never made; there were too many needs to be met with the money, and the father could not afford to lose two or three days time for the trip. The hunting season opened. One day he told me he was going to take a half-day off, go "back home" and hunt rabbits with his nephew; then see the dentist and make an appointment as soon as he got back. "How much extra do you think it would cost," he asked, "to have one gold tooth put in (the plate)-like the one I got?" Evidently, to one in his straitened circumstances, the glint of a little gold when he looked in the mirror made for increased self-esteem. He went hunting Saturday; came home Sunday. Two nights later the doctor phoned that he was dead. I hurriedly dressed and went to the little one-room home. There, even in the dim kerosene light, I could see too much. No home is ever prepared for the visit of Death, but usually there is not such complete unpreparation. A couple of kindly neighbor women gave sympathy-mostly silent. While we waited for the undertaker to come, grief held sway. Then we talked about messages that had to be sent to relatives; names and addressÃ‚Â°_s were written down. The future of the sad-faced lad and his little brothers and sisters certainly did not look very hopeful. The home community was less than twenty miles away, but I learned I could phone only half the distance to the relatives there. Making the neighborly soul at the other end of the wire hear me was far more difficult than talking to San Diego, California. Finally she got the message and promised to send it on: Human sympathy and helpfulness in time of need are one of the greatest assets of people in otherwise underprivileged communities. Without it, they would be poor indeed; life could not go on. Since there was a suspicion of poisoning from illegal liquor, an autopsy was held. The coroner's verdict, however, was only "bad moonshine." (It should not have been bad at $24 per gallon! That is the price the neighbor is reported to have paid for the stuff.) "He would take a drink," a nephew of the victim told me, "but I never knew him to spend a dollar for the stuff in his life." The day of the funeral came and the lad who couldn't be spared to visit his father was spared to come to the burial rites. Following the little truck with the casket back into the home community gave me a little more insight into the background. It was not unlike hundreds of other communities in Southern Appalacia where good roads have come only in recent years. There were agricultural and other possibilities for a fair livelihood and a good life-provided the population didn't increase too fast, and provided proper education, adequate capital, and good leadership were available. The chief lack appeared to be leaders with social vision. Later a teacher from the community added a bit to my understanding of community and family background. The young mother, now a widow, had been a youngest child, apparently not too wisely disciplined. And she had married against her parents' wishes. Through imitation of more sophisticated members of her sex she had learned the art of smoking, also "make up." But her education, in school and outside, had not given her adequate preparation for being a home-maker; and for meeting the new problems of providing for five children she was wholly unprepared. Friends, neighbors, and even strangers were interested to help the family through the first difficult weeks. Application blanks for government aid for dependent children were filled out, but the status of the former bread-earner under Social Security was not such as to insure a solution to the problem of family-support. He had had too little training; the period of employment had been too short; too many jobs did not come under the provisions of the law. Jesus once asked, "Is a man of more value than a sheep?" If we paraphrase that and ask, "Is a child of more value than a dog?"the facts in this case answer "No"; for the United States government allows thirty cents a day to buy feed for an Army dog, but its allowance for each of these children for food, clothing and all other necessities is only seventeen cents a day! Not only is the amount shamefully inadequate, but the staff administering Social Security is not large enough to insure careful supervision to see that what is pro vided is wisely used. The amount spent in i developing the atom bomb would underwrite an adequate program of Social Security for many years with a well-trained staff to administer it. How did this true story end? Well, it has not ended yet. Four different homes of the "common people"are each giving their best to provide a real home for one child each, and the other is in a Christian orphanage. Probably each child has a better chance in life, materially speaking, than the original home could have provided. But they are not together, nor do they have the assured spiritual security in the long future that two loving parents, well trained and well equipped for the job, could have given children of their own flesh and blood through all the years to their maturity. That ought to be the birth-right of every child, especially in a Christian nation. We are making far-reaching and thorough preparations today to insure that never again will Germany and Japan imperil our nation and our people, but ignorance, alcohol, and spiritual poverty have destroyed more American lives every year for decades than Germans and Japs combined destroyed in four years! We have had poorly trained, underpaid teachers in the Southern Appalachians more years than the German nation has been united. Adequate health education and medical care have been lacking in that region more years than Japan has had an empire. The training of a young woman for the high calling of motherhood and home-maker is worth at least as much investment per person as the training of young men for organized destruction of human life. Child-bearing women deserve as much consideration as soldiers, but many of them do not get it either in "equipment" to do their work or in hospital care. Our federal and state governments cannot escape their share of responsibility for these products of neglect. However, they do not stand alone. Churches with millions of dollars in endowment could place shepherds in many of these pastorless communities if they really trusted God's promises as much as those of industrial corporations or Uncle Sam or municipalities; the latter never offer above six percent these days, whereas the Bible mentions much higher increases of "thirty, sixty and an hundred,fold." Which investment is better? Which should Christians trust? Even our great billion-dollar corporations that spend millions advertising their service to the nation might well invest enough to insure every community in our nation having good telephone communications with the outside world. How long must people wait until every neighborhood in the nation is as closely in touch by telephone with the nearest doctor and hospital as Washington, D. C. is with Guam, or Chungking, China? Telephone companies boast of how their men laid lines for use of the men at the front; if we made such means of communication available at terrific costs of material and life, surely we can afford to provide every community or neighborhood with means of calling doctors, getting in touch with the public health nurse, the county agent, county officials and others. During the war the best films we could devise were made available for the training of men in use of new weapons of war and new tools of industry. Will such means be made available for PERSPECTIVE RAYMOND B. Director of Annville Institute, the education of illiterate adults in these days of peace, that they may learn new truths about health, child-rearing, soil conservation and all the saving truth they may need to have life abundant? We can do anything we deeply desire to do. Can we, will we, sacrifice as much out of love of our own people as we have been doing for four years out of fear and hatred of the "enemy"? When men will sacrifice for love As now they do for hate and fear Christ's prayer will have been answered: Love's kingdom will be here. DRUKKER Jackson County, Kentucky It is always well to keep perspective on the work of an institution. In the enlargement of the program and in its direction and coordination, in the development of the material resources and the rehabilitation of the properties, in the cultivation of supporting clientele and the financing of the work, in the relationships which are personal, community, denominational, interdenominational, and even regional-since the people of our county are scattered all over the world these days-it is well to get a mountain-eye, view of where we are going, what we are doing and how we plan to do it all. An institution's progress must be determined by present conditions and by the current changing situations. This does not mean it is a hit-or miss, capricious sort of procedure but rather that it seeks to follow the leadings of Providence. We are not in a ,position to produce the conditions which will affect our program, for we are still at the mercy of those fierce, swirling currents of t torrent of our modern life. Therefore we must keep our program fluid, elastic, ready to alter, add to, amend, eliminate, and so keep moving forward to meet the constant fluctuations of a world and an America engaged for years in global war and now trying to adjust themselves to peace. It is possible, however, in a measure to determine the general direction, the trends of the hour, the present situations, as well as to anticipate future possibilities and probabilities, and then to weave one's way through the conflicting cross-currents which are all about us waile still striving toward the goals set for us to accomplish. More than three thousand people from our county'--young men, married men, fathers, and several young women have been engaged in the service of the nation. Reflect for a single moment on what that means in changing conditions here, and one almost stands bewildered. It means disrupted economics, with less production here and greater income out yonder; it means soldiers' and dependents' allotments, pensions, and yet in some cases greater dependency; it means decided increases in juvenile and domestic problems; labor shortages now and unemployment later; the coming of new influences, problems, diseases; it means restiveness, lack of respect for authority, less appreciation for things more easily gotten, the devastating effect of easy, quickly gained cash. It also means heartaches, homes broken by "killed or missing in action" reports. 