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Mountain Life & Work vol. 23 no. 4 Winter, 1947 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv23n41047 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 23 no. 4 Winter, 1947 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Winter, 1947 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. M. OU N.TAI N. LI F.E. &.WORK THE LIF:'ARY WARREN WILSON JR. COLLEGE _ S WANNAN4A, N. C, . ACHIEVING A STABLE FAMILY IN AN UNSTABLE SOCIETY, A Report 110WARD W. BEERS HEART OF AMERICA, A Poem JESSE STUART THE RURAL CHURCH FACES-FORWARD _ . ,, FRANCIS DRAKE %'INT88 1947 VOLU'_NS XXIII NIIMBEI 4 Actittk, Editor .... ~,.:.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ _k ,. .. ~ ' ~ AND ... '. ._.. . :: , ,. ,~ ;'. a.'. J "0 JFE 'a, ORGAN OF-TAR ~.COUNCItk S-OUTRERN ]WOUNT'AIN- $V'URKERS I3 . PUB1js=buQBABTiBjxLy iRT BmB;11:, -B,BNTUCwY, .im ..INTÃ¢â‚¬Â¢-. ~, - ~, , 8r .~W.. - A11Tp MV 1'~1Aj. -tJN"KSTANBINfi BBT~DVBBN TBiB ~PPA~ACB~11T 'MOi7NTAIM. A"1'AE REST OF .THE NATION. ` . ... , : . . , : . ,. . Florence Goodell Editorial Board _ Arthur Banitermon Flownrd W: ;Beers - . Olive D. Campbell Olga A. Lindqulist SIGNED ARTICLES AIDE NO'T NECESSARILY -TIIE EXPRESSION OF 'EDITORIAL- OPIIViON NOR DO TIiE7t" CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL., ACHIEVING -A STALE FAMILY IN AN UNSTABLE IETY ORTY ; C (A TLEP HEART OF AMERICA (A POEM)Ã‚Â°THE RURAL CHURCH FACES FORWARD CHILD WELFARE IN: TENNESSEE - - -Jean. N. Johnson .12 HELP FOR MOUNTAIN MOTHERS VtrHAT WE ARE DOING EDITORIAL - ' AMONG THE BOOKS' ANNOUNCEMENTS INDEX =Francis brake 1(c) Svnecarnrtort PRICE .;2.U0 PER YEAR, 56' CENTS, PER copy"- XSSUEOl S, Entered -ai the Post Office at 8erea, Kentucky as xcond= claea mail matter 'Aygnaf 22, v?45,. unidar the act of Margh 3,, 1879 ADDRESS nri toMMcrHicx'r1Ã‚Â¢rrs -Ta- .C(?UNCIL of SouaRX lt!toirivTanr Woax.Blksr 0 VOLUME xXIII WINTER, 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK NUMBER 4 Achieving A Stable Family in an , Unstable Society HOWARD W. BEERS It - has been interesting to hold an institute on Family Relations in a state where society is chiefly rural and familistic in its essence. The changes that have been mentioned during the discussions of this Institute are less apparent in many parts of Kentucky than elsewhere, but they are occurring gradually even in the remote rural neighborhood as roads and schools destroy isolation. However, changes are most painful where ways of living have been the most stable and unchanging, and no part of American civilization is exempt from facing up to questions of family living. It is interesting also to note so much concern with the family and its members at a moment in history when we are involved in so many problems on a large scale. As we strive for world peace, and grapple with relations among nations, races and great economic groups, it is significant that we turn to the family as the social molecule and the person as the social atom-in which rests ultimately the power for human improvement. It has been interesting also to note that the Institute on Family Life is a demonstration of cooperation among the numerous units of a large institution, and the logical next step is cooperation for education in family living among the several statewide and local groups, organizations and agencies who are also concerned with the family. The contributions of individuals who have introduced the highlights of this Institute into the stream of discussion have flowed into a body of thinking that belongs to the group. Let this be a reminder of the way in which individual contributions to a family merge into the living of a Thus, in democracy do the expressions of individuals and the goals of families coalesce. We face the atomic age in various moods. Some Summary presented at the Institute by Dr. Beers, Professor of Rural Sociology, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, University of Kentucky. of us credulously say, "Oh well, these alarms have been sounded before, and life went on!" Some say in great fear, "The end of all life is nigh and there is nothing we can do!" Some say, "We must reconstitute our social order so that we can live in an atomic age!" Among those who argue for reshaping society for the new era are some who propose frantic and drastic changes that would reject contemporary institutions and current social groupings. But others are more moderate and think in terms of rational and selective modifications. The temper of the Institute discussions seems to fit best into this group. The Family's Future Professor E. W. Burgess of the University of Chicago keynoted the Institute with an address on The Future o f the American Family. He rejected the viewpoint that the family is declining and will eventually disappear. He rejected also the viewpoint that we must return to the institutionalized family that characterized American life throughout most of its history until World War I. He proposed a third viewpoint that the family is in transition from old to new forms that will be adapted to the conditions of modern living. He cited the transition from autocratic to democratic relationships within the family, from external forces to internal bonds holding families together, from the romantic to living, and preparation the companionship basis for family from reliance on custom to reliance on for marriage and family life. Dr. Clifford R. Adams from the State College of Pennsylvania supplemented these points. He observed an increase from 3 divorces per 100 marriages in the 1860's to 1 divorce per 3 marriages in 1946, and predicted by 1965 that 60 per cent of all marriages would dissolve in separation or divorce unless something is done. He insisted upon three lines of action: (1) preparation for. marriage, beginning in the high schools; (2) more thoughtful Page 2 mate selection; and (3) the provision of marriage counselling services at least in every community of 10 or 12 thousand people. Dr. Adams reminded us of the small number of workers in each profession who might give marriage counsel, and indicated that workers in many fields must pool their energies in counselling. Figures that show falling birthrates and rising rates of divorce, delinquency and mental illness are often cited by persons who view with dramatic alarm some conditions of society. Certainly it is more helpful to analyze the underlying conditions and seek to develop preventive techniques, than to commit our time to a recital of symptoms. One of the highlights of this Institute is that so many of the statements and discussions have been directed toward analysis of fundamental things rather than the mere repetition of alarming statistics. Furthermore, the discussions ,have presented many specific and concrete suggestions on the basis of which persons can become better family members. An important observation made is that in most cases marriage problems are due to many factors, not one. This reminds us of an error that we make very frequently, of trying to solve some problem in terms of a single cause. 'I'he search for a single cause implies that there may be a single cure-and problems of human relationships are by no means that simple. The variety of subjects discussed during the Institute indicates the many aspects of family living, all of which are sources of family strength, hence also types of problems in family relationships. It is heartening also to discover how much knowledge is actually available, and can be learned and applied in each of these fields. Health In one of the meetings attention was given to physical health, certainly basic to the wellbeing of any family. The importance of nutrition for the growing child was quite a proper subject for empfrasis in an institute on family life. 'The reliance of social health on physical and mental health was certainly not-overstressed. Problems of health are of national and international concern today, and the home is the chief place in which health is gained or lost. ~ Parents must have a great deal of information on factors that maintain health and on MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1947 means of remedying physical defects. It is interesting to note one sentence, underlined for emphasis, in one set of notes available in preparing this summary: "The men are the principal offenders as far as lack of information on foods is concerned." Money The money question has been treated in the Institute under at least two headings, (1) family budgeting, and (2) teaching children the use of money. Not many families have budgets; budgeting represents a type of management that seems to them too formal and as involving too much skill. Budgeting is an interesting and important device, however, for balancing the needs of individuals within the family group. It provides a specific basis for developing family understanding and consensus among family members with respect to longtime goals and immediate needs. It helps families to pay as they g(r), and to keep out of financial jams. It is unfortunate that in a society to which money is so important, so few people use it skillfully. The use of money involves attitudes and skills that can be acquired only by a good deal of experience, hence the importance of helping children learn the habits involved. Probably we would have fewer misers, gougers, chiselers, bribers, ne'er-do-wells and spendthrifts if children could learn the proper role of money in social experience. Certainly many couples would be relieved of many distressing problems in starting their families if they could begin with real competence as users of money. Just think what a change in our whole economic climate might occur, if 'all children grew up thinking of "our money" instead of "my money." Think also of what might happen to our whole attitude toward conservation of resources if economic planning were part of each individual's experience from childhood. Independence and Maturity One of the toughest jobs of parenthood in this day of transition in the family is that of assuring independence to children as they grow, and at the same time making sure that the child is not only physically and mentally ready for independence, but also emotionally secure and happy in his home environment. Too many errors have been committed here, and we must realize that emotional se s c a r P s t P a r m~ In to pr pa ou vi its fa be en mi tee of ir~ an gu n: Ac QVPinter, 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK curity has to come first if children are to take on responsibilities without too much frustration and nxiety. Each child matures at his own rate. It s normal for one child to walk as early as at eight months, for example,and another as late as at 16 months, with no cause for concern in either case. The feeling of "belongingness" and happiness was stressed at this point because research on married couples today shows that happier children become happier husbands, wives, and parents. Opportunities have to be provided in the family that are appropriate to the unique abilities of each child, and this is "no small order:" The importance of being positive rather than negative was reiterated, but haven't you known people who are positively negative? The objective of discipline should be to lead the child toward greater competence in self-control. The uses and misuses of punishment are very important. Some of us have a tendency to pull the flower when we pull the weed. motions Emotional problems were discussed in some of e meetings. In most homes, the person with greatest emotional influence on children is the mother, and "momism" got its dues during this Institute. Mrs. Estes of the University of Kentucky pointed out the hazards of over- and underprotection and the contagiousness of anxiety from parent to child. As a general rule, it was pointed out, a good mother is usually also a good wife and vice versa. Dr. Dimmick, Psychology Department, University of Kentucky, observed, in discussing emotional factors in child behavior, that there would be no behavior without emotion. We all act and react emotionally, but many of us don't understand much about what is really happening. Yet, in the temper tantrum of the child we see the raw form of the inadequacy of the erratic statesman, the irascible boss, the immature parent. Adults who are "off the beam" usually got that, way as chilen. It is not impossible for parents to underand the emotional needs of their children, nor to guide them toward positive expression of tensions nstead of blindly thwarting and blocking them. Adolescence The relation of parents to adolescents was dis cussed at one meeting, and it was said, in effect, "Yes, adolescents do need parents, but . . . !" Here the problem of parentchild relations is especially hard for parents, either good ones or bad ones, because the child is stretching rapidly into mature independence. The adolescent problem, as has been noted so often-but as is still not fully realizedwas again seen to be substantially a parent problem. Parents can give adolescents a background of psychological and economic security, a model of happy family life, a sense of purpose, and experience in democracy. Religion The integral view of religion as a quality of the whole of life was presented in the discussion of helping children grow spiritually. The responsibility of parents themselves to achieve spiritual maturity cannot be escaped; parents must know their own souls before they can give adequate help to their children. Whatever ideals the child has will be traced to his life in the family, and the dominant influences will be the temper of family relationships and attitudes. Economic Problems An important correction to common viewpoints on economic problems of the family was submitted in Dr. Bowman's statement that "inadequacy of income and conflicts over spending and family budgeting are sometimes regarded as the primary economic problems disrupting family life. This is a fallacy." He sees in the modern economy both a "threat and a challenge to the modern family." 1. "It undercuts the family by shifting the vital function of production from family enterprise to individualistic activity." 2. "It replaces famine by unemployment as the basic form of economic insecurity-a peculiarly subtle form that creates conflicts and uncertainties within the family quite unlike those associated with the famines of a poor and agrarian people." "It exerts pressures on the people to spend and to engage in recreational activities that draw the family apart, emphasizing material standards of living as more important than the stable and integrated family." "All of these things are associated with a shifting ideology-from familism to individualism. They Winter, 1947 fief knowledge, i i t r i i s b P: P' P, B si cc st c~ w t e~ it g~ it tl rr se n. r Ir it w 0 rr justment can amity works ere is ay lls can occur. know that Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK involve a disruption of old customary relationships; among family members without providing any new guiding principle for the working out of the roles of individuals in the family. Materialism comes into conflict with familism. The family is challenged to rethink its functions in modern life. The public as a whole is challenged to rethink social policy in terms of its effects on family life." The nature of economic insecurity in modern life., the timing of marriage in relation to the business cycle, and the modern climate of materialism are general areas that creep into each aspect of family living considered during these meetings. Problems of public policies to (1) mollify the business cycle, (2) influence international relations, and (3) adjust the structure of business; policies on taxation, social security, family allowances, housing, zoning, city planning, recreation-all pose the question, of how statism can co-exist with individualism if family stability and integration do not endure to buttress individualism. Law and the Family Social constraints on marriage were not overlooked in the discussions. Laws in the interest of protection for those who marry, their childrenand society, were discussed. Laws requiring blood tests, age limits, waiting periods, laws assigning responsibility for debts, protecting property and inheritance rights, and regulating divorce, etc. were cited. One important idea coming out of this discussion is that there is a confusing lack of conformity among laws in different states and communities. Another is that codes of family law need revision at many points. Another is that the prevention of ill-advised marriage offers more promise than a tightening up of proscriptions and prohibitions on divorce. Marital Adjustment Ignorance is an enemy of family living with respect to all of the factors mentioned above, and it is no less an enemy in the most intimate aspects of adjustment between husband and wife. Ignorance of problems in sexual adjustment was specifically recognized as a major enemy. One gathers that, -for all the statistical evidence of family breakdowns, there is