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Mountain Life & Work vol. 24 no. 3 Fall, 1948 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv24n30748 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 24 no. 3 Fall, 1948 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Fall, 1948 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. , ORGAN ' OF TIDE. COUNCTIr' OFS SOUTHERN, MOUNTAIN' *16RkERS IS PUBLISHED QUABTBRLY AY $18R1RA9AL]0NT1JCKY"]WL,J= ,. ~T OF -1fELLOWSHIP. AND MIMTILAL tJNB10 BSTAIITHTNG HWR*Nv~' :Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ~ : . .~ ~ , r , ..- , ..THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND THE REST- OF 'WHIR NATTON~ - ~ ~ Acting Editor , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flo resce Goofsll Editorial Board . , Arthur M: Bannerman Olive D. Campbell . ' Howard W. Beers Olga A. Lindquist SIG2iED 'ARTICLES AR$ NOT NECESSARILY THE EIIPRESSION OF EDITORIAL. OPINION ~ s~.Ã‚Â°~,, NO& DO THEY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT' OF TM COUNCIL., OPINION ANTHIS 'IS'S,U E , 'COMPETE OR, COMPLETE? ^ .'-Rev.,,~~illidm~ Z;: Huntsman ' 1 . ,_ , THE ART. OF STORYTELLING ~ -Mary Gould, Davis S ' v ~ . .. ~ ,, ~. , ; RETURN, ~ , -Nfay juslus 7 , _ SOME OBSERVATION ON THE WORK' OF-THE =Howaril''A. -Daivson ~ 8, \~ ~ . PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN;THE MOUNTAINS -- " LIKE MEAT LOVES S./!LT --Richard Chase l p SM '. , . TIME MARCHES ON IN THE HINTERLANDS -Margaret Mott"; lZ . , , , . , PROGRESS OF RECREATION IN -Frank i3'. Smith 1 S. MOUNTAIN COMMUNITIES THE .CHURCH SETS, THE PATTERN , . ---Christine SnydeY' 18 , THE PLACE OF CRAFTS IN RECREATION ~ . ~ . w: Hdiwi$~t~Gild ,1~ ~ , * WHAT WE ARE DOING ~ ~ ` 20 u . . - 1 .''y EDITORIAL _ . ,', , ' _ . ' ' 2 1 ,~ AMONG THE BOOKS ;, , . I ' ,' 2~_. . _, ANNOUNCEMENTS !~ 27; '. . , y' .', ;-~ ; i. _ _ ' SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $2.00 PEA YEAR,' SO :CENTS PER COPY.. ISSUED $Pitt AUTTIM 1 '' g,mena at the Past office as 1~rea, Kentucky as second class mail matter August .z2, 19e5... under ~rhe, '; . - act of March 3, ,1879. '' f .- ~ , , , AI?pEESS ALL ,COMMUNICATIONS TO COUNCIL' O~' tS.O~ThLBRN MOU`TTTAIIST--W0R1CEllS`: ,; ,~s ^ ., ~ , BEREA, KENTUCKY ~ ~. _ r - ~, ~ , .. '1, 1 `; ~. ` MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME XXIV FALL, 1948 NUMBER 3 Compete Or Complete THE REV. WILLIAM L. HUNTSMAN Editor's note: This talk introduced a discussion stronger, healthier root system of some other among workers o f the staffs o f the schools shrub. May that healthy strong life-giving shrub comprising the "Kentucky District of the be our mountain people; from which the graft of Council of Southern Mountain Workers." our work may grow into that beautiful worldWe hope we may have articles or letters longed-for saviour. With this awesome thought in reflecting the thinking o f our readers on mind, let us look into our subject. this subject.) We are here to bring these people to an equali I stand before you as an inquirer whose talents, tY with the progress which has been made by thosQ as limited as they are, have been consecrated to the in other parts of our country. They have been mountain people. I have, in the short time I have shut off, left behind, and become self-sufficient lived in Kentucky, come to admire the character, through the lack of the knowledge of the advance integrity and worth-whileness of these people. It meat of others. They have been unaware of the is because of this respect for them I dare speak. progress of science, commerce, manufacturing, liv ing conditions, farm procedures for over a hundred What is our stay and drive in our work here in years, nay nearer two hundred. It is our task to the mountains? I think I speak for all with these bring these changes to their use. We have brought three statements: God never wastes anything! God reading, writing, arithmetic, and new methods to has a plan! Sometime this plan will be worked out! them as well as the increased knowledge of the It is contrary to wisdom to take a wonderful peo- contents and application of Christ's purpose, but ple, and bury them away from all influences of the task has not been completed. For over 50 advancement for a hundred years, just as a whim. years we have worked diligently, and, in spite of Our mountain forefathers were shut away to pre- human limitations, effectively because of God's serve and to deepen and develop certain charac- help. Roads, electricity, schools, organized teristics necessary for some future need. We have churches, scientific farming, better housing, health been called now, to bring these characteristics up and sanitation can be entirely, or in a large part, to the place were they can meet "Today" and its credited to our efforts in the various areas in problems and prepare these people for that task, which we have worked. whatever it may be. From the looks of the world Agencies from state and nation and commercial situation, I'd say-we need a Moses to lead us to . the promised land of peace! Dare I prophecy that organizations have gradually taken over many of out of this chosen people made ready, perhaps, by our pioneering efforts. County and state education some agency represented here in this room, God has developed rapidly. Health departments, with may have selected the Moses for whom the world preventative medicine and high habit standards, cries out! Study, think, and let your mind try to have rightfully found their place and are rapidly fathom His plans, and I believe you will bow in nudging us on to other work. County and national reverence and awe before the depth of our responsi- farm agencies are bringing tested seeds, improved bility. methods, cooperative agencies into the areas in a far broader way than we could possibly do. These You who know rose culture know that for aids are tremendous and welcome. hardy, healthy roses one never grows them on rose During the last few years, have we lost the roots. By budding, the rose is grafted on to a vision; or has it only been temporarily beclouded? For, if to help our mountain people to equality, Mr. Huntsman is the business manager and buyer for Annville Fnstitute, Annville, Kentucky. means to continue a chosen type of work to the Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Fall, 1948 point of competition with local or state agencies, graduates of today-or ten years from now? We then we are betraying the vision of those who have can't live for today in our work; we're making preceded us. citizens for tomorrow. One theorem from which we can start is that Now, from another angle: we may be able to sI *f'c and technological education has far out- compete with state and county boards today, but c enti 1 1 1 stripped social and ethical education, and this has what of five or ten years from today, when the resulted in the world tension that now exists. Peo- vast resources of our state and nation are turned pie just don't know how to live in our new world! more and more to the backward areas? If the next This theorem presents the corollary: people in cen years bring the educational strides of the last, our areas have been "scientized" and "technologiz- our supporting agencies won't be able to follow. ed" (to coin new words) faster than they have We'll be left empty shells of former grandeur and been taught to live. This has mainly been caused success. by the un-balancing of a planned program, by We all realize that our High Schools must con the state and national agencies which have flooded form to the ~nimum standards of the state. Our into the newly opened areas. They have not em- rc -ms must .: acceptable. Our teaching force must phasized "just plain living." Perhaps it is not true have the accredited minimum. Our libraries must in your county, but it is in ours. An example: I be sufficient; our textbooks must be approved; and saw an electric clock sitting on the mantle of a our curriculum must contain the correct credits fireplace three years ago, at least two miles from which are demanded. the nearest power line. The house was carton covered inside. It was a two-room boxed and un- But when we have done that, what are we do painted cabin with a plank floor. The front yard in-? Are we figuratively leaping for joy that was swept clear of grass, weeds, and shrubs, and "every graduate is going on to college next year," chickens roosted on the front porch. The children feeling that at last we have reached the summit ~ were poorly dressed and had impetaego. That of success; even though, down in our hearts, weJ) clock is mute evidence of my theory. know that half that number has no right to go Another theorem which must be considered is to college; will not stick through a college course; that a good academic education seeks an avenue of and are wasting valuable years of life in the ex expression. This also presents a corollary: our perlment. I can feel the hair rising on the back of educated youth are leaving our counties for jobs the necks of some before me that I dare express in cities and industries. This means that what we such blasphemy against higher education. are teaching them, with the idea of helping our Have our pupils all taken the college tests at county, is being transported to areas where our the close of our semester that they may not be teaching it wasted, as far as county or local bet- bothered with them next fall at college entrance, terment is concerned. Our most valuable export is regardless of the fact that these tests may not at our educated youth. all find out the ability of our pupils to live in their own locality? Personality and locality needs, There are other theorems I might name, out and God-given particular abilities are disregarded; you have enough to grasp my thought. To put our pupils "meet the standard." County and state the whole thing bluntly, are we completing the high schools are created for this purpose, but need task our predecessors and pioneers in reclamation we be? In fact, were we? Are we true to our desire started? Or are we competing for the satisfaction to help the mountain people to find life by this of individual lives made better able to take a method? lucrative place in the world? Are we smug over our ability to succeed? Are those staying in our Where does living come in this set-up? "Through localities prepared to live and teach living-stand- economics, sociology, agriculture," you reply. But ards -,vlien they finish our schools, or are they re- are national standards to be judges of local needs vertin~? Here I hasten to say that some are fine of a people still behind, in spite of our work and examples of what our schools have done. They of the rapid advances made by the state? I feel are the product of past work. But how about our the graduates of our schools, if they have followed,' I Fall, 1948 MOUNTAIN LII L AND W'oftK Page 3 the work outlii:ed just above, have had created be- do it, we'd far better go on till the change is tween them and their homes, loved ones and ]in- forced on us, or we arc driven out of existence. mediate communities, a great gulf. This inay be But-and I emphasize this strongly-1 feel we insurmountable to those at home, and only con- must stop competing; and complete the original quered by our ;graduates by almost complete re- task or we will be forced out of existence. Dare version and building over again the hard way. Or we go to our county school boards and say "s,nd it nIav be by a cold attitude of superiority if they us the pupils who want to learn and live, but who return at all. For, standardized theory and present are not college material-and we'll advise our co1 local attainment are not commensurate! "Radical", lege