You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Mountain Life & Work vol. 24 no. 1 Spring, 1948 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv24n10148 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 24 no. 1 Spring, 1948 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Spring, 1948 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. T Al N LI F EWO.R EDUCATION and VALUES P. Alston Wartug BALD, A S Raymond F. NIcLain Hertatia Estes SPRING 1048 VOLCM9 XMV :. 1 FE .C ORGAN OF THE COUNCIL OF SOUrl'HEIIIN MOUNTAIN WORKERS 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ P(BLI!-IEIED QUARTEIILV .1 .T R. KENTUCKlt'. IN THE Ã¢â€šÂ¬TER . ES,T OF FELLOWSHIP ANDV1 TIE A1'PALACRIAN NIOUNT_tINS VNIÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ THE REST OF THE NATIO-a Artherr fit. B.arra;rrra,aÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ i rbre 1). Cjrrrfb;l1 tl~-rt.4rai 1'c'. H::r, Ot",t A 1-:"Jqu:t SIGNED .,LRT14"LES m~k. NOT MC:Es"5AKILY -me f.XPRESSION OF LDFT'ORIAL OPINIC.1,N NUR 1.)u TfiLY C;_I.RliY THE L'NDhrRSE:MEN'r OF fifE COUNCIL, IN THIS ISSUE YF"NT(TCKY RINTR i:)AYS -Hermon 1'&-i I r VARSf AN17 FORESTS OF EASTERN KENTL'CKY IN~ --)obo IL Pon.lrrrx:r' RFI.ATIUN TO POPUI kTION ANT') INCOME SFFIN;(s AN[) SIIARINC - Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ~.-J~arrrrrr,nÃ‚Â» 9 Fr-WCAT7r N AND VAI-(rF~ -.F. Alsfon Tarlro :1 ON VAYAI-I BALI) I .A Sorur:T) --RrrV1nurd F. .1I.-l.tfrr I~ VI IAT MT, ARE I)0ING I3,zlc I3ollowÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ I Atger Nrish I f, TEa~prinl;.arld Pr~~~Iriry TUtc~rz~~ Ii~al:ay r? Flandicrats 19 Rcorexriura _ Vii) FI)ITORIAI q ., Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ x _ RNIONG TI-IF BOOKS ,1 A NN L) U N C.F XIE NT~ ~ 2 -I SUSWBIPSia7H afc;2.00 P&.A TEAR, 50 CENTS PER,caPV. ISStdED SPKINet. SUMMER, AUTUMN, Wz:aa-sar. Eaaterxai at Ae latest oflicx at Brctal, Kmtuskx as aaecond class mad matter- Auxreat :2, 1945, under tlrt act Of Marele 3, I4?~. ADU"1E$ ALL CorwtMraNICATIONs TO COV1e'CIL OF 50V-THERN MOUNTArN WOKKERSR BEXEA, KENTUCKY MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XX1V SPRING, 1948 NUMBER 1 Kentucky River Days HERMAN ESTES Having spent the greater part of my life in the patiently gathered the wrecked logs together and vocation of woodworking and for many years in again rafted them farther down the stream. Some the finer arts of the craft, such as building and re- of the logs were lost and even today after more producing some of the old masterpieces created than fifty years logs are found buried under silt by our early ancestors, I was thinking we might and in drifts. well pause and consider some of the hardships of our early forefathers in the business of the logging industry. Born and reared near the junction of the three forks of the Kentucky river in Lee County near the town of Beattyville, I saw as a boy some of this early industry, and heard my father and his friends tell of the "river days" as they called them. To me then, they were tales of great adventure but they seem to me now, as I recall them, far more than that; it was man's struggle to survive and to hew out of this mountain wilderness a better future for all of us. Their tales were full of romance, adventure, hardships, and many times heartaches as well. As one instance, my father and his friends had Splash darn worked all winter cutting and felling the logs, hauling them many miles by ox team to the river, These hardy men came down the river from the rafting them together to have them ready to run very head waters, up where the stream was so out when spring tides came in March, April, and small and narrow they could not raft the logs to May, and then starting the logs on the one- gether but had to float them out loosely by build hundred-eighty mile run to Frankfort to the mills ing splash dams and impounding the water, thus to be sold. They started out in high spirits for getting them down the stream till it was large they were soon to receive cash for the long winter enough to raft them together. I can well remember work, but there were so many dangers to be en- these men as they leisurely floated past my home. countered on the way that nothing but hardy We could always tell the men from Letcher and pioneers would start such an undertaking. This Perry Counties by their colorful clothing. Dressed particular trip ended in disaster, the raft piling up in homespun, their great plaid shirts and high boots against the butment of the Clays Ferry bridge and homemade, yes, but you could see inside this home smashing to pieces. The result of their winter's spun strong characters and hardy souls, and hearts work was gone and one man drowned but they as true as ever beat in the breast of men, hearts were not to be defeated-not these men! They that would defend their rights till death, but -- would go through any danger to assist a fellow in Herman Estes attended Foundation School in Berea, distress. Kentucky from 1911 to 1913. In 1933 he was in Opportunity School. He now lives in Brasstown, North Yes, this period of Kentucky history was one of Carolina. the most colorful. Here I would like to tell of Page Z MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK - - Spring, 1948 some of the ways this logging was carried on as I all night long shouting their orders and singing. saw and heard it first. The logs were cut and Oh yes, they could sing even under the most hauled, most of the time by ox team, to a desig- adverse conditions. Perhaps their singing of the nated spot on the river bank. Then they were mountain ballads helped to drive away some of lashed together by means of a piece of small timber their loneliness and fear, but on they would go called a tie pole placed at each end of the log. a never ending stream of logs-sometimes for two Through these poles a two inch hole was bored on weeks It was a hardy soul that could stand such into the log. Then a hickory pin was driven punishment as this. So on down the river they went to Frankfort, the State Capital, where the ` ~'" ."1 ~; -Ã‚Â»a-i , ,a,,,: Ã‚Â¢ ;-neat mil's were located which were to transform _ie logs into lumber to be shipped to all parts of t'_Ie world: walnut to go to the craftsman to be made into beautiful furniture; oak with which to build stout ships to ply the sea lanes of the world; pcplar and pine to build beautiful homes. All this was bought at a price not in money '~~, d~ value, but in stripping the mountains of their j~l r~;is~',m covering which held the rainfall and thereby Y s ' it stopped the erosion and washing away of the very ' '`'j~ .s e-- . , life of the mountains down the same great rivers to the I% elta. And so today with modern progress Showing raft tied to shore and modern living the people are forced to live on through, fastening pole and log together. This was a pittance compared to the great wealth they once repeated till the desired number of logs were in had. The settlers of this region were a hardy lot J place, sometimes consisting of as much as fifty and only a people of that type could have sur thousand feet. Then came the steering oar-along vived. piece of timber hewn down to form handle and It might be well here to mention some of the a blade, this being the means of guiding the huge Inen who were prominent at this colorful time. cumbersome craft on its journey. Before the start Scme I knew personally, and others my father they placed a shanty or three-sided house in the told me about. center of the raft to shelter them from the weather; in front of this they placed a pile of sand to build There were the Callihans on the Middle fork their fire on to warm themselves and cook their near the mouth of Canoe Branch. Ed Callihan ran food. Then the crew was selected, usually consisting a general merchandise store and served a vast area. of four men-two on the bow and two on the in his store the mountain folk could purchase some stern. One of these was called the steersman, and it of the manufactured goods to supply their every was his duty to give the orders. He was selected day wants but all of this had to be transported by first because of his knowledge of the river and sec- flat boat manned by men and by oxen, up over and because he was a leader of men. When this had many swift shoals-a dangerous job in itself. These been accomplished they were ready to cast off the boats were huge cumbersome craft but had a great line and begin their run which lasted from one to carrying capacity holding a car load of flour. When , two weeks depending on where they started on the arriving at the unloading place, many times the river. Sometimes the entire trip was made with- nods would never get to the warehouse but would out stop and sometimes they would run at day and be carried away by the mountain folk right off the g rest at night. These runs were often made in the barge. His marin of profit in actual money was foulest of weather-ice, snow, rain, fog. It was very small but the returns he reaped in comforts times like these the steersman was put to the test, Ã¢â‚¬Â¢f life were great. Yes, Ed Callihan was truly a but a good steersman could run the darkest of great man. nights simply by watching the sky line, thereby There were other great river men such as the Terrys J knowing the danger spots. They could be heard -Uncle Ike, Uncle Jake, Uncle Miles-who lived Spring, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 Another was Uncle Ike Terry whose raft got caught in a huge whirlpool at the mouth of Big Sturgeon Creek and went around and around all night actually going nowhere. Near the dawn he remarked that in every house they had passed that night there was fiddling and dancing-which was just what they were doing at Mr. Brandenburgh's _ who lived just across from the whirlpool. aÃ‚Â°""e Jerry Crawford, Tink Mays, Lucin Dunaway, John Estes, Sam Gabbard, Roland Stone, and many, many others contributed their part to this great era. Most of these men are gone but some ta~._ still live. Their minds are just as clear today and ' they will tell their experiences to any one who will listen. When these river men arrived at Frankfort they disposed of their logs, usually carrying back cash on their person-maybe twenty or thirty eot,fesy of Russ(4i s.ige Foundation thousand dollars-for they had to pay their hands Rafting on the Kentucky Kiz~c'r when they got back home, loaded their equipment at the mouth of Turkey Creek. Only a few years on the train and rode to Lexington some thirty i ago Miles' forms for making copperware could miles, then boarded the stage to Irvne another s'11 be found in the top of a large white stump. At fifty miles. From there on back into the moun ti one time the Terrys owned countless acres of the tains, it was all on foot, no matter how far up timber in these mountains and marketed most of it the river they had come. The equipment con down the river. Farther down lived the Craw- sisted of axes, cooking utensils, and sometimes one fords-Uncle 011, Uncle Arch, and Uncle Owen. hundred and fifty feet of one and a half inch ma lt was Owen who owned the only slaves in the nila rope used in tying the raft up to a convenient mountain region and who freed them at the out- tree. Many of the huge sycamores on the river edge break of the Civil War and gave each one a mule bear the scars of the ropes today. So on and on and forty acres of land. Some of the descendents went these men till the next spring the process was of these slaves live in this community and still repeated all over again. bear his name. I have sat by his huge fireplace this fireplace took a seven foot log and was built My father could tell me of the first match he by slaves of brick burnt by them-and listened to ever saw, the first cook stove, the first manufac him tell of his coming to the mountains; how at tured broad-ax used for hewing the timbers to Christmas time he would gather his slaves telling build homes. I have his broad-ax today, worn to them to get a back log for the fireplace and as a shadow of its former self, but it would be im long as it lasted they could have Christmas. They possible to tabulate the house logs and, later, cross , go down to the river and get a log soaked ties for the railroad that he hewed with it. Yes, with water that would sometimes burn for two back down the river, year after year, till progress weeks, but no matter where they got it his promise pushed the railroad farther and farther into the was always carried out. mountains and sawmills got farther and farther up stream from Frankfort to Irvine. Then up to Then there were Sam Spicer and Uncle Joe Beattysville, where the Swan Day Lumber Com Strong who once rafted some walnut logs and pany operated for many years, and on to Quick somewhere on the way while they were resting for sand where the last great cut was made. the night the current turned the raft over. When day cane and Uncle Joe saw all the knots and The timber industry is gone, and with it went defects on the top he refused to own them because one of the most colorful eras of the mountains of he said "You know I wouldn't raft sech a looking Kentucky, and some of the most courageous men thing as that!" Kentucky ever produced. r~ ,, Jx , . ,~__. w Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ "s`_ i f ,~ a1 A - . ~~,mt -4,r`'Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ ..9A^awr""Ã¢â‚¬Å¾a:" Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ 1, ':df" ai s~; s :~,4 Y ~ ~k F .,n;~.