occurring a gradual reduction in the amount of sexual incompatibility. In the more realistic climate of understanding and opinion that is emerging in a clouded and confused area of ex perience, more wholesome marital ad and will develop as the American f through the period of transition. H of ignorance that can be attacked b and in which learning of facts and ski If men and women generally could there is knowledge and that it can be the basis of adjustment, a formidable barrier would be removed. It is particularly important to recognize that many of the factors involved are psychological and can be modified or controlled..As was brought out in a panel discussion, many problems of intimate marital adjustment are traceable to childhood rearing. This adds to the numerous responsibilities of parenthood the obligation to include sound sex training within the total sphere of home guidance. Goals for the Child "The child goes forth to what?" was the theme question in one meeting. It was concluded that he goes forth to think, and needs the ability to think clearly and logically. He goes forth to belong t society; he must feel secure in it, and he must ha the ability to adjust to it. He must be able t recognize his weaknesses, and strengthen himself. He goes forth to uphold values and ideals, so he must not only have them, but live them. He goes forth to hard jobs, so he must have self-discipline. Home and School Part of the transition influencing the family is a transfer of functions to the school. The teacher is increasingly involved with more children, and more of the experience of each child. Hence, the importance of parent-teacher conferences, and interchange of home and school information. Parents should send children to school unhurried, happy, comfortable. They should help the child practice what he learns. There must be mutual respect and confidence of parent and teacher. This point becomes especially important as teaching professionalizes more and more and the gap between the trained teacher and the untrained parent becomes more pronounced. Choosing Mates in the discussion on the choice of a mate ref erence was made to the contrasting and incompatible standards for courtship and wifehood. Traditional courtship practices got rather badly mauled 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page S in this discussion. It was made clear that courtship is too narrow and restricted an experience to be an Qappropriate precursor of marriage. Compatibilityot romance-will assure enduring marriage, and courtship has no tests for compatibility which can be discovered only in a wider variety of experiences than a run of movies and dances. What Kind o f Stability? Interpreting the theme of the Institute in a closing address, Dr. McLain pointed to the constant instability of society as well as of the person, and defined the kind of stability that we really want of our institutions and particularly of the family. "The home should not be the stable `refuge' from the instability of `society'-that is both a false dichotomy and a false philosophy . . . . . What we really want is to make the person a more effective instrument for creation within his unstable environment." "The home becomes `stable' for the person when it provides an environment wherein the elements, so sorely needed in an ongoing, creative life, can ~be. found; where they can be counted upon; where forgiveness is real because love is there; where `beauty is unconsciously absorbed and finds its expression in one's own approach to life; where people are human beings and are dealt with on the plane of mutual confidence and trust." Being Rational About the Family All through the Institute there has been an insistence that family relationships are subject to the control of family members,-that they can be studied-and that knowledge and skill can be increased. Here is our biggest problem. It is not widely believed that these things are true. People too generally feel that whatever is is right,-whatever must be will be. There is a fatalism, or an indifference, or a tendency to "take things for granted." This is probably the greatest resistance to improvement in the family-our skepticism about the efficacy of rational control in areas of intimate human experience. Actually, this is, in a sense, a denial of the difference between human be ~ngs and other kinds of animal beings. Only hu~11/man beings are capable of forethought, of considering long-time consequences in taking present action. Nobody could expect an elephant or a parrotwith a life span longer than man's-to choose a mate by rational consideration. But why should human beings not be able to exercise the distinctive qualities of being human as they marry and form families? It is just beginning to be understood by only a minority of persons that preparation for marriage and family living is both necessary and possible. More individuals in the population require this knowledge and shill than could possibly need any type of occupational information, yet marriage and family living are left mostly to happenstance. . . Democracy Begins at Home It apparently occurred to many during this Institute that there can hardly be full democracy in the- world unless there is the root of democracy .in the family. The human sentiments on which the brotherhood of man must stand are either stillborn or nurtured in the -personality of a maturing individual. That personality forms, for nearly all people, within the interplay of family living. The place to start on world peace therefore is in the home. The family is our nursery of attitudes. From it spring the psychological bulwarks of social order-or the psychological termites of social disorder. Are you selfish or unselfish? Whom do you love and whom do you hate? With whom can you be brotherly? What capacity have you for tolerance and understanding? Do you sense your obligation to your fellow man? Answer these questions, and be convinced of the importance of family living. Emergent Individualism Throughout the reports from the section meetings, there are recurrent sets of suggestions for developing individualism within the family group setting. The suggestions for children emphasize the necessity of recognizing the individuality of the child; nurturing his physical and mental health; assisting him to a balanced independence within the group of interrelated family members. The suggestions for husbands and wives and for parents again stress the importance of mature and adequate individuality. This highlights the idea of an emergent individualism, different and of a higher character than that previously characteristic of our society. The ideas spread before this Institute certainly contradict any view that individualism is declining. Take special notice for a moment of the importance this Institute has attached to the individuality of the woman and of the child. Page Recognition of woman's rights and children's rights are two great gains for individualism and democracy in recent decades, and they are moves toward a higher order. They put group life not on a relation of one strong individuality and other weak ones, but rather on a relation among equal personalities. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Enforced Versus Achieved Strength Think for a moment of someone who has had a broken arm, and of the use of a cast that kept the broken-'bone set until the process of growth effected complete healing. The cast is a firm external force that keeps the parts of the bone together; the process of growth is a great internal force that eventually prevails and the cast is discarded. We are just beginning to realize that, in the socalled "good old days" many of the forces that kept families together were external pressures of tradition and community sentiment. They held the family just as the cast held the fractured arm. What has happened, to put it perhaps a little too simply, is that social changes have removed the cast from the family. The family in which there had been no growth of unity and integration fell apart. Only that family could endure in which there was internal strength. Some of you may feel that family unity should be forced by outside constraints. You may subscribe to a "ball and chain" stability. Others of you will doubt whether enforced unity can be true unity. You will prefer a family unity that is the achievement of husbands and wives, mothers, fathers-and children, it is hardly realistic to think that the old casts can be put back around the family, or that others like them can be made. Neither is it realistic to assume that families will achieve unity as "automatically" or as "physiologically" as the ends of the broken bone grow together at the fracture. 'Winter, 1947 This problem of the family is the problem of society. We place high value on democracy, which is a way of organizing human affairs that we have never yet achieved. Neither have we ever achieved individualism, which is a fundamental part of democracy. Democracy and individualism are goals toward which we must set all our steps. We have never reached them, any more than we have ever been Christians. They stand above and before us as our highest ideals. To repeat: the reason that so many family units break is that external controls have crumbled and internal controls have not yet been developed. Society has always relied on the external controls, and apparently a very large number of persons can't or don't know how to proceed with the internal building of a family. We have never before had such a clear, opportunity to achieve democracy, because the essence of democracy is internal rather than external control. The very divorce rate which betrays the disappearance of outer forces reveals the opportunity for the development of inner ones. Viewed thus, what seemed to be the alarming destruction of the family appears rather to be the heartening opportunity to achieve a better fa ~,,~,~)m ily than our society has formerly known. Democracy, then, is the best way because it is distinctly the hardest way. Most of us are old enough to know that the deepest satisfactions are those we work for. Some pleasure comes by happenstance, to be sure, but this is not so deeply rooted as pleasures achieved. This has long been known, and is recognized in our folk associations of pleasure and pain, rose and thorn, bitter and sweet.' The only practical philosophy of family relations is one of strengthening and preparing individuals for the release and effective use of internal forces. The external features of environment then become background resources for family living, rather than constraints or casts or inflexible molds. Winter, 1947 Kentucky is my land. It is a place beneath the wind and sun In the very heart of America. It is bounded on the east, north and west by rivers And on the south by mountains. Only one boundary line is not a natural one, II n boundary t 's a portion of souther That runs westward from the mountains Across the delta lowlands to the Mississippi. Within these natural boundaries is Kentucky, Jesse Stuart is the well known Kentucky author. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Courtesy o f Arthur Dodd Heart 0 f America JESSE STUART Page 7 Shaped like the mouldboard on a hillside turningplow. Kentucky is neither southern, northern, eastern or western, it is the core of America. If these United States can be called a body, Kentucky can be called its heart. I didn't have any choice as to where I was born, But if I had had my choice, I would have chosen Kentucky. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK And if I could have chosen wind to breathe, I would have chosen a Kentucky wind With scent of cedar, pine-tree needles, Green tobacco leaves, pawpaw, persimmon and sassafras. I would have chosen too, Wind from the sawbriar and greenbriar blossoms. If I could have chosen the spot in Kentucky, I would have chosen W-Hollow, The place where I was born, Where four generations of my people have lived And where they still live. Here, too, I have always lived where The hills form a semi-circle barrier against roads And there is only one way to get out. This way is to follow the stream. Here, I first saw Kentucky light. Here, I first breathed Kentucky air. And here I grew from childhood to manhood Before I had been away to see what lay beyond The rim of hills that closed my world. I followed the little streams That flowed over rocks between the high hills to the rivers And then somewhere into the unknown world. I hunted the wild game, in the hunting seasons Skillful as an Indian. And I ran wild over the rock-ribbed hills Enjoying this land of lonesome waters, sunlight, Tobacco, pine, pawpaw, persimmon, sawbriar, greenbriar and sassafras. I enjoyed the four seasons, Sections of time my father used to divide his work for the year, As much as any boy in America ever enjoyed them. For Kentucky has four distinct seasons. I learned this in childhood And I didn't get it from a book. Each season I learned was approximately three months. Kentucky wasn't all summer, all winter, all autumn or spring. The two seasons that I wanted to be longer and longer, Were the Kentucky spring and autumn. When winter began to break, snow melted And ran down the little channels on the high hills. Spring was in the wind. I could feel it. I could taste it. I could see it. And it was beautiful to see. Then came the sawbriar and the greenbriar leaves And the trailing arbutus on the rock-ribbed hills. Next came the snowwhite blossoms of pocoon in the coves. Then came the canvas-topped tobacco beds, White strips of fortune on each high hill slope. Then came the dogwood and wild crabapple blossoms, White sails in the soft honey-colored wind of morning And red sails of the flowering redbud, Stationary fire hanging in the soft mellow wind Of evening against the sunset . . . The weeping willow, stream willow and pussy willow Loosed their long fronds to finger the bright wind tenderly. Then came soft avalanches of green beech tops In the deep hollows that hid the mayapple, Yellow root, ginseng, wild sweet williams, baby tear and phlox. When I learned Kentucky springs Could not go on forever, I was sick at heart. For summer followed with work on the high hills. I plowed the earth on steep slopes And hoed corn, tobacco, cane, beside my strong mother 'With a bright-worn gooseneck hoe. Summer brought good earthy smells Of tobacco, cane and corn and ferny loam and growing roots. Summer brought berries too That grew wild in the creviced rocks, On the loamy coves and in the deep valleys. Here grew the wild blackberries, strawberries, dewberries and raspberries. All I had to do was take my bucket and pick them. Then came the autumn -with hazelnuts ripening on the pasture bluffs Along the cattle paths and sheep trails. The black walnuts, white walnuts, hickorynuts, beechnuts Fell from the trees in little heaps. Winter, 1947 Winter, 1947 And the canopy of leaves turned many colors After the first sharp frost had fallen And the soft summer wind turned cool and brittle And the insect sounds of summer became a lost murmur Like the dwindling streams. These things are my Kentucky. They went into the body, brain, flesh and blood of me. Tliese things, Kentucky-flavored, grown in her dirt, Helped build my body strong and shape my brain. They laid foundations for my future thoughts. They made me a part of Kentucky. They made Kentucky a part of me. These are the inescapable things, Childhood to boyhood to manhood. Even the drab hills of winter were filled with music. The lonesome streams in narrow-gauged valleys, Sang poetic songs without words. And the leafless trees etched on gray winter skies Were strong and substantial lines of poetry. When I was compelled to put poems on paper They wrote themselves for they were ripe And ready for harvest As the wild berries, the persimmons and the pawpaws As the yellow leaves and nuts falling from the trees. Then I went for the first time into other states And I knew my Kentucky was different. As I observed the closeness of the tombstones In the eastern cemeteries Autumn brought sweet smells of the wild possum grapes And. the mountain tea berries And the blood-red sassafras and the persimmon leaf . . . Autumn brought the mellow taste of the persimmon That after frost did not pucker my mouth ~ with summer bitterness. October pawpaws with purple-colored skins, I found in heaps beneath the trees when I went after cows. I opened them to find a cornmeal-mush softness, Yellow-gold in color and better than bananas to taste. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 This gave me a feeling that land was scarce. I saw the tall smokestacks of industry Etched against the eastern skies And cities that were a pillar of fire by night And clouds of rolling smoke by day . . . I saw New York, a city so large it frightened me, Cliff dwellings high as Kentucky mountains, The streets and avenues were deep gorges Between high walls of mufti-colored stone. And while it interested me To see how fellow Americans lived, I longed for Kentucky sunlight, sights and sounda And for log shacks and the.lonesome waters. I was homesick for the land of the fox And spring's tender bud, bloom and leaf, For white sails of the dogwood and crabapple And the flame of redbud in the sunset. I knew that my Kentucky was different And something there called me home. The language too was different, Not that it was softer But it was more musical with the hard 'g's Left automatically from tile spoken word And the prefix `a' supplemented . . . I knew more than ever before my brain Had been fashioned by the sights and sounds And beauties of wildgrowth and life of the hills That had nurtured my flesh from infancy to full growth. Then I went beyond the hills to see America's South of which I had always thought We were a distinct part. But I learned we were different from the South Though our soils grew cane, cotton, and tobacco . . . We moved faster and we spoke differently. The West I visited where land Was level as a floor, Where the endless field of growing corn Was a dark cloud that hugged the earth, Where the single field of growing wheat was endless, endless, And the clouds always in the distance Came down and touched the earth. No matter how fast the train or the car ran, It never reached the spot where the clouds came down to earth. The people moved quickly, They talked with the speed of the western wind. They were `doers,' not talkers. Page 10 MouNrnIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1947 I knew this was not. the heart of America: This was the West; the young strong man of America. I visited the North where industry Is balanced with agriculture And where a man is measured by what he can do. I did not find the softness of the pawpaw and the persimmon, The lusty morning smells of green growing tobacco, The twilight softness of Kentucky spring But I did find the endless fields of corn and wheat Where machinery did the work . . . Beyond the cornfields and wheatfields I saw the smokestacks of industry, Belching fire and smoke toward the sky. Highways were filled with traffic that shot past me like bullets. Arid I found industrial city streets filled With the fast tempo of humanity . . . Then I was as positive as death Kentucky Was not east, west, south or north Printed by permission of Country Gentleman But it was the heart of America Pulsing with a little bit of everything. . . . . The heart of America A land of even tempo, A land of mild traditions, A land that has kept its tradition of horse racing, Ballad, song, story and folk music. It has held steadfast to its pioneer tradition Of fighting men, fighting for America And for the soil of Kentucky, That is filled with bluegrass beauty That is not akin to poetry But is poetry . . . . And when I go beyond the border, I take with me growth and beauty of the seasons, The music of wind in pine and cedar tops, The wordless songs of snow-melted water When it pours over the rocks to wake the spring. 1 take with me Kentucky embedded in my brain and heart, In my flesh and bone and blood Since I am of Kentucky And Kentucky is part of me. The Rural Church Faces Forward FRANCIS DRAKE There is a great need at this present time for cooperative action by rural churches of all denominations. It is being brought to our attention with increasing clarity that we can hope to solve the immense problems of our rural areas only through a genuinely united program. The rapidly growing Christian rural life movement, as evidenced by the Committee on Town and Country which sponsors the National Convocation on the Church in Town and Country, should give us encouragement. Qne of the groups committed to an interdenominational approach to the rural areas is the Friends of the Soil. Begun in 1.941 out of a deep FRANCIS DRAKE is the Field Secretary of Friends of the Soil. concern for the needs of the countryside and of farming people, this movement has grown beyond the South, until today there are members in thirtyfour states, in Puerto Rico, and in Turkey. According to the Statement of Principles, it is ". . . a distinctly religious movement founded upon the Lordship' of God over man, the earth, and its resources. Its purpose is to lead men to regard the earth as holy and man as the steward of the Eternal; to assist the rural church to minister to the total life of the rural community; to work for the reclamation and conservation of the soil and other natural resources and to seek by word and deed to restore man to his divine earth-right to the end that justice may be established on the land and a richer, fuller, and a more abundant life may be the lot of Winter, 1947 all.", As we face the stark reality of the mounting ,Qeed for food, clothing and shelter in Europe, Asia nd the Far East, and the fact that we have had to reduce our shipments of grain abroad, we are forced as never before with the crying necessity of saving our soil. Not only will this food crisis all over the world call upon us of the United Stags to give as generously as we can, but it should also awaken us to our ever-growing responsibility of conserving our natural resources, and particularly our soil, in order that we may be able, through the years, to provide food for our own people and for our neighbors who are in need. One of the main features in the program of the Friends of the Soil is to stimulate the rural churches of all denominations to take action. First, we would encourage their teaching through pulpit and classroom the importance of Christian stewardship of the soil, God's greatest natural gift to man. An action technique such as he Lord's Acre Plan combines study, worship and action in this field."' In the second place, we want to build bridges between rural churches and various agencies that are active in the field of soil conservation. They are the technicians who know how it should be done and are skilled in ways of demonstrating the different methods right in our own local communities. Great good can be accomplished along this line if rural churches can arrange to have representatives of the various agencies speak and possibly demonstrate the techniques of soil conservation. Besides the matter of teaching Christian stewardship of the soil and of learning and demonstrating the techniques of soil conservation, the Friends o f the Soil movement is also greatly interested in the development of small rural communities and of strengthening the family-size farms in these communities. One center where this work has gone forward with evident progress is the community of ig Lick, Tennessee. There for the past fifteen ears Eugene Smathers has been serving the needs of the people. As Pastor of the Calvary Presby 'v The best materials published on this subject are issued by the Religious Department of the Farmers Federation, Asheville, North Carolina. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 terian Church he has been the leader in organizing a Farmers' Association, a cooperative that has purchased farm machinery and other necessities of farm life that otherwise would not have been available; in starting a Church Homestead Plan, which has enabled twenty-two young couples to settle on the land in that community; in carrying out the principles of soil conservation so well in Big Lick that that community has become a demonstration for the whole area under the program of the TVA and the U. S. Soil Conservation Service. This type of development has been carried out elsewhere, under somewhat varying conditions, by other members of the Friends o f the Soil. A demonstration center in South Carolina is the Penn School located on St. Helena Island, directly off of Beaufort. This is the oldest school for Negroes in the South, having been founded in 1862, and it combines in its program normal, industrial and agricultural training. The members of the faculty seek to relate the life and program of the school to the life of the Island as a whole, the population of which is about 5000 and mostly all Negro. On a large farm in connection with the school they try to demonstrate certain of the factors dealt with in this article. Through the State Agricultural College at Clemson, advice and instruction have been sought. Improvement has been carried out, reaching the lowliest of dwellings on St. Helena, and the parents of the children that attend or have attended Penn School know it as a fast friend. A strong community spirit has been fostered there through the years. In the Southern Mountain region, we are glad to have on our membership role persons who are connected with the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, the Farmers' Federation at Asheville, the Rural Church Training Institute at Warren Wilson College, the work of the college and of the farm at Berea College, besides other places. We are happy to have this fine spirit of fellowship and of cooperation between the Council of Southern Mountain Workers and our movement. May this spirit continue to grow throughout the years! Finally, we should speak of the emphasis of ecumenicity that is a dominant characteristic of. the Friends of the Soil. One of our major goals is to build toward the ecumenical church both here at home and throughout the whole world. Our move Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ment is affiliated with the Christian Rural Fellowship, which in turn is linked with Agricultural Missions. We believe that churches of all denominations must learn to work in a more unified program of active cooperation. We furthermore believe that the approach of church, both local and denominational, must be a world approach. For that reason we have been helping the program of Church World Service and also the Brethen program of Heifers for Relief. At the present time, the Friends o f the Soil con Winter, 1947 tinues to be a project of the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen, which has had a long and outstanding record for liberal Christian social action in th South on an inter-racial and an interdenomin a.a tional scale. It is hoped that the headquarters of the Friends o f the Soil may be located at Warren Wilson College, Swannonoa, North Carolina, after January 1, 1948. All interested persons are cordially invited to write in for information and for materials. We are anxious to help wherever we can. Child Telfare In Tennessee JEAN N. JOHNSON Dora, Kate and Mary are three pretty little girls all under six years old who live up on the Cumberland Plateau. Their mother is a fine, intelligent woman and her family means everything to her. Their father has tuberculosis and has had to be in the hospital many times during recent years. Apparently, he is not getting any better, and there's not enough money to buy even the food for the family, much less all the milk and other foods the father should have. Their mother doesn't see any way to hold her family together much longer because she's at the end of her resources. Maybe she cou1:3 find some kind of a job, but then who would look after her children? Sally, sixteen, and Jimmy, fourteen, are orphans who have been making their home with a friend in a county on the Highland Rim. They were referred to the county welfare office by the friend who could no longer keep them. Jimmy had been missing school regularly, and his grades were very poor. Sally, a junior in high school, was seven months pregnant. She was very bitter with all of her relatives and refused to go to any of their homes. Although she didn't wish to give up her baby for adoption, she was planning to do so in the belief that aid would not be available for "out Jean N. Johnson is Informational Representative, Tennessee Department of Public Welfare. side children." On the Upper Cumberland there is a family five children, four of whom have congenital cat aracts. One child has had one cataract removed. The parents are anxious for him to have the other one removed and for the other three-ages 9 years, 5 years, and 14 months-to have operations, so they can see too, but they just don't have the money or any way to arrange for hospital care for one child, much less for three. WHO ARE THESE CHILDREN? These are but a few of the thousands of Tennes see children needing help-the kind of help that means special attention and care through social services. They are representative of the increasing number of children who have difficulties which re quire help within their own homes and whose con ditions present problems beyond the normal range of parental understanding and experience. Their parents may not be good fathers and mothers be cause of mental or emotional limitations. They are children, homeless or in homes, under pressure ov economic want, handicapped by their own emo~~~ tional or behavior problems, or with mental or physical handicaps who should have a permanent, home if they are to make normal adjustments within their limitations. They may be children suffering from defective vision, speech difficulties, Winter, 1947 mental retardation, crippling conditions or illness, or may be children of unmarried mothers, many of ;whom are hardly more than children themselves. ften they are children in jails, in almshouses, in overcrowded institutions . . . . . some are stranded, without any form of shelter, subject to all kinds of exploitation. They are children without homes because their parents have died, or have deserted them, or are separated or children of transient families who find it hard to get help because they are not residents of the state. These children live in both urban and rural areas and their needs are the same wherever they live. The needs o f mountain children or .o f children in any rural area may differ in extent from those of city children, but they are the same needs. It is, however, significant that in the rural areas of the state there are more children in proportion to adults and that the average family and per capita income is lower in rural than in urban areas. Therefore, special social services are needed by a majority of Tennessee children who live in rural areas and have the benefit of only a minority of the relsources for health, education, and recreation. I Deprived of the opportunities and privileges which go to make good citizens, these children's needs are for services and care beyond those they receive from normal contacts which affect the lives of ordinary children. SOCIAL SECURITY ACT The federal Social Security Act passed in 1935, and amendments, provide for state and federal participation in programs of aid to dependent children and child welfare services. Tennessee, in 1937, enacted legislation which enabled the state to accept responsibility for the Social Security programs. Today, with ten years of experience in administering Social Security provisions for child welfare and with a long state history of increasing services for children, the state still needs to strengthen and extend its child welfare programs. Every effort is being made to give state-wide coverage, with special emphasis on designated "areas of special need." It is a major purpose of the Department to develop standards of care and to strengthen services for children of every race and creed. The state's child welfare programs which come MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 1 3 within the Department of Public Welfare are administered by professionally trained personnel under centralized supervision through local offices located in each of the state's ninety-five counties. To further encourage development of child welfare activities in the state and to help coordinate such activities, the Department of Public Welfare cooperates and maintains as close a working relationship as possible with other agencies having as their purpose the promotion of the welfare of children through development of services and facilities. The programs of the Tennessee Department of Public Welfare which are directly concerned with child welfare are: (1) Aid to dependent children (2) Service to children in their own homes and in foster care, ' including those in institutional care (3) Sight conservation service AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN Tennessee has many thousands of children under eighteen years of age whose parents cannot discharge their normal responsibility of financial support because one or both of them is away from home, is disabled and cannot work, or is dead. Breakdown of family life from economic causes not only is the most potent cause of child dependency and neglect, but creates a large and costly part of the juvenile delinquency problem. Consequently, financial assistance to such families is essential if their children are to be healthier, better educated and happier and, as a result, better citizens of to morrow. One method of providing this necessary assistance is to make available funds for financial support and case work services to all children who are deprived of parental care or'support. Through aid to dependent children, grants may be given for needy children from infancy to eighteen years of age, though children from sixteen to eighteen who receive aid must be attending school regularly. Children receive aid only when in need and when