1t means a terrific confusion in thinking to see some of the beneficiaries, or shall I say victims, of our distorted contemporary life, while others way back in the hills wistfully wait for a better day, completely surrounded by the old isolation and its accompanying problems. It means poorer schools, inferior teaching. With all of life Jackson County Kentucky, whose population in 1940 was 16,336. geared to the winning of the war we have seen the evil effects of a policy which loses itself in immediacy: the future of the world is determined by soldiers and by politicians at a Dumbarton Oaks and San Francisco, while all the time the only basis of an enduring peace is found in attitudes and lives of boys and girls and men and women who live their lives day by day in their more or less favored communities. From the mountains we can see that unless America and the Christian Church help the coming generations become completely saturated with the moral and intellectual principles which constitute the bases of a better and nobler life, there can be no ultimate victory to consecrate the sufferings of the present hour. Into such a maelstrom moves the Church of Jesus Christ. Say what we will, no program of social improvement will solve our problems, for only redeemed people can produce a redeemed society. Therefore, our chief function is to bring to people the Christ of the Cross, that in him life may be full, free and a fellowship of faithful service. Truly there can be no relaxation in our program of evangelism; whatever we do, we feel, must be a part of that movement. The salvation of America awaits the regeneration of the person and for that we pray, because God's gracious and good Holy Spirit alone can do that. And yet, all of us can demonstrate a rebirth of unreserved devotion to Christ and his cause and stem the tides of evil and rebuild a better world-beginning in our community. In our county we need everything the world needs and in many instances vastly more, as is evidenced by the changes in mountain life predicted for the next ten years by ministers and community workers of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., in a conference a little while ago: 1. An increase in contacts with the outside world. 2. A younger generation of leadership. 3. With increase in school facilities, people of ten years hence will not listen to the ignorant preaching of the present. 4. More cooperation and less bitterness among the churches. 5. Soil conservation will make farming more profitable. 6. There will be more conveniences in homes and a higher standard of living. 7. There will be more diversified activities. 8. There will be more commercial recreation. 9. Socialized medicine will undoubtedly be established in many centers. 10. As the economic level rises the level of church support will rise, with a larger amount of self-support." If all this be true, and I believe it is only a partial picture, there are some things incumbent upon us. Fundamentally, we will have to help people live in a new world, not necessarily a better world, perhaps a world far more needy than we ever knew it to be. At any rate, it will be different-very, very, very different. In this different world, the isolated rural areas will be more seriously affected. That has been true in the war years, with the draft and defense work claiming so many and practically ruining the work of churches as their best young leadership has gone. Then, too, in a sense we are no longer isolated but a definite part of a world community. Into this we have been thrust-almost catapulated -without any previous preparation and, in many instances, with no desire for it. The great problem before us is-will this be a Christian world community? If so, I am not so alarmed; if not, I am decidedly scared of the result. It will be a world in which there has been a wastage of manpower and natural resources; a terrific devastation of moral resources through carelessness and exploitation; the relaxation of principle for expediency's sake or through just plain willfulness. As a consequence, it looks as though the person or group who can best help the victims of such wanton disorder adjust themselves with comparative ease and security to the new conditions will capture their allegiance. To date in America the Church hasn't done that, and unless we do something quickly a Trotsky or Lenin or Stalin or some powerful person with totalitarian tendencies guised under the cloak of altruistic economics will win the people, and we will have another lost generation. A perplexing problem is that of adjusting our rural reconstruction to the technical tendencies of our modern life. Tomorrow every farmer will have to be a mechanic as well as an agriculturalist, and in the more remote areas he will have to com pete with the more favored farmer to whom the problems of bad roads, inaccessibility to markets, devitalized soils, little help and stony hillsides are practically unknown. What this all means is that every agency in a community must cooperate in the best interest of the people of the area. The Board of Education, Public Health people, the Government-federal and state-agencies, missions, churches, cooperatives, must all with vision, unselfishness and courage cooperate in their various programs to make the values of democracy practicable and very real to disadvantaged peoples. Types of industry suitable to the respective area must be selected to help increase the yearly cash income and provide a truly human life for everyone. Cooperative studies and work on the questions of roads, schools, juvenile problems and markets might well get under way at once. Another problem is that of making people feel themselves a real part of the democratic process. Today the majority too often stand on the sidelines without any real knowledge of the way a democracy works, except for the chance to vote. The inherent guarantees of democracy have been practically unknown, and when the privileges suddenly appear on life's horizon, often they are either abused or refused. In order to use democracy properly there must be an adequate appreciation of what democracy is-with privilege and responsibility going hand in hand to work in the interests of the many rather than the few. At Annville Institute we are ready for certain experimental projects in this field of democratic living. And then it is imperative that we sense present conditions. The major problem is that of lost motivation. This is often misinterpreted as suspicion, indolence, indifference, and other unfavorable characteristics, but these are only symptoms of the main cause. Lack of motivation inhibits the people and somehow causes them to shy away from new opportunities for a better life. What the service people and defense workers will do to that attitude will be interesting to discover. Meanwhile, as we carry on the work, the primary needs of the whole mountain area are: (1) providing health opportunities; (2) overcoming educational poverty; (3) bringing religious enlightenment; and in this, parochial or denominational zeal ought always to give way to the spiritual needs of the people-we are here to help them to a Christian way of life and not to a sectarian or denominational emphasis; (4) evolving a program of economic and social betterment; (5) helping to provide wholesome recreational outlets; (6) guarding against the destruction of the unique qualities of a great people by the soul-less industrial age in which we live; (7) conserving the soil; (8) counselling youth faced with problems of increasing maladjustment to changing situations. In the waging of the peace in our country we will be called upon to exert every power, utilize every talent, manifest every grace the Christian Church has to share. This may be as difficult an assignment as any we have ever had. God give to us all the courage and the ability to cope with it in his name. 1946 ANNUAL CONFERENCE (Continued from page 1) noon meal which is served between one and two o'clock. On that arrangement the charge for those in double rooms will be $8. for the two nights and six meals, and for those in the single rooms, $9. Please make your reservations direct with the Assembly Inn, Montreat, North Carolina. If you have a special problem relative to your attendance which cannot.be answered by the manager of the Inn, you may write to Dr. Arthur A. Bannerman, president of the Council, at Swannanoa, North Carolina. Swannanoa is near Montreat and Dr. Bannerman will be glad to help in any way possible in solving saecial problems or questions relative to the conference. Church Leadership And Industrial Needs BY CHARLES M. BROWN Minister of the Presbyterian Church, Chapel Hill, North Carolina THE NEED (Excerpts from a diary which a merchant in a small mountain town might have written about the beginnings of labor trouble there.) June, 1936 Times are better. Our town is in better shape now than in many years. The junior college here had nearly three hundred students this past year. Three mills employ nearly a hundred workers. Summer camps are full, and the town is over-flowing with tourists. The only excitement we have comes with elections, high school plays and Christmas cantatas. It's our kind of town and our kind of good, hardworking people that is the backbone of the country . . . . . November, 1938. At the Merchants Association there was a lot of talk about the chances for a big corporation coming here that would hire over a thousand people. I don't look for much to happen; it never does. The Chamber of Commerce is going to do what it can . . . . . August, 1939. It happened! Land has been bought and contracts let for the building of the big plant. Already the town has engineers and executives of the company moving in. This is the biggest thing that has happened to us in years. Some are afraid it will ruin the tourist business, but even if it does it will mean a larger yearround income. June, 1941. The plant is running full blast now. Our population has nearly doubled; Business is better than I ever imagined it could be. Real estate is on the boom. Rents are high. The churches even are fuller. It looks like we're in for some real prosperity and growth from here out. The war makes business better, too. It's been necessary to increase all our products . . . . May, 1944. Looks like trouble ahead now. Last night at a meeting to plan for the Red Cross Drive I heard talk about union organizers coming to organize the plant. I don't see why they bother us. We're getting along all right. Anyway they won't get far in our communityJune, 1944. It's true. The union organizers have come. We are forming a committee of citizens to fight them. We are going to put whole page ads in the paper. I saw the copy for the first one"Hordes of Union Organizers are swarming into the county." That will let the people know what's about to happen around here. We'll have other ads each week telling how the Union causes fights wherever it goes, and how the Unions are run by communists in New York. We are letting the soldiers from here know that they won't be able to get jobs when they come back, and if they do they will have to pay a lot of their salary for Union dues. So far, the organizers don't have a place to meet, and they won't have if we can help it. They are meeting outdoors in the yard of one of the workers . . . . August, 1944. These Union men work fast. They have had more success than I thought possible. The Union men are putting ads in the paper too. They say things that aren't true-about how much more money the worker can get, how much labor helps the war effort, and all that. I don't believe they will win out, even with all that. I don't see how some of our good solid people fall for things the organizers say. One of the preachers in town even said he thought they might be right. Some of his elders soon set him straight on how it would ruin their businesses. The ministers ought to help us fight Unions, if anything. Many of the church leaders are on our Citizens' Committee. March, 1945. Well, the Union did win. But the government helped. They had elections, and the Unions won by a good many votes. Now I guess we'll have trouble for years with, them. Outsiders always keep things stirred up. We know what to expect, though, and after the war is over and times get harder, we're going to break it up . . . . WHAT CAN BE DONE What should have been the attitude of the Church in such a situation as that pictured above? Does the Church have any responsibility toward resolving the tensions that arise when labor organizers come to town? What is the minister's responsibility as a leader of the Church? Not all employers are