Ã¢â‚¬Å¾_ ~^Y aÃ‚Â£' ~~~ ~ ~ -fin, ~ ~~ ~"~ . Y., vex .'~'~:~'. m ._ ~ me Courtesy- of Arthur Docld Bottom lands font to farm use ro Spring, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page f Farms And Forests Of Eastern Kentucky In Relation To Population And Income JOHN H. BONDURANT This is a report of a study of the land resources land resources, this study is in reality an analysis of Eastern Kentucky-what they are, their con- of the problems pertinent to a wide region, and dition, their use, and particularly how they might many of the principles developed should be of be used for greater benefit to the people. The interest throughout that region. study was made between 1942 and 1945, but much of the detailed data on population and forest RESOURCES AND THEIR USE resources was based on the latest census reports People, land (with its farms and forests), and a then available, those of 1940. However, physical small industry and trade are the economic re conditions of the area and characteristics of the sources of the Quicksand area. people, change little from year to year; the sit uations and problems with which this article deals People are therefore generally the same now as during the This area is significant to the rest of the world specific period studied. more for its people than for its physical resources. The location of the study was a 37,000-acre From its families many young people go to jobs in area within Breathitt County, centered around the a score of states. But in a study of local resources community of Quicksand. In its economy, so- the people are important also because they hold i~ ciety, and basic resources, the Quicksand area re- the answers as to what can and shall be done with sembles many of the communities of Eastern the land. Kentucky and of the Southern Appalachian high- Most of the people in the area are engaged in lands. Its dense, rural population depends very farming (about 70 percent-twice the proportion largely upon part-time, subsistence farming for a in central and western Kentucky); the rest are em living. Yet the area is essentially non-agricultural ployed in forestry, mining, manufacturing, trade, in respect to resources, the only prime farming or services. Many of the practices used in gaining land being narrow ribbons of bottomland border- a livelihood are based on folk knowledge rather ing streams between the steep, sharp-ridged hills than on formal training. Tools are used, but few and amounting to less than one-twentieth of the machines. Units are small and operations are whole land area. simple. Members of the labor force in the area Because the Quicksand area exemplifies, some- have common skills, but are not highly specialized; times in acute form, the kind of economic and so- yet they have sufficient diversity of experience to it predicament faced by many Southern Ap- permit the acquisition of skills. palachian people in making a living from their In 1940, most of the money the people received came from the occasional work they did outside This article was prepared from a study made by the the farm and forest economy, though much came e University of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Sta- from relief work, pensions, allowances, gifts, and tion in cooperation with the Appalachian Region Forest other gratuities. The low incomes of families, the Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service. It is essentially variety of sources of income, the prominent con a digest of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 507, published in August, 1947. The authors tribution of gratuities are symptoms of the failure of the bulletin were William A. Duerr of the U.S. of the resources to support the population ade Forest Service; John H. Bondurant, W. D. Nicholls, quately. The level of education in the area is not Howard W. Beers and John Roberts of the Kentucky high. Local resources for school support are Agricultural Experiment Station; and R. O. Gustafson, meager, development of educational facilities is Department of Forestry Relations, Tennessee Valley Authority (formerly with the Kentucky Agricultural retarded, and local attitudes do not fully support Experiment Station). regular school attendance.In Breathitt County irk Page 6- - MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK- - Spring, 1948 w 1940, only about half the people 25 years old or ranging in size from one to 780 acres and averag older had completed more than 6.3 years of school- ing 93 acres. There were 16 other small tracts ing. school, church, or business properties-ranging Land from less than an acre to 20 acres. All these tracts comprised 74 percent of the area. The re The Quicksand area is drained by the North maining 26 percent consisted of 12 tracts ranging and the Middle Forks of the Kentucky River and from 140 to 1,800 acres, held by individuals, com their many, winding tributary branches. Along panies (land, timber, and coal), or the state, for the two main streams and in the lowest reaches of other uses than farming. the principal tributaries, the alluvial bottoms are Farm Resources and Management relatively wide: at least 100 feet and in some places as much as 1,000 feet or more. In the middle Farms of the Quicksand area are almost all part courses of the secondary streams the valley bottoms time, subsistence farms, producing chiefly garden are typically 50 to 75 feet wide, narrowing crops, corn, and livestock products for home use. rapidly in the upper reaches and small branches The farm provides a place to live, a source of until they disappear. The fertility of much of the food, and a base of operations from which work bottomland is replenished from time to time when ers may go to earn a small income in outside oc the bottoms are inundated by floods and given new cupations. deposits of silt. Nearly all the bottomlands have . been cleared and put to farm use. There were (as of 1940) 414 farm-family units in the area, having an average of 4 acres of bottom At the heads of the branches and their tributaries land and 24 acres of other cleared land each. and fanning out into the hollows that merge with About 30 percent of the units were on the main the hillsides are the coves, a second major distinct streams, where bottomland is relatively plentiful, type of land in the area. The coves occupy a these contained an average of about 7 acres of sixth of the land surface. Their soil is relatively bottomland. The remaining majority, on streams deep, well drained, well supplied with organic and branches of small or medium size, have a little matter, and perhaps second in fertility only to less than 3 acres of bottomland each. The chief re bottomland soil. However, only a small fraction sources of the typical farm family are the cleared of their area is cleared for farm use. They are land; about 60 acres of forest providing timber the most productive of the major forested sites. for home use and sale; a house, usually of box construction; a garden; and a small log barn. Rising directly from the bottomlands and above the coves are the hillsides which comprise the re- The 414 family units were located on about 260 mainder, and by far the greatest portion, of the farm tracts of separate ownership. Of the oper land area. These hillsides are of remarkably uni- ator families on these farms, 210 were full or part form slope, averaging about 50 percent. They rise owners, 50 were farm tenants. Of the 154 other to a height of 500 to 600 feet above the valley bot- families resident on the tracts, about 110 were toms, terminating in sharp, narrow ridges often not sharecroppers and 44 were rural residents whose more than 10 feet and seldom more than 50 feet chief farm enterprise was a garden. across. The bases of some hills, especially those bordering the major streams, are formed of rel- Garden and truck crops for family use and oc atively gentle slopes (less than 30 percent). The casional sale, together with corn as livestock feed total area of such slopes, however, is small. Prac tically and for the table, were the principal crops produced tically all the gentle slopes and a substantial share on most units. These crops, along with soy of the steep slopes have been cleared for farm use. bean, lespedeza, or small-grain hay for livestock roughage to supplement the corn stover, and The land of the Quicksand area is held mostly in perhaps a patch of burley tobacco to increase farms and other small properties, and nearly all cash income, made up the usual crop program. The (98.3 percent) is in private ownership. Farmers and livestock program includes one or more cows as a nonresident landlords owned 300 tracts (260 of source of dairy products for home use, veal or which were being operated as farms in 1940), dairy calves for sale (the principal cash livestock Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK- - - Spring, 1948. W 1940, only about half the people 25 years old or ranging in size from one to 780 acres and averag older had completed more than 6.3 years of school- ing 93 acres. There were 16 other small tracts ing. school, church, or business properties-ranging Land from less than an acre to 20 acres. All these tracts comprised 74 percent of the area. The re The Quicksand area is drained by the North maining 26 percent consisted of 12 tracts ranging and the Middle Forks of the Kentucky River and from 140 to 1,800 acres, held by individuals, comtheir many, winding tributary branches. Along panies (land, timber, and coal), or the state, for the two main streams and in the lowest reaches of other uses than farming. the principal tributaries, the alluvial bottoms are Farm Resources and Management relatively wide: at least 100 feet and in some places as much as 1,000 feet or more. In the middle Farms of the Quicksand area are almost all partcourses of the secondary streams the valley bottoms time, subsistence farms, producing chiefly garden are typically 50 to 75 feet wide, narrowing crops, corn, and livestock products for home use. r'dly in the upper reaches and small branches The farm provides a place to live, a source of api I 'I they disappear. The fertility of much of the food, and a base of operations from which work nti 1 1 bottomland is replenished from time to time when ers may go to earn a small income in outside oc the bottoms are inundated by floods and given new cupations. deposits of silt. Nearly all the bottomlands have . been cleared and put to farm use. There were (as of 1940) 414 farm-family un1its in the area, having an average of 4 acres of bottom At the heads of the branches and their tributaries land and 24 acres of other cleared land each. and fanning out into the hollows that merge with About 30 percent of the units were on the main the hillsides are the coves, a second major distinct streams, where bottomland is relatively plentiful, type of land in the area. The coves occupy a these contained an average of about 7 acres of J i sixth of the land surface. Their soil is relatively bottomland. The remaning majority, on streams deep, well drained, well supplied with organic and branches of small or medium size, have a little matter, and perhaps second in fertility only to less than 3 acres of bottomland each. The chief rebottomland soil. However, only a small fraction sources of the typical farm family are the cleared of their area is