material pupils to go to your schools?" That's I hear you say? Perhaps, but let's leave foregone really a test, but it is the way to go. It will com conclusion, conventional theory, expert's advice mand respect, cocperation and understanding In a'de and -et into the realin of original thinking. I sl stead of developing animosity and jealousy up to We may together, arrive back where we stand the time the tables are turned and disdain and "1 now. We may not, but at least vle will have ar- told you so" become the attitudes. rived there by our own thinking. Solid geometry. advanced algebra, chemistry, Another side to the. question arises. Shall we do advanced typing and stenography may hold the away with our dormitories and the opportunity attention of some of our pupils. Probably these for personal contact, example and constant at will be of great use to them. I will not gainsay 'a'osphere, to take only day pupils who are. brought that. But our county schools can teach these. Some from their home atmosphere into the artificial and of our schools arc acting as county schools. I different surroundings of the school and the con wonder if many of us do not take the easy way tact with other types of life-backgrounds? .In and use prepared curricula, attractive courses, favor: these pupils, helping at home while ,cttill(I satisfaction a i n e d by state standard attain- their education, take our teaching home each night, menu-rather than the harder way-of finding instead of cnce a month, or at the end of the semester. A day-pupil school reduces the problems the needs of the families of our communities, of long hours and nervous drain on the part of starting there, and teaching to satisfv those needs. teachers. I rcalizc that any departure from college prepa- . ration will drive some pupils away from our ~ga~~~st doing awayw nith dormii we know schools. 1 realize that this means we've got to go that it deprives us of the best tine of teaching out to get boys and girls who want help to enable life-by living. When classroom atmosphere is them to live in their own community, pupils who gone, recr;Ã‚Â°ation and relaxation begin, and there do not want to go to college and are not even sure the human personalities may be smoothed, mould they want to go to high school. Weed, and guided. The answer to this particular point after them-give them what they need-and create will, to a certain extent, be tempered by our mo w desire in them to go back home and help to raise five, and the real underlying test is this: is our the standard of living, farming and praying there. task the growth of children or teaching a cur ing substitute plan nay not be as flashy, not as r easy, not as self-satisfying in a superficial way, but far more satisfying is the real sense of the word. I would propose throwing "college-entrance" Word but aims to the winds, for the most part, and concen trate on "life-entrance" instead. 1 would teach the This brings u,, to another challenge. Do we dare minimum state requirements for High S c h o o 1 report to our supporting agencies a smaller en- credit for the pupil's sake, but I would relate these rollment, should we depart from a competing pro- subjects to life situations to the greatest possible !;ram? There will be a noticeable drop at first for extent. Work program for work's sake should be any school that might make such a change. Have done away with as for as possible. Some who must we the conviction to make the explanation satisfy- work to earn education, should have the oppor i,ng? For unless such a change is brought about tunity at a decent wage, but all should work ill by a deep, inner conviction that God wants us to the laboratories of the courses provided. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK 1':111,19 4 8 Some of the courses could be: two years of health, arithmetic, budgets, English, all are involv Bible, one of New Testament backgrounds, and cd in a very practical way. one of Old Testament backgrounds. One year of Personal care and habits, fundamental home Bible teaching methods for Sunday School classes, nursing, child care, and home sanitation, physio both at school and in outlying areas, could be logy and family life all should be developed taught by the senior year pupils for their labora- bringing in sociology and English as well as health. tory work. This would push adults and school teachers out of the class leadership and superin- As an example, one of the reasons for the poll tendent jobs. They then would act as advisors in tical and labor unrest in our mountains is the lack the work with a teacher-training class as an ad- of local and community history. We teach Ameri junct going oil during the week. can History, but, except for a general allusion to the past grandur of the "Bloody State" with its Agriculture could be taught at the same time heroes, we isolate our region from the rest of the as English, arithmetic, sociology, and sanitation world. How we got this way; our local immediate with the heads of those departments checking and hopes; our county officers and their duties; and marking their end of the work while the agricul- the duties of local citizens, are, in most schools, ture teacher develops his courses in soils, garden- lightly passed over for more general duties of the Ing, fertilizing, contour plowing, rotation of crops, Vice-president in 1919 and the Secretary of the animal husbandry, dairying, planting and harvest- Interior under Lincoln. Civics and history can be ing, which of course would make up the curicu- beautifully interwoven by one who would be will lum. Under this plan, a paper on diseases of cows, ing to take field trips to the county court house; for instance, would be graded for agriculture by assist as door keeper, etc. at elections; be present the agriculture teacher and for English by the at trials and public meetings; and glorify the prl English teacher, etc. vilege the pupil has in becoming a citizen in his or her own community. Then create a similar The boys who choose handwork could build a government on the campus-in detail as complete modern, full-sized three or four room house on as conditions will permit. skids; planned by the home economics class in detail to the last drape and light plug; drawn by I have opened this question for thinking, I be the mechanical drawing and architecture class; lieve, and that is what I was supposed to do. I erected by the carpentry class; wired by the elec- have aroused itching tongues, this I call see by trical groups; plumbed by the sanitation group, loololng around. Questions, objections, criticisms, etc. Arithmetic, home economics, and English, in favorable and otherwise, are laboring to be born. addition to the crafts would thus be taught while But before we let this thing loose, let's think back all attractive interesting piece of construction is a bit. the modus operandi. The home so built could be We're here to lift the mountain people to an skidded off to a nearby foundation after an auc- equality with progressive civilization in the rest tion in the community, if a pupil does not want to of the country. buy it. Another good home in your neighborhood. Education has attracted so much attention that Careful now! Let's think positively first, and county schools are fast catching up with the best negatively after all possibility is exhausted. we can give in competition, and will soon pass us. Home economics should be taught in the light Our educated boys and girls are not going back of a mountain home, in small enough units for to the communities to raise the standard of living personal work. For instance, we must face the to the degree they should. fact that ready-made clothing is more generally used than home-made, and guide our teaching We are meeting standard college tests and re more to make-over and adjusting. Buying of ma- quirements, but in a very real sense, we are not terials and food should be emphasized from the preparing our boys and girls for living in the Ken tucky standpoint. Babies and children's cloth ing should become a definate part of the curricu- What are we to do about it? Compete or com e lum, facing an almost sure f t1 t u r e. Sociology, plete? E311, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page S The Avt 0 f Storytelling MARY GOULD DAVIS Storytelling is the oldest of the arts. Probably of daring arid humor and courage that distinguish before primitive man took a stick and scratched ed his Welsh ancestor. The appealing, glamorous a picture in the sand, he had told an incident or story of Cinderella appears in the folklore of an idea in the form of a story. Storytelling is one thirty-seven countries. We can tell it as the Ameri of man's natural means of self-expression. It pre- can Indians do, calling it "The Turkey Girl" or serves for future generations the stored up wisdom we can give it the poet's version-the lovely word and humor and beauty of the past. It breaks down in,- and atmosphere of Walter De La Mare's "Told the barriers of different races and faiths, language Again." We can tell it as simply and crudely as 1nd customs and welds the listeners together in a a very inexperienced storyteller would tell it, or shared experience. Just as the exposition of any art we can bring to it all the subtlety and nuance that requires self-evaluation and self-discipline so the years of study and experience have given us. storyteller must define his objective and school These basic tales that have lived through centuries himself to attain it. All recorded literature is his of history have the same value to children of to province. He must choose wisely because through day as they had in the primitive world. To a child his interpretation the story may reach for the they place right and wrong, good and evil in their first time the mind of his listener. His voice, his proper perspective. The hero of a folktale always attitude, his power to create drama, his humor- fights for a righteous cause. He conquers evil in if the story has humor-are the mediums through the shape of a dragon or a witch, a giant or a which a story that has stood the test of time troll through his courage and his intelligence. He rcaches a mind of today and is forever held in its does not, like the heroes of the comics, use modern consciousness. It is the choice of a story that large- tricks and inventions. He depends on his wits, his ly determines its success. An inexperienced story- unfailing courage and the rightness of his cause. teller can make a really good story a delight to his His motive is always clear as crystal. He always listeners. A very experienced storyteller may, when wins in the end. The children listen, share whole he tells a worthless story, be pleasing at the time, heartedly his trials and his ultimate success-and but he, and the story, will soon be forgotten. are satisfied. It makes no difference to there what One has only to consider the folktales to know country gave him birth. In our struggle for unity that this is true. They have lived for centuries, and understanding in a complex world the folk liot through books but through the spoken word- talc is one of our "common denominators." It is remembered and passed on from one generation to universal in its objective and in its, conclusion. It, another. Great events that have shaken the world like music, knows no national barriers. have left them untouched. They have 1 i v e d What makes a good storyteller? First, the abili through war and revolution, through translation ty to select a good story from a wide repertoire from one language to another, through chang- and a wider knowledge and an utter faith in its ing concepts of education where, in some