determined to overwork and underpay their employees. Most of them would like to have satisfied and friendly workers. While all labor leaders are not saintss, they are not thugs. But most employers are afraid of labor union organizers. They have learned nearly all they know about Unions from a hostile press and the National Manufacturers Association. There is distrust. Both laborers and employers, however, are ordinary human beings, with the same desires, same hopes, and same fears. They need to know and understand one another. The Church with a wise and courageous minister might be the agency for understanding and reconciliation. The minister, and through his leadership, the Church, ought to be a creator of atmosphere and understanding by helping each side of the conflict know the truth and know one iother. To do this the minister would need to be informed on the whole subject of Labor. Dr. James Myers' book, Do You Know Labor?, if studied would give the minister an insight into the philosophy that is behind Labor Unions and a knowledge of the history of the movement. He should be able to join in the barber shop conversation when the barber says, "I don't see how the Unions got any right to organize and strike. They don't own the plant. They don't have to work if they don't want to. Let 'em get out." He should know what to say when one of his church officers, a superintendent in the plant, says, "The boss treats everybody right. Wages here are equal to other places. The boss gave everybody hospital insurance for Christmas last year. He has a band leader and music teacher for the children of the workers. He even bought a lake and some land for employees to use. The boss treats everybody more than fair." If he is well informed himself he may do much to enable each party to understand the other. There are several concrete and practical steps a minister, or better still, the Ministerial Association can do through the churches. Information as to the stand of various church leaders on the question of labor's right to organize should be carried to the people. The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, representing over 26,000,000 Christians, adopted in 1940 these words: "Not only has labor a right to organize but . . . . it is socially desirable that it do so . . . . ." Practically every major denomination has made a similar declaration in favor of the rights of labor. These declarations of spiritual leaders should be used in sermons, study classes, and in bulletins. Most ministers speak occasionally before Kiwanis, Rotary, and Lions Clubs. A very informing and helpful talk could be made on "The Churches' Resolutions on Labor." Miss Lucy Randolph Mason, Southern Public Relations Representative of C10 in Atlanta, Georgia, has gathered these declarations together in a pamphlet which is sent on request. Union organizers are not thugs and gunmen. Many of them are sincere and active Christians. When a union organizer comes into town, the minister might visit him, ask for his literature, and invite him to Church. If he should happen to be a member of the Church perhaps he could be invited to speak to the Bible Class or the Wednesday evening meeting. If he has difficulty in securing a meeting place for the laborers to meet to discuss their problems, then the Church should face its responsibility to offer its facilities to them. In addition to changing the attitude of the community through these educational means, the minister may also be a reconciling force between the industrialist and the labor leaders. If a company official should be a member of the Church, then the minister might seek to bring both the organizer and the industrial leaders together in his home for the purposes of letting them know one another in a normal, friendly way. Such a procedure has in some instances been the means of working out differences without the usual distortions and misrepresentations of both as each side seeks to carry its point. Labor in tie South will be organized! Much of the strife involved can be averted if ministers will inform themselves, inform their people, and use wisdom and courage in meeting these situations. Opportunity School Comes Of Age MARY P. DUPUY Director of Berea Opportunity School, 1939 A January day with wind blowing through the gap and snow "shoe-mouth deep" on the mountain is not a propitious time for travel across the stony bulwark that fortifies eastern Kentucky from her sister states. We were heartened for the winter walk by a missionary from the Congo, quoting the small boy who struggled through the jungle saying, "The feet not get heavy when the heart wants to go." Our hearts wanted to go. The climb and descent to the opposite valley and the railroad were an accustomed part of the active life of those whose work radiated from the community-life center on yon side of Stone Mountain, and a special invitation gave a spur to the effort to cross the mountain on a day when only foot travel was possible. There were three urges to this invitation: It came from the founder of our several small centers on the headwater of the Cumberland; it proposed a visit to Berea college-a southern mountain Mecca that we had not yet seen; it invited us to observe and participate in the new extension of the wide program of education that Berea College offered to the southern mountain field. Opportunity School they called it. There are many details forgotten and many recalled about the gay-spirited little trip in 1925; the cold overnight room beside the track to await a train at dawn; the change to the warmth and comforts of Boone Tavern, the welcome from henceforth- friends in Berea. Of Opportunity School, our objective, there are specially remembered bits from the brief visit; the beaming faces of an assorted group of men and women, the college glee club singing for them the Cherry Tree carol, a break-leg race through a folk dance with a young Dane whose name, work and accelerated folk dancing are now known to many readers of this page. It was all an introduction to a new idea. Five years later the two friends left the valley and the hills to follow distant and divergent routes. Miss Mary Corbett went to a rich field 10 of work in Brazil. My own path led to Denmark and again to Berea to study more closely and work more intimately with Opportunity School. It is an interest that has continued and grown from the first brief visit to the initial session in 1925 to that of 1946, when Opportunity School comes of age. I write of this adapted folk school, therefore, as a student of its philosophy, as a participant in planning many of its sessions, as a friend of its founders. Yet I write objectively as one who can lay no claim to its organization, to establishing its underlying principles, or to adapting with sound sense and good taste the informal educational innovation that has been fruitful and fitting within an active college campus. These things-the organization and principlesstem from roots that grow on an older soil. The come from careful selection and grafting by wis gardeners who greatly desired to give a richer quality of life to a beloved portion of America. They are men and women who have been organic in the Council of Southern Mountain Workers. Mrs. John C. Campbell returned from a year in northern Europe in 1923 and kindled enthusiasm by her strong convictions concerning the Scandinavian folk school. Miss Helen Dingman quickly caught the implication for the southern mountains and, three years after Opportunity School began, spent some weeks in study and observation in Denmark and Finland, returning with the same enthusiastic spirit. Two adaptations of the Danish folk school resulted from these trips: Mrs. Campbell and Mrs. Marguerite Butler Bidstrup developed the .John C. Campbell Folk School in Brasstown, North Carolina; Miss Dingman and President William J. Hutchins in 1925 ventured a somewhat difficult and unique experiment in Berea College, Kentucky. The latter is, we believe, the only informal unit of its kind that has continued to be embedded yearly in an academic setting. The cordial cc) operation of the administrative and teaching staffs ~f the college has made this possible. None of these, however, will allow themselves to be considered the true founders of these modified folk schools. They will refer to the revered Bishop N. F. S. Grundtvig of nineteenth century Denmark, patriot and lover of the common people, out of whose insight into their needs evolved his theory of folk education, of cultivation of the "whole man" and the "whole people." This theory found expression in the various folk highschools of Denmark, that have contributed so much to the strength and fame of that small country; "they came into being as a young tree grows out of Danish soil". The Opportunity School of Berea College is a scion of the Danish stock: The same clear aims run through them, and the same simple principles of education. Aims, principles, methods are cumbersome terms, however, to be applied to a program so flexible, to a classroom so informal, to teaching so unconfined to standard pedagogical procedures. All true educational plans are based on consideration for the students it would serve and their needs, and this explains the nature of Opportunity School. The twenty-five to forty men and women who impose the yearly unit arc not the enrolled stu,.ents of the schools of Berea. They are often the parents, even the grandparents, of such students; sometimes an alumnus. Frequently they are not eligible or not interested in formal schooling but can absorb well the impacts of stimulating environment. Any intelligent adult of eighteen years or morethere is no chronological ceilingcan be a good Opportunity School member. In the twenty sessions there have been enrolled as many occupations; housekeepers, teachers, farmers, preachers, coal miners, carpenters, weavers, community workers, young people whose life work is unsettled. These are the stuff of which Opportunity School is composed. Their qualifications are those of an inquiring mind and a cooperative spirit, without question of amount or kind of education. The average educational attainment of the nearly six hundred who have been enrolled has been eighth and ninth grades. Those below this level have been equally as happy and adjusted as those above it, and the group life is the more interesting for the wide variation of age, occupa tion and education. Over forty such students have remained in Berea to continue their more formal education, entering the various school levels regardless of their age. Eleven, who on entering Opportunity School had no thought of ever enrolling in any school, have remained until they received their bachelor's degree, five of these working upward from the Foundation School grades. In Opportunity School their thought is not of grades to be applied to credits or credits to be applied to a degree. The need is for refreshing companionship, to see life from different-sometimes higher-vantage points, to get new thoughts about familiar things and new things with which to be familiar. The three mid-winter weeks must, then, be "full of sap." The father of the Danish folk high-school, himself a man of learning and culture, respected scholarship and recognized the necessity of using books in scholastic attainment, but for the deepest human development of the "whole people" he discarded a "book standard." This more exact knowledge, he held, must come after the education of doing one's work well, after a "desire" is kindled for "a true understanding of life" through contact with personalities who can warm the heart with the "living"-the