cleared for farm use. They are land; about 60 acres of forest providing timber the most productive of the major forested sites. for home use and sale; a house, usually of box . Rising directly from the bottomlands and above construction; a garden; and a small log barn. the coves are the hillsides which comprise the re- The 414 family units were located on about 260 mainder, and by far the greatest portion, of the farm tracts of separate ownership. Of the oper land area. These hillsides are of remarkably uni- ator families on these farms, 210 were full or part form slope, averaging about 50 percent. They rise owners, 50 were farm tenants. Of the 154 other to a height of 500 to 600 feet above the valley bot- families resident on the tracts, about 110 were toms, terminating in sharp, narrow ridges often not sharecroppers and 44 were rural residents whose more than 10 feet and seldom more than 50 feet chief farm enterprise was a garden. across. The bases of some hills, especially those Garden and truck crops for family use and oc bordering the major streams, are formed of rel atively gentle slopes (less than 30 percent). The casional sale, together with corn as livestock feed total area of such slopes, however, is small. Prac tically and for the table, were the principal crops produced tically all the gentle slopes and a substantial share on most units. These crops, along with soyof the steep slopes have been cleared for farm use. bean, lespedeza, or small-grain hay for livestock roughage to supplement the corn stover, and The land of the Quicksand area is held mostly in perhaps a patch of burley tobacco to increase farms and other small properties, and nearly all cash income, made up the usual crop program. The (98.3 percent) is in private ownership. Farmers and livestock program includes one or more cows as a nonresident landlords owned 300 tracts (260 of source of dairy products for home use, veal or,,, which were being operated as farms in 1940), dairy calves for sale (the principal cash livestock ~prlng, 1948 -- MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK - Page 7 items), a few chickens, one to three pigs fattened power. Because time-consuming hand methods of for home use from purchased feeders, and, on operation are followed, farm production calls for about half the family units, a work horse or mule. an enormous expenditure of labor per unit of out put and the returns to labor are low. For ex Outmoded farming practices are followed on ample, on the average hillside, production of an most units, especially those on small streams. To acre of corn (15 bushels) calls for 114 man-hours increase production, there is need for use of more of work. selected seeds, better-balanced livestock rations, and improved livestock and poultry. Although To obtain most of the cash earnings, members such practices would usually require more cash for of the average family spend about 90 work-days farm operation, increased production would more per year off their farms in Breathitt County, else than justify the increased expenditure. For ex- where in Kentucky and in adjoining states. Gratu ample, better seed potatoes, hybrid corn seed, ities, consisting of cash gifts from members of the good-quality garden seeds, and more seeding of family who have left home, various government grass mixtures on cropland would all increase out- pensions and allowances, average about $55 per put more than cost. Also, purchase of more pro- year. tein supplement for the cows, chickens, and hogs; production or purchase of better-quality hay; and Forests and Their Management use of better livestock would more than pay their Small-scale forest ownership is the rule, three way on most farms. fourths of the forest area being part of farms and other small tracts. Most forest owners have less The returns on the farm business tend to be than 100 acres of woods, and over half have less small, chiefly the value of products consumed by than 50 acres. Ownership of the forest is highly the family. This is heavily supplemented by off- unstable; half of all owners have held their tracts arm earnings. The annual income of the average less than 10 years, one-third for not more than five farm family is made up about as follows (1940 years. Of the tenants, half have lived in their data): present location only one year with 80 percent for Cash Income five years or less. Farm income (mostly from calves and livestock products) -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _$ 99 Many problems must be solved before the forests Farm expense (mostly feed, seed, and may yield increased returns through management. fertilizer) _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 115 Outstanding are the need for removing from the __ forest the inferior trees that occupy space and reNet farm income (deficit) minus _ _ 16 duce yield and the need for controlling forest Forest products sold -__-__-_______ 8 fires. Off-farm earnings and gratuities _ _ _ _ 236 High forest productivity under good manage -- ment is a long-time goal, for full timber yields can Total net cash income _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $228 not be reached for a whole forest generation, 50 to Subsistence income 100 years. At the end of that time, the average Farm products used by the family _ _ _$321 yield per acre per year could be built up to about Forest products used by the family _ _ 26 160 board feet of sawlog timber and 40 cubic feet -- of other usable wood-five to seven times what Total subsistence income _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $347' was harvested annually from the average acre in -- the years from 1937 through 1944 (and the last Total family income _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ $575 three of these years were boom years of heavy timber cutting for war). This is the ultimate goal, 1 Includes rental value of dwelling and value of but even the first yields under good forest man home-mined coal, prorated between farm and for- agement, in the decade following a high initial cut est. All products are valued at local prices. to remove inferior timber, should be about 60 Topography and size of operation distinctly board feet and 20 cubic feet per acre per year limit or even prevent the use of horse and tractor two or three times the harvest of recent years, Page H MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 Industry, Trade, and Transportation managed pasture, which tend to preserve the The Quicksand area is essentially nonindustrial. quality of the site or to improve it. A small-scale logging and wood-using industry Also, the income derived outside the economy j based upon timber resources, however, has existed is a major determinant of land use. This outside in the area for some years and is susceptible to income may be regarded as a form of subsidy to moderate expansion. the land economy (though not necessarily a subsidy Timber resources, indeed, have supported vir- to individuals; in fact, they often provide the tually all the industrial activity that the area has subsidy themselves). Such a subsidy permits the seen, and for a brief period in the past such activity land economy to continue while it supplies its was considerable. The lumbering boom of 1880 workers with insufficient returns to acquire the to 1920 brought into the area and its environs a living they consider necessary, or even to recover number of large sawmills of both the circular-saw their expenditure of capital on the land. and the band-saw type, stave mills, wood-distilla- Subsidy comes to the land economy in the form tion plants and many small, portable saw mills. of extra wages earned by its members, especially One of the largest hardwood lumber mills ever outside the area, in agriculture, industry and trade; operated was located at Quicksand and employed payments for work relief; contributions sent home about 500 men at the plant, in the extensive yards, by members of the family who have migrated else in the woods and on the logging railroad. . The where; and payments of pensions, direct-relief al products of these plants were sent into the national lotments, home mission aids and other gratuities. market. These are direct cash payments to members of the However, for the present at least, timber proc- economy and are exclusive of the other indirect essing and marketing face large handicaps, many forms of subsidy, such as provision of roads and of them arising directly from the fact of timber schools, which rural areas in general may receive depletion. Much timber is of low quality and Two types of social factors are influential in production is on a small scale, so that offerings land use: first, the number of people and second, are not attractive to the market. The typical in- the social organization. dustrial unit supported by sparse timber, the small sawmill, is badly equipped, inexpertly and inter- In the Quicksand area, the population normally mittently operated and turns out poorly manu- includes large numbers of children and youths, factured lumber. The industry can be placed on many of whom, before reaching full adult status, a more secure footing by mechanical improvements move into the channels of outward migration, in the plants, education of operators, construction leaving smaller numbers of people in early and of more and better roads within the area so as to middle adult life. One effect of this age distri facilitate assembly, provision for the marketing bution is a generous provision of young people to services of assembly, and enlargement of plant the labor force. facilities. Labor mobility, too, makes for changes in the Factors Conditioning Land-Resource Use labor supply, and the workers of the Quicksand In the Quicksand area, where steep, thin-soiled area are highly sensitive to outside demand in the land is so extensive, physical factors relating par- short run. During periods of general industrial ticularly to this type of land are major deter- prosperity, when many people leave the area, land minants of land use. Cultivation of these steep is shifted from cultivation or pasture to forest use. lands is not merely difficult because of their steep- In depression, the reverse occurs. ness and stoniness; it is essentially a temporary Social organization with its accompaniment of use, sowing the seed of its own destruction through folkways and social processes affects land use in continuous soil loss. Hillsides freshly cleared and many ways, often difficult to isolate. Traditions cultivated thereafter tend to show continually de- and customs of the people and the habits of indi creasing yields as soil is eroded and leached and viduals determine uses not to be justified on purel, s'I moisture holding capacity lost. In this re- economic grounds. ol sect cultivated crops differ from forest and well- (To be concluded in the next issue) prlng, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ---Page 9 Seeing And Sharing JEAN HANSON When the mountain forests were covering them- large charts to illustrate the flood control proselves with glorious deep fall colors the annual gram. After a visit to the power plant the group Fall Study Tour left Berea by chartered bus. The proceeded to Knoxville, Tennessee, where movies tour members were drawn from Kentucky, New and a speaker did full justice in presenting the York, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina. conservation program of T. V. A. Schools, churches, craft and community centers, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, at the entrance 'to the T.V.A., cooperatives and health services were vis- Great Smoky National Park, is a center for the ited. These presented challenging and stimu- craft industry of the Southern Appalachians. Here lating programs. is located the office which serves the area through Fortified with road maps and descriptive ma- the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, Southern terials the group started off in a gay humor mak- Highlanders, Inc., and the Craft Education Pro ing rich friendships with their bus companions, gram. The tourists had an opportunity to visit Pi who shared a love of engaging in work motivated Beta Phi Settlement School, hear something of its by Christian principles. history and present status and feast their eyes on Annville Institute, a Christian training center its attractive shop full of beautiful handcraft. at Annville, Kentucky, was