phases, power to catch and hold the interest of the list they have been abused and even condemned. eners. Secondly, the power, consciously develop But they go serenely on. Jack the Giant- ed, to make the tale a miniature drama, complete in Killer was born in Wales, centuries ago. Today he its detail, smooth in its continuity, varied in its lives in the Great Smokey Mountains as an ordin- inflection. There are, of course, storytellers who ary mountain boy; but he has the same qualities are "born and not made." lust as there are people in all the arts who brought with them into this Miss Davis Was supervisor of storytelling in the New York world a creative gift. But, of all the arts, the art Public Library from 1922-1945; Instructor in folklore and story- Of the storyteller is the simplest and the most telling at Columbia University 1935 to date; Instructor in liter- . ature for children at The Child Education Foundation 1')44 to natural. It can be cultivated where it does not date; Editor of Books for Young People, I-lie Saturday Review of already exist. It requires patience, faith and free L.iterature 1943 to date. She has also compiled two books for storytellers and translated others. (Continued on page 29) Page 6 MOUNTAIN Lrt:F ANDS V'OKK Tall, 1948 Summer, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page. 7 Return MAY JUSTICE No-End Hollow goes uphill and down. Uphill it follows the mountain On and on till it loses its way Beyond Near-SideAnd-Ear. Lownhill it runs a roundabout way Between the creek and the valley 'rill it comes to a clearing among the treesAnd this is Glowrie Glen. Once a pioneer family Who were seeking to better their fortunes Came to this lonesome dimple of land III the crook of the mountain's arm. A cradle of rest it seemed to them After the wearisome journey. "Here," they said, "is our stay place, Here is our home." And here after over a hundrcd years The house which they built is standing. A double-peii cabin with a dog-trot Running between the rooms. The gray log walls stand straight and strong Between two sturdy chimneys still on sentry duty. The window holes in the walls stare out with a stolid look at curious trespassers. A ragged rosebush stands on guard against the grim, gray door. House of my fathers, let me in! I am no child of strangers, 1 am no daughter of outlanders, I am no alien one. I-Jere I have conic to rest After my world wandering, Here is my stay-place, Here my heart's home! Adapted from Tlc House In No-I'nd Hollow by permission of Doubleday & Company. Ma3 Justus nceds no introduction to the readers of Alounlam Life and Work. She has permitted LIS to print several of her stories and poems oscr the years. Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND W OIR Fall, 1948 Some Observation On The Work 0 f The Private Secondary Schools In The Southern Mountains HOWARD A. DAWSON The Southern Mountain Region is sometimes re- have led the people to seek various means of exferred to as America's economic problem No. 1. tending such opportunities to more and more Certainly when the facts as to the economic sta- youth. tus of the people are considered the conclusion is just as there has always been a need for private inescapable that this region faces some grave eco- education of all types, and no doubt will con nomic problems, especially with respect to provid- tinue to be in the future, the private secondary in,- adequate educational opportunities for child- school has an unusual opportunity to offer an ten and youth. In ordinary times this region has educational program closely related to the needs only about 10 percent of the national income, but and experiences and the probable destination of at all times about 25 percent of the Nation's child- the young people to whom the program is offered. ren of school age. These figures are for both rural Such a program can very well set the pace for and urban areas in the region. When the rural- publicly supported institutions. farm areas are considered alone we find that the area has only little more than 2 percent of the In view of the economic status of the people national income, but 14 percent of the Nation's of the Southern Mountains there is certainly a children of school age. It is also quite significant need for much more than merely making high that in this region for each $1.00 per farm child, school advantages available. The economic status the non-faun areas have $4.33 for each child of of the farmer denies an opportunity to attend school age. school to a great many worthy youth. The ad ministrators and boards of p r i v a t e secondary Under these circumstances, there is small wonder schools should seek funds for the purpose of grant that the public schools, especially high schools, ing scholarships to worthy youth throughout the have experienced a much slower development than region. Furthermore, these leaders should also sup in other parts of the Nation. There simply have port state and national policies which will make not been sufficient funds to finance adequate edu- funds available to youth solely on the basis of cational opportunities. merit and ability. Private secondary schools of the Southern We know that there is a direct relationship be Mountain Region have arisen to meet a distinct tween the educational attainments of the people need of the youth of that region for secondary and a nation's wealth. Recently the Chamber of opportunities for which neither the local com- Commerce of the United States published a bul Illunities nor the states for a good many years letin, "Education Steps Up Living Standards," provided. During recent years, with increased state that reveals that the level of all understanding and sup,)ort of education, there has been an expansion technical knowledge of all the people of a nation of secondary school education. Nevertheless, even is an indispensable factor in national economic at the present time only about 50 percent of the well-being. By comparison it is shown that some rural-farm youth of high school age ever attend a countries have great resources such as rich land, high school in this region. Thus the needs for oil, minerals, low cost electric power, and good secondary school educational opportunities of all climate while at the same time they tolerate low t1 *11 very urgent. I 1 1 1 1)(-s arc sti standards of education and technical training and extremely high rates of illiteracy. Such countries, Private secondary schools have in many respects lacking the knowledge necessary to use these re stimulated an interest in high school education and sources properly, have low income and extremely Dr. Dawson is Director of Rural Service in the National I,du- low standards of living. Other countries have poor cation Association, Washington, D. C. This article contains the soil, few minerals, 110 Oil, inclement climate, a highlights of an address delivered to the 1946 Conference oftain Workers. Southern MounShort growing season and poor sources of pOlder, Fall, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 but high standards of education and technical Education is the only sure road to self respect training, illiteracy being practically nonexistent. andfreed om. The complications of the present Such countries have high incomes and high day culture demand that those who live in it must standards of living for practically everybody. keep abreast of it, not only that they may survive "The lack of resources did not prevent the de- individually but that they may not retard the velopment of a high standard of living when the advancement of the group through their inability pec~plc had sufficient skill." to cooperate. Within the United States the evidence is replete Economic progress without education is incon that high education and high income and standards ce;vable. There are in the last analysis two fun oF living go hand in hand. Average public school damental factors in the creation of wealth-na expenditures in Nevada for 1910, 1920, and 1930 tural resources, and human labor and skill. A peo were $102 per pupil; in New York, $83; in Ind- ple, assuming that they live in a state of freedom iana, $62; in Tennessee, $24; in Georgia, $20; in and under a government that makes it its business N/lississippi, $21. Retail sales per capita in 1940 in to equalize as far as possible the conditions of Nevada were $564; in New York, $414; in Ind- opportunity in collective and individual activities, iana, $311; in Tennessee, $208; in Georgia, $200; can, if they know enough and have the will to do in Mississippi, $129. The number of telephones so, conserve natural resources and make lull and per 1000 population in Nevada was 175; in New wise use of them but cannot do much to increase York, 206; in Indiana, 145; in Tennessee, 79; in them. The one controllable factor in the creation Georgia, 63; in Mississippi, 36. The circulation of of wealth is the improvement and creation of 18 nationally known magazines per 1000 popula- human 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢novrled:e. skill, and morale. Certainly tion in Nevada was 509; in New York, 300; in wealth and well-being can be increased only as Indiana, 326; in Tennessee, 151; in Georgia, 133; the knowledge, skill, physical fitness, and charac in Mississippi, 104. During the present war the re- ter of the people arc fostered, improved, and in _ jection of draftees because of lack of education per creased. "Nations have grown rich and powerful 100 men examined in Nevada was 1.3; in New ire the absence of outstanding physical resources by York, 1.4; in Indiana, 3.1; in Tennessee, 9.1; in developing their human resources. Others have Georgia, 9.2; in Mississippi, 12.4. remained poor and backward in the presence of Evidently education is an investment in people unusual natural resources. A carefully administer that pays enormous dividends in dollars and cents ed system of education significantly increased the to say nothing of the cultural advantages of an intelligence and efficiency of labor." Education is educated people as contrasted with an uneducated the sine duo non of economic prosperity. people. Federal programs have in recent years been con Enlightened national policy can do much to re- cerned with the improvement of the conomic sta move the economic shackles of rural America. The tus of the less privileged people. The Farm Secur National Government through its programs such ity Administration has tried, and rightly so, to as the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Farm Sec- eliminate to some degree the presence of farm urity Administration, Rural Electrification, hous ing programs, Agricultural Extension S e r v i c e, tenants. Billions have been spent for relief. But Federal aid for health and education can do much without education, the solution of such problems to create the opportunity for the rural people to is impossible. In the last analysis the people in hclp themselves. The states can do much through volved must be capable of self-help. legislation and public appropriations to advance the economic status of their own people. But it is not sufficient merely to have schools But fundamentally and always the crux of pro- available and all of the children attending them. gress lies in the quality of the people working to- The kind and character of the instructional pru ,zether for their own economic, social, and spiritual Tram are equally as important. The school must salvation. Education lies at the heart of the pro- be more than an institution for training children blcn). in subject matter that will enable them to climb Page 10 MouNrnIN LIFE, AND WORK Fall, 1948 1 the educational ladder to higher academic levels. It adopting