inspirational-"word." The Opportunity School program follows this theory. The morning hours are full of "living words" from campus teachers who have an idealism and an enthusiasm for their fields. These teachers vary with the years, though a nucleus has offered their time generously from session to session. They give, say, literary enjoyment and appreciation through use of the short story, play or novel, or the literature of a period or a people. Some of the most stimulating work done with our groups is through discussion of current affairs, interwoven with historical and geographical backgrounds. New ideas and attitudes spring from this as surely as young plants break through encrusted soil. Scientific facts, discoveries, inventions are simply yet scientifically given, ranging from geological formations and nature lore to breathtaking facts about the stars. Commonplace matter becomes a thing of awe and the natural life of the region grows valuable and attractive. Social problems, citizenship, and responsibilities to home communities are stressed, and interpretations of great religious truths as applied to personal, civic and national life. The morning hours, beginning with a brief worship period and ending with wholehearted folk singing, are the core of Opportunity School. Many men and women have been led thereby to "think with courage" and to live more ably. There is contact too with the fine arts resources, through the helpful friends who make music and art a part of Berea life and patiently guide eyes, ears, and tastes into new adventures. The college library supplies for the Opportunity School room books of wide variety and charm, which, unassigned, are used for reference and pleasure. An elderly man said of his brother's Opportunity School experience, "just think what he will have to think about when he feeds the stock." The industrial arts program and student industries of Berea give an unusual opportunity for teaching practical skills along with the new knowledge and attitudes. In the afternoon each student is helped with the special interest or creative bent in which he wishes to be proficient. Women may want home-making, handicrafts, home nursing, gardening. The men have access to the college shops and the college Agriculture Department gives liberally of tirnc and resources in dairy, garden, farm and poultry plants. Because of this part of the program, the Kentucky Veterans Administration, through the government's plan for vocational rehabilitation, enrolled ten discharged service men in 1945 to take part in the whole program, with emphasis on agricultural training to prepare them for efficient farming on their own land. They affiliated with the group life and contributed to it and the plan will doubtless be renewed in the approaching session. The touchstone that most unifies students into a happy and highly loyal family group is perhaps the close social association of students and leaders. From breakfast to the last song of the evening the twenty odd days are full of group activity: classes, meals, participation in social events; serious thinking together and much genuine merriment. The plays, pictures, sports, concerts of the campus are enjoyed, but the social life of Opportunity School is most characterized by the reading and fireside fun and fellowship, the impromptu dramatics, the travel talks; it is remembered for the games and singing that fill the evenings in the comfortable room that is class-and living-room combined . Opportunity School has developed its own tradi./ tions, that form an "old school tie," in the annual tea, the old-students night, the banquet finale that caps the term. The spirit of the group perhaps reaches its high peak in the bi-weekly folk dancing for which age and inexperienced feet are no barrier. An inner and outer shyness gives way to appreciable poise and self-confidence through the warmth of the group friendliness and natural democracy. A shy fellow from the deep south once wrote, "My sister says that Opportunity School has even taken the bashfulness off my face." The Council of Mountain Workers for five winters has shared with Berea College for these three-week periods the services of Miss Marie Marvel, who as assistant director and recreation leader has rendered to Opportunity School a most charming service. At the close of the 1945 session, which marked the twentieth anniversary, many expressions of appreciation and appraisal came from Opportunity School "alumni" scattered through a number of counties, states, the army, the fleet. They were tributes of loyalty to the founders, to Berea, and to the meaning of Opportunity School; to tl' earnestness of spirit that it aims to impart; to th,/~ suggestions for definite service, the good will that begets all right human relationships. The simple words of one woman. perhaps sums them: "The Things I found in Opportunity School stay with me like a lesson learned in childhood." Branches of this small "folk school" have for some years been extended into rural communities, when, upon invitation, small groups of Berea teachers for two or three days give on lesser scale the same type of educational program. These are planned for the practical life of the special community; for farm, home, school, church and civic needs, with informative talks for facts, ideas, and wider outlook, mingled with song and stories, and ending with a worshipful Sunday service. In many centers throughout eastern Kentucky and adjacent portions of adjoining states small Opportunity School seedlings have thus been planted. The folk school spirit does not depend upon definite equipment or curriculum or setting. It is, we recall, touched off by the "living," the invigor (Continued on page 24) 12 a Benefits Of Test-Demonstration In Clay County VELMA BEAM Assistant Home Demonstration Agent, "In a democracy we learn most by doing." That is the practical theme underlying the philosophy of the testdemonstration program, a cooperative undertaking between the North Carolina Extension Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Clay County, a small area in southwest North Carolina, is peopled with citizens who eagerly adopt the policy which recognizes the fact that adequate farm family living is the first essential to carrying out a well-balanced farm-home program. In community meetings they not only recognized their problem of rebuilding their soil as the basis for future economy, but they planned, on a county-wide scale, to (1) increase the productivity of their croplands and pastures, (2) improve the quality of the livestock, (3) establish enterprises which would increase income, (4) improve homes, food supply and health, and (5) improve family and community living. The test-demonstration organization increased its membership from 180 in 1942 to nearly 700 in three and one-half years. They obtained help through the schools, churches, civic clubs and other agricultural agencies in furthering the entire educational program until at the present time everyone from the youngest 4-H Club member to the oldest farmer is conscious of the need and the procedure to be followed in order to reach the goal: "Improved rural living for all." Realizing that "farming is not only a business but a way of life" has enabled the people of Clay County to change their outmoded methods of general farming, which meant a mere subsistence, to a dairy or poultry or truck farm or a combination of several enterprises, which mean a neat little cash income which may be used to improve living in general. Boys and girls as well as men and women have learned the value of good soil and how to keep it good, so that they may intelligently save our great heritage for ourselves and the coming generations. By working together in the family North Carolina Extension Service group they are planning crop rotations which will prevent further erosion, and which, with proper fertilization, will replace those life-giving elements which crops and pasture land reap from it each season. "The health of a people," Benjamin Disraeli wisely said, "is really the foundation upon which all their happiness and all of their powers as a nation depend." Clay County test-demonstration farm families expect the health of their family groups to improve as a result of the use of phosphatic fertilizers and lime in the soil. In fact they have already seen evidences of better teeth and stronger bones in the youngsters-and the actual use of these materials has been in practice only eight years on some of the farms, on others less than four years. The outstanding results thus far are noted in increased productivity: where crop-land formerly produced only 10 to 20 bushels of corn per acre it is now producing 60 to 75 bushels per acre; hay tonnage has increased from 1/2 ton per acre to 1-1/2 to 2 tons per acre; eroded hillsides with broom sedge, scrub pines and pale green grasses have changed to dark green grasses, with faint evidences of the scars left by erosion..This vast improvement has resulted in better quality livestock, milk to be sold on a milk route which reaches to all parts of the county, and an increase in cash income. Naturally, with more money to spend, the homes are beginning to show marked improvement. Particularly is this true on the Grade-A Dairy farms, which now number ten compared with three in 1942. Running water for the dairy barn means running water in the kitchen, a boon to any farm home maker. The Grade-A Dairy farms are not the only ones getting home improvements, however, for there are now 226 "shadetree milk sellers" who are painting their homes inside and out, building or remodeling homes for comfort and convenience, 13 building frost-proof storage houses for canned products and root crops, building laundry houses, and improving farm buildings in general. To give actual word picture of what one young couple has been able to do since becoming a testdemonstration farm family, an excerpt from the Special Study on a Unit-test Farm is given: HISTORY The story of this farm was first brought to the attention of the Assistant Home Agent when Mr. Jarrett's sister related a portion of it in an open forum on the subject of the "Future Farming in Clay County." Miss Jarrett, a rather outspoken individual who has been teaching in the local high school for about twelve years said, "I tell you if we hadn't got some help from somewhere on how to take care of and fertilize our soil, as well as good management, we'd've been forced to seek other territory. Now take my brother, Neal, for example . . . " But for accuracy and for emphasis, let's let Neal tell the story in his own words for no other person on earth can put the same feeling into it that the man can who did the job! Maybe some people won't believe it, but when I moved here in the fall of 1935 I made 7.5 bushels of corn per acre on 7 acres. I worked it, too, and fertilized it heavily with commercial fertilizer. You can easily see that I had to buy corn. In fact, I bought corn and other feedstuffs up until 1938. The land wouldn't grow hay crops either. I used fodder for my roughage; so you can imagine what my livestock looked like! Another thing I had to buy was wheat. I grew 6 acres in 1936 and made 36 bushels. A man couldn't do that long and continue to exist. That gives an excellent word picture of what Beef and Stock Barn he had at the beginning of the program; let us hear the story of his 1944 production: This wasn't such a good corn year, but I'll have an average of 60 to 65 bushels of corn per acre; my lespedeza and mixed grass hay produced between 1-1/2 to 2 tons per acre and my 10 acres of wheat yielded 185 bushels. Another thing I was able to do