the first stop. This Oh's and Ah's were expressed at the colorful school specializes in vocational training. The shop, wall paintings in the office of the Home Economics the laundry, and the kitchen with wide windows Department at the Cherokee Indian School. Smil ( 'looding spacious rooms with sunlight gave a sense ing shyly, youngsters were making trim baskets L of dignity and order and the thought of being a with ancient Cherokee designs woven with sub pleasant place to work and train. dued colors made from natural dyes. Classrooms were enhanced by very gay curtains which had A generous welcome greeted the party at been dyed and woven from nylon strippings from Wendover, Kentucky, where they had to leave the parachutes salvaged by the army. Supervised work highway and invade the hills on foot or by jeep. experience and development of skilled craftman Mrs. Breckenridge charmed the visitors by a rich, ship are features of the school program. thrilling account of the growth of the Frontier Nursing Service. She brought depth and meaning Campbell Folk School breathed a soft welcome into the splendour of devoting one's life to help- as the voyagers arrived at twilight affording them ful service to the isolated. She told of the three just enough time before dinner to visit the im thousand "Frontier" babies who grew up and went peccable, huge gabled barns, the picturesque forge, into the service of their country and passed their and the wood shop, sweet with the smell of clean, medical examinations with higher ratings than dry wood. mountain boys from other areas. Everyone felt at home in the clean-cut panelled A visit was paid to the stables, clinic, and hous- rooms where the furnishings blended in artistic ing quarters. The visitors noted with what kindly arrangement. Dinner was followed by a group thought a halter had been placed at the door of meeting in which Mr. and Mrs. Bidstrup and each building so that each staff member could Dr. Folger unrolled the dramatic pioneering story rush to the rescue of her faithful horse in case of of the founding of the Folk School in a com munity The tourists were conducted through the munity that welcomed them with joy. Conserva trim, homey hospital at Hyden, staffed by efficient tlon and co-operation together with teaching and and friendly nurses. preaching the best use of natural resources was the theme of this story. The evening was further en A beautiful morning drive brought the tour livened with a merry program of folk dancing nembers to Norris Dam. The T. V. A. project and an exhibit of handicraft. Testimony of the was vividly presented by a guide who used success of a dairy co-operative, a machine co-op Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK - Spring, 1948 erative and a farmer's union combined with The staff at the Dale Hollow Larger Parish at modern demonstration methods taught by the Alpine, Tennessee, warmly welcomed the travelers school, was brought out by the fact that land . which had once yielded fifteen bushels of corn per into their homes for the last night of their journey. forth with one hundred and fifteen After a delicious dinner the enthusiastic people on acre now came bushels. the larger parish staff, representing three denom Inations, gave an appraisal of their work-the Hiwassee College at Madisonville, Tennessee, maintenance of a hospital, the establishment of a outlined enthusiastically a curriculum motivated craft center, and the care of the forests. They were by Christian principles which would train young full of energy and ideas and they pictured their people for leadership in the rural church and make work against heavy odds with such warm joy that it an agency for unifying the community. On-the- it was an inspiration to the visitors. The tourists job training was featured in their rural program. wished them many blessings on their venture in making church furniture in their wood shop. Scarritt College Rural Center heartily welcomed r the tourists for dinner and arranged a get-to- Sue Bennett College at London, Kentucky, gether in the library. Here the local county agent, brought the tour members together for their last the county superintendent of schools, craft work- meal. They were delighted to view a school which ers and college faculty discussed their corporate prepares students for Christian leadership and cit concern in bettering the religious and spiritual life izenship by providing experiences which develop of the individual, the family, and the community. attitudes and techniques for co-operative living. They commended a practical, balanced training for The exchange of ideas is one of the best methods young Christian leaders that would aid them in of learning. The tour was a success because we problems of community reconstruction and the exchanged ideas with challenging and successful building of a finer town and country life. people. People of vision, people of courage going The tourists enjoyed the drive over the lovely forth to meet daily problems strengthened by a Cumberland Plateau rich with autumn colors. love of God and a love of people. Calvary Parish at Big Lick, Tennessee, warmed the As one reviews this inspiring "seeing and shar hearts of those anxious to see evidence of the suc- ing" trip, these findings were noted: (1) in areas cess of the Larger Parish plan. Mr. Smathers beamed at the visitors as he told how he had placed where county agents, T.V.A., churches and schools first things first and had built the Church before had encouraged effective agricultural methods the community house despite some criticism. He there. Is Increased farm income; . (2) where an at expressed real concern and understanding for the tractive recreational program exists and where re needs of his parishioners and showed how the located industries offer employment the young church was sharing the problems of the commun- people are willing to stay; (3) an increasing number ity. A pioneer step had been taken by the church of people trained in the highland schools are find in introducing an intercultural race relations pro- "'g their rightful place on the faculties of the gram at a vacation Bible School. mountain schools; (4) churches everywhere evi denced that they were thoughtfully forgetting The staff at Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, entertained selfish propaganda by making use of planning the group in a large pleasant room with a roaring councils in a united effort to serve their commun fire. They testified enthusiastically to a keen in- ides; (5) adequately trained workers well versed in sight into the changing needs of their community skills and techniques which would enrich com and were centering their attention on the support munity life were evident on every staff; (6) the of a hospital and medical program. Doctor Met- tendency on the part of the church to meet the calfe, Medical Director of the Uplands Hospital, challenge of changing needs in its community by spoke of the real service the Federal Government revamping its program; (7) and best of all, per is giving in supporting and providing funds for Naps, was the general sense of peace and content the establishment of hospitals in rural areas. A ment about the young religious and lay workers successful medical contract program has been who were devoted and happy about their oppor worked out for this community. tunity to serve in community work. Spring, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK - Page I I Education And Values P. ALSTON WARING A group of European intellectuals met in Ge- "When I look back on the processes of neva to try to think through the social and cultural history, when I survey the genesis of America, problems which the wreck and devastation of war I see this written on every page: that the had presented to the people of Europe. One man, nations are renewed from the bottom, not a Frenchman by the name of Jean Guehenno, put from the top; that the genius that springs up his finger on one of the essential conflicts of our from the ranks of unknown men is the genius time, and pointed to all of us who are concerned which renews the growth and energy of the with education for a better society, a basic prob- people. Everything I know about history, r lem. He said: "Individual liberty without social every bit of experience and observation that justice is bad liberty. Social justice without liberty has contributed to my thought has confirmed is bad justice . . . If we don't watch out there will me in the conviction that the real wisdom of be another war, not between east and west, but be- human life is compounded of the exper-, tween social justice and liberty." ience of ordinary men. The utility, the vital This cleavage strikes right down to us here in ity, the fruitage of life does not come from the top to the bottom; It comes as the nat the Southern Appalachians. It is not an ideolog- ural growth of a great tree, from the soil, up ical conflict between Russia and western countries. through the trunk into the branches to the In thinking of some educational values against foliage and the fruit. The great struggling which we can work out our practical problems in unknown masses of the men who are the base teaching, we must be concerned with the problem of everything are the dynamic force that is of how to resolve this matter of attaining both lifting the levels of society. A nation is as personal and individual liberty and at the same great, and only as great, as her rank and file." time social justice. I take it that it is your belief in people, the rank We have talked about how to educate people so and file, and your conviction that both liberty and that they can have economic security. At once this social justice are precious and attainable, that comes down to whether we mean simply teaching make you concerned with education. These, it skills or also teaching the ways by which a people seems to me, are basic democratic values. can be assured economic security or social justice. in a Education democratic society should start Vocational teaching is important, but I need only point across the mountains to the TVA where, as with a belief in all the people, and that out of you well know, a marvelous kind of teaching in them society will be nourished and its levels lifted. community cooperative action is bringing economic This is not always felt or practised. We well know security and, I believe, a truly better social justice, the discrimination in our educational system against the poorer districts, especially the marginal Now I want to refer to something another man farm lands. And the traditional view has been has said. I know that he has expressed what you that the schools should serve the employer. School Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ believe in and probably feel deeply, or you would boards have usually been dominated by employer not be here at this conference. In one of his great interests as naturally as school superintendents join addresses to the American people Woodrow Wilson the Rotary Club. Back in the days of my boyhood said: there was a teacher of the sixth grade who put on ___ the board in front of the class to be repeated every morning the brief motto: "Be businesslike." To be Mr. Waring is a farmer as well as the author ana "businesslike" meant to be ready to fill a bill of co-author of several books including SOIL AND specifications laid down by businessmen whose STEEL reviewed in this issue. This is the ad dress he gave at the Rural Youth Conference in ri;;ht to set the standards was never questioned. October 1946. The justification for introducing most subjects in Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 the curriculum has been the needs of the business the art of cooperation and community participa world. The three R's were taught, along with tion. The three R's are not enough; occupational habits of neatness, docility, and not watching the skills are not enough. Men must have practice in clock, because employers sought these qualifica- doing things together and in taking common re tions in their ideal clerk. As soon as science be- sponsibility. The cleavage between country people came important to industry, science laboratories and organized workers grows largely out of the appeared in the high schools. It is a fact not lack of any working together on common com generally known that even art was introduced