living with their parents or with certain legally designated relatives. Generally, the 36,293 children receiving this aid in July 1947 will have bet ter chances to grow into useful citizens because of tile very fact that they have lived in their own homes instead of becoming victims of broken homes for one reason or another. To finance aid to dependent children, federal and county funds are contributed to match state funds, and, therefore, the state appropriation controls the amount available for the program. In Tennessee the maximum aid to dependent children grants, as provided by 1947 legislative act, are $24.00 for the first child and $15.00 for each additional child in any one family. Increases in funds for aid to dependent children over the amount provided at the beginning of Social Security and higher maximum grants have gradually meant more adequate assistance for needy families with children. This, in turn, has meant more security. The value of self-maintenance for the family is likewise recognized,, and an effort has been made to help the families actually to use aid to dependent children in returning to self-support wherever possible. CHILD WELFARE SERVICE PROGRAMS Unlike the aid to dependent children, the child welfare service programs of the Tennessee Department of Public Welfare are not primarily for material assistance but are particularly concerned with problems of dependency, delinquency, and with conditions affecting health and educational opportunities for children. They seek, first of all, to help the child in his family setting, if possible, thus preventing the added problems which arise when he is placed away from his own home. Where this is not possible, the Department seeks the best care available outside his own home. Licensing and Supervision of Child-Caring and Child-Placing Agencies-A major responsibility of the Department is the licensing and inspection of all local public child-caring agencies, institutions and boarding homes; and the licensing and supervision of private child-caring and placing institutions. This authority does not apply to agencies which are the creation of a body of government other than the state or which are specifically within some other department, such as detention homes which are the instruments of the court. Local public institutions are subject to inspection and visiting but not to the control implied in the licensing authority. This licensing program in Tennessee has been MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1947 developed on a state-wide basis and emphasizes supervision rather than inspection. Desirable goals, as well as minimum standards, have been set up ~ Case Work-The most important phase of the Department's child welfare program is, of course, case work service. As it enters into every activity of the program, certain general aspects of the service may be conveniently described here. Specially trained child welfare workers are assigned in fourteen Tennessee counties, with plans for ultimate assignment of such workers in every county of the state. Case work service throughout the state is concentrated on working with children in their own homes to safeguard family life for children, but it is also made available to children who must be cared for elsewhere. For the child who suffers from defective vision, deafness, speech difficulties, crippling conditions, mental retardation or illness, case work gives not only the child but his parents needed help in understanding his limitation and in obtaining treatment and training. J)) If the child's problems have arisen, not because of his personal handicaps, but from pressure of family and community disorganization, case work attempts to meet his need through strengthening the family and supplementing its efforts. Through case work, help is given in Tennessee to certain non-resident children to whom both state and local resources are normally closed. It also acts as a protection to those children placed from one state to another. The Tennessee Department of Public Welfare recognizes the importance of cooperation with other agencies, both public and private, in developing better services and for interstate placements. Another vital phase of case work is counseling service. This often helps a mother who is seeking employment through exploration of ways of meeting the family needs which may make it unnecessary for her to go out to work. Or again, if the mother does find it necessary to work, she is given information about facilities for day care, and guidance in using them, which might help relieve the unfavorable effects of her absence upon the children. Case work service of the Tennessee Department of Public Welfare is especially important as it (r) Winter, 1947 MOuNTAIN LIFE AND WORK relates to the work of the county judge, who in Tennessee gives final, approval to plans for the care of children. The Department provides him with case studies, recommendations for treatment and for the carrying out of treatment. Service to Unmarried Mothers and Their Children-This service is based upon the strong conviction that unmarried mothers and their children should not be treated as a special group, but as individuals in trouble for whom the Department has some means of help. State law charges the Department with supervision of the care of dependent or neglected children of illegitimate birth. Service is given to unmarried mothers who cannot accept care in their local community because of- the confidential nature of their situation, unmarried mothers who are non-residents or whose problems arise from other situations. Arrangements are most often made for unmarried mothers to go elsewhere to free homes to have their babies, and help is given in locating wage jobs for them for a few months. If the unmarried mother does not wish to keep her baby, assistance is given in finding a foster home, and arrangements may be made later for the baby's adoption. Adoption-The Department is charged with the supervision of the care of dependent and neglected children placed for adoption. The judges having stated their desire to refer all adoption petitions to the Department, it supplies this service on a limited basis in a few counties for study and recommendation and is giving more and more attention to offering it in a constructive and helpful way. Foster Home Care and Licensing o f Boarding Homes-Supervision of the care of dependent and neglected children in foster family homes is a responsibility of the Department of Public Welfare, as ~ is that of licensing boarding homes in which three or more unrelated children under sixteen years of age are kept for hire. This law includes convalescent homes, day nurseries, and nursery schools, as well as foster family homes. Both local and state governments in Tennessee provide boarding home funds for the direct care of children. These funds are used to place individual, children in foster homes where the parents are paid to take continuous care of the children. This type of care is provided to children who have been abandoned by their parents or whose parents are temporarily unable to maintain a home. Emphasis is upon the temporary nature of foster family or institutional care, since the services of the social work staff are directed toward the return of the child to his own parents or relatives whenever possible. For each placement made there is careful study of the child to determine whether he must be removed from his own home or from the environment in which he is found as well as careful study of the home into which he is to be placed. All children actually in foster care are visited regularly and given understanding help with their problems in adjustment to home,,school and family. Where necessary, arrangements are made to place them in group homes or institutions. Children in Almshouses-The county judge in Tennessee, according to statutory enactment, notifies the Department of Public Welfare when any child under sixteen is placed in the almshouse. By policy, the Department then assumes responsibility for planning long-time or temporary care of the child. Cooperation with Schools and Other Local Agencies-When a child's school attendance becomes irregular and behavior problems become apparent, the Department of Public Welfare gives assistance through case work services, thus cooperating with other agencies and with individuals in developing services and facilities for children such as group work facilities or child guidance clinics. Children Served-The number of children given service in any particular county of Tennessee varies, of course, with the extent of need within the county. In addition, service is limited by the number of children the staff can serve. Because of this latter fact, there is necessarily incomplete knowledge of the numbers of children in need. Development o f Community Resources-From the cooperation developed with other chili w;Ã¢â‚¬Â¢If ": agencies, particularly at the local levels, the Department is able to work toward the integration of community resources. The objective is to give continued interpretation of unmet needs and to stimulate development of resources with the ultimate objective of protection and enrichment of the life of every child. Page 16 Mourtrnnr LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1947 SIGHT CONSERVATION SERVICE Children throughout Tennessee also receive specialized services through the sight conservation service of the Tennessee Department of Public Welfare. This service seeks to retain and restore sight and to prevent blindness for hundreds of Tennessee children. Through the programs, adequate eye care is available to all children in the state who are found to be unable to pay for this service without undue hardship. Thus, a large percentage of the 2300 partially sighted and blind children in Tennessee can be better equipped to lead personally satisfying and socially useful lives as well as to become economically independent. Each year the Tennessee sight conservation service finds many children for whom it recommends enrollment in a sight-saving class. When this is not available, the service recommends that special facilities be provided and special attention be given in the classroom. The service also establishes the eligibility of many children for enrollment in the Tennessee School for the Blind which is under the State Department of Education. The sight conservation service is financed through an annual state appropriation, and more than twentyfive civic agencies throughout the state make financial as well as other contributions to the program. CONCLUSION In all of the above-described child welfare programs in Tennessee-aid to dependent children, child welfare service programs, services to children in institutions, and sight conservation service-an attempt is being made to cooperate with other agencies so as to gradually tie together all community resources in a unified pattern of services for all children. The goal is to build a sound program of services and assistance which will benefit not only the individual child and his family, but each and every Tennessee community. Held For Mountain Mothers LOUISE G. HUTCHINS, M.D. The Mountain Maternal Health League was formed more than ten years ago for the purpose of bringing family planning to. the remote rural women of the southern mountain region. It has long been known that the best method of family planning involved a trip to a planned parenthood clinic, where the mother received a doctor's examination and advice from him. However, it was very evident to the founders of the League that many of the mountain mothers who were the farthest away from such clinics were in the most need of family spacing. The very counties that have the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality, have also many of the most inaccessible homes and the poorest roads. Through the research done by the Mountain Ma * Dr. Hutchins is the wife of President Francis S. Hutchins oÃ‚Â£ Berea College. She is much interested in the welfare of the mountain children-devoting part of each day to helping at the College -Hospital. ternal Health League and others working in North Carolina, at least two reliable techniques were worked out which a nurse could demonstrate to the mothers in the home. Before the war, we had two fine nurses, the Gilliam sisters, Lena and Sylvia, working in succession for the Mountain Maternal Health League. They travelled extensively through the mountains visiting remote mountain homes and larger rural and mining communities. They were received with great joy .by a large majority of the mountain women. A common response was "Why didn't you come ten years sooner?" Sylvia was even loaned to Michigan to work in the fields with migrant workers. After Sylvia followed Lena into the state of matrimony, we were left without a full time nurse. During the war, we kept the work going by sending supplies as inexpensively as possible to our old patients. We had some part time nursing help, but were unable to get much farther afield than the Winter, 1947 MouNrenv LIFE AND WORK Page 17 environs of Berea and Richmond, Kentucky. Now, at last, we are once more able to put a full time trained nurse in the field. Mrs. Gretchen James has already started visiting settlement clinics, mining communities and farm homes. She has had many years of training in public health nursing. She is, herself, a mother and has already won a place with the mountain mothers she has visited. Wherever possible she is trying to persuade the women to go to their nearest doctor, but when this is impossible, she gives advice and leaves supplies as desired. The home office of the Mountain Maternal _q 1 1! _6 Iq 7, Health League is in Berea at 3 Prospect Street. There always is an office worker there to answer letters from our patients and to send them supplies at clinic rates. The Mountain Maternal Health League feels very strongly that the health of our mountain mothers and their children will be greatly improved by planning smaller families, spaced to give both the mother and child an optimal chance for survival. A mother who is well and not repeatedly burdened by a new baby can give her best attention and strength to the rearing of her children, their health, their education and spiritual nurture. WHAT WE ARE DOING BETTER HOOK-UPS In the fall of 1946, a regional conference of the eration. Some of the topics discussed were an ex Council of Southern Mountain Workers was held change of talent, plays, part-time teachers, coop at Annville, Kentucky. At this meeting there erative buying, and the sale to one another of excess were approximately one hundred outstanding lead- commodities such as cattle, feed, and equipment. ers in the fields of education, industry, sociology The discussions were so interesting and time was so and religion. The general theme was: "How to short that the chairman, Mr. Joseph Henderson of Improve Living Conditions" by taking advantage Annville, adjourned the meeting late in the af'ter of the natural resources, and thus placing the local noon to reconvene at the Stuart Robinson School community .on a higher economic level. All who in March, 1947. attended the conference were inspired by the ad- As a result of the Oneida meeting, one school dresses and especially by the enthusiasm of those secured 400 New Hampshire Red chickens from who are engaged in community welfare work, Mr. Oppeneer, the farm manager at Annville, and health .programs and education in southeastern thus was enabled to start a poultry department. Kentucky. As a result of the conference, several Mr. Oppeneer also disposed of two of his thorough of the schools dramatized some part of their work, bred Guernsey heifers to Oneida Institute to im which was broadcast over WHAS as a part of the prove the herd of the school farm. program entitled "Kentucky on the March." Later, nine schools within a radius of one hundred miles of each other, namely, Oneida In stitute, Red Bird Settlement School, Annville In stitute; Stuart Robinson School, Hazel Green Academy, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Beech Fork Settlement School, Alvan Drew School and Highland Institution sent their presidents, business managers; and. farm leaders to Oneida for an all day conference. Considerable interest was shown in solving specific problems by means of group coop At the Stuart Robinson gathering, Blackey, Kentucky, approximately thirty representatives of the mile schoolsassembled to visit the various departments-of the Presbyterian plant. Some were especially interested in the sports program, some in the farm management, and others in various phases of the curriculum. Again time was limited and the meeting adjourned. Everyone, however, felt that the topic "The Place of the Private School in the Mountains-Tomorrow" had,,, proved- most stimulating and anticipated the - fall meeting at Red Edgar L. Grim, Chief, Community School Service Program, Department of Public Instruction, Lansing, Michigan, gave a comprehensive view of the programs which have been started in five selected communities in