this year was save 4,000 pounds of lespedeza seed off of 9 acres of good lespedeza. This is quite a saving at the present price of seed. So-the same story of increased production is eloquently repeated by another of Clay County's good farmers. Now we turn to the history of livestock production: Let me see-in 1935 I had about 20 beef cattle, but I rarely ever saw them. I grazed them in the mountains in the summer and wintered them in my daddy's barn, for I had no pasture nor barns. The ones I had weighed around 350 to 400 pounds. Seems like we had more trouble with their being sick then than we do now. I kept two of these beef type cows for milk to use in the home. I feel like I'm getting somewhere with my beef cattle project now, for last year I completed a good beef cattle barn where my 50 cattle can be comfortably sheltered during the winter; I have improved 20 acres of pasture land, which in a normal season will graze about 12 to 20 cows or steers; I have 5 purebred females and a purebred bull to head the herd; they are healthier cattle than I used to raise; and the ones I sold this year weighed from 500 to 700 pounds. I also have one purebred Jersey and one good grade dairy cow for my home milk supply. I'm proud of the fact that I will have enough feedstuffs to comfortably winter my cows, for it has been only the past three years that I could truthfully say that I buy only 5 or 6 bags of cottonseed meal to supplement the ration for my dairy cows. Progress is surely shown by that story on the improvement in quality, in health, in weight and in quantity of the main source of cash income of this farm. Then Mr. Jarrett was asked to tell about the poultry project they are developing now: That story belongs to my wife. I only built 14 the houses, and helped her with the heavy end of the job. In 1935 we had a small 8 ft. by 10 ft. house for 75 poor grade hens, which probably averaged 5 to 8 eggs per hen per month. Now we have an 18 ft. by 20 ft. new sanitary house for 186 hens and 18 roosters-purebred New Hampshire Reds. In November these hens averaged 20 eggs each, and we think that is unusually good. At the current price for hatching eggs we can make a little money off this project. My wife will tell you how that money is to be spent for home improvements. FAMILY AND FAMILY LIVING Nine years ago when this young couple moved to this 147 acres in Downing Creek several of the older heads predicted that they would starve on this old, unproductive, eroded farm! However, their youthful zeal, their good health, and good management coupled with a great deal of hard work proved to be equal to the odds against them. At first they lived in a dilapidated old house which had been occupied by the former owner. It had no underpinning, poor steps, no screens, huge cracks in the walls and ceiling, single, splintered floors, poorly fitted windows; it was unpainted, had no storage, nor was the kitchen light and comfortable. Yet the discomforts and unattractiveness had very little effect on the dauntless spirits of these young people. They kept before them the vision of the future home they were to build. In the fall of 1939 this dream house became a reality. The site for the house was well chosen. It is high on a grassy knoll with good drainage, a commanding view of the road, but not too close; and is the focal point around which all activities revolve. This little seven-room house is painted white and has all the features needed for comfort with the exception of running water-and that's what the poultry money is to be spent for early next year! At the same time there will be added cabinets for convenience in the kitchen and screens for the back porch, so it may become a more comfortable and useful place to work. The New Home Other improvements planned have to do with landscaping the grounds, planting native shrubs, and taking proper care of the magnificant trees which form a lovely background for the house. Instead of only two people there are four in this family now. A little girl of five and a baby boy two years of age have added joy to the home and given the parents an extra reason for living and for striving to make this home the best there is. In order that their children's environment may be the best possible, the parents are always interested in church, club and neighborhood activities of various kinds. Mrs. Jarrett has been a member of the Downings Creek Home Demonstration Club for six years, having held several offices in the course of that time, and is now president. They both took an active interest in remodeling their country church to make it one of the best rural churches to be found anywhere in the state. There are no library facilities nearer to this area than Hayesville, two miles away, but Mrs. Jarrett belongs to a Book Club and lends her books to her neighbors who want them. When the interior improvements get under way there will be some book cases built in the living room to take care of the books now being collected. The people of Clay County have decided to work to save the Good Earth, the Mother of us all, and in so doing are working for their lives and the lives of their children. They have accepted the challenge to build for a lasting and enduring peace-remembering all the while that "A sick unproductive agriculture produces a sick economy and a sick nation." Kentucky's Educational Products WILLIAM R. PAUL S. Sgt. Paul, Berea College '35, was with the Armed Forces Induction Station at Huntington, West Virginia it has been evident for a long, long time that the public school system in the state of Kentucky has not been functioning as it should. From time to time certain statistics have been produced that show improvement-on paper. Consequently, many trusting people have been misled into thinking there had been great improvement. Even at such schools as Berea College, proposals have been made from time to time to abolish the secondary schools and concentrate on offering college work only, on the grounds that the public educational system was now adequate to care for the needs of the youth of the state. But there appears to be very little in the actual situation to warrant such optimism. Too often, those who believed these same hopeful statistics have been quite out of touch with the real situation. The writer's first experience with the low educational level in Kentucky came with a shock when he was with the personnel division of a federal agency before the war. At that time, hundreds of youth applied for training who could neither sign their assignment documents when they started to work, nor endorse their checks when they were paid. On one day in Pulaski County, Kentucky, out of fifteen boys who were assigned to shop training, only seven could sign their names. Later experience showed this was typical of the hill counties, and the percentage changed little during the following three and one-half years. When the government later started transferring youth to Maryland and Connecticut for pre-war defense jobs, hundreds were disqualified because they had not finished the sixth grade. At the time, the reason given by the educators was that this training program was attracting only the poorest element of the population, those who had had no chance for education either because of isolation or because of low economic condition. However, there is now additional evidence to show that these pre-war findings were only samples of what would 16 eventually come to light regarding Kentucky's educational level. In the summer of 1942, the United States Army started to give literacy tests to all selective service registrants called up for examination. Almost at once the military personnel stationed at induction centers handling Kentucky selectees started talking about "Kentucky Days." The reason was simple. The psychological tests given to illiterates take considerable time, and at once the stations started working longer hours, trains were missed on shipments, and busses hauling Kentuckians were started home hours later than those hauling Ohio and Indiana selectees. The writer went to an induction station with 125 men from Laurel County, Kentucky, only three of whom were high school graduates. It was truly a "Kentucky day" at that Cincinnati station. Later when he was assigned to psychological testing in another station, examining Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio registrants, he learned really to appreciate "Kentucky days." On the average, the illiteracy rate of rural Ohio inductees rarely ran over 6 to 8 per cent; the rural West Virginia rate was rarely over 15 to 20 per cent; while Kentucky inductees rarely ran under 30 per cent illiterate. The average percentage of high school graduates was in reverse order; Ohio about 25 per cent, West Virginia about 18 per cent and Kentucky about 8 per cent. It must be remembered that Selective Service picks a cross section of the population, by numbers -by lot. These men were not picked for any reason except that they were within certain age limits. They came in with tuberculosis, with bad eyes, with flat feet, and with or without education. The amazing thing was that no matter what the age group-whether the men were eighteen or thirty-six, the percentage of illiterates from the same county was practically always the same month after month, indicating that the men who started school in 1933 actually obtained no more education than those who started school in 1915. It is quite certain that there has been no improvement since the start of the war, for improvement has been prevented by the wartime shortage of trained teachers and the use of untrained ones with emergency certificates. Illustrating this last point, one youth who had had two years in a rural high school and could barely be called truly literate, was teaching in a rural school with one of the emergency certificates. Perhaps some actual percentages of inductee illiteracy would clarify the situation. No effort has been made to pick either the worst or the best -but care has been taken to see that the figure given is typical of the locality mentioned. Totals on which these percentages are based are not given and cannot be given at this time. The following are given for your study: Magoffin County 73.7 per cent illiterate, 2 per cent high school graduates; Clay County 68 per cent illiterate, 3 per cent high school; Carter County 57.9 per cent illiterate, 6.8 per cent high school; Madison County, 38.8 per cent illiterate, and Morgan County 40 per cent illiterate. (1 Percentages on other counties in the Cstate would be on about the same basis-the more mountainous and rural the county, the higher the percentage of illiteracy; the more blue grass and urban the county, the lower the percentage. But all were far above the national average. Now, what is to be done about all of this? Is the state to continue to shut its eyes to these conditions? Is the present educational system to be allowed o continue as it is, regardless of the quality of its output? Well, that is for the people of Kentucky and the educators to decide. The writer is interested only in describing the output of Kentucky's schools as he has seen it. He admits being neither qualified to suggest remedies nor in a position to place his suggestions in effect. Even to the least informed, however, there appear to be certain remedies for obvious defects. First, consolidate the schools. There is no good reason why a so-called "pauper county" such as Pulaski should support five different school systems, each with its own superintendent, attendance officer, system of taxation and school board. Each of the resulting small high schools finds