in- munity problems. Again I can point to the TVA to the schools at the demand of employers who as evolving techniques through which country found it expensive to rely upon European designers people and city workers are beginning to share and who wanted to develop some native talent community responsibilities and are thus lessening ready to work for less pay. The concept of conflict. America as the great land of opportunity where any boy might start out without a cent in his Now I understand from all that we have been pocket and, by practising honesty and hard work, saying together these two days that we are con cerned to be a millionaire and marry the boss's daugh- cerned here chiefly with country education. I am ter, has been taught by the schools as well as by a farmer, and I live in the dairy and poultry and Horatio Alger. The National Association of general farming area of eastern Pennsylvania. I Manufacturers still enjoys the patronage of thou- have come with the eye of a countryman, and I sands of teachers who present to their classes the am terribly Interested in all, that I have seen and pamphlets and charts and films prepared to offer heard in my all-too-short visit to eastern Kentucky. Big Business's interpretation of American life. I see .here, as in my own county, industrial society Teachers who ventured, however, to try to balance pressing on the farming people and changing them. such propaganda by inviting labor speakers or This is inevitable. In some ways it is good. In bringing labor papers into the school, found them- every way it is a challenge. The net movement selves called to the administrator's office for a of people is away from the country to the city as friendly chat on the wisdom of avoiding "con- technology makes it possible to produce more on troversial issues" in the public schools. the land with fewer workers, and as both economic Yet all the time the children in our schools came conditions and a greater knowledge of soils push largely from homes of workers-farm workers, more farmers off the marginal lands. industrial workers, or white-collar employees. The As a farmer I have pondered a good deal on the owners of industry are few. It is therefore some- matter of what kind of education we country thing of a tribute to the achievements of organ- people need in a changing world, a world where ized labor and farm organizations that leaders in industrialism is dominant, and where farming re education are now beginning to ask whether the quires more skills and more capital than ever. I schools are doing the kind of job which working cannot, of course do not, speak with any par people, who make up a great majority of the pub- ticular reference to eastern Kentucky, for I know lic, want. so little of the special conditions which exist here. If education in a democratic society should start However, some of the things I have been thinking with a belief in all the people, its second aim in about will apply to rural people everywhere, for our time should be to resolve the problem with they have to do with fundamentals which modern democratic society is confronted by What are the pressing needs of the farming those who place social justice above liberty, even people which should be met by education? If as we have been wont to place liberty above social country people are going to adjust themselves sat justice. The right to education, the right to work, isfactorily to modern life, there are three major are perhaps as much a part of democracy as the changes which will have to come about. First of right to free speech, to worship as one chooses, and all, farmers need and want an education which to representative government. But social justice, will fit them better for rural living. In my mind like political liberty, implies responsibility, and in this is the most important matter of emphasis. J my mind the job of education is to train people in Second, they need an education for understanding Spring, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 the industrial society in the midst of which they our children the heritage that comes to those who live: urban living, unions, collective bargaining, farm. We need an education that broadens and etc. And third, they want more educational op- lengthens our point of view, that liberates us from portunity than they are now getting. the age-old provincialism and isolation of country life. When farmers have this, farming may at Throughout America farm leadership is sayinn tain more stability and our children will want then to educators: We want to have more to do with to hold to farming. making the policy on which the education of our children and ourselves will be based. And this Today they tend to hanker after the city, its very awareness of the need for new directions in ways and its opportunities and its vaunted ad rural education to fit the pattern of a swiftly vantages. Rural schools are largely built upon changing country life is of great importance: When city schools, and rural teachers are trained in urban the Rural Division of the National Education As- ideals. This is not so in every case, to be sure. sociation and the American Institute of Cooper- I know of many places which are striving to break ation held five conferences in the five great agri- from the terrific push of city culture upon-the land. cultural regions of the country during the first The leaders of these schools are not trying to turn winter after the War, the farm leaders who were back the hands of the clock. They well under invited to them spoke in no uncertain terms. In stand that the dominant culture is technological fact, they came to the problem not only with en- and urban, and that this is inevitable and good. thusiasm, but with a freedom from educational They merely hold that the farm values are good professionalism which added reality to what they also, and must be nourished and developed side by had to say. side, lest our young people be weaned away from them and our country life be swept by the tide of First o f all, farmers need and want education for industrialism. In the last analysis, they know too rural living. The teachings of rural schools should that the country is the source of new life and new be built around the existing problems of the rural blood for our cities, and that some farm youth community. We want for our rural children an must inevitably go. It is for those who stay that education for living in the country that is compar- country living must have meaning and satisfaction. able in quality to the education given in the city, The schools throughout America's rural areas can say farm leaders everywhere. Since cities need farm do much more than they are doing today to insure children for replacement and more children grow all this. A new agriculture which is emerging up in rural areas than can earn a living there, will help the farmer build a new dignity and a what is taught in the rural school should be broad better way of farming. Perhaps this will be the enough to fit youth for either country or city liv- beginning of a new country education. ing. America has a vast stake in rural schools be cause there future citizens are being trained. In Today farmers are more scattered and less or ganized than it is well for them to be. They those schools, whatever they are, we are educating usually cannot meet the cost of better schools. Per future men and women who must make democracy haps this is their weakness. Perhaps the future work better than it has worked in the past. If farm people are going to be able to hold their own demands organization and cooperation. An agri culture based on many types of cooperative activ American life at its base, they must believe in the ity will have breadth and possibilities far beyond values of farm life and the democracy which makes the things it is now doing. It may build a new it function. The future of farmers in our country rural school at the grass roots, and these schools is inseparable from the future of democracy, and will be concerned with education of children and the reality of democracy is not only in more food grown-ups alike, with the ideas and functions of and better houses, but in better education. an improved agriculture and with more satisfactory country living: conservation of the land, cooper But rural education is not always designed for ative endeavor, democratic participation, cooper rural living. It does not sufficiently hold up the ation with the state and less fear of government. dignity of farming. We who live in the country In the long run, out of this kind of stable com `"'need a rural education that makes plain to us and munity can come a better appreciation of the world Page 14 - MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 f in which farmers live. And in the schools which ocratic ideals. Inequalities of opportunity clearly farmers want students should be given an oppor- exist. Rural schools in poor farming communities tunity to discuss that world and its current con- (such as in parts of the South) are far worse than troversial issues, such as the Missouri and Columbia those in regions like eastern Pennsylvania, Ohio, River Valley developments, operation of local and Iowa, New York where the soils and economic con state governments, financing of schools, taxation, ditions are better. And the Agricultural Exten political issues, international and national prob- sion Service, in spite of all its admirable qualities, lems. tends towards class education where the more se cure, better-placed farmers benefit most. There Farmers need education for understanding the should be no economic factor which selects people industrial society in which they live. Though when it comes to education; a truly democratic ed- , rural schools are frequently poor reflections of city ucational system should be for all. How, other schools, this does not mean that farm children are wise, can the "levels of society" of which Wood taught truly to understand the nature of industrial row Wilson spoke, be lifted by the "experiences of society. What I have said about city schools will ordinary men?" hold for the rural consolidated school and even the "little red schoolhouse." Education has been dom- Many farmers make use of the educational op inated by a point of view largely shaped in the portunities in America. Many do not; many can cities by employer interests. Country people have not. The reason goes back to poverty. And seen industrialism develop a race of wage-earners, neither the poverty nor the discrimination against but their schools have failed to interpret what was it should be. The situation points a finger at the taking place. This struggle of the working people whole serious business of the instability of rural of the towns for a greater participation in the af- life in our country. Many farmers are not poor fairs of their jobs or their communities has found by accident. Partly the fault is theirs, to be sure. little place in rural schools, and certainly not a But the fault lies at many other doors also. Possibly great deal of sympathy. in no other trade or profession do men work or seek a livelihood with so little or such inferior There is need in rural education for a broader, training as that of many farmers. How often less prejudiced teaching of the way folks live in have I seen an expression of bewilderment and dIs cities, the nature of employment and opportunity, may creep over the face of a man who is no longer the pressure group struggle and why this exists. young when he realizes that he doesn't understand Country boys and girls must understand the needs the fundamentals of farming in a changing world, of city workers. They must come to see the in- though he was born and brought up on the land. terdependence of city and country and that rugged Discrimination in education should find no place 11 'dualism is no longer enough, but that Cooper- in a democratic society, and farmers know and ridivi I ation is essential to survival. If this were done, if understand this and would like to see a change. a whole generation or two of country boys and girls grew up with some idea of industrial society, Farmers need education suitable to the region the current gap between town and country would or part o f the country in which they live, for the be on its way to closing. regional differences in America are great. But education must give an understanding