Michigan to find out whether a community school program really helps. He explained the cautious means used in initiating the programs by soliciting the cooperation of local teachers and lay leaders in several study and discussion sessions,. thus being sure that the aims of the program were understood and desired by the people in 'the communities. Various aspects of the pro MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1947 Bird, Beverly, Kentucky. Due to the damage done by the June flood, the meeting called for Red Bird was changed to the Hazel Green Campus on Wednesday, October 1. There was a conducted tour of the campus for the thirty-five guests before the meeting. The general theme "The Private School and Its Relationship to -the Community" was presented admirably by. Mr. H. R. S. Benjamin, of the Pine Mountain Settlement School. After lunch there were departmental group meetings, emphasizing mutual problems and possible solutions. In addition to the school administrators, farm managers, and maintenance men, the group this fall included religious leaders, shop men, teachers of agriculture, recreational leaders and other instructors. Out of the group discussions at Hazel Green, it was decided to hold a "Workshop" at Oneida during the summer of 1948 with emphasis upon better reaching, remedial reading, sociology, and psychology. To such a "shop" administrators; rural teachers, and outstanding leaders would be invited. A committee appointed to arrange details is to report at the spring meeting to be held at the Pine Mountain Settlement School in April. State and national meetings of welfare workers and educators serve their purposes, but our smaller group has much in common and possesses a better understanding of local conditions. We feel at ease with each other and can discuss our various situations without embarrassment. It is, therefore, natural that schools of our type should work together and profit by pooling our experiences and ideas. Obviously, we could arrange for lecture courses and secure excellent speakers by scheduling appointments in such a way that two lectures might be given the same day at near-by schools,,,thereby providing better speakers at less cost. Most schools cooperate in athletic programs but few of us have taken the trouble to schedule debates, plays, and musicals. Good entertainments are deeded and could be arranged at small expense. In like manner, some plan of cooperative education could be worked out by a closer relation between teachers of the same subjects in different schools. Ten or twelve microscopes would mean much to a course in general science, botany, or biology. These could be owned and shared by several schools. This equipment could remain in one laboratory for a given part of each term. We need a dozen microscopes at Oneida today, but cannot afford to purchase so large a number; therefore, we do without such valuable aids in our science courses. 11 Furthermore, a good music, and also a critic, teacher could be put on a circuit of several schools and her salary and expenses shared. In a like manner a competent dietitian could plan the meals for three or four schools, provided she had some means of transportation such as a jeep. There are many other ways of cooperating, selling excess commodities to each other, cooperative buying, exchanging skilled labor and equipment, planning field trips for students, and especially encouraging one another in the stupendous task of educating the young mountaineers of southeastern Kentucky, -Eri J. Shumaker President of Oneida Institute Oneida, Kentucky THE SCHOOL AND THE COMMUNITY Developing the school as an integral part of the community (to serve the various needs of children and adults) in a program extending beyond the usual length of term was the theme of the seventeenth annual curriculum conference held at Pea body College, Nashville, Tennessee, on July 24 and 25, 1947. In his welcoming address Dr. Henry H. Hill, President, Peabody College, sounded the keynote with the statement, "Unless the schools of the community do make a difference they are not fulfilling their responsibility." THE LIBRARY WARREN WILSON JR. COLLEGE S WANNANOA, hj. C Winter, 1947 gram were developed according to the needs of the communities, following a survey of community conditions. This led to more extensive use of existing state agencies including the health department and agricultural services, also to special working "bees" to accomplish by concerted community effort some of the necessary work such as school gardens, home planning classes, savings bank, school camp, forestry camp and other projects. He pointed out that, contrary to what teachers sometimes think, the communities are ahead of the ideas of the school people and that there is a need to get the school and the community together. Inspiration for the community programs has been received from visits to Nova Scotia by groups of teachers and laymen to observe cooperative 'enterprises. Tracing the programs of schools for the past several years, particularly during the past two decades, Maurice F. Seay, Dean, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, pointed out that many schools and communities had concluded that education was not related to the real problems of the people. This led to organizing a program known as the "community school." It was realized that education should lead the community, not lag behind, so the newer concepts led to a school which serves all age levels, not just youth, and is concerned with the discovery, development and use of the resources of the community. Concerning the future of the community school programs in Kentucky and Michigan when the Slogan grants in Kentucky and Kellogg grants in Michigan are no longer available, both Seay and Grim reported that individual leaders in communities were already looking forward to the time when no outside agencies will be necessary. In Kentucky some communities have such a program functioning with no outside financial aid. Discussion groups heard panels describe countywide programs of community improvement, including consolidated community school programs, small community and city school programs. In relating their own experiences with community schools and answering questions from, the audience, the members of the discussion groups brought out many significant points concerning the beginning, the operation and the evaluation of community schools. Often a lay advisory group, MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 representative of the community and apart from the community board of education, forms a guiding and expediting force to help the school to serve the needs of the community. The types of learning activities to be carried on should be based on soundly determined community needs, not on the whims or desires of a few individuals. They include shop work in school for children and adults, study of improved agricultural practices, a community canning plant and other similar projects. A community nursery gives girls training in child care. There are school and community plumbing and similar services not available in the community, and also recreational facilities playgrounds, parks; camps, and assembly places for meetings, plays, pageants. Studies by some schools have resulted in bringing improvements in water supply, garbage collection, and in many other ways building for a program of better health for all the people in the community. Making the facilities of the school available for work, study, and recreation for the community after school, in the evenings, on weekends, and during the summers was pointed out as one way of bringing the school and the community closer together. The problems of the community serve as curriculum materials. Surveys, discussion and study groups help to ascertain the problems which may be studied by the school such as county and local government, milk supply, health. . In discussing "What is a Community School?" in the concluding session of the conference, Jess S. Ogden, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, emphasized that "there are as many answers, almost, as there are people" and that one must learn to look for signs which indicate a community school. "If any community school could be found, it would already be obsolete unless it had continued development." A community school knows no barrier between the school and the community and both function in the present to improve the living conditions of all members of the community. Ten tests of a community school given by Dr. Ogden are: 1. Are children and adults going in and out frequently and freely? Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK 0 i The obligation and challenge for a more Kentucky Children, Inc. maintains a small per manent staff, but is operated largely by committees of volunteers-prominent and active people throughout the state. The Research Committee secures data necessary to the operation of the corporation. The Accrediting Committee estab lishes standards for child welfare agencies, groups or organizations applying for membership. The Budget Committee receives and acts on requests for funds. The Executive Committee then takes final action on projects passed by all committees. The welfare of the children of Kentucky is a civic as well as a moral obligation of every publicspirited citizen of the Commonwealth. The success of Kentucky Children, Inc. depends on the financial help from the people of Kentucky people who fully realize the needs of our children. Kentucky Children, Inc. is starting a statewide drive for funds. The organization, working with cooperative agencies, will set up a solid framework for communities to build on and maintain. All Community .Chests have been advised of the W C 0 Winter, 1947 4. 2. Are aesthetic values expressed in the school building and the grounds,? 3. Can the youngsters as well as the teachers interpret the school program? Does every teacher know the folkways of the community? 5. Does the school spend as much time on the present and future as it does on the past? 6. Does the school prepare for living by reason rather than by custom? 7. Is it a school of teachers who are asked for help? 8. Is it a school in which teachers are citizens? 9. Does the school provide a process of group planning and group action? 10. Does the school continually search for new leaders? The highlights of the discussion were summarized in the concluding session, bringing out the following points: "1. The level of living of rural people can be improved through education. 2. One of the ways is by the use of the com munity school idea. 3. Community schools are not a fad. 4. Children can learn by studying community problems and resources. 5. Community service facilities can be used in teaching. 6. Service facilities do not compete with private enterprise. 7. Teachers can be educated for service in community schools in teacher training institutions. Programs may be started around one person but should not remain around him. The most important requirement is a desire for better living." 9. -Peyton Reavis KENTUCKY CHILDREN, INC. Each year 27 per cent of Kentucky's population leaves the state, and the largest percentage of this loss is in the age group from 10 to 19. Each year in Kentucky, 3,000 or more infants die before they reach their first birthday. This means that, due to an inadequate child welfare program and the lack of economic, health and other opportun ities, Kentucky is losing the children so necessary to her future. adequate quate child welfare program brought Kentucky 0), Children, Inc. into existence. It is a non-profit corporation, organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Kentucky to help meet the health, recreational, educational and welfare needs of the children of Kentucky. It will raise funds for distribution to accredited agencies not adequately provided for by local, county, state or national enterprises, or by churches or individuals. There is much to be done for the children of Kentucky. The need for immediate action has led Kentucky Children, Inc. to propose a program which includes financial backing for the establishment of more Boy's Clubs, Teen-age Canteens and Bookmobiles. It includes scholarship aids to benefit children and Settlement Schools, and assistance to other worthwhile projects and organizations. Virgil S. Steed is Organization Director for Kentucky Children, Inc. and author of the book KEN TUCKY TOBACCO PATCH. He was director for the Rural Kentucky Medical Scholarship Fund of 1946 and still is an advisor. Winter, 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK organization's plans and requested to cooperate. It will help the communities to help themselves. With the help of the citizens of Kentucky it will continue to serve the best interests of all Kentucky children, working for and not conflicting with any existing agencies. Virgil S. Steed STATE SCF SPONSORED SCHOOL TEACHERS CONFERENCE The Rural Child Service of the Save the Children Federation held a sponsored school teachers conference at Scarritt College Rural Life Center during the week July 6-12. The theme of the conference was, "Living and Learning in The SCF Sponsored School." The purpose was to bring together a select group of teachers to discuss their problems and ideas, and to provide as consultants specialists in those fields pertaining to the activities of the small rural school, such as education, health, recreation, social work, school lunch, religion, crafts, art, music, vocational schools, community organization. The aim was to help the teachers to have better schools, which will in reality become centers of a happy community life. The emphasis of the whole conference was inspirational rather than technical. The program opened Sunday with vesper services led by Rev. Charles Drake, Pastor of the Pleasant Hill Community Church, and closed with an address by Dr. Leslie G.~Templin, Educational Director of Scarritt College Rural Center. Thirtyfour Tennessee Counties participated in this conference. Specialists were drawn from the state departments of education, health, public welfare and vocational rehabilitation. Others appearing on the program were officers of the Parent Teachers Association, professors, teachers, pastors, and county agents. The Save the Children Federation helps thousands of children in rural areas of the United States. The program operates through local committees in cooperation with public health, education and welfare authorities for the improvement of opportunities for all children. RECREATION The group which is carrying on the recreation program in the Southern Highland area met for the second time at Norris Park, Tennessee September 25 to 28. The most abiding impression retained from this gathering is that here is a group that has something that's all wool and a yard wide. It's "all wool" because it is of high cultural value-folk dancing, folk music, "playing with clay" and nature lore. It's a "yard wide" since it can meet recreational needs of people from six to sixty and even beyond at either end. The purpose of this meeting was to plan for the extension of creative recreation in the Highlands and there were many hours of serious discussion. This is no group of "escapists." They know they have something desperately needed by tired and tense people, adults as well as eager, adventurous young people. Their field is challenging them by its opening doors. Decisions were reached and the yeast of thinking-through set at work on many problems yet unsolved. "Playing with clay" was somewhat in the nature of an exploratory course in simple ceramics. Harriett Gill, who is with the education program of the Southern Highlanders Handicraft Guild and is well versed and skilled in the art made it fun and yet creative. It was not simply "glorified mud pies," for it led out into many areas of imagination and expression. The nature rambles were just that-a leisurely ramble in the autumn woods down the hill and up again, discovering many things. A simple "walk" may become an adventure if it is taken with eyes, nose and ears alert for discovery. In between the sessions the chinks were stuffed with recorder music. This observer thinks the group might well make more of this delightful revival of an Elizabethan pastime. The music produced by eleven players, with no previous rehearsal, playing three and four part music written for recorders years ago is too good to be used to fill chinks. It was beautiful music, winsome and gentle like a breath of spring blossoms. May we have more of it and may the tribe increase! There was folk dancing for pure recreation whenever opportunity offered. Several things about it are noteworthy, perhaps even unique. Most MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 1947 of the group were experts, that is, teachers of the art; yet every visitor, even to the night policeman who dropped in, was invited to join. The novice soon found himself at ease, carried along by the group, his awkwardness unnoted, caught up by the beauty and rhythm of the dance, forgetting himself