itself with a staff so small that teachers are out of their field in one or more subjects, with a very limited reference library, with little or no vocational or physical education equipment and with every activity likewise limited. It seems absurd to haul a student from three miles south of the county seat, pass in front of a first rate high school, and go four more miles into the country on the other side of the county seat, merely because the student must attend school in the "county system." A lot of Kentucky counties are guilty of these practices; Pulaski is only a example. Is it any wonder students rarely go beyond the eighth grade? Second, establish certain tests that students must pass before they can go beyond a certain grade. This would probably be difficult, but is worth the effort. There is plenty of evidence to support the statement that many students are passed just to make the record book look good; in all likelihood there will be a different teacher next year, and so the outgoing teacher has little to worry about. Many so-called eighth grade graduates have been inducted into the armed forces as illiterate, because their actual educational level was barely third grade or less. Careful questioning and individual testing of the youth involved have proven this to be true. Third, select the attendance officers on a state wide basis and place them in communities other than their own. Then try offending parents in state courts and really do something about the compulsory attendance law. Fourth, lengthen the school term in the rural sections to nine months. There is no justification for the stand taken by many that the youngsters are needed at home to help with the farming. In the middle and far west, where the more prosperous farming sections are, the schools are open for the longer term. That the state cannot afford the longer term is likewise absurd. If Kentucky can afford four teacher's colleges and a university, then it can afford to stiffen the quality of its secondary system. Likewise, if the state can afford modern highways and state parks, it can afford to teach the youth who live on these high (Continued on page 24) Perhaps the reader should be reminded that the young men of high school and college training often entered the service before being drafted in order to choose the branch of service they preferred. Even taking this into account, all Kentuckians should be ashamed of the situation these figures reveal. 17 Dark Wisdom DEAN CADLE Sgt. Cadle, Berea College, Served with the 6th During the few months I've known the natives of this group of South Pacific islands I've encountered a good many new and interesting situations. Some were beautiful in the sense that untouched scenery is beautiful; some were pathetic and heartbreaking; some infuriating, because they were the outgrowth of fear and ignorance; and all were marginal notes that could be appended only to the fragmentary history of such a primitive and isolated civilization as is found in this area. But related to this civilization, veritably lost out here in the billions of gallons of ocean, I have come upon one situation which certainly cannot be classed with the ordinary. It is a phase, a part, of a movement associated with the rapidity with which a people has come of age-a people who, before the war, few white men even knew existed. The situation I speak of is illustrated by a native boy, Willie George Basua. I met Willie during my first week here. Though his home is not on this particular island, when our squadron arrived he was here working for the army through a lend-lease agreement with the British. He and several other boys from his island lived in a native labor village of thatch huts located near our camp. In the evenings after they had finished their day's work, groups of the boys would come into our camp, bringing for sale grass skirts, handwrought war clubs of banan wood, and sea shells of rainbow hues artistically blended. Many of the boys came merely for the novelty of being greeted by the soldiers and answering in their broken English, "Hi, Joe." And they all came for cigarettes and cigars and cheap pipes. Beyond the ability to give simple answers, however few of the boys could speak intelligible English. Willie had perhaps the best-trained mind of them all, and he spoke English surprisingly well. Conversation interested him immensely, and he Photo Technical Squadron in the Pacific Theatre would ask many questions and listen intently while you answered. He had a low and agreeably calm voice, and his manner of talk was sure but slightly broken. The first genuine surprise he gave us was on that first evening when, while speaking of the mission school he had attended, he began naming the parts of speech. Then he went on to tell of his village life at home. His account of the village native minister was especially interesting: "Reverend Samuel, he is very good man. He said good words to all people. He wants to do no bad thing. But sometimes when he go to talking, he talking so fast he don't know what he saying. Words come out of his mouth but in his head he don't know what he saying." Willie is extremely religious, and he asked if I could get for him a large reference Bible. In New Haven, Connecticut, I had seen a perfect edition with large print, illustrations, maps and a large reference section. I had a girl friend there send me a copy, and another fellow in the squadron had one sent from his home in Missouri for Willie's girl friend. Willie's period of labor here terminated before the Bibles arrived and he went back to his home island. Soon afterward I received the following letter. It and the second one I am quoting will help you to understand, much better than I can tell you, just what Willie is like. South Pacific Dearest Friend, just a few words to lets you know about me. I'm was arrived safely at home, and although (also?) I'm in good health. How about that Bible you had promised to sent it to me. I need it so much now. Please supply my need will you. Oh, my friend, I'm glad to see my girl friend, and both we are always have a lot of fun. I'm sorry my friend, because I have not make already yet, all you needing to me. But I can sent some home things for you. Please, my friend try to sent me the 100 yards of black calico, I need this so much, because all my mother and father, they not have calico for clothing. Please, write to your home and supply my need, for my father and mother. I'm always remember you in my prayer, anywhere I go. Please you can write soon as you can. That all I can say to you my friend, so I will say to you good night, may the Lord be with you always From your friend Willie G. Basua Several fellows in the squadron had promised him some calico, but I am not sure how he arrived at the estimate of "100 yards." Either he had little sense of measurement, or he added together all the yards promised him by all members of our squadron and reached a high total. The fellow from Missouri and I mailed him the Bibles. I wrote him a letter and here is his answer: Protestant Ocean Society Hi, My Friend Ever so many many thanks to receive the too Bibles which you had sending me. My heart was acceptable to see, and surprised for the gift. I am enjoing myself when I hope to play game. I will remember you anywhere I go, or stay. Be sure to you that I will send you some home things, I'm making a comb, and a skirt already. But have no stamps to put on. Please send me some stamps for me than I will put on, and mail you a comb and a skirt. Do not, tell me that am lie to you. Be sure to you, that I will send you my best wishes to you. You asking me for a (native boy) who how to play mondelin and used to sing a lot. But I could not remember him now. Just I left you, and never remember him now. In my home, sometime I went to the garden with mother and father. But sometime, I hope to go to Auki (name of one of the island missions) for play ball. I can't work all day, just only three days I can work for. In this present, I'm in good health with my brother. But this months I have lot of trouble about my girl friend. Their father and mother wants to fight against me. Because, they are very bad to me. Over a month ago I went up to the hills. I saw many many nice girls. When I reached them, they came to me, and asked me, what are you doing here. Come and tell some story for us. They all stood round me until the day. This make me not have a good sleeping. Then I'm asleeping m the day time, and once I had a good dream about them. Do you think this be good for me. My Friend, I remember you, until the end of my life. You ask me to writing these words to sent to your girl friend in English and in my language. Thank you for the Bible, you are a good Mary. Nau ku tagio lue amu Bible, ki fuaku, sulfa nee oko kwateu Mario. Do this, and sent it to your girl friend. You ask me these words in my language, good morning ofodain kwau, good evening rodo lea kwau, O. K. nia lea gooana. You asking me for more, I will sent you new paper with some word more with English and my language. From Willie G. Basua Willie Basua and his two letters and the inherent power of his achievement are a challenge to every illiterate person in a country having the wealth and wisdom and privileges of ours. Discovering him is like finding a thing in the least-expected place, where possibly you would think it shouldn't be; like the beautiful where there hasn't been beauty before; like an orchid thrown to you out from the blackness of a cavern that has never been blessed with a ray of bright light. Thanks to the perseverance and sacrifices of missionaries, the natives of these few islands are now usually calm and friendly. But if you had landed on Willie's island say fifty years ago, chances are that you might have been murdered and left lying on the beach. Or, what is just as probable, you might have been well-cooked and parts of your body served up at a ceremonial (Continued on page 22) 19 Work Camps In Kentucky EDWARD R. MILLER In the fall of 1942 through the Disciples of Christ and their school at Hazel Green, Kentucky, the Work Camp Committee of the American Friends Service Committee became interested in the conditions of school houses in the mountain region of Kentucky. It has been indeed a real privilege to work with the various communities, local and county organizations, boards of education, and superintendents of schools in Wolfe County, Knott County, Harlan County and Leslie County since that time.(1 In addition we are deeply indebted to the different schools and organizations that have provided us with housing for the work campers in these counties. The interest on the part of the various staff members of these schools and settlements-Hazel Green Academy, Hindman Settlement School, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Stinnett School-has been a most vital element in these work camps, for otherwise it would have been impossible to house the workers. In the course of the past three summers, 1943, 1944, 1945 in the Kentucky counties named there have been approximately 110 different high school boys and girls, college men and women, and people out of college who have participated in the program of schoolhouse reconditioning. In the first summer alone the camp at Hazel Green worked on eleven schoolhouses, painting ten of them inside and out.