instructional programs and procedures must be an institution whose program is indigenous that will best contribute to a satisfactory way of to the needs of the pupils and to the community individual and community living in rural areas. it serves. The broad social and economic goals of \Vays and nlcans should be devised and utilized LdtICatlon are important to be sure, but they can for developing the abilities and attitudes needed be made real only in terms of the situation and by American citizens in taking their place in needs of the children affected. world affairs, in national affairs, and in regional and lccal affairs; for dcvcloping an understanding The task of modern education is to adapt in- and an evaluation of the rural environment; for structicn to the abilities and capacities of pupils, crating a desire to conserve the characteristics and to build oil the environment in which they live, fc.rces of rural life that are of value; for teaching and to extend and enrich that environment. Ac- the kncwled,e and skills needed to utilize teeh cordingly, much of the content of a rural educa- ncle Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ical instruments that will contribute to bet tion program must be taken from and adapted to ter rural living; and for discovering and coping the environment. This idea does not mean that with social and economic conditions affecting the pupils are to be restricted in their learning to the lives of rural people. factors in the environment in which they live, but . . it does mean that the content of the school must Ccntent materials and instructional activities be in a language and in terms of experiences that calculated to give information about the problems have meaning to the children affected. The major of greatest importance to rural people and to give purpose of education for rural children and youth pupils in rural schools first-hand .opportunity to is not the mere imparting of literacy and a regimen deal with them and to participate in their solution or certain essential knowledge and information, should find their way Into rural schools through out the N'atron. It is not advocated that new important as that is; it is to achieve and sustain courses in these special problems be organized. It a desirable level of cultural, ethical and economic living. This point of view requires, on the one is advocated that an awareness and an understand ]land, a knowledge and understanding of the com- il'g of then, should be a part of the equipment of munity environment where the school operates, all teachers of rural children and youth, and that all teachers should seek and utilize opportunities and on the other hand, a comprehension or ideals to enable pupils to understand and solve, to some and standards of community environment. degree at least, these major social and economic A major problem of rural education is that of problems that so vitally affect their lives. .~I Iy._ i 1-' Like Meat Loves Salt RICHARD CHASE One time - back in Old England hit must'a tcwn and got the three dresses; and on the way been, `cause we ain't never had at' King in this back a bough of maple hit his hat. He reached country - there was a very old King and he had up and broke it off; and when he looked at it, three daughters. And one day he asked `en, what it was full of white roses. Well, he came oil in would they like for him to buy `enl in town. 'The home and got back oil his throne and called his g!rls were plannin' on goin' to a dance that night oldest girl. When she came in he asked her, says, so the first one she told him she wanted a dark- "How much do you love me?" flashing green dress; the second one asked for a "Oh", she says, "I love you more than life." bright-flashing red dress; and then the youngest (the King loved her better'n the others) said that So he put a white rose on her green dress and she wanted a dress that was solid white. zavc it to her; and she took it and went to get f fixed up to go to that dance. Then he called his The old King got on his horse and went on to llctt-oldest girl and asked her how much did she F-.ill, 1948 MOUNTAIN 1,11 I A14D WORK Page 11 love him. oldest daughters didn't love him, so he went on "Why," she says, "I love you more than I can off 6Y himself. tell hc." rhen the two girls' husbands they started raisin' So lie put a white rose on her red dress and she war on the Duke of England, and fin'lly the Duke tcok it and went on to get fixed up to go to that brought his army across the ocean; and they all started fighting. The youngest girl she had come dance. Then he called his youngest girl and says, with the Duke and they went out walkin' in the "New you tell me - how much do you love your country one day, and they found the old King c ld daddy?" a-wanderin' around crazy. He'd done made him She thought a minute then told him, "I love self a crown out of briars, and he didn't know his you like ineac loves salt." ycungest girl when she came up to him. She and the Duke took him with 'em, and they went on "Is that your answer?" he asked her, real mad- across the country, and directly they saw the two like. oldest ~,yirls caught in a thornbush and just a "Yes," she says, "I love you as much as my screamin'. duty will let me, and that's the dyin' truth." The youngest asked 'ern, says, "What are you That made him even madder, so he hid her dress; dcin' in that thornbush?" and then he had her locked up in a high tower on "Our husba!ids put us in here." the prairies; never let her see anybody, except cue old woman to get her water and cook for her. "Good enough for ye!!" said the old King. And she was sittin' in the window one day Well, thcÃ‚Â° I'ul:e he won the war, and then they combin' her hair and lettin' the tears fall - wok the old King with 'em back across the water. and the I-'uke of Fngland rode by and looked up And one day the girl told the cook not to put any there and saw her. A grapevine ran up the tower salt in the meat. So when the King started eatin' ri:;ht to that window; so the Duke of England he his dinner he said the meat didn't taste right. climbed up and got the girl out, and took her His daughter brought him a dish of salt; didn't across the ocean and married her. say a word, just stood there. ' hen the old King knew her, and he cried and asked her would she \:'e11, the two other girls had got married and forgive him a hundred times over. So he got his gone off with their husbands; and the oid King mind back again; and then he sent a servant got Icnesome, so one day he went to live with across the water to get that white dress where his oldest daughter. She greeted him well, but he'd hidden it, and when he gave it to his youngest he hadn't been there inore'n a few days when she daughter it had a bough of white roses on it - and told him, says, "You'll have to do without your the roses were just as fresh as if they'd been picked servants. There's not enough room here for 'em." that very day. And she sent 'em off - all but two. So then the cld King went to stay with his next-oldest daugh- The other two daughters' husbands had been ter. She fired his last two servants and put him in killed in the war and after a while they came the stable to sleep. Then he knew that his two ,.cress the water and begged for mercy. So the - v can Best she took 'em in and they went to work Richard Chase's most recent book is The Grandfalheer Taln,,, a ill the kitchen-and from then on they all lived compilation of stories handed down fron) past generations. Other J,uhlications are ()hl ~on,tN and .Smgirig Gantcc and Tlir /ark Tale, happy. Page 12 MOUNTAIN Lit F, AND WORK Fall, 1948 Time Marches On In The Hinterlands MARGARET MOTTER Upon a return to the mountain area after an Cutshin Creek," We presented a typical caval absence of some years, I have been frequently asked cade, winding one by one on horse or mule over what differences I have observed; and I have been difficult mountain trails, covering a distance of inclined to think that the present picture is a about ten miles from the settlement. It was a far cry from Bryant's idea of "the hills, rock- pleasant day, a time of friendly "visiting" with ribbed and ancient as the sun!" True, the moun- our neighbors and happily for them one of the few tains have always given a sense of security, occasions for leaving home and seeing "different strength, and stability to those of us who have folkses." Just recently in 1944 several of us took lived under their protecting shadow, though in a trip by automobile over approximately the same former years, especially in the sections far from area, in approximately the same time; but on this highways and cities, we were at times aware of a occasion we were able to go eighty miles from the feeling of isolation and loneliness. But what is school to visit in the home of a former Pine Moun the situation today? We can note definite changes tain student at Blue Diamond where the mine is or trends in various aspects of life, chiefly along located, to stop at the large and very modern com economic, social and cultural lines. inissary there,-in fact, to drive almost to the head of Cutshin and thence by foot to Big Rock Perhaps the most obvious change is in the ex- School, stopping enroute at several homes to see tension and improvement of roads. When Sam relatives and friends of some of our pupils. Along Walter Foss expressed the desire to "live in a the way we found a few windowless cabins or house by the side of the road" he showed an under- those giving evidence of crude construction. As we standing of human nature. Few people really visited in some of the isolated, though better-built, wish to be hermits and the vast majority of men homes near Big Rock School we found a radio in and women like to watch the world go by or to one place and learned from the parents of their be a part of it. This is just what is happening in great desire to have their "younguns" go to school. the hinterlands. Heretofore transportation and In the very next house we discovered a grand travel were by a narrow, barely passable trail; now mother who evinced keen enjoyment in smoking in many localities there is a gravel road or still her pipe. Such old and new ways side by side! better, one improved with black-top. What is re- Surely with the coming of better roads many of sponsible for this change? It may be that the in- the old ways will pass like the windowless cabin creased activities in logging to meet the unpre- and the pipe-smoking grandmother, to be replaced cedented demand for lumber, or that the innumer- by new ideas. able little strip coal mines have created a basic need for better transportation facilities; and the This importance in roads has far-reaching as opening of a big coal mine such as the Blue pects touching not only the economic but social Diamond mine goes even further in making road life of the mountains. Bus service which has improvement imperative. started in some areas is already serving a dual purpose-to bring new life into the mountains This point is illustrated by a contrast between and to take the mountain people out. Further, the two trips taken from Pine Mountain Settlement mountain people will find it easier to go to towns School. In the fall of 1929 a few workers from to work and salesmen can more readily come into the school and some neighbors, like Chaucer's the mountain areas to trade. This shift in popu merry group who longed "to goon on pilgrimage," lation will undoubtedly change the character of ventured forth one day to travel "way over on each localitv. Miss Motter first became actively interested in the mountain people in 1928 at Pine Mountain Settlement Other economic factors which affect the life