and merging with the group. After this new, unfamiliar experience, one finds himself not exhausted, not embarrassed and not an outsider, but tingling with the impulse of the movement, the music and the fellowship of the group. To get everybody on the floor is, of course, a basic principle of the authentic folk-dance movement-and it truly works. Teen-agers and folks long past forty, college presidents, school men and women, state directors, teachers participated in the fun. It is a sight worth seeing. Another high achievement of this group is the quality.of the singing. Here is one of the weak spots in all our recreational movement-the unlovely and worthless material used as music. It was an experience long to remember to hear a group sing easily and sincerely the folk songs from a wide range of nationalities. It requires a leader possessing simple musical skill, one who has a vision and who. will explore the wealth of good folk music from all over the world. This group has such leaders. Yes, they really have something and are planning to make it available to all in the area who ask for it. -E. Michael Hoffman Black Mountain North Carolina Those who believe in-the value of creative recreation and have watched its growth in our Southern Highland area during the past eighteen years will be delighted to hear that we are at another milestone. We are ready to carry training institutes (workshops in play if you like) out into a community or county. Up to the present` time, the Christmas Dance School at Berea College and the two ten day courses at the John C. Campbell Folk School, in May and June, have been our only training centers. Teachers, school principals, rural, ministers, county and home agents, 4-H Club and Scout directors, recreation leaders and community- workers have taken advantage of these courses. An appreciation and enjoyment of our folk songs, folk games and dances have spread in this way to many schools and centers from Kentucky to Alabama and Georgia. But the territory is very large-Mr. Campbell in his book, The Southern Highlander and His Homeland, tells us: "Our mountain region of approximately 112,000 square miles embraces an area nearly as large as the combined area of New York and New England, and almost equal to that of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales." More leadership is needed to reach not only the school children, but young adults and older folks as well. It is difficult for many to leave home for a week or ten days to attend a course. There are cows to be milked and chickens to be fed. It is expensive also to journey three hundred or more miles to Berea College in Kentucky, or to the Folk School in North Carolina. For the past seven years, Marie Marvel has done a splendid piece of work as itinerant recreation leader under the Council of Southern Mountain Workers. She has been available to schools and county groups where leadership was needed. The demand for her assistance has proved that the crying need is trained leadership so that groups may be able to carry on by themselves. It is fitting that Miss Marvel, who knows so well the whole area and its needs, should be the chairman of this new training program which has been made possible by a modest grant, designated for this purpose, to the Cduncil of Southern Mountain Workers. This is the general plan, but as time goes on no doubt there will be adjustments. First of all, the request should come from the local community. It is natural to assume that communities and schools which have enjoyed this kind of recreation and realize its value will be the first to ask. The local group is to decide the length of the course and what is to be offered-folk games and folk dances, drama, puppetry, story telling, handicrafts, nature study, etc. It will make all preliminary arrangements working through the county superintendent of schools, the county and home agents, or any other local agency. The training program committee will secure the necessary leaders to help, always considering any available local leadership. minter, 1947 Traveling expenses of those from afar will be paid out of the fund, but living expenses are to be taken care of locally. Such a cooperative venture should be successful and a means of bringing wholesome MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page Ii fun to thousands in our Southern Highlands. -Marguerite B. Bidstrup John C. Campbell Folk School Brasstown, North Carolina EDITORIALS THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN Childhood is inevitably a time for foundations of health, language, personal habits and attitudes. Religious ideas and attitudes formed during the years of childhood constitute the foundation which will shape much of their religious thinking in years to come. Just as children learn the langilage of their parents and the ways of life and work accepted by the -family and by their immeiliite community, so they will learn many of the religious ideas which they see and hear. In typical mountain language one said, "It is not generated in me to steal." Religious ideas which are wholesome and true and fine or which are wholly inadequate and unworthy will be "generated" in the children. There are no years, of waiting. In the home environment of some children there is complete indifference to religion. .Life is fufl'-of struggle, of routine, of commonplace happenings connected with life and death, with sowing and reaping, but without any sense of the beauty and the greatness and the wonder of the world about them. Still other children are surrounded by superstition, magic, the unnatural, the miraculous, the snake-charming practices which fill them with awe and dread, but which wholly lack any sense of the nearness of God who loves all his children. Furthermore, in many communities there is strong prejudice among religious groups. One's own sect or denomination draws apart from others to. such an extent that ill will results. Still others are surrounded by erroneous and unworthy ideas about God in connection with pain or illness. When a member of the family dies, it is said, "God took him." "God will strike you dead" or "He is going to burn in a lake of fire" illustrate these unchristian ideas to which children are exposed. In the light of their need for the beginnings of a stable faith during childhood, it behooves all teachers, parents, and other friends of children not only to be aware of the barrenness of their lives without it but actively concerned about ideas and practices which we want them to have. Central in all satisfying religious experiences which we desire for every child is an awareness of God and of his relationship to him. The following represent basic Christian ideas which we want the children to be exposed to and to learn, not by mere repetition of words, but because they are present in the lives and in the language of the people whom they love and trust: God loves every person. He has no favorites. He loves us all the time, even when we fail him or do wrong. When we do wrong and turn to him in penitence, he is ready to forgive. But he was loving us all the time. He wants us to be-loving ,and kind to each other. 'God gives us eyes and hands and minds, and he expects us to use them in ways that will help take care of ourselves and work of the comfort and pleasure of others. He helps us to remember to think of others instead of self. He does not give us "things," but most of the things we enjoy can be - traced to the earth, the air, and the sunshine Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK which he has created, and to a love which he has put into- the hearts of people. God has some purposes for the world in which people who love him may have a part. The beauty and wonder of things about us are a constant aid in helping children think of God as the creator of the universe. The seasons are a part of his plan, but seed-time and harvest do not happen unless we do our part. Day and night are a part of his plan, but the way in which we use them is in our hands. The sun, moon, and stars were created by him. We look upon and enjoy all of these evidences of the orderly universe and join others who through the ages have said, "The heavens declare the glory of God." Praise and thanksgiving to God for his lovingkindness, for all that is good and true and beautiful, should be a part of every child's training. His training, however, will not consist merely in his ability to answer questions nor the prayers or Bible passages which he memorizes without understanding. Instead, songs, prayers, and Bible passages which are connected with his day-by-day exper Winter, 1947 fences will be remembered and used repeatedly with I joy and understanding if they have meaning to him. Christian ideas of God are based on the teachings of the New Testament rather than on the Old Testament. It is Jesus who helped us know God's love; it is Jesus who helped us know that God is near, that he hears when we pray, that he forgives when we do wrong, that he wants all people everywhere to live together as brothers, as children of one. Father. b a c c f. s~ f These ideas, mentioned so briefly, represent methods for religious training at the hands of all who are concerned about abundant life for children. If it is lacking in their home environment, the school and the church have an even greater responsibility. If it is present in their home environment, then home, school, and church join hands in bringing children up with childlike -faith and a growing awareness. of the power within themselves to love God and to serve him by serving other people, all of whom are his children. -Mary Skinner AMONG THE BOOKS THE DYNAMICS OF LEARNING by Nathaniel Cantor, Foster and Stewart Publishing Corp., 210 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, New York, 1946. 282 pp. $3.00. Mr. Nathaniel Cantor believes that whether the release of atomic power becomes a great blessing or a devastating curse for mankind depends upon people understanding the world in which they live and in planning their destiny. But how can people be helped to understand the world in which they live and be motivated to undertake the planning of their destiny? Mr. Cantor. expresses faith in the value of democratic professional instruction as one of the chief means of effecting such social change. "I am convinced," he says, "that ten to twentyfive thousand highly skilled, professional teachers on all areas of education, placed in strategic, ad ministrative and supervisory positions could redirect the thinking, feeling, and willing of millions of children, young women, and men who are to become the adults of the next generation:' However, Mr. Cantor, who is himself a teacher of anthropology and sociology, doubts the existence of very many highly skilled, professional teachers. The Dynamics o f Learning is an analysis of what the author conceives to be a "highly skilled, .professional teacher." The points of view represented in this study are a radical departure from the traditional methods of instruction. Many modern educators, however, will find little that is alien to their own ideas about the teaching-learning process. The tragedy in American education is not that educational theory is so far wrong; it is that practice lags so far behind theory. Mr. Cantor's chief concern in his own teaching is to permit students to grow and develop in terms of themselves, not to try to have them believe as e believes and feel as he feels. The book is chalenging and provocative and although the discussion is directed toward the teaching-learning process at the college level, teachers at all levels will find the book stimulating and helpful. -John E. Brewton Professor of Education George Peabody College for Teachers Nashville, Tennessee ADVENTURES OF A BALLAD HUNTER, by John A. Lomax, New York: Macmillan, 1947. 302 PP. This book is a welcome supplement to Mr. Lomax's familiar collections of the songs of the cowboy, the Negro, the railroad and levee worker, and the desperado. Here are personal reminiscences from a long life, begun soon after the close of the Civil War and lived for the most art in the south and southwest, by a man who as helped to change America's attitude towards s folk song from patronage and scorn to affection and respect, f r o m neglect to scientific study and government subsidy. One is glad to fit i n t o the knowledge of his contribution to American folk song a picture of the man himself -his boyhood, his various experiences in the educational world, his periodic recourse to business and teaching, and always his return to the call of folk song in which not the least interesting aspect is the introduction of his son Alan as a worthy successor to his father's field. Mr. Lomax obviously has two of the greatest assets of the folk song collectors-the human sympathy which breaks down social and racial barriers and gets at the singer himself, and the selflessness which transcends physical difficulties, following the quest through parched deserts and fever swamps, ignoring squalor and misery, indeed breaking down prison walls. The song, and he singer aiid his life, are here presented togeth, for a thread of song unites the anecdotes, and anY lingering "book-ballad" lovers still survive, they are shown here what a one-sided unierstanding of the song the mere printed text gores. Folk singers know no artificial divisions between life and song and speech. Their talk is inter, 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK salty and metaphorical, and their song is homely and everyday. This book does not pretend to be scholarly. The very title uses the word "ballad" loosely, for the author's allusions to the true ballad are very few, and his connection with those parts of the country associated with the preservation of the older ballad, or with the creation of the new ballad from the old pattern is very slight. There is little theory, though valuable information crops uplike the derivation of "dogies." Now and then one ,is surprised at the lack of familiarity with English folk song prototypes. The variant of the wrenhunting song from the West of England, long known by folklorists to be a survival of ancient ritual, is commented upon as "a children's song, which I never heard before . . . with its pretty tune, deserving wide circulation." One regrets especially that not a single "pretty tune" accompanies its text, for folk songs without color and rhythm and melody of the music are one-liingedindeed, particularly where words are banal, or. garbled, and little true poetry occurs. Does song is one of the few which might conceivably stand alone without its music: Angel flew from the bottom of the pit, Gathered the sun all in her fist; Gathered the moon all 'round her waist; Gathered the stars all under her feet; Gathered the wind all 'round her waist, Cryin', "Holy Lord," Cryin', "Holy Lord," Cryin', "Holy, my Lord," Cryin', "Holy!" Some sobering thoughts occur as one closes the book. How long will it be before the folk singer who has "riz above his raisin'..'.. '.turns back to his own inheritance with respect, instead of repudiating everything associated with a former, in some ways, poorer state? And what, o,Ã‚Â£ song and security? Lomax's songs are .mostly, created in despair or- danger, by jail-birds and . desperados and down-and-outers. Does the folk .,song, . that ultimate expression of the overflowing heart, thrive most where hearts are unhappiest? However, to quote another bit of doggerel: The little old book lies- on the shelf; If you want any more; you can sing it yourself. Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Winter, 19470 by 1947: . In " i i 1 0 0 10 n the ethical eligious basis of the Kin se Jesus was, hat hehtly was the feeling. His n the simple, the strength ill lie. Testament are w Testament his discussion Founder and d the Gospel pire. ht that this is ticism but a acked of the book n heart weth still th We do want more, and the shelf is a deep one, in the Library of Congress where the ten thousand songs from the collections of John and Alan Lomax are available to scholars and artists and just plain lovers of American folk song, -Evelyn K. Wells Wellesley, Mass. THE CHALLENGE OF NEW TESTAMENT ETHICS, by L. H. Marshall, Tutor in New Testament Interpretation at Rawdon College. The, Macmillan Company, New York, 1947. 