(z Much the same work has been carried on in the other Kentucky Mountain counties during the following summers. However, the high school group living at Pine Mountain Settlement School and working in the "back of the mountain" corner of Harlan County, concentrated on the construction of privies for several of the schools. The camps at Hazel Green in 1944 and 1945 concentrated on the development of kitchen additions to one-room schoolhouses, to be used for 1 It was possible for us this year to accept an invitation in the Mountain area of North Carolina to help rebuild the woodworking shop of the Campbell Folk School. 2 "Hazel Green Work Camp", Mountain Life and Work Spring 1944, p 31. This article gives a detailed account of the work accomplished in one work camp. 20 expanding hot lunch programs. The Save the Children Federation has been cooperating with the Wolf County School Board in furnishing some of the equipment for these kitchens. The camp this past summer at the Stinnett School in Leslie County worked on the Stinnett School buildings and began construction of semipermanent boys' dormitory rooms. Actual work accomplished over the various years in the different communities may not seem to be a very large total, and yet it is the actual repair work done that has both earned the work campers and the American Friends Service Committee the right to be in these communities and released energies among the local residents of the communities for any further self-help undertakings. For example, the work camp this summer Schoolhouse before in Wolfe County finished the kitchen addition at the Malaga School which was started last year by the local people under the inspiration of projects of the work camp in a neighboring community in the previous summer. Perhaps even more than the physical work done by the camp, however, is the importance of the associations that take place between the work campers and the members of the mountain communities. Each discovers, in the process of the summer, genuine values in the other. Perhaps more than anything else, so-called problem areas of our country need the personal understanding of people from other parts of the country. For example, the work campers have discovered that "mountain people" are real people with a genuine culture and long family history back of them. They as people become living personalities for whom the campers have affection. The problems of the Southern Appalachian area are no longer dead words in printed textbooks on sociology, and the economy of the region is more than a few figures in a textbook on American economics. This service of interpreting various parts of the United States in such a first-hand way as is done by the work camp is of real importance for those who are to be the educational and spiritual leaders of our democracy. It is also the first genuine step toward the elimination of prejudice about Shared Experiences Schoolhouse a f ter Report o f Findings Committee Council of Southern Mountain Workers Montreat-March 14, 1945 1. We realize the importance of churches in the mountain area being helped to assume greater financial responsibility for their own programs in order that other situations that need the ministry of the church might be assisted. To this end we would commend to the National Mission Boards and other agencies involved the importance of a study of the economic and other needs of this area, in order to achieve a more balanced basis for the support of the work. 2. Further, with regard to this matter of selfsupport, we recommend that the various agencies involved in the present support of mountain work give greater consideration to the question of the causes of need, as well as helping to meet the needs involved. 3. We view with concern the situation which is developing as a result of the war emergency and the lack of comprehensive plans to meet the needs of the returning soldiers and civilians to the mountain area. We therefore recommend that a special committee should be named that will explore with the several government agencies the plans that are being considered to meet the post-war needs of the area. 4. In the light of the presentations and discussions relative to the philosophy of the folk schools, we recommend that the educational institutions, both public and private, give greater consideration to the inclusion of this type of educational approach in the educational program of the future for this area. 5. In accordance with the report of the Recreation Committee, we would like to repeat the last two specific recommendations as our findings on this subject: a. "That the allocation of Miss Marvel's time be made on the basis of comparative need fob leadership in developing a recreation program and also on the basis of opportunity for reaching the greatest number of people through leadership training." b. "That the Council keep in mind the varying recreational needs of the mountain area and the possibility of including an enlarged use of rural drama, recreational handicrafts, playground and other active games as well as the folk materials "Kentucky mountaineers" that persists all through the industrial parts of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and elsewhere. Such interpretation has been very effective, because repeatedly we find among work campers, individuals who have gone in in earlier years to teach and work in such places as Alpine, Tennessee, and Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, and elsewhere because an interest was aroused in that part of the country by participation in some of the (Continued on page 24) which have proved of such value." 6. We recognize the limitations in time in an annual meeting to deal with all the varied interests that are involved in a service program to mountain people. While appreciating the special emphasis that has been given in this program to the place of education, we would stress the importance of all other interests and agencies that are seeking to elevate the life of the people in the mountain area, and would suggest that the executive committee it= self be requested to formulate a statement of basic principles that would be inclusive of their other interests. We suggest that the program committee be named at this session to formulate the program for 1946 and that this committee be requested to have regard for other interests of the mountain work in the program of the 1946 meeting. 7. The committee would recommend that the Council express its thanks to the several agencies which have responded to the financial appeal making possible the advanced program of the Council. 8. We would further express thanks for the courtesies extended to us in the Assembly Inn, and Warren Wilson College, and to others who have contributed to the success of the conference. 9. We would also suggest to the committee in charge of arrangements for next year's conference the value of holding our meeting at some place where we can be housed together. 10. The committee would especially record the thanks of the Conference with high appreciation for the presence and inspiration of Mrs. Roosevelt and pray God's blessings upon her in the wonderful work she is doing. Findings Committee G. Gordon Mahy, Jr. Eugene J. Coltrane Mark A. Dawber Charles M. Jones DARK WISDOM (Continued from page 19) feast. The natives would have eaten your flesh, not because it was a delicacy, but because ignorance and deeprooted superstitions had bred in them the belief that the body of a white man possessed an excess of "mana," a spiritual quality which gave strength and supremacy of mind and body. Willie Basua is a descendant of these people and of their domain of fear and witchery. It was hi., ancestors who only fifty years ago warred with`' each other, killed missionaries and venturesome traders, and had a craving for "mana" of the white flesh. Martin Nielsen, famous native labor recruiter in these waters for many years, attests to the fact that only thirty years ago human flesh was eaten in the coastal village where Willie's friends and relatives now live. This, then is the heritage of Willie Basua, Melanesian black boy, who can claim ownership of little more than his lavalava, a small thatch but shared with his family, a taro patch, the banana bushes that grow wild, and the jungles and the rivers of the jungles, and the fields of lalang grass, and the boundless four-way sea. Before the war came he had never been off his island, he had never seen an automobile. Our large buildings and locomotives and paved streets and the comfort of small towns are but words of a story to him. He has never known the ease that comes from relaxing on the plush of a small main street theatre, and the advantages of a proven and centrally-organized educational system are only a tale that has come to him across the waters. This is the heritage of Willie Basua, small island jungle boy with frizzy hair, offspring of a twisted and destitute society. He has picked up his knowledge piecemeal from a native mission; has taken a few crude implements of learning and risen far above the stage of illiteracy. His triumph is a credit to one people and a challenge to another. It is a lesson for educators. It is, in a way, a parallel to a jig of folklore whose quality could evolve as a masterful piece of classicism. It is a kind of romance that has primitive charm and simplicity of expression. This, then, is the story of Willie Basua and his letters. And woven through the story and climaxing its plot, woven as manifestly as a red thread of cotton through the nap of a black velvet piece, is a question: What is the answer of the illiterates in a land of plenty, where ambition and energy are the influential requisites of enlightenment? What can they answer? 22 A Rural Workshop For Teachers BY WALTER DOWNS Director o f Teacher Education, Young Harris College Towns and Union Counties of Northeast Georgia are composed of mountains and valleys. With the exception of the county high schools located in the county seats, the schools of these counties are one-, two- and three-teacher schools. Early in the spring plans were started to get an off-campus workshop brought to this section. Mr. Ray Nicholson, Superintendent of Towns County Schools, and Mr. Frank Shuler, Superintendent of Union County Schools, cooperated with Young Harris College, the University of Georgia, and the State Department of Education in getting the workshop program. Fifty-five teachers registered for the five weeks program. A large school bus was operated from Blairsville on through Young Harris to Hiawassee, where the workshop was held in the county high school building. Through the cooperation of the two county Boards of Education the bus was available to the teachers without charge. Courses were offered in Public School Music, Arts and Crafts, Materials and Methods in Teaching, and Directed Observation in Teaching. Each teacher could earn college credit for two courses. In addition to these courses for credit, every teacher had an opportunity to participate in a daily recreational program including games for children and adults. Throughout the Workshop program all activities were planned to reach the problems of the teachers attending. Teachers were encouraged to bring to the classes problems of their schools and communities, and these problems were used as material for classroom discussion. In five communities members of the teaching staff met with the teachers and patrons to discuss the needs of the schools, and plans were made for community action toward meeting these needs. In the Materials and Methods course, the class activities included the making of daily schedules, planning a health program, making a practical lunch program, increasing reading interests of 23 children, directing play periods, providing a daily emphasis upon citizenship training, improving oral and written English, and increasing the amount of teaching material through inexpensive