of School where she served as Principal and teacher for the mountains are the modern developments such ten years. She has recently returned to that school as . . Field Representative on the publicity program. as telephone, radio, and use of electricity. Tele Fall, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE A\n WORK Page 13 phone service, though limited, is already vastly family income will follow. appreciated by those who have access to it. As the radio touches not only the economic life of a con,- Put despite the mportance of economic factors munity but the social and cultural, consideration that have affected' life in the hills, other changes call be noted. Since the family is the basic unit will be given to this factor in a later paragraph. Of the social order, what call be said of family life Rural electrification has already become a part of ill the mountains? Here, too, changes call be found the daily life of the people. Lights in schools and along social and cultural lines; and comment might homes are a source of great satisfaction every- be made of the way family life has been affected where. To show what this means to the people, by schools, public health programs, and other fac several illustrations are in order. tors. Quite some distance down Greasy Creek in a section somewhat removed from any improved First of all, as we look at the small rural schools, roads, a mountain mail was asked, "Have you we call still note the customary weaknesses such as electricity down here?" and he replied, "Not yit. poor lighting, lack of sanitation, inadequate recre They've been cliggin' holes for the postes. I alin to ational planning or facilities, irregular attendance, git lights as soon as the postes are in." When and inexperienced teachers. But despite these con a woman was asked, "Will you get a washing ditions in some sections, in others we can observe machine or something like?" she replied with improvement. The county furnishes more books emphasis, "1 shore will. I aim to git a washing and better equipment. Interest in reading extends machine, a iron, and a cold box." Another woman from the school into the home and the children volunteered to say that of all her family had gained take books to their parents. Hindman has had for from the coming of electricity she felt that a re- years a traveling library which has served the pur frigcrator meant more to her then having lights or pose of taking reading into neglected areas. In any other benefits. She could now keep her milk some places there seems to be a better check on at and cream in good condition, and this saved her tendance, and pupils do not miss as many days as time, labor, and food. heretofore. What is still more important is the lengthening of the school year. Though in some At this point, mention might be made of the counties the school year has only seven months, comparatively new trends in the mountains, name- the tendency is for a nine months' session. Then, Iv, the Farmers' Cooperatives and the effective too, since there arc more of the scattered (in many work of the harm Agent and Home Demonstra- cases one-room) schools, this means more commun tion worker. Women have gradually responded ity gatherings, for the school house serves as a place ,to the appeals of the latter resulting in better for lodge meetings for the men and the center for canned foods, more suitable clothing, and touches Ã‚Â»carly all social life. of beauty in home furnishings. Feed bags made into curtains, tableCOVers, and even wearing ap- What can we say of present-day health of the parel not only save money; but this type of prac- rural family? Truly, here we can note a vast 1m tical work teaches the women the importance of provement in the sections touched by the public using what is at hand. The Farmers' Cooperatives health program The Pine Mountain Health As have proved helpful in giving these farmers better sociation (and those of other schools) will illus food at better prices, and besides, have given them trate the value of slow effective teaching along a feeling of working together which in itself is these lines. A few specific examples will suffice. valuable. In the little hillside farms or on the nar- in the past the people of the near-by community row bottom lands here and there results can be were hesitant to come to the little school hospital; seen of the slow educative work of the Farm today there is no question about coming there for Agent or the agriculture courses in schools, in accident cases and for all serious illness, to say developing effective drainage, in the planting of nothing of visits to the doctor for various and cover crops to avoid soil erosion, in the rotation sundry minor ailments. Years ago there was a high of crops, or in the use of fertilizer for enrichment infant mortality rate in that section; now expectant or preservation of the soil. All of this will no mothers receive pre-natal care and attention at doubt lead to more abundant crops, and better the time of the baby's birth.Clinics serve many Page 14 MOUNTAIN Lwt. AND WORK fall, 1948 1 - who can not or mill not go to hospitals. New Even though these young people may remain at medicines, serums, inoculations, et cetera, serve home for a very limited time in some cases, they bring new life and different ideas that change the way of thinking and living. Recreational aspects remain somewhat the same though the radio and motion pictures in neighbor ing towns or schools have given a different char acter to this side of family life. Some schools carry c:i a recreational program with folk dancing, bal lad singing, parties, and plays, and the old custom of running sets is still popular. It is also good to find that stir-offs for making sorghum or maple sugar and the old-time "workings" for helping neighbors have not been abolished., One ventures a comment on religion in the mountains with hesitancy since there is always such a divergence of opinion regarding it. It seems, how _- _ ever, that at least mention should be made of cer tain noticeable features. First of all, we can safely Courtesy of Arthur Dodd say that there are more people going to church and Grar~r(nrntlrcr still crrjols her (ri(rc' Sunday School We can now see scattered in newly as a cure or preventive; thus the health of families developed areas little churches in which the people in a wide area has considerably unproved. The gather for religious services and other types of coming of larger stores in these areas with greater Meetings. Where certain neighborhoods have noti variety of food offerings will gradually improve family health since food will be more palatable and more nourishing than a regular diet of "shucky beans, salt meat, and corn bread." Family life has been changed by other factors. A visit into a mountain home reveals the presence of newspapers and magazines as well as a radio. No lenger do the people in even renote sections need to feel cut off from the world. From their reading they can gain information regarding cur rent events or some new ideas, and from their radio they can get music, educational talks, all sorts of entertainment (though to be sure much of the latter is of questionable value), and up-to-the-minute news. A mountain man in a very humble hcme that boasted a radio pointed to the "little box" as he commented, "I heerd the news feller saying we was to have rain afore night." But we must not fail in speaking of the changed thinking of the mountain people to mention the influence of children who return to the home after broadening experiences. Those who were in some branch of the service during the war in training, travel, or actual fighting received a different out- ----- 1Gok on life; while those who have gone to schools COLHICSN~ of Arthur Dodd/J away from home have gained immeasureably. Roads arc tire great irrstrrrmcnts for social charr,;c. Pill, 1945 MOUNTAIN 1111 AND WORK Page IS been able to provide church buildings, services are hindered." held in school houses. Children are attending mother thoughtfully remarked, "I like the Sunday School with surprising regularity and even \vay the childreil arc brought to Sunday School. adults seem to enjoy this phase of religious activ- Some of the churches look out for orphan children ity. Have the people gained from the rural de- and bring them up in a moral way. That will velopment of the organized church? Statements make a big difference when they arc growed up." from some of the mountain people themselves may help to formulate an opinion along this line. What can be said of the outlook for the future? Undoubtedly the mountains arc feeling the impact "Have the mountain people improved along re- of so-called "civilization." How many of the ligious lines in the past fifteen years or so?" was harmful or valueless ways they will adopt, or how a question put to a young man that brought forth much good they will absorb will depend somewhat this answer, "In some ways, yes, and in some ways upon whether the people can strike a happy I don't think they have. The different churches medium in casting aside the old or taking on new with their different ways cause a feller to be con- ways of life. fused and onsure of hisself. The Reg'lar Baptists, "Be not the first by whom the new are the Hard-Shelled, the Church of God, the fellers lay ed that handle snakes have a certain amount of feudin' triNor yet the last to the old aside."' amongst thirsclves and this is not good. Sometimes I think the old kind of preachin' was best." Those of us who are deeply interested in the welfare of the mountain folk hope that through On the other hand, some older church members the right sort of educational program carried on attested to definite growth and improvement in in community centers and in good schools the fine, the life and character of the people in sections i,inate characteristics of these people will not be touched by churches. One man said, "The lost but rather adapted somewhat to changing churches have holped right smart. They have caused -editions, so that life for these dwellers of the fellers that was mean and fightin' to live more hills will be broader and richer in the future. peaceable, and to bring up their children better. I ___ shore think the church has holped more than 1 Pope's Es;ay on Criticism - Progress 0f Recreation In Mountain Communities FRANK H. SMITH My talk this afternoon is something of a "In my community, I think that we misnomer, so far as it concerns the status of recre- are in need of some good wholesome rec ation in the Southern Highlands. Why is that so? reation. you may ask. The answer is both regrettable and short. We, under the sponsorship of the Council, The main form of recreation that we or the ,John C. Campbell Folk School, or Berea have is parties in the home. On Saturday College, or Hindman Settlement School, or of any nights, people gather at one certain house, other agency, have little to show beyond an active and they play records, play games and movement under the somewhat artificial protec- make candy. However, this happens tion of schools and colleges. We do not usually only about once a month, and the girls go out into the communities to build recreation who have these parties are usually not from the cradle to the grave. We believe in it, well thought of. The reason for this is, but we haven't done it. How representative is that people come who arc not invited, he following statement from the pen of a high and these people are generally drunk. The school girl? boys who are drunk make quite a bit of Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Fall, 1948 noise and everybody else gets scared and don House, and, night after that, the goes