of the whole Farmers want more educational opportunity. of America and of America as a part of the world. We have a free public school system, and we have For it is important to break down any remaining our great Land Grant colleges. Farmers do not rural isolationism in a world which can no longer question the fact that our Government has done afford it. much to raise the standard of scientific farming in an age of science. The Department of Agricul- Finally, farmers want education for a changing ture, the schools, and the Extension Service and world. They, like other Americans, are giving up TVA have made a tremendous contribution to their isolationism, and this applies to their attitude American farm life. What many farmers are toward other countries and toward the business of coming to believe is that these great educational living in a dynamic and unfolding society. Rural opportunities should be more in accord with dem- schools could do a far better job than they are do Spring, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK rage 15 ing to prepare farmers to meet our headlong ad- than to prepare Americans, for the first time in vance, and some are beginning to understand this. their history, to be world citizens. They think it Most farmers, like most wage-earners, are in- means making the United Nations not merely ac tensely concerned with the prevention of war. ceptable but sovereign. The race today is between Moreover, farmers in recent years have been de- making a world organization and the catastrophe veloping and using cooperative techniques. They of atomic destruction. The timid education of see their cooperatives working, and they begin to the past, with its nationalistic bias in history, ask of the schools that they prepare the young men geography, and literature, was largely responsible and women who are growing up in the country for American isolationism. When labor and to be better fitted for that world cooperation, the farmers today ask for a bold, aggressive program need for which was so fixed upon us all by the to prepare every citizen to accept responsibility World War. These are tasks which education as a citizen of One World, they are not merely must perform if we are to have the enlightened speaking for themselves. They speak for all hu outlook which world peace requires. During post- manity. In the words of Philip Wylie: "Human war days farmers are talking of these tasks in their brotherhood is not a dream but man's last passion ate and conventions. Not all farmers, to be ate necessity. It is as if God were tired of our sure, but increasing numbers, and this is significant. filthy vanities and obscene wars, as if He had determined to force a choice today, as if He said, Out of the rank and file of workers and farmers `Here is the fact of your equality; either be honest is growing this awareness of the need for mutual or strip this earth I gave you as naked as the understanding. Only the most articulate can put moon; either trust one another or add yourselves into words what they think, but these are saying to the incandescent sun; either be wise or die-all that the educational task before us is nothing less of you'." J ON WA Y11H BALD RAYMOND F. McLAIN Against the living dark of pine and oak The living light, azalea's flaming fire, Is laid along the mountain crags. The choir Of color thrusts its ordinary cloak Of varied greens aside to sing its wild Abundant note of beauty to the skies. The shining rhododendron, mountain-size Forget-me-not; victorious laurel, child And crown of peace, unite their sober grace To give azaiea undisputed place Of glory. Vireo, blue-jay and thrush Dart swiftly under lowering clouds that brush A multitude of diamond drops on flower And leaf; dart quietly in beauty's bower. RAYMOND McLAIN is the President of Transylvania College, Lexington, Kentucky. Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 WHtl T WE ARE DOING The Dale Hollow Larger Parish in Tennessee approval of the local staff. She has done fine gives a religious ministry to some 4000 people in work within the area and also at a coal mining Overton and Pickett Counties through the coop- community outside the bounds of the parish. eration of Christian, Methodist, and Presbyterian . U.S.A. Churches. The headquarters, or executive, Staff members and ministers of all three de staff is made up of the heads of the rural church nominations accept work in this project planning work of the national boards of the three denom- on long-term service. One of them has served for inations. The local staff, composed of eight min- years in the area of his birth. Another, after a isters and several lay workers, carries on work in decade on this field, has returned from a years 16 organized churches and preaching points in a leave of absence. He and his wife during the year 100 square mile area. A Larger Parish Council of study secured master's degrees in Christian Edu includes lay representatives of the organized cation from Columbia University and Union The i , groups as well as the staff members, meets on 5th ological Seminary. All the workers are actve in Sundays, and is the policy-making body. Edward the work of their communities. Mr. Bradley led D. Hamner, Livingston Disciple, is the secretary. one of his communities to first place in the County Bernard M. Taylor, Alpine Presbyterian, is the Community Improvement Contest. Mr. Holt is chairman. a prominent educator in Pickett County. Mr. Bradshaw and Mr. Taylor, in their respective areas, The goal of the larger parish is: "Every home have been active in extending rural electric lines a Christian home in a Christian Community." to the more remote homes. Mr. Weakley and Mr. Well-attended and helpful services in the regular Hamner are civic-minded men in Livingston, church program are considered to be essential. Sun- county seat of Overton County. The newest min day School work is emphasized. Stewardship is ister, Mr. Covington, plans to do significant work J taught. Evangelism is conducted so as to com- in agriculture on his twenty acre manse property. bine visitation with preaching. In August, 1948, Mr. Ackley had much to do with securing the new a school of evangelism will be taught at Alpine by community-built basement lunch-room at the Al Dr. Harry Denman and Dr. Asa Ferry. Classes pine grammar school. Here a hot noon meal for will be held in the morning. Visitations will be 150 children at 10 cents each, builds resistance to made over the larger parish in the afternoon, with tuberculosis and other diseases. preaching services at many key points all going on at the same time each night. The Presbyterians, in the Alpine zone where they have been at work in the educational and Since the formal organization of the Dale Hol- community service fields for thirty years, have low Larger Parish three years ago several trained several special workers who can be called on for r'dent pastors and workers have been added to esi service in the larger parish as their time permits this large area. They are W. H. Mullins, Farm Manager; J. E. As to the method of cooperation, each denomin- Carothers, Forester; P.-D. Olmstead, Manager of , ation has as its territory those places where the the Furniture Shop; Shirley Olmstead, Manager of majority of the church members are of that de- the Pottery. The Alpine Weavers are also re nomination. At certain points established churches source people. These industries are part of an ef were voluntarily combined with others. Most of fort to minister to the economic needs of the area. the open country section of the larger parish is They tend to keep some of the young men, espe divided into three zones, each with its own pastor dally veterans, at home, with a chance to work and denominational program, one Christian, one and support their families in a wholesome rural Methodist, and one Presbyterian. setting, at the same time helping to put economic foundations under the churches and other institu Miss Cornelia Russell, Christian Education Di- tions of their home communities. Rev. F. B. Ack rector for the larger parish, is a Methodist, paid by ley is director of the industries of Alpine Center. J the Presbyterians. Her program is subject to the The special workers listed above are at the same Spring, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 time community and church workers, contributing Mountain Mission Project, and which has a three to all the life of the community, both husbands and fold program of healing, teaching, and preaching. wives busy all the time. Upon visiting Konnarock, one is immediately at The interdenominational parish sponsors the tracted to the Konnarock Medical Center and its Dale Hollow Tuberculosis Center. This is a "rest works of mercy among the less-privileged moun home," or "nursing home," rather than a hospital. tain people of an area some forty miles square. Miss Mary Liter, R.N., is in charge. The Center The people of this area have meager incomes and was opened June 29, 1947, in S.A.D. Smith Col- few conveniences but they have had their char tage, formerly the girls' dormitory of Alpine In- acters and lives stabilized and toughened by having stitute (a Presbyterian school no longer in oper- to earn their livelihood the hard way, farming on ation). Tuberculosis is too common in this parish. the steep hillsides without the aid of modern By faith the parish seeks to meet this urgent need. equipment. The patients pay what they can, but often all The medical work of this mission began many family resources have been used up and other years ago and proceeded a long time with only members of the family have contracted the disease nurses doing the best they could to promote clinics before the patient has secured needed institutional by non-resident physicians, hauling patients long care. For this reason most of the cost must be distances over rough mountain roads to town, and paid by voluntary contributions. Local people, at supplementing the treatments of the physicians to real sacrifice, have given $3000 in cash and pro- the best of their ability. In 1940, a modern medical duce during the first six months of operation, to center was built, which now consists of waiting pay the running expenses of the tuberculosis center. rooms, offices, examination room, X-ray room, The Methodist Board pays the nurse, and the Pres- laboratory, and a two-bed clinic or emergency byterian Board provides the building, heated and ward. The equipment in the center is modern in lighted. Overton County has granted what fi- every respect. The physician's apartment is in the nancial aid was available. No state aid has been second story of the building. given so far, but friends outside the area have made . some welcome contributions. The Rev. Vernon In the fortunate selection of Dr. Heinz Meyer, Bradley, larger parish Methodist pastor, is chair- a German refugee who also knew of life's hard man of the board, and Anne Taylor, wife of the ships under the Nazi regime, the Board of Amer Presbyterian pastor, is the treasurer. ican Missions not only secured a capable resident physician but, along with his wife assistant, a wise The spirit of cooperation is very real and happy, directorship in the building of a sound medical locally and at denominational headquarters. These program. This middle-aged German couple with three denominations are able to do more for their their two children taking advantage of this oppor people together than they could do separately, and tunity to work for $50.00 a month, a place to live while there is much room for growth and improve- and a few farm products, started from the bottom ment, encouraging progress has been shown. again to regain by their service a position of love, Rev. Eugene Smathers, Big Lick pastor, has called respect, and independence. this one of the most significant experiments in in terdenominational cooperation in the South to- Much of the success of the Konnarock Medical day. Those on the field say that the thrill of co- Center's program can be attributed to the sound operative Christian work is always new. philosophy and basic principles under which it is founded and operated. The underlying purpose of the entire program is to put into action the TEACHING AND PREACHING THROUGH teachings of Christ on service and healing and, in HEALING so doing, build His Kingdom. Consequently, the A. KENNETH HEWITT program is more idealistic