means. The primary school building at Hiwassee was taken as a laboratory for demonstrating interior 'arrangement and decoration of a room for primary children. The teachers were asked to decide upon the color of paint for the rooms. During the Workshop the walls and ceilings were painted, book shelves were constructed, tables were built, and washing centers set up. The teachers in the Workshop saw these rooms before and after the work was done. Those teachers who were to use these rooms during the next school year did some of this redecorating themselves as a part of their course work. This laboratory activity stimulated an interest on the part of many teachers to go back to their school rooms and do likewise. The County Boards of Education offered to pay for the paint for any building, provided patrons of the school would do the painting. Several communities accepted the offer. After a little investigation it was found that toilet facilities and adequate water supply were lacking in many communities. The Workshop program certainly made the teachers conscious of the need of securing tanitary toilets and providing an abundance of pure water for the school. In connection with the recreation program three communities were chosen for a play night in each. The students in the Workshop from these communities arranged for the place, publicity, and refreshments. In each case more than a hundred children, youth, and adults attended and participated in the games. The play night was a strong factor in developing community morale. In the music classes the students worked and thought in terms of making music a vital part of the school curriculum. In so short a time the fundamentals of music could be handled only briefly but a definite effort was made to help teachers find ways of using simple material with children and building an interest in and an appreciation for music. A group of twenty children were used to demonstrate teaching. These children had rich experience in reading, health activities, play ground work and music. After examinations were over on the last day, staff and students assembled in the auditorium with interested friends. Each group gave demonstrations of achievements developed in classroom activities. The grand finale of the Workshop took place in the gymnasium. Several folk games were played by the Workshoppers. "Singing in the Lane" was en joyed by the children and adults playing together. The grand march ended the program. The consultants making up the teaching staff were Miss Elizabeth Donovan, Curriculum Consultant, State Department of Education; Miss Ella Cook, Teacher in Fulton County Schools, Atlanta, Georgia; Mrs. Grace Faver, Peabody Demonstration School, Georgia State College for Women; Miss Kathleen Wimberly, Instructional Supervisor, Floyd County; Miss Marie Marvel, Council of Southern Mountain Workers, (for two weeks); and Mr. Walter Downs, Director Teacher Education, Young Harris College. OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL COMES OF AGE (Continued from' page 12) ating, word that kindles purpose and desire for true wisdom. Miss May B. Smith of the Berea faculty, long active in Opportunity School work, caught this when she wrote, "It is the fire that counts. The fire of industry, of purpose, of an open mind; the fire of a friendly spirit. Pile up some wood and kindling then and borrow a live coal. And then everlastingly feed the blaze!" A Annual Report, 1944-45 Itinerant Recreation Leader Marie Marvel XXI:1 Summer 45 p 20 Annual Report of the Recreation Corunzittee XXI:1 Summer 45 p 23 B Beam, Velma BEnefits of Test-Demonstration XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 13 INDEX 24 OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL The Twenty-first annual session of Opportunity School at Berea College is scheduled for January 3-26, 1946. (See article page 10). WORK CAMPS IN KENTUCKY (Continued from page 20) earlier work camps held with the Tennessee Valley Authority or Macedonia Cooperative Community. If, in this program of work camps in which young people from one part of the United States are willing to pay their own way to work for eight weeks in the summer in another part of the country at the invitation of a local organization, we can help create bonds of interest and affection, we will have done much toward the future understanding of the mountain region and perhaps have called attention to some of the ways in which, non-violently, the economic and social problems of the region can be solved. KENTUCKY'S EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTS (Continued from page 17) ways and next to the state parks to read and write. Fifth, give some incentive to the teachers of the state by paying them decent salaries on an annual basis, with an added percentage for each year taught. Protection should also be given against arbitrary removal because of school politics or a change in trustees. Neither of these factors should have entered the picture in the first place. It is evident that merely calling for federal help is not the solution to the problem of illiteracy, neither is blaming one's neighbor going to help.(2 Only by the will of the people of Kentucky not to remain at the bottom of the educational heap will the situation ever improve, and by a strong demand that the legislature, the administration in power and the educators themselves get busy. (2) For articles dealing with new experiments to improve the quality of education in a few rural Kentucky counties, see articles in Mountain Life and Work, VXX, No. 4. Benefits of Test -Deuronstration Velma Beam XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 13 BOOKS REVIEWED Colton, Ethan T. Toward the Understanding of Europe XXI:1 Summer 45 p 30 Eddy, Sherwood 1 have Seen God Work in China XXI:1 Summer 45 p 30 Flight to Destiny Theodore Carswell Hume XXI:I Summer 45 p 30 Gospel in Action, The Henry W. McLaughlin XXI:1 Summer 45 p 31 Hume, Theodore Carswell Flight to Destiny XXI:1 Summer 45 p 30 1 have Seen God Work in China Sherwood Eddy XXI:1 Summer 45 p 30 McLaughlin, Henry W. Gospel in Action XXI:1 Summer 45 p 31 Toward the Understanding of Europe Ethan T. Cotton XXIA Summer 45 p 30 _ Brown, Charles M. Church Leadership and Industrial Relations XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 8 C Cadle, Dean Dark Wisdom XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 18 Christianity and Racism XXI:1 Summer 45 p 25 Church and Rural Agencies, The James D. Wyker XXI:I Summer 45 p 29 Church and the Grass Roots, The Arthur Capper XXI:1 Summer 45 p 19 Church in the Rural Life Movement, The H. S. Randolph XXI:I Summer 45 p 6 Church Leadership and Industrial Relations Charles M. Brown XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 8 Confessions of a Rural Intern Hal Leiper XXI:I Summer 45 p 32 CONFERENCES Annual Report of the Recreation Committee XXI:1 Summer 45 p 23 Report of Findings Committee XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 21 D Dark Wisdom Dean Cadle XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 18 Dennis, William V. The Place of the Church in the Rural Com munity XXI:1 Summer 45 p 2 Downs, Walter A Rural County Workshop for Teachers XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 23 Drukker Raymond B. Our Responsibilities on the Secondary School Level XXI:1 Summer 45 p 17 Drukker, Raymond B. Perspective XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 5 Dupuy, Mary P. Opportunity School Comes of Age XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 10 E Education for Better Diet North Carolina School Bulletin XXI:1 45 p 10 Education for Leadership Charles Morgan XXI:1 Summer 45 p 11 EDUCATION Education for Better Diet XXI:1 Summer 45 p 10 Education for Leadership Charles Morgan XXI:I Summer 45 p 11 Kentucky's Educational Products William R. Paul XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 16 Opportunity School Comes of Age Mary P. Dupuy XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 10 Our Responsibilities on the Secondary School Level Dr. Raymond B. Drukker XXI:1 Summer 45 p 17 Rural County Workshop fur Teachers, A Walter Downs XXI;2 Autumn 45 p 23 Trends in Christian Education XXI:1 Summer 45 p 1 Summer 45 p 1 F Family Farming XXI:1 Summer 45 p 28 From a Pastor's Diary C. R. McBride XXI:1 Summer 45 p 32 G Grandpa 's Time Lois Maxwell Mahan XXIA Summer 45 p 26 H HEALTH Education for Better Diet XXI:1 Summer 45 p 10 Hymns of the Rural Spirit XXI:1 Summer 45 p 33 K Keener, Orrin L. The Man with the "Dough" XXI:1 Summer 45 p 31 Kentucky's Educational Products William R. Paul XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 16 L Landis, Benson Y Postwar Plans of National Interdenominational Agencies XXI:1 Summer 45 p 14 Leiper, Hal Confessions of a Rural Intern XXI:1 Summer 45 p 32 M Mahan, Lois Maxwell Grandpa's Time XXI:1 Summer 45 p 26 Man with the "Dough", The Orrin L. Keener XXI:1 Summer 45 p 31 Marvel, Marie Annual Retort 1944-1945 Itinerant Recreation Leader XXI:1 Summer 45 p 20 McBride, C. R. From a Pastor's Diary XXI:I Summer 45 p 32 Millet, Edward R. Work Cams in Kentucky XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 20 Morgan, Charles Education for Leadership XXI:1 Summer 45 p 11 N New Executive Secretary XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 1 O Opportunity School Comes of Age Mary P. Dupuy XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 10 Our Responsibilities on the Secondary School Level Dr. Raymond B. Drukker XXIA Summer 45 p 17 P Paul, William R. Kentucky's Educational Products XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 16 Perspective Raymond B. Drukker XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 5 Place of the Church in the Rural Community, The William V. Dennis XXIA Summer 45 p 2 Postwar Planning XXI:1 Summer 45 p I S Postwar Plans of National Interdenominational Agencies Benson Y. Landis XXI:I Summer 45, p 14 Products of Neglect XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 2 R Randolph, H. S. The Church fn the Rural .Life Movement XXI:I Summer 45 p 6 Recognition of Excellent Services XXI:1 Summer 45 p 1 RECREATION Annual Report, 1944-1945 Itinerant Recreation Leader Marie Marvel XXI:I Summer 45 p 20 Annual Report of the Recreation Committee XXIA Summer 45 p 23 RELIGION Christianity and Racism XXIA Summer 45 p 25 Church and Rural Agencies, The XXI:1 Summer 45 p 29 Church and the Grass Roots, The Arthur Capper XXIA Summer 45 p 19 Church in the Rural Life Movement, The H. S. Randolph XXIA Summer 45 p 6 Church Leadership and industrial Relations Charles M. Brown XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 8 Confessions of a Rural Intern Hal Leiper XXIA Summer 45 p 32 From a Pastor's Diary C. R. McBride XXIA Summer 45 p 32 Hymns of the Rural Spirit XXIA Summer 45 p 33 Place of the Church in the Rural Community, The William V. Dennis XXI:1 Postwar Plans of National Interdenominational Agencies Benson Y. Landis XXIA Summer 45 p 14 Teacher's Prayer, A XXI:1 Summer 45 p 33 Trends in Christian Education XXIA Summer 45 p 1 Report of Findings Committee XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 21 Rural County Workshop for Teachers, A Walter Downs XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 23 T Teacher's Prayer, A XXI:1 Summer 45 p 33 Trends in Christian Education XXIA Summer 45 p 1 W What is the Eleventh- Commandment? XXIA Summer 45 p 22 Work Camps in Kentucky Edward R. Miller XXI:2 Autumn 45 p 20 Wyker, James D. The Church and Rural Agencies XXI:1 Summer 45 p 29 COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS ANNUAL MEETING MONTREAT, NORTH CAROLINA MARCH 5-7, 1946