363 pp. $4.50. This is a book with a message. The author has a belief in and an enthusiasm for the New Testament. In the opening paragraph of the Preface, his devotion -,a the Christian faith and his high regard for the New Testament is clearly registered. "On one occasion, Edwald is said to have held up a well worn copy of Tischendorf's Greek Testament and to have exclaimed: `Gentlemen, in this little book is all the wisdom of the world.' That was not too high a tribute to pay to the New Testament. In that faith the following pages have been written and it is that faith which they seek to justify." There is in this book no striving for effect, nor airing of the latest theory about the New Testament. In fact, there seems to be a definite harking back to the liberal scholarship of the nineteenth century. The men most often quoted are Adolph Deissmann, the author's teacher when in Germany, Harnack, Jiilicher, Canon Hensley, those theological giants of the closing period of the last century. This is not to be assumed as a disparagement. The latest word is not always the last word. Marshall's book is well argued throughout; it has a solidity of scholarship which is characteristically English. It is a little tiresome in places but if the reader can persevere and push his way through the three hundred and fifty-four pages of reading matter, he will find himself intellectually rewarded and his faith strengthened. If the casual reader does nothing more, he should read the first chapter on the Nature of the Ethics of Jesus. In some ways this is the best chapter in the book: Some of the cardinal points are:(1) An excellent statement of the traits of first century Christians and the wellsupported assertion sum and these traits were based squarely o teachings of Jesus. (2) There was a r for the ethics of Jesus. (3) The idea dom of God was central to Jesus' ethics. up, he says, "Hence, whatever el he was a great ethical teacher .... W main tained was that the resolve to live rig surest way to right thinking and fine initial demand was, `Follow me' and i personal, practical following of Jesus of Christianity has always lain and wThe two great figures in the New Jesus and Paul; in dealing with Ne ethics the author necessarily centers around the life and teaching of the that of his great disciple, who sprea of Christ throughout the Roman Em One closes the book with the thoug not just another book of Biblical cri statement of sturdy faith in Christ, b careful scholarship, as the final words indicate: "Who in a human life, a huma Did show the world, and sho world The very heart and life of God himself. -Victor E. Marriott, Librarian Pleasant Hill, Tennessee INSIDE U.S.A. John Gunther, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1947, $5.00. This is a wonderful book. The author spent thirteen months traveling to gather material for it. Judging by the enormous number of facts he amassed, apparently even when he slept he kept one observant eye open. As he visited all fortyeight states (including 38 of the 43 cities with populations over 200,000) Gunther asked these questions: What makes your state or community distinctive? Who runs it? What do you believe in most? The answers, together with Gunther's own opinions and observations, occupy nearly a thousand pages, and every page (even in the acknowledgements and the bibliography) is crammed with fascinating facts. Here is local color on a con tinental scale. There are 52 chapters. Some of them deal with states-four are about California and Californians, but only a few pages are devoted to other states -West Virginia and Rhode Island, for example. Winter, 1947 giant world of Texas." Gunther's discussion of the South centers around its problems and especially around the Negro problem, "the most pressing and controversially acute of all domestic problems." There ;xs emuch to commend Gunther's; treatment of the Sotktlh;; He is a liberal, in the best sense of the waed~.~mnd is therefore critical but critical in a constxuctive,way. He brings out clearly and colorfully;, the ;great power of the Baptist and Methodist churches_xn the South, this .South's ambivalent attitude.. toward liquor, the problem of why Southern industry is so ,hostile, to organized labor, the peculiar blind spots of even the most liberal Southerners (e.g., Arnall's blindness to the "real" Negro problem), and the overwhelming strangle hold absentee own ers have on., industry in the South. Nevertheless, this reviewer .found. the chapters on the South among the least interesting in the entire book. This is partly due, - perhaps, to a greater familiarity with the South, but mainly;, to the fact that so much of the material on the South is "warmed over," and lacks the fresh, personal l touc4i,of Gunther's own experience, . If for instance you have read Lilienthal's book . and Duffus_ and Krutch's The Valley and Its People, you will, find Gunther's discussion of the TVA repctitiousrq;,~.nd there is little new and different in his, djscu,skion of the Negro problem. V : :; The Southern Mountains as a subregion qf,the South apparently doesn't exist so far as Gul ;her is concerned, for it isn't mentioned. He has. soave harsh words for Kentucky's mountaineers,,,,,~9wever, saying: ~ "The curse of Kentucky is backwoodsism, and its gritty .mountaineers in the east form a narrow provincial world all their own. ,~ They are of the most poor and primitive type of ynglo-Saxon stock; they adhere closely to their isolated mines, stills, and mountains; they have, by and large, both the meanness of the typical ~ peasant and the suspiciousness of the mountaineer; above all, they are fantastically inbred."`It is unfortunate that the present number-one best seller Some chapters deal with regions and regional problems. Still others deal with personalities-among them are Henry Kaiser, Stassen, Vandenberg, Saltonstall; LaGuardia, Wayne Morse, Glen Taylor, and Arnall. Eight chapters are devoted to the South, and three additional, chapters concern "the Mot *FAIN LIFE AND WORK contains such an obviously stereotyped, unfair statement. The ignorance and misunderstanding in such statements as Gunther's emphasize once again the imperative need for a sympathetic, up-todate, accurate interpretation of the Southern Mountains comparable to Campbell's The Southern Highlander and His Homeland. And above all it emphasizes the great responsibility of people writing about the mountains. For such writers are largely responsible for the opinions and attitudes of many outsiders (including Gunther and his informants) toward the mountain people. All in all, Inside U. S. A. is a fine book, one that you will enjoy for years. It is fun to read, and yet it contains about as wide a view of the American scene as you can find anywhere. The tremendous amount of information in the book invites all sorts of hypotheses and theories on the part of the readers. Inevitably someone; is going to say that reading Inside U. S. A. is as g~d.,as a trip. Actually it is much better, for Gunther has,.seen many things most of us wouldn't see if we,were looking at them. -James S. Brown Rural Sociologist University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky RECREATION AND THE TOTAL PERSONALITY, by S. R. Slavson, New York, Association Press, 1946, 119 pp. $3.00. Now that working hours are being reduced, everyone is becoming increasingly interested in recreation, whether he be a leader in the field, or a participant. Since all people fall 'into either or both of these groups, this book should be of interese aiid value to alt." ~ -. . As suggested by the title, the, bap~,;i$, .strongly psychological in treatment, but not too much so as to be in any way d'iffi'cult foi the ordinary person to uiidersta'n~. ,. The book contains only ten chapters, each of which is divided into short, well-defined topics. Nearly every chapter is richly interspersed with accounts of actual experiences. By illustrating what has really been done in various situations, these stories help to make the book pleasantly readable, as well as extremely helpful. Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK After explaining the nature and scope of recreation in the first chapter, the author takes Chapter II to discuss the fascinating subject of unconscious motivations. "Why do we like what we like?" Did you know that a sadistic drive may be a person's motive for wishing to excell in games of stiff competition? That is, he wishes to. win because of an unconscious desire to hurt someone? Or did you know that the unconscious wish to destroy ones self may cause a person to take delight in dangerous forms of recreation such as high diving and riding on the roller coaster? I do not intend to discuss each chapter separately (though I'd like to!) but I must mention two others which are to me the high lights of the book, because I agree so heartily with the attitudes expressed in them by the author. In Chapter IV, Recreation and the Democratic Culture, the leader is reminded that recreation should be freely chosen -never forced upon anyone. The moment it becomes forced, it ceases to be recreation. - The other chapter I would comment upon is Chapter V, The Problem of Competition. It is the author's opinion, and certainly mine too, that competitive games, sports, and programs have been greatly overemphasized. Competition, if carried too far "may even be rationalized into a philosophy and principle of life:" It will be hard for us to get away from the idea of competition, as our whole capitalistic system is based on that idea. Perhaps, for that very reason, we should try more and more to foster the idea of cooperative recreation, rather than that of excessive competition. How can this change be brought about? The author says: "The attitude toward competition must and can be changed if leaders and directors change their emphasis . . . . We must teach our pupils to learn to find satisfaction, in nobler perspective, in doing the larger task rather than doing something better than someone else." -Edna Ritchie, Music John C. Campbell Folk School Brasstown, North Carolina SECONDARY EDUCATION IN T edited with a Foreword by W. Car Minor Gwynn, Arnold K. King. Th of North Carolina Press, 1946, $3.00 These fourteen articles written by Scators present the story of seconda from colonial days to the 1940's, w upon the development during the pas To students and teachers of this regi gives a valuable factual background. in terested in bettering education in a shows a challenging effort to achieve meet the needs of all communities an was peculiarly difficult because of the of normal development by the Civilconstruction periods, economic confus illiteracy, and isolated rural communi Included in the series are articles obution of private schools, the school liiza;ion of educational opportunities,ment and revision of curricula to includ agricultural, home economics and oth fit the needs of particular communpmental programs, workshops for teachers, The Southern States Work Conference, experiments in community education, and the use of regional resource material. There is some repetition of historical background material, but each article is important in giving the complete picture of education in the South. The inclusion of particular examples, as the Parker District System, the Ascension Parish System, the Penn School, the work of various agencies of the. Committee on Southern Regional Studies and Education, add to the helpfulness of the book for teachers and citizens interested in better schools. They also indicate the type of youth and community centered schools toward which educators of the South are working. The reader will be convinced "that the South is educationally on the move." -Helen Meredith Erie School Olive Hill, Kentucky HE SOUTH, son Ryan, J. e University 269 pp. outhern edury education ith emphasis t forty years. on the book To thoseny region it schools that d races. This interruption War and Reion, poverty, ties. n the contribrary, equalthe develop e vocational, er courses to ities exeri Winter, 1947 1~l 00 Winter, 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORE Page 29 ANNOUNCEMENTS ANNUAL CONFERENCE The conference of Southern Mountain Workers will be held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, March 2, 3, 4, 1948. The Mountain View Hotel is to be the headquarters and reservations may be made there at $5.50 a day, including meals. After consultation with many members of the Council, the Program Committee has chosen "Building a Community" for the theme. Dr. Carl C. Taylor, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. will make the opening address on the evening of March 2nd. On the morning of the 3rd, it is planned to give a demonstration of a representative Community Committee in action.. This will be followed by a panel discussion, the members of which are chosen from workers in the mountain area. The leader wilhbe Mr. Eri Shumaker. Following the panel, the members of the conference will meet in groups for discussion of Economics, Education, Health, Religion, Recreation. The Youth Group will also meet. A representative from each group will be asked to make a short report on Thursday morning. The program for Wednesday afternoon and evening will be in charge of the Committee on Recreation, headed by Mrs. Raymond McLain. . Miss Mary Gould Davis, Editor of Books for Young People for the Saturday Review of Literature will be the principal speaker at the fellowship supper on Wednesday evening. Miss Davis has visited the mountain field many times, telling stories and teaching story telling at various workshops. Recreation for the whole group will follow the supper. On Thursday morning there will be a business session, reports of committees and a closing address by some outstanding and understanding speaker. We believe the conference this year will be one 0 which will meet the needs of the workers in the mountain area, and we hope that we will have a y large number in attendance. -W. L. Cooper Chairman of Program Committee MOUNTAIN FOLK FESTIVAL The thirteenth Mountain Folk Festival will be held at Berea College April 8, 9, 10, 1948. The "Open Evening" to which the public is given a special invitation is scheduled to take place in the Seabury Gymnasium on Saturday, April 10 at 7:30 p.m. For further information write Frank H. Smith, Council of Southern Mountain Workers, Box 2013, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL Registrations are being received for Opportunity School to be held on the Berea College Campus January 5-26, 1948. There are no educational requirements for enrollment. For twenty-three years Berea College has provided an opportunity for mature youth, men and women within the mountain field to attend this compact three-weeks folk school. Miss Mary P. Lupuy is the Director, Miss Marie Marvel, Recreation Leader of the Council, Associate Director. Miss Helen H. Dingman is again taking care of registrations. SCHOOL FOR RURAL MISSION WORKERS "The Church Serving Rural Peoples" will be the theme of a short-term school at Scarritt College Rural Center in Tennessee, March 22-April 28 followed by a travel seminar ending May 8. The total cost of the school session is $100. The Travel Seminar will be in a special educational bus accommodating thirty persons, the cost depending upon the number who register. This must be done at the time of registering for the school. This course is planned especially for furloughed foreign missionaries and missionary candidates who have been accepted and are seeking to prepare for rural service. Outstanding leaders in the specialized fields have been secured to take charge of the several units of study which cover The Church Serving Rural Peoples Through Better Community Organization, Through Better Agriculture, Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE ANDÃ¢â‚¬Â¢VQIRk Winter, 1947 Through a Christian Philosophy of Rural Work, Through Arts and Crafts, Through Understanding Other Cultures and Peoples, Through Experiments in Rural Reconstruction, Through supportii qg~: an Adequate Education Pro. rain Throilgh,Better Worship and Devotional Life, Through Church Community and Cooper THE BOOK SHELF In the office of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers are over one hundred volumes dealing with subjects related to the work of its members. Most of these books have been reviewed in MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. They may be borrowed by members of the Council at ten cents each to cover the cost of packing and mailing The subjects covered in this lending library include education, religion, recreation, handcrafts, economics, cooperatives, community organization, all phases of rural life, labor and interracial problems, books of poetry, a few novels and several children's books. The office asks that, in borrowing books, the members return them within a month so that others may also read them. At this tilde those who are particularly interested in the theme for the Annual Conference in March, and especially all who are planning to attend, would find the books on "Building a Community" in all its phases valuable. The Conference will be successful only in so far as those present contribute. The more informed are the members of the group, the greater will be the value of the discussions. In this connection, the Council office has received on consignment some of the pertinent publications' of Community Service, Inc., such asThe Small Community, Foundations o f Democratic Jul Through Betted Rural Health, ~Fhrough Better` Trained Leaders. The Travel Seminar of ten days will be conducted through rural sections of the Southeastern States, studying projects in rural work of interest to members of.:'the Seminar. For:' farther information and application write Dr., Leslie G. Templin, Director, Scarritt College Rural Center, Box 186, Crossville, Tennessee. Life, ($3.00; paper $1,.75);. Small Community Economics (25c); A Busart~"~s of My Own: Possibilities in Small Community `Occupations and Industries ($2.00; paper $1.00), all .three written by Arthur E, Morgan; also pamphlets entitled Summary o f Lectures and Discussions of the Third Annual Conference on ,the Small, Community held in July, 1946' (5dc~;'The People's College: Leadership of the People, by the People, for the People, by Griscom Morgan (lOc) and the reprint of an address by Arthur E. Morgan entitled The Small Community as the Birthplace o f Enduring Peace (1 Oc). The Editors of MOUNTAIN ~ LIFE AND WORK are always eager to print reviews of worth while . books, both those dealing with subjects directly applicable to the mountain area and those con cetÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ridd vxrith,'present day problems, all of which do, of 66~rseapply to the region in which the Council is' specifically interested. - We would be grateful to our readers if they would send as the names of such books and their publishers. Most publishers are` glad to send copies to us free of charge. _ -:;, The, sIpcs of persons who might write interesting ~ review's would also be welcome. We believe that eae'h issue should contain four or five reviews 1'afg entiugh to give an adequate picture and valuati'oi1 of each book. 