than pragmatic. The At the foot. of White Top Mountain in south- . THE REV. A. KENNETH HEWITT is the Superwest Virginia is a village called Konnarock, which intendent of SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORK at is widely known as the center of the Lutheran Konnarock. Page 18 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 needs of the people are met, regardless of creed, the personal cost, or hope of remuneration. The ultimate purpose of the workers is not simply to relieve suffering but, in so doing with an educational program, to salvage and rehabilitate lives by helping people to get on their own feet physically, emotionally, and spiritually. They will then, in turn, regain and maintain their own self respect and economic independence to live happily in their own way of life. The patients are taught, as they receive treat ment, that this help is made possible by the Church and that with every privilege in life there goes a responsibility. More emphasis is placed on their moral obligation than their financial one; conse quently, they consider returning something for Dr. and Mrs. Meyer examine a patient at the clinic their benefits a privilege rather than a duty. lying districts, set up clinics, and direct or bring Financial returns for service rendered are good. patients into the Medical Center. This makes the work practically self-sustaining. A system is in practice in which 90 % of the The greatest health problem in this mountain babies are delivered by midwives, who have qual area is a form of malnutrition, or improperly bal- ified by attending classes of instruction at the Med anced nutrition, resulting in disorders of the di- ical Center. These midwives serve those mothers gestive tract and of the skin, emotional imbalance, who have had prenatal care at the Medical Center and the so-called rheumatic complaints. Conse- and they are assisted by the doctor where there quently, the large bulk of the treatment is to com- are complications expected in childbirth. If com bat malnutrition until a proper diet is established. plications are serious, the mother is usually sent to The matter of getting the people to provide and the hospital. In the six year history of the Med consume the proper food has been a long process ical Center, no mother has been lost in childbirth, of education, the success of which is the result of while only two babies were lost in unavoidable persistent, patient instruction, both private and complications. public. Adult classes on gardening were conducted each spring, at which time the doctor advised on Better Baby Clinic days are truly show-days at the health value of the different vegetables as the the Medical Center. Mothers come from miles teacher told how to grow them. Special instruc- around to bring their tiny tots for their regular tion was given in food conservation in order to check-up and care. The improved health of the retain the nutritional value. The people were ad- children over just a few years ago has been re vised as to the type of livestock to grow for the markable. While statistics reveal that the average more nutritional values in lean meat. But the most infant mortality rate of the southern mountain effective education of all was the persistent repe- area is 30%, the Konnarock area can be charged tition of instruction by the doctor day after day to with an infant mortality of less than 2%. each individual patient. The result is that today One indication of the effectiveness of the less than 25% of the doctor's patients come from Konnarock work is revealed in its rapid growth. this immediate community of intense education, In 1940, 1337 treatments were administered, while which formerly supplied more than 75 % of the 5162 were given in 1946. patients. The real value of this work of mercy can be A Deaconess nurse is used in the Konnarock seen only in the lives and souls of people. People regime, whose duties are to deliver babies, render who never had a chance to feel well are now happy .,, `, first aid service, and assist the physician in the out- and working again. The area that once made the Winter, 1947 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 largest number of applications for aid from the institutes and community classes; sends out staff Public Welfare Department now makes less than to advise and assist; provides educational aids any other community in the county. Children (such as books, exhibits, pamphlets, and mimeo that would have died now live. People whose graphed materials); arranges for scholarships; pre lives were once burdens to themselves and others pares new materials and promotes exhibitions. The now are happy and thankful. staff studies craft problems such as: cooperative HANDICRAFTS buying of materials; production costs and other problems, including wholesaling and new materials, THE CRAFT EDUCATION PROGRAM dyes and wood finishes. They attempt to intro IN THE SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS duce crafts not represented in the area and provide The Craft Education Program of the Southern new market outlets. Highlands is the child of a dream . . . a dream not Among the handicrafts taught and practiced in of a single individual, but of a group who saw and the membership of the Southern Highland Handi felt and knew one of the several needs of the craft Guild and the Southern Highlanders, Inc. mountain area. That need is the continued growth are spinning, weaving, vegetable dyeing, wood and development of a more intense, a deeper and working, wood carving, pottery making, black a richer craft movement. Officially the Program smithing, metal working, jewelry making, stone began July Ist, 1944, with a complete survey of polishing, silk screen printing, block-printing, the craftsmen, craft centers, and resources exist- leatherworking, basketry, making hooked rugs, ing and available. batik, chair-seats, and brooms. Since the beginning, the Craft Education office The Craft Education Program staff believes that which also acts as executive office for the Southern crafts have an important part to play in everyday Highland Handicraft Guild and Southern High- living because they contribute so greatly to the landers, Inc. has been located in the wood working physical, mental, and social growth of individuals. building of Woodcrafters and Carvers in Gatlin- Physically, they provide manipulative experiences burg, Tennessee. The staff consists of Marian G. to aid in the coordination of mind and muscle; Heard, Director, Winogene B. Redding and Har- mentally, they create opportunities for developing riett Gill, as Assistant Directors. From this office powers of reasoning, imagination, and observation; has come the Highland Highlights which is writ- and socially, they contribute to the building of a ten and distributed every once in a while, to tell better citizen-more cooperative, orderly, with craftsmen of interesting events such as exhibitions, greater self control and initiative. new sources of supplies, and the work of the Staff. Perhaps the most tangible, interesting, and stim The Craft Education Program aims to: (1) raise ulating experience involving the staff, is their par educational standards; (2) improve design, quality, ticipation in individual and community workshops. and variety of products; (3) improve living con- These sessions with people have varied in relation ditions; (4) impart special skills to anyone desiring to the situation and the needs of the people and the them; (5) train craft teachers; (6) develop new community. crafts, and small industries; (7) organize lists of. ailable supplies and materials; and, (8) educate To Tennessee to Georgia to Virginia val I the public in appreciation of better handicrafts. more specifically to Alpine, to Rabun Gap . . . to St. Johns-in-the-Mountains . . . and to Norris they These aims are accomplished by: establishing have traveled; to help with the design of a and maintaining relationships with all craftsmen luncheon set, the building of a kiln on a backyard and agencies within the area through personal con- hillside, the pricing and locating of an outlet for tacts and correspondence; serving as a clearing craft articles, or the demonstration of specific house for craft teachers, schools, employment, and techniques. crafts produced; and formulating a unified craft Leducation program. To realize these values it co- if you could see one of the staff traveling by operates with other existing agencies, currently un- bus with suitcase and cardboard cartons full of able to meet their craft needs; sets up short term tools and books and materials you would laugh Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 with the bus driver who said, "Are you sure this wove; they worked with leather, metal, wood, and is all today?" or the one who said, "It's just a clay; they ground and polished stones and set them wide place in the road," then stopped long enough in rings. They were a busy lot, a happy group. to hide the paraphernalia behind the pillars and The objective of every workshop is to make people in the bushes while she walked up the hill. Yes, better citizens of their community-make them that was an introduction to Rabun Gap, Georgia more conscious of the world around them, as well -a community school and across the road the high as to help them become better producers of a prod school on a hill-both located in a richly fertile uct worthy of the market. and beautiful valley. That was an introduction to a group of eager individuals who were interested Craft, like education, is a means of enriching in learning-learning to work with metal. Five daily living. It is a means of developing a deep came the first morning, twenty-five the last night. sense and understanding of tools and materials. And now, too, they are weaving on five looms set Craft is more than skillful manipulation of a ma up in one of the vacant rooms in the community terial. It is a means of building which unites the school. hand and the mind in the construction and de signing of everyday forms. It is a visual means A little northeast in Norton, North Carolina, is of helping people think through and solve specific a small community of sixteen or twenty weavers problems in space. It is not a preconceived idea who are weaving because they "love to weave" and imposed upon material, but it is the growth of a want to supplement their cash income from their form through the tool and out of the material. farms. There is no limit to the physical, mental, and spir Another staff member traveled down the itual growth of individuals involved in creative Hendersonville Road out of Asheville to Zirconia building. and on to Sky Valley-which during the summer Harriett Gill time is a music camp. There she helped a group Asst. Director of Craft solve some of their weaving problems. There for Education Program of The the first time in twenty years, she was stuck in Southern Highlands the mud! RECREATION Some of the staff were invited to participate in CHRISTMAS COUNTRY DANCE SCHOOL the yearly Fair at Cherokee by being two of the judges in the handicraft division. They examined FRANK H. SMITH the articles exhibited and allocated the blue and The "Christmas School" has become quite an red ribbons. Then they discovered that there had institution. The gathering of a hundred and eleven been a group in the far corner testing their ability as judges-wondering if they knew the difference men and women from twenty states-nearly half between the hand made and the machine made. the States in the Union-at a time like Christmas They proved themselves. is in itself an extraordinary thing. Many persons coming from long distances left their homes on The workshop highlight for the year was the Christmas Day-and a few spent Christmas on the Annual Craft Education Program Workshop which way to Kentucky. for the past three years has been held at the Pen land School of Handicrafts in North Carolina. What is the purpose with which these folks come The staff leaders were experienced craftsmen from trekking into Berea? A superficial answer would the membership of the Southern Highland Handi- be: "They come to, dance and, sing." While danc craft Guild. The students were individuals from mg is the most time-consuming activity at the in and out of the area who were interested and School, and singing-both planned and spontan wanted to learn about a new craft or material or eons-an