home. Shepherd's Hey. Honestly, I almost The boys and girls can go to the movies choked . . . I heard many of the old together, but as before, the girls are not tunes, and quite a few of new ones, too. well thought of that go to the movie. They never announced the names, so 1 couldn't follow as closely as I wanted to, In the summer time, a large crowd of but it was heavenly, just the same." boys get together and play base ball while everybody watches. But these games us- And still another boy, now a captain in the army, uallv end in fights. appraising the music, wood-carvings, and dances of the Pacific islands, because in Kentucky he had If you should mention dancing to the learned to love participation in the Mountain Folk folks around home, they would brand Festival, you as a bad girl. I live out in the country where everybody thinks that dancing is Perhaps the folks from Brasstown, Rabun Gap, a sin. Sometimes I think that the people Ã‚Â°r Homeplace will raise their voices to say that there arc just against people having fun. colleges and schools do not at all represent the From all appearances, it looks that way, whole picture. That they can give us chapter doesn't it? Probably, the people there and verse to the contrary; that they know of have just never seen the right kind of mountain. communities m which recreation has dancing, and the right kind of games and made a significant contribution. I only say that the right kind of parties. I wish there were our movement, looked at m a broad perspective, is some way that I could make then, under- a campus rather than a community movement. A stand that boys and girls, if they are glance at the list of participating groups m the properly trained, can get together and Mountain Folk Festival is one good way to prove have a good time." Very well, suppose we are operating primarily The claim may be made that by working with through educational agencies. It might comfort schools and colleges the pattern of recreation and us to realize that we seem to have pioneered even social life in communities is being indirectly in- there. In the past few years a sudden growth fluenced. "Lo not college graduates, and high of interest has been shown by American Univer school seniors, and other students carry, if not the sities in the type of recreation that we favor: folk torch of recreation, at any rate the songs and dance son,, and folk dance, community drama, recre tunes, with them wherever they may go?" The ational music, art and handicraft. The University War certainly told some interesting stories-a of Minnesota seems to be justly proud of its long story, for example, of a Berea boy in a military and honorable record as a pioneer institution in training camp whistling a Morris tune-and also leadership training along these lines. How long dancing to it to help keep his feet warm. Another a"o, then, was it that this University began to boy in a hospital bed in Italy, who wrote: offer a bachelor's degree in recreation? Would you "The other day I happened to listen to say, "Oh! in the middle of the 19th century, or a British program which offered a full maybe even at the beginning of this one?" It was half hour of old English dances, includ- in the year 1938. Now at Minneapolis they have in,- Morris and Sword dances, as well. I added a master's degree; other institutions such as need not say that I was more than the Universities of North Carolina, Indiana, and thrilled. The lights had already gone out, Illinois, have followed suit. Chancellor K. B. and I just lay in my bed and listened, House, Vice President of the University of North and had it not been for the holes in my Carolina says: leg I am sure 1 would have begun to dance "All the developments created from a jig or two. As it was, however, 1 just the present emergency and the manifold relaxed. At one time they played problems of reconversion, reconstruction, Oranges and Lemons, followed by Huns- and rehabilitation create new emphasis - Pill, 1948 INIOUNTAIN Lii-r AND WORK Page 17 on Recreation. When we add to these produced in the area, but an opportunity the many social forces of technology, to see craftsmen at work. Such work is the newer means of communication and done both for personal expression and for transportation, the social demands for economic help. The Craft Educational better health, the advancing techniques Program which represents the Southern of education and all the overwhelming Highland Handicraft Guild and the forces that call for better joy in life's Southern Highlanders, Incorporated, is sojourn-\\,e set for Recreation salient helping the craftsmen to design and cregoals to achieve. ate a finer product. It is hoped that the Fair will help the public to appreciate Train:d leadership is essential to do the and value this creative work." job. The University of North Carolina is busily engaged in training recreation What has been achieved this far in recreation leaders. We join with. other social forces iii the Southern Highlands? We have seen, I to give to this profession in North Caro- think, through the past fifteen or twenty years a Tina and throughout the South and Na- remarkable growth, which has resulted in a recre tion constructive leadership." ational pattern in the mountains. We have fes And so it has come about that you can even tivals: the Mountain Folk Festival and four well get a Ph.lJ in recreation. What do you think of established regional festivals, bringing into happy association hundreds of young people. We have that? Will these new doctors dance in their aca- the Shert Courses at Brasstown, the Christmas demic robes, or will they wear out that portion School at Berea. We have the Council with Miss of a man's trousers that shall be nameless, by Sit 'i Marvel, its itincrant director; we have had the I i ig in an office as consultants? Smith College Workship. We have springing up What of recreation in the Southern Highlands? regional training schools, such as the one planned Much has happened of late, and much is happening at Hindman for spontaneous drama, puppetry, now. We hear that the Handicraft Guild is pre- and story telling. Others in view at Hazel Green paring for a Fair. It is to show, they say, not Academy, at Cumberland County, Tennessee, and merely the professional craftsmen at work, but elsewhere. But these are just the outward aspects. something of the possibilities for recreational Year in and year out at perhaps 40 or 50 schools, handicrafts-and in presenting a picture of moun- eclleges, and community centers, not forgetting tain customs to the public we of the recreation the Agricultural Extension Service of Georgia and group arc asked to make our contribution. The Kentucky, the recreational material with which things that folks in the mountains have done in ,vc are familiar, and which we love, is making its their leisure time from way back in the early days contribution to the lives of youth throughout the is surely the basis for much of our 20th century Southern Highlands. recreation. The old play party, the frolic after a We cannot believe that a generation is not grow corn-shucking or a bean-stringing, a mountain fiddlerinI ,, into adult responsibility that will find a greater or a basketmaker, an old singing school. The Rec place in the customs of the mountains for folk reation Group and the Handicraft Guild have a dance, song, story, handicraft, drama, and a wiser mutual interest in these things, have they not? use of athletic contests. Have you someone or some group in your com- Here are a few remarks on trends: mullity that could help the Handicraft Guild bring I. The recreation movement and the back to life these good old days at the Fair? 1f so' Handicraft Guild arc seeking a closer tell Ed Davis or Marguerite Bidstrup about it. This working relationship. We need help with is a golden opportunity to show the best of moon- recreational handicrafts. tain tradition to the American public. To quote 2. We arc aware of the need for a wider Mrs. Bidstrup: range of activities. Uraina, puppetry, "The purpose of the Fair is to bring and storytelling seem to be in favor as to the public, not only the finest crafts things to develop. Page 18 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Fall, 1948 3. We find a realization of the need to spontaneous, creative things of the spirit are of no interest adults in leisure time activities. small importance. Tensions are perhaps greater 4. We have a growing realization of than ever before. We cannot live other than the need to promote adequate develop- dangerously in the modern world. We arc for ments in mountain communities. tunate, are we not, in the Council of Southern 5. We see greater interest being shown Mountain Workers, the agency that for fifteen on the part of public schools and other years has kept in the field an intinerant recreation tax-supported agencies such as Agricul- leader? May the future bring wider horizons and tural Extension. greater service in recreation to the Southern High One last word: in this atomic age the free, lands. 1 The Church Sets The Pattern For Community Living CHRISTINE SNYDER Loth negative and positive patterns exist in Another means of cooperation for a corninunity community living. Iet us examine the recreation church and school is the encouragement of the field for examples. principal, the teachers and the school leaders to A Sunday School and the minister of a church teach in the Sunday School of the church and to wanted to clear off the ground behind the church take other church leadership. The church does to make tennis courts. The old folks in the church things for the rural school through its influence on objected to this use of church grounds. The young individuals. people then. net having anything else to do, began The church can set the pattern for political to drift away from the church. This represents a action. When we were considering a new Con negative pattern set by this church. stitution for Kentucky, a Sunday School teacher g ave a fine talk on the need for a new Constitu tion. He stirred up people to vote. Political ques muniLy in which there was little or no recreational tions need religious interpretation. activity. The church decided to sponsor a recrea tional institute. It was a success because it inspired The church call have also a positive influence people to do things, to work together. The people in the field of public health. In the State of Ken of the community cleared off the backyard of the tucky birth control is not a part of the public health church; there today they play badminton and have program. We have brought church leaders into picnics. It all depends upon the attitude of the Sue Bennett College to discuss the problem. The church members. leaders have gone back into their own communities and have begun educational programs on birth coii Last sumnncr a nearby church had a Rural Life trol. Conference. Although this church was without a minister, the people got tegether and started a pro- The church can set economic patterns for its gram of worship, a program of recreation, pro- people. Not every preacher needs to be an agricul graills covering all phases of life and including all turist. He can be intelligent on the subject, and members of the fatnilv. call lead his people. In Virginia a minister, who is from Kentucky, is doing a wonderful work. The The church can set a pattern of cooperation in farmers in his section of Virginia grow tobacco. education. The church, working with the schools, He does not believe in the use of tobacco but he may improve education by cooperating with the thinks that if it is the main crop they should be Parent-Teachers Association, the Athletic Associa- taught