'inter, 1947 A ~chieving a Stable Family in an Unstable Society Howard Beers XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 1 AGRICULTURE New Agriculture, The Louis Bromfield XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 11 Tragedy of Errors-1947 Edward H. Faulkner XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 9 April Again Jesse Stuart XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 16 B Ballad Backgrounds in the Appalachians Evelyn K. Wells XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 14 Baker, Richard E. If 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p6 Beers, Howard Achieving a Stable Family in an Unstable Society XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 1 Better Hook-ups Eri J. Shumaker XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 17 BOOKS REVIEWED Adventures of a Ballad Hunter John A. Lomax XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 25 Agricultural Handbook for Rural Pastors and Laymen Thomas E. Howard XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Bailey, Liberty Hyde The Holy Earth XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 28 Barclay, R. E. Ducktown Back in Raht's Time XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 25 Bird, Zenobia Through Winding Ways XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 e Buell, Raymond L. Liberia: A Century o f Survival XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Cantor, Nathaniel The Dynamics of Learning XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 24 Challenge of New Testament Ethics, The L. H. Marshall XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 26 Cherokee Nation, The Marion L. Starkey XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 23 Children of the Cumberland Claudia Lewis XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 Church Across the Street, The Reginald D. Manwell and Sophia Lyon Fahs XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 27 Coblenz, Catherine Cate Sequoya XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 23 Creative Old Age Clare deGruchy XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 28 Davidson, Donald The Tennessee XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 24 deGruchy, Clare Creative Old Age XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 28 Dew On Jordan Harold Preece and Celia Kraft XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 26 DuBois, W. E. B. Encyclopedia of the Negro XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 2 5 Ducktourn Back in Raht's Time R. E. Barclay XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 25 Dynamics of Learning, The Nathaniel Cantor XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 24 Encyclopedia of the Negro W.E.B. DuBois and Guy B. Johnson XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 25 Fahs, Sophia Lyon The Church Across the Street XXIII:2 Sum mer 47 p 27 Fidelity Folks Gordon Wilson XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 27 For Here is My Fortune Amos R. Harlen XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 25 Fruit of This Tree, The Charles T. Morgan XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 27 God's Children Archibald Rutledge XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Graham, Shirley There Was Once A Slave XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 25 Gunther, John Inside U.S.A. XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 26 Gwynn, J. Minor Secondary Education in the South XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 28 and XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 Harlen, Amos R. For Here is My Fortune XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 2 5 0 High Schools For Tomorrow Dan Stiles XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 Holy Earth The Liberty Hyde Bailey XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 28 Howard, Thomas E. Agricultural Handbook for Rural Pastors and Laymen XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Inside U.S.A. John Gunther XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 26 Introduction to Playwriting, An Samuel Selden XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 26 Johnson, Guy B. Encyclopedia of the Negro XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 25 Kellersburger, Julia L. A Life for the Congo XXIII:3 Fall 47 P 25 Kincaid, Robert L. The Wilderness Road XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 27 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 INDEX King, Arnold K. Secondary Education in the South XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 28 and XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 Kraft, Celia Dew On Jordan XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 26 Lewis, Claudia Children of the Cumberland XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 Liberia: A Century of Survival Raymond L. Buell XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Life for the Congo, A Julia L. Kellersburger XXIII:3 Fall 47 P 25 Lomax, John Adventures of a Ballad Hunter XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 25 Lower Piedmont Country H. C. Nixon XXIII:I. Spring 47 p 24 Manwell, Reginald D. The Church Across The Street XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 27 Marshall, L. H. The Challenge of New Testament Ethics XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 26 Morgan, A. Rufus Ducktowx Back in Raht's Time XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 2 f Morgan, Charles T. The Fruit of this Tree XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 27 Nixon, H. C. Lower Piedmont Country XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 24 North Star Shining, Hildegarde Hoyt Swift XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 25 Ogden, Jean and Jess Small Communities in Action XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 21 Preece, Harold Dew on Jordan XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 26 Recreation and the Total Personality S. R. Slavson XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 27 Rutledge, Archibald God's Children XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Ryan, W. Carson Secondary Education in the South XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 and XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 28 Secondary Education in the South W. Carson Ryan XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 28 Selden, Samuel An Introduction to Playwriting XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 26 Sequoya Catherine Cate Coblenz XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 23 Slavson, S. R. Recreation and the Total Personality XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 27 Small Communities in Action Jean and Jess Ogden XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 21 Starkey, Marion L. The Cherokee Nation XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 23 Stiles, Dan High Schools for Tomorrow XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 22 Swift, Hildegarde Hoyt North Star Shining XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 25 Tennessee, The Donald Davidson XXIII:I Spring 47 p 24 There liras Once A Slave Shirley Graham XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 25 Through Winding Ways Zenobia Bird XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 26 Whitney, Phyllis A. Willow Hill XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 25 Wilderness Road, The Robert L. Kincaid XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 27 Willow Hill Phyllis A. Whitney XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 25 Wilson, Gordon Fidelity Folks XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 27 Bromfield, Louis The New Agriculture XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 11 Butt, E. Dargan I f 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 C Cabin Yard May Justus (Poem) XXIII:1 Spring 47 p S Campbell, Olive Dame We Look Backward-To Look Forward XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 1 Catskins Richard Chase XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 16 Chase, Richard Catskins XX1II:1 Spring 47 p 16 Child Welfare in Tennessee Jean N. Johnson XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 12 Christian Faith Means Brotherhood, The Harold H. Eymann XXIII:3 Fall 47 p f Cold, Edith The King's English XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 11 Community Centered Education for Montana Adults Ruth W. Rodinson XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 19 COMMUNITY Straws in the Wind that Stirs the Community Jean and Jess Ogden XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 6 Place of the Small Community in our National Life, The Ralph Templin XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 1 CONFERENCE Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Highlands and Rural Values, The Dayton Hulbert XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 23 Cosby, Elizabeth M. The Right to Case Work Services XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 13 D DeJong, Fred 1 f 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 Drake, Francis The Rural Church Faces Forward XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 10 E Eberling, E. J. Recent Economic Changes in the South XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 13 ECONOMICS Recent Economic Changes in the South E. J. Eberling XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 13 Resources of our Region Howard K. Menhinick XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 1 EDUCATION Community Centered Education for Montana Adults Ruth W. Robinson XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 19 King's English, The Edith Cold XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 11 Eymann, Harold H. The Christian Faith Means Brotherhood XXIII:3 Fall 47 p S F Faulkner, Edward H. Tragedy of Errors-1947 XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 9 H Heart of America Jesse Stuart (Poem) XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 7 Help for Mountain Mothers Louise G. Hutchins, M.D. XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 16 Highlands and Rural Values, The Dayton Hulburt XXIII:2 Sum mer 47 p 23 - Hoffman, Edwin M. Real, People X,XIIIs3 Fall 47 p 9 Hulburt, Dayton The Highlands and Rural' Values XXIII:2 Sum mer 47 p 23 Hutchins, Louise G. M.D. Help for Mountain Mothers XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 16 I If 1 Were Beginning Again (Symposium) D. Campbell' Wyckoff, Richard E. Baker, E. Dargan Butt, Fred DeJong, William G. Klein, Bernard Taylor, Edwin F. Troutman, Roscoe E. Weibel XXIII:I Spring 47 p 6 J Johnson, Jean N. Child Welfare in Tennessee XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 12 Justus, May Cabin Yard XXIII:1 Spring 47 p f K Kaufman, Harold F. Three Questions for the Mountain Church XXIII:2 Summer -47 -p ZO King's English, The Edith Cold XXIII:I Spring 47 p 11 Klein, William G. If 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 _: M Menhiniek, Howard K. Resources of our Region XXIII:3 Fall 47 p l N New Agriculture, The Louis.Bromfield XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 11 _ .~ ~ -."~,. O . Ogden; Jean- and-Jess Straaus' in the Wind that Stirs the Community XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 6 P Place of the Small 'Community in our National Life, The Ralph Temp(in XXTII:1~Spring 4~ p 1 .~ . .. R Real People Edwin M. Hoffman XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 9 Recent Economic. Changes in, the South E. J. Eberling XXIII:I Spring 47 p 13 RECREATION `...,.;... Ballad Backgrounds in the Appalachians Evelyn K. Wells XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 14 Winter, 194. RELIGION Christian Faith Means Brotherhood, The Harold H. Eymann XXIII:3 Fall 47 p S If I Were Beginning Again (Symposium) D. Campbell Wyckof~, Richard E. Baker, E. Dargan Butt, Fred DeJong, William Klein, Bernard Taylor, Edwin F. Troutman, Roscoe E. Weibe XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 Religious Development of Children, The Mary Skinner XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 23 Rural Church Faces Forward, The Francis Drake XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 10 Three Questions for the Mountain Church Harold F. Kaufman XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 20 Religious Development of Children, The Mary Skinner XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 23 Remembered Event George Scarbrough (Poem) XXIII:2 Summer 47 P f Resources of our Region Howard K. Menhinick XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 1 Right to Case Work Services, The Elizabeth M. Cosby XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 13 Robinson, Ruth W. Community Centered Education for Montana Adults XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 19 Rural Church Faces Forward, The Francis Drake XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 10 S Scarbrough, George Remembered Event (Poem) XXIII:2 Summer 47 p S Shumaker, Eri J. Better Hook-ups XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 17 Skinner, Mary Religious Development of Children, The XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 23 Straws in the Wind that Stirs the Community, Jean and Jess Ogden XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 6 Stuart, Jesse April Again XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 16 Stuart, Jesse Heart of America (Poem) XXIII:4 Winter 47 p Taylor, Bernard If 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:I Spring 47 p Templin; Ralph The Place of the Small Community in our National Life XXIII:1 Spring 47 p I Three Questions for the Mountain Church Harold F. Kaufman XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 20 Tragedy of Errors-1947 Edward H. Faulkner XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 9 Troutman, Edwin F. If I Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 W Weibel, Roscoe E. If 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 WELFARE Achieving A Stable Family in an Unstable Society Howard Beers XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 1 Child Welfare in Tennessee Jean N. Johnson XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 12 Help for Mountain Mothers Louise G. Hutchins, M.D. XXIII:4 i Winter 47 p 16 Right to Case Work Services, The Elizabeth M. Cosby XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 13 Wells, Evelyn K. Ballad Backgrounds in the Appalachians XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 14 We Look Backward-To Look Forward Olive Dame Campbell XXIII:2 Summer 47 p 1 WHAT THEY ARE DOING Church Concern for Land Use XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 19 Integrating Problems XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 32 Kentucky Children, Inc. Virgil S. Steed XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 20 Presbyterian Summer School of the South XXIII:3 Fall 47 p Recreation Marguerite B. Bidstrup XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 22 The Schools Can Help XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 19 Shirt Sleeve Ministry XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 20 Short Courses for Recreational Leaders XXIII:3 Fall 47 p 7 State SCF Sponsored School Teachers Conference Mrs. Olive Henry Myers XXIII:4 Winter 47 p 21 Wyckoff, D. Campbell If 1 Were Beginning Again XXIII:1 Spring 47 p 6 '_ ~rinxo by jl,erea Co11pge i)~ess. Berea; wKeatucky THE ~~:I$RARY !AMtN.Wltj$ON .JR; COLLEGE SWANnrNOA, N.'C.