important part of the Christmas School program, these activities are enjoyed against a to continue their development in a familiar one. somewhat more serious background. The students played, as well as worked. There were folk games at night, movies, trips to emerald At a remarkable session, a few members of the J and iron mines, and picnics in the woods. They School told about their personal experiences. One Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 EDITORIALS Recently I have been reading over some inter- at the earnest request of J. A. Burns who wanted esting material having to do with the period in the children of his country to have the kind of which Mr. Campbell was brought up in Wisconsin kindergarten he had seen her teach in Boston. Mr. -the period of the felling of the great pine forest, Burns, himself, told me of running rifles down on the rafting down the Wisconsin River, and the en- a log raft-for use in the local feud-when he was trance of the railroad, changing everything. Gavin a young man. Campbell, John's father, helped bring the first rail- O.D.C. road into the Wisconsin pineries in 1871, and John grew up amid the changing scenes of a pioneer river settlement growing into an orderly town. In comparison with the total population of the Discussing this with Herman Estes, who was Scuthern Mountain region the groups associated born near the junction of the three forks of the with the Council of Southern Mountain Workers Kentucky River in the vicinity of Beattyville, Lee touch directly a limited number of lives. Only a County, Kentucky, I was surprised to find how small percentage of mountain young people attend w11 he remembered a similar period along the cur schools; our relatively few churches are scat el I I I This period was later than in t Kentucky River. ered among a host of other churches whose pas Wisconsin, starting about 1870 and still active tors and lay leaders do not attend our meetings, in 1908 when Mr. Campbell and I went into Ken- while our medical and other community centers tucky on the first long lap of his mountain study. are certainly not large in numbers. I noted in my diary on January 17, 1909 at In the face of our relatively limited resources Oneida, Kentucky: "River still high and rafts our task as mountain workers obviously is a qual moored to the bank. They said eleven rafts that itative rather than a quantitative one. And we had gone through the narrows the day before are know that historically the influence throughout being smashed to pieces." the mountains of individuals and institutions as Some of the mountain conditions were naturally sociated with the Council has far exceeded their different from Wisconsin, but it was equally color- proportional representation. As one looks back ful-hard, rough, wild, full of romance, danger, Over the years he has only to cite the name of bravery and violence. How little we know of it! John C. Campbell to support this observation. It passed quickly, like the famous cow-boy period, And within our fellowship today there are person but no one, as far as I know, has recorded it. alities, institutions and community centers whose reputation for constructive work extends not only Would it not be very worthwhile for MOUN- throughout the mountains but far beyond them. TAIN LIFE AND WORK to keep its columns open to longer or shorter bits of such mountain In doing qualitative work it is essential to hus history, related by those who saw or experienced band carefully whatever assets we may have, , them-or secured, first hand, from those who took whether of money, personnel or time. We should part in them? There must be many living who waste none of these doing what other groups would could give us all kinds of local data of an intensely be quite willing and able to do the moment we interesting and vivid kind. Let us see if we can- stopped doing them. For example, why carry on a not make our magazine a store-house of such con- local school program which is rightfully a public temporary history. We begin in this issue, with a responsibility? Only a school which clearly is do few of Herman Estes' boyhood recollections of ing superior work, which is caring for students how the forests went down the forks of the Ken- who would otherwise go without education, and tucky River. which is serving as a model for public school development, should have the support of private The raft-running picture was taken by my sister, educational funds. This is equally true for health Daisy Dame, who spent the year of 1909 at Oneida and social work. E ~S~Y'1n, 194-8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 To pioneer has been and continues to be the task news, as well as evil, travels fast; there are for of private agencies in the mountains; and there tunately many agencies in modern life eager to was never a time when pioneering was more spread messages of achievement and hope. needed But pioneering in these times is more dif ficult intellectually than it was for our prede- To repeat, then, let us husband our resources; cessors. They had something tangible against which let us assemble for our work the finest minds and they could test their strength: long distances on the strongest hearts we can find; let us shake off horseback, weary trips across the mountains, camp- whatever outworn traditions impede us; let us put ing by lonely streams. Our pioneering, on the our minds and our strength to the task. Should other hand, is more of the intellect and spirit. It is we do that, new beacons will be lighted among our .. a marshalling of resources, a searching for fresh mountains to lead men into a better way of life springs of water where spiritual thirst may be sat- tomorrow than they have today, and beyond to isfied. morrow there will be that sustaining hope and The poverty is still there, the relative loneliness, trust which must ever transcend all our tomorrows. the dreams which reach beyond the stars. And in- A relatively small light, if it is carried far enough sofar as we find the solutions to these problems for up the hill, can be seen at a great distance. a few people we shall find them for many. Good A. M. B. AMONG THE BOOKS SOIL AND STEEL, by P. Alston Waring and The authors point out significant differences in Clinton S. Golden. Harper and Brothers, New the National Farm Organizations like the Farm York, 1947, 240pp. $3.00. Bureau Federation and Grange and the National In Soil and Steel a farmer and an industrial Farmers Union. The two former organizations worker look at their world. They see a climate maintain their members on the basis of getting ,of peril. Anxiety over the future is in the minds something for them by applying pressure on Con of most farmers and most wage-earning people. gress or by opposing something else. The National The authors feel that the farmer and the wage Farmers Union, on the other hand, does strive to earner have every reason to work together. Why improve the lot of its members, but does so through they do not is an important question for those in- a broad program of cooperation with. organized terested in a free America, and it is fully discussed. labor, consumer. groups, and progressive people, Many illustrations of techniques for unity are and by advocating and supporting legislation for the general welfare." given. In addition to the cleavage between farmers and The program of economic and political action workers, the authors state that there is no such worked out for the joint efforts of farmers and thing as "the farmer" as a class. Great differences city workers is one that is for the welfare of all exist between the one-third at the top and the one- Americans and points the way to greater freedom third at the bottom. The coalition of the upper and security, not only for these two groups but third in agriculture with those non-farming groups for all consumers. of businesses concerned with processing and dis- -Dagnall F. Folger, tlbuting food is the Farm Block. In its present irector r Di Lrole it is a force for cleavage in America The John C. Campbell Farm Block seeks its own self-interest at the ex- Folk School pense of other farmers. Brasstown, N.C. Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Spring, 1948 LABOR'S RELATION TO CHURCH AND ligion. Bernard Clausen was assigned the topic COMMUNITY edited by Liston Pope, Harper and "Religion's Contribution to Labor Leadership." Brothers, New York. He uses four pages to say that religion can (1) Liston Pope, of Yale Divinity School, has as- teach labor to "relax, drop care off like a gar sembled a series of addresses given at the Institute ment," (2) "provide the knowledge that when for Religious and Social Studies in 1944, '45 and things happen to us, the important matter is not what the things do to us, but what we can do to '46. the things," (3) teach labor that "everything is This book of one hundred seventy-five pages going to come out all right in the end." I don't has three sections. The first covers seven articles know why this chapter was included. There is very on the general topic of Labor and the Community. little that can be said for Religion and its contri It is much more valuable than the following one bution to Labor but there is surely more than that. on Labor and the Church. The former deals with The work of the Federal Council of Churches and Labor and Education, Children, Politics, Minor- of some denominational agencies would have ides, Fair Employment Practices. The first chapter furnished something more than this "sermon" by of this section is especially interesting. In it T. Dr. Clausen. North Whitehead, under the title "Meaningful Jobs for Whole People," insists that we must look The last section gores the spiritual autobi at man's life as a whole. The worker "is not an ographies of some well-known labor leaders abstraction, an `economic man,' but a whole man Myrna Siegendorf, Harry Read, Alfred Hoffman, with his hopes and fears his customs and his Lucy Randolph Mason, Nelson Cruikshank and pes Ellis F. Van Riper. ideals; it is the same man at work and play and . . . we must avoid building an artificial barrier -Charles M. Jones between the different parts of the worker's life." The following quotation might stir some to read the book, "There is nothing wrong with the profit ANNOUNCEMENTS motive; properly understood, it is a high ideal and The Council office frequently receives requests a law of life . . . My thesis is that the business from public and school libraries for back numbers managements tend to reduce their profits by fail- of Mountain Life and Work. Certain issues are ing to satisfy the social propensities of the work- no longer available. The following numbers are ers." Many liberals will wish for a chance to sit very much needed and would be put to good use if down and ask further questions of Dr. Whitehead any of our readers are willing to part with them: after reading his chapter. The other chapters in the Vol. XIV:3, October 1938; Vol. XVII:4; Vols. first section are valuable in that each of them XVIII, XIX, XX, XI, covering the years 1942, gives a short historical sketch of the efforts of the 1943, 1944, and 1945. Labor Movement to work and influence the gen eral life of the community. The chapter on Organized Labor and Education SEEDS FOR WAR VICTIMS is particularly good in its suggestions as to how to The Rural Life Association is circulating a folder remedy the lack of a fair and adequate presentation asking for seeds to be sent to Europe's starving of the Labor Movement and its influence in the ,pillions. Help people to help themselves. All educational set-up of today. Question any high standard garden vegetable seeds and the following school or college student and it is apparent that ignorance or prejudice are the results of their edu- field seeds may be sent: wheat, rye, oats, corn, cation or lack of education on this subject. barley, soybeans, clover, timothy, alfalfa. Send them in any quantity-a bushel, a peck, a small The second main section of the group is headed package or a carload. Package and label care "Labor and the Church." Kermit Eby and John fully, then mail to: Ramsay as usual do a good job. Eby writes on "Seeds Project" Labor's Challenge to the Church while John Ram- BRETHREN SERVICE COMMITTEE say writes on The Reconciliation of Labor and Re- New Windsor, Maryland I s Printed by The Berea College T'raws ' , Berea, Kentucky r k r r