to raise it economically and to conserve the ticn and other organizations if enough Christian soil. In this way he has gained the confidence of y people get into them. Ills people. `~ Fall, 194$ MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page W In Laurel County, one man in the church has munity to another are not able to set the pattern his farm designated as a demonstration farm. New cE a Christian community. It is up to the more practices and techniques are tried out here result- stable families. If a Christian community is to be iii', in better methods of raisin g tobacco. The built, the church program must meet the needs of clemcnstraticn has convinced the people through- every individual. It is the responsibility of mem out the area to use improved practices. Individuals hers of the church to meet the challenge. within the church make the best people to demons trate hew to do things better. Miss Snyder is Professor of Rural Sociology at Sue The church has a lot of power, particularly the Bennett College, London, Kentucky. This article is a rural c.:urch. If we accept the ideals of building, Leadership Sullunary oInstitut~~ltsthe[College of Agriculture and the church call set the pattCYn-eIthCY positive or Home Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, negative. Young people moving from one tom- Kentucky. The ''lace O f Crafts In Recreation HARRIETT GILL Recreation is a leisure time activity. It is de- sense about the limitations and the potentialities version. . .refreshment, the opposite of work. It cf each, as well as, a feeling for honest and crca includes play and acts as a necessary balancing tive craftsmanship. force in lif:, providing a refreshing contrast to our The construction of a "pot" from clay which everyday responsibilities and routines. Recreation was gathered along; the bank of a stream, the carv hceps alien the spirit of adventure and develops a in, of a tray from cherry wood, and the print sense of proportion which helps prevent taking ;m', cf a curtain with linoleum on unbleached oneself and ones life too seriously. n-islin brought immediate and direct satisfaction Ferhaps the definition of recreation which di- to the individual who manipulated the material roots itself most surely to the field of the crafts and participated in the growth of a form. The and the place of crafts in recreation is this. . .crea- achievement which brings great satisfaction makes rive activity for the enrichment of life. We can possible sustained and continued interest in the cI~ 'ine creative as a means of experimenting, think- Crafts which with the right leader provides an op in:r through a problem and originating in relation hcrtunity for self-expression. rcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ ;r and tlrrou,,,h being, alive and alert to events 'n recreation, as in education, one is interested ,".1 rrarerials available; anti craft, not only as in the thin-s drat people are doing and drinking. . . ~,-: cY shill, but as an experience for providing a (.lc is interested in the growth of what happens ci-wa'ive. constructive release for mental and physi- rc the individual. .one is less concerned with the cal encr:;y. With experience. . .and experience finished product for if it is the very best that the comes from mini ,ular;n = tools and designing with individual is capable of doing at the moment, it materials, one builds an understanding and a is good. Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Fall, 1948 What Ire Are Doing "Welcome, Friends, to your regular Sunday puppet-making, recorder-playing, and tea and disevening Mountain Mission Vesper Broadcast, com- cussion kept the group busy until suppertime; ing to you from the bark-covered Chapel of Kon- every night there was a singing session followed narock Training School, nestled smugly at the foot by a country-dance party. of White Top Mountain at Konnarock, Virginia."The music on this program is rendered by the Many things have already become pleasant mem school choir." These arc the words you hear dur ing ores for those who attended: the Ritchies' singing; ing the music of "Day is Dying in the West" if P h i 1 i p Merrill's superb accompaniments; Mrs. you should happen to be in Chapel of this moun- Gaines' meals; the beautiful view from Keith twin school on Thursday evening. House; the simple, friendly teas; the rituals at mealtime-the graces we sang, "Why Do You Here you would see and hear Superintendent Linger," "Tak vor Math"; the carver's songs. But Hawitt and his well-trained choir making a twen- what can we say of the course which will be of ty-five minute transcription of music, scripture, interest to this magazine's readers? Prayer, and meditation to be broadcast at 6:05 p. m., Sunday evening, over WOPI-FM, Bristol, The course was realistic and valuable to us as Tennessee-Virginia, whose transmission tower is rccrcatien leaders and is highly recommended to on the top of White Top Mountain. This service every group in the mountains concerned with is made possible by the gift of a recorder and creative recreation. On the first night the direc transmitter, donated to the mission at a cost of tors of the course, Georg and ~arquerite Bid $1,200 by friends in Louisville, Kentucky, and the strut, told us that "each course is different-be kindness of the broadcasting station which wcl- cau~c the people in the course determine its charac comes a better type of religious progrann on the rer." This, I am glad to say; was the gospel truth. sustaining basis. After lookim; us over, hearing our problems, and listenin~" to our suggestions, the directors charted The popularity of this type of mountain mission a program to give us what we needed. We learned program is spreading and demands are growing to an easy way to teach the polka; we were told use the transcriptions in some of our northern where to get simple material; we were shown good cities. wqucnccs of dances that get people on the floor, hol , them -,et acquainted. and give their a feeling Konnarock Training School is a part of the cF co,ifidenee and accomplishment. Much atten Southern Mountain Mission project which includes a Medical Center, two schools, and 22 Congregations tion was `wen to the details of the dances, and we under the Board of American Missions of the United discovered the thrill of perfectly coordinating Lutheran Church in America. mt:sic and movement. Once again, we found that RECREATION in dancing discipline and fun are inseparable. A more than capacity crowd of nearly forty- All of us felt that recreation was put in its five people attended the June short-course for ,r,,,)cr sclriiw. The Folk School itself is a fine recreation leaders at the John C. Campbell Folk 'l1ustration of the value of an integrated pro SchGol. Most of those attending were teachers and uam-a program which with its many sides, edu students from the Southern Highlands, but there cational, recreational, vocational, economic and was a leavening diversity of both occupations religious, involved all of life. A real and success (social workers, mechanics, and a deputy sheriff) ful attempt was made to have us see that recrea and of states (Oregon, Massachusetts, Illinois, and r'-i was one strand of life, inextricably intertwin Mississippi). ed with other strands and lending strength and The ten days were bulging with activity. Two Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ - i beauty to the whole. hours of dancing (one of English and one of The discussions were helpful and enlightening. Danish) and an hour of discussion and singing We learned of the Folk School's back ;round and filled the mornings; in the afternoons, carving, history. We talked about why the folk school Fall, 1948 MOUNTAIN Ln r. AND V1'OIt6 Page 21 hadn't spread in this country. We considered the valuable to many of us: a feeling of community. future development of folk-dancing in our region. There was hope of making life in our Southern Should we introduce more traditions, say the mid- Mountains fuller. We could do something about European, into our program which already in- making our community life happy and joyful. eludes English, IJanish, and American dances? In And one of the reasons we felt encouraged was general, we thought three traditions sufficient and that there was a fine group of young people, united felt that the American tradition needed to be by common values and hopes, working together strengthened. We discussed, inevitably, the eco- even when widely scattered. The loneliness, which nemic problems of our area and through a farm so many of us must inevitably feel, was, to some tour saw the great contribution which TVA and extent, replaced by comradeship and fellowship. the Extension and other governmental programs All of us returned home strengthened and inspired, are making to the improvement of farm life in the for Brasstown is an oasis of good will and hope. area surrounding the Folk School. ,James S. Brown Thrcugh all of these activities and through our University of Kentucky living together there developed the thing most Lexington, Kentucky l L,_ EDITORIAL STAYING ON THE BEAM Purpose and perspective are sometimes very dif- ly, results. We are not in the business of simply lift ficult to maintain. We often get lost in a maize in,, an occasional person above his environment of detail. Without being aware of what is hap- but in helping each other lift the entire area of life pening we lose the big idea in the pressure of the horizontally. many little things whose inexorable insistence Some people like to emphasize the failures of keeps us from keeping the main purpose of our . . . . challenges predominant in our thinking. democracy by advertising and stigmatizing our area with the limitations which come from a need Then it is we begin to feel we are making little less isolation. We, however, can never be inter ur no progress in our work. We become certain we ested in such an approach or policy. It is our are not fulfilling our primary duties. We begin business to give the lie to the caricature and to to think we arc not attaining the objectives which reveal the possibilities which are found in a free have been set before us and which we have ac- and democratic people. We believe it is much more cepted for ourselves. And then we become quite important to help ourselves understand that our si ified with intermediate goals-with buildings young people have within them the greatness of atis] I I I I put in good order, cement walks laid, the posses- an Abraham Lincoln or a Cordell Hull than it lion of a "jeep" or a station wagon or some other is to thwart their ambitions and belief in them sc condary result. selves by comparing them with Lil Abner and his crowd. And yet, we can never afford to let ourselves forget the i n d i v i d u a 1 in his relation to his In the Appalachians we are true American citi neighborhood. In the Southern Appalachians we tens fighting for the chance to give America and have an amazing potential on which to draw for the world what we have in our minds and hearts, the good of America and the world. cr what our hands can do to help lift the world's load in these terrible days. It is our paramount responsibility to discover and develop this marvelous human potential so We may have economic and educational handi that an indigenous leadership inevitably, if slow- caps but our spirit, when given a chance to prove Page 22 MOUNTAIN Lne AND WORK Summer, 1948 its true character, will reveal a richness of quality sells that-he sure ain't got much left." which others can well emulate. And you know, in that moment I felt myself Therefore, in the busyness of our business we in the presence of immortal greatness for I was must never permit ourselves to think of second in the fellowship of one who had an abiding sense rate purposes. We must ever "accentuate the pos- ;f the real values of life. itive"-that quality of enduring greatness which is found in the person or persons with whom we That is what I mean. When all of us become as are permitted to live as friends with friend. good as that man is-then we shall have at taiiied- and our objective will have been realized. I thin],, with tremendous satisfaction on the experience I once had as I sat on a hillside talking To realize such a purpose and to keep that with a friend and neighbor. We talked about perspective we just have to stay oil the beam. many things. His education had been very, very Above all, we dare not let the difficultics of the limited. His earthly possessions were very, very little things keep us from ever being aware of the few. But he was a good man. As we talked about greatness which is always about us in the souls America and the freedoms and privileges Ameri- of the friends and neighbors it is our privilege to cans have, he suddenly turned to me and said, have and to enjoy. "A vote is about all a pore man has. When he R. B. 1). ,~ I AMONG THE BOOKS THE TENNESSEE. Volume 11. THE NEW physical devastation which characterized the war RIVER: CIVIL WAR TO TVA, by Donald in the Tennessee Valley, in comparison with which, Cavidson. Rinehart and Company, New York, the author claims, "Shernnan's March to the Sea 1948. 377 + viii pp. $3.50. was relatively mild; for it came but once and was over." In contrast the Tennessee Valley region r. The editors of the Rivers of America series con- was subjected to repeated devastations in retalia sidered the Tennessee so much more important tion for Forrcst's cavalry raids and the activities than other rivers, probably as a result of the TVA of Confederate guerillas. The division of senti development, that they allowed Professor David- merit amoung the inhabitants, particularly in East son of Vanderbilt University the space of two Tennessee, betwccn the Union and Confederate volumes instead of one for the recounting of its causes also resulted in extremes of bitterness and history. This second volume, although written in the creation of longstanding antagonisms. the same entertaining and graphic style, is less satisfactory than the first. This difference is due Professor Davidson has well summarized the mainly to the fact that the author is still imbued story of reconstruction in Tennessee and has with the agrarian philosophy which he as one of pcinted out its uniqueness in comparison with the the "Twelve Southerners" helped to disseminate other states of the Confederacy. Although the several years ago in the book l'll Take My Stand. book as a whole is unusually free from historical Consequently, he is inclined to disparage "modern inaccuracics, the dates of Negro enfranchisement progress" toward an industrial civilization as spon- in the state and of the selection of the first Negro sated by the TVA in the Tennesee Valley. legislator are given inaccurately, missing the cor rect date, however, by only one year in each case. This second volume begins with the Civil War The author suggests a rather interesting but some and includes ail excellent appraisal of the signi- what strained analogy between the attitudes of ficince of the Tennessee River in military stra- social and economic carpetbaggers toward the Ila te,;y. Also emphasized is the enormous extent of tives of the Valley with earlier white relationship Fall, 1948 with the Cherokee Indians. Continuing the excellent treatment of the subject of navigation on the Tennessee River in the first volume, there is in the second a chapter entitled "The Last Great Days of the Steamboat," dealing with the high tide of river traffic in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The author then turns to the origins of the Tennessee Valley Authority, interrupting this story with a chapter dealing with the famous trials at Layton, Tennessee, and Scottsboro, Alabama, which he considers unfortunate because of their effects upon outside opinion concerning the people of the Valley. Senator Geerge W. Norris, in the opinion of the author, is entitled to be called "Father of TVA," but he credits an Alabamian, ,1. W. Worthington, with being its "grandfather." He also calls attention to the services of two Tennesseans in the U. S. Army, Lytle Brown and Lewis Watkins, for providing a multipurpose survey of the Tennessee River which eventually became the basis for the TVA program. The e s t i m a t e d cost was $1,200,000,000, and Davidson comments, "It was inconceivable in 1930 that any administration, Democratic or Republican, would ever lavish so much of the people's money on a single river project." Senator K. D. McKellar is recognized as one of the first Southerners to join Norris' crusade for public power and is credited with rendering him valuable assistance in putting over that idea. In the opinion of Profcsscr L'avidson, however, neither McKellar, nor the other Southerners who eventually jumped on .the bandwagon, had any real comprehension of the ultimate meaning of many of the finesounding phrases in the TVA law. On the basis of a careful, intensive study of the records concerning TVA's operations, Professor Davidson has written a vivid account of its dam-building program, its land-acquisition difficulties, its battles within its own directorate and with the private power companies, its agricultural and navigation improvements, and general program of economic betterment. The account, however, is not free from bias, as it shows very definitely the agrarian predilections of the author. He admits, though rather grudgingly, the benefits which TVA has brought to the region, but he devotes much more space to criticism. Much of this criticism is indirect, with a clever admixture of a MOUNTAIN Lm:L AND WORK light vein of sarcasm in a style which will bring forth delighted chuckles from those readers who are critics of the Authority. Ignoring the fact that one of the keynotes of history is change, he wistfully looks back to the romantic "good old days" before "King Killowatt I" and Lords Lilienthal and Clapp came to "rule" over the inhabitants of the Tennessee Valley and paternalistically dist r i b u t e among them "modern improvements" whether they want them or not. Those who are unwilling among the subjects of this new kingdom have no recourse, according to the author, because TVA is the Government. He gives scant consideration to the fundamentally democratic concept of TVA of local control and cooperation with state and local authorities as against control from faraway Washington. This second volume, like the first, is attractively illustrated with wood cuts drawn by the wife of the author and includes several helpful maps, which would be more useful, however, if they were included in the table of contents. On the whole, Professor Davidson's two-volume study of the Tennessee River is among the best of the River ol America series. S J. Polmsbee Professor of History University of Tennessee EASY ON THE EYES - by Winifred Hathaway. The John C. Winston Company, Chicago, Illinois. 1947, 88 pp. EASY ON THE EYES is a book primarily for use with Upper Elementary and Junior High pds. It is especially adaptable for use in a sight upi I I 1 11 saving class. However, it could be used as a supplementary science book dealing with the anatomy of the eye and the science of light. The entire book deals with the activities of a school club whose project was the decorating of Dorothy's bedroom. The project involved the visiting of persons specializing in interior decorating, lighting and ophthalmology. The first visit was in the home of a club member, whose mother was an interior decorator. She explained proper home lighting and decorating, and the placement of furniture in relation to lighting. Incidentally, she gave them ideas of Page 24 NIUUINTAIN 1.111 AND WORK Fall, 1948 proper lighting and placennent of furniture in a 20-room high school and on school days you see school room. a roilv crowd of 600 students. They arc Hatfields, The following club meeting was held in the of- McCoys, Varneys, Chafins, coming by yellow flee of a lighting engineer whose son was a club busses from Hardy and Blackberry and String mcnber. Two chapters were devoted to the ex- town. The youngsters study together and play to "ether, of the light meter and the amount of "ether, the Hatficlds proud of their names and the McCoys prouder. if you mention feuding they light needed for a given task; reflective values of will act out a measure for you-pull down a light surfaces; the types of lighting fixtures and slouchy hat, go on guard and sight down a cocked maintenance. Although these chapters dealt most , thumb and straight finger. The fighting of their could be adapted to classrooms. ly with home li~htin~Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ there was much winch granclpappies is for them humor and hear-say. They have learned the move versions. And then The chapter on "Working out Ideas" described they lock arms and go in to classes. Their fathers club activities. An assembly program where a desk work together, share their cars and vote shoulder easel was demonstrated; lighting in the classrooms to shoulder in labor meetings. Times have changed. was measured; history of lighting was reviewed; There is no more feuding in the mountains-no candles were made in old fashioned moulds; an- more than you find elsewhere. tique lamps were displayed and a visit to the light Yet there have been feuds and wars and troubles company was planned' in the Appalachians generally. Feuds grew out of Three chapters were devoted to the club's visits the simple conflict of kith against kin, faction to the ophthalmologist's office. He was the father against faction in isolated areas, where small groups of a club member. The eyes of animals were dis- had to look after their own property and interests. cussed and comparisons made with the human eye. The Hatfield and McCoy trouble has been made Parts of the eye were explained through the use of the most famous because of the dash and dignity an eye model. A great many technical terms are of the leading antagonists. Devil Anse Hatfield crowded into these chapters but they arc quite was a tall long-striding man, ex-captain of the clearly defined. It would take considerable tine Confederate Ariny, usually dressed in leather boots, to teach the terns to children. baggy pants, slouch hat, and wore enough beard An eye examination was made by the doctor for to keep his chest warm. Randolph McCoy was the benefit of the Club members and certain eye v'gÃ‚Â°rous and testy, a stickler for what was just defects explained. and honorable. These two characters straight out of fiction were at the head of this bitter trouble, The last chapter is practically a list of activities though there is no record that either killed a single to be carried on by the Club as an outgrowth of person. their various visitations. There arc enough sun,, Reporter and journalist Jones, a Virginian, has gestions to furnish units of work for many months. do,ic a classic job in writing this the most readable Marquerite Kastrup, Supervisor and excitable account of the mountain vendetta. Braille & Sight Saving Classes There have been other versions-an L.D. Hatfield Northern Ohio pamphlet distributed widely for a quarter, Ken ----------- tucky's Feuds and Tragedies by Mutzenburg, The THE HATFIELDS AND THE McCOYS, by Dcuil's Brigade by John Spivak-which Mr. ,Jones Virgil Carrington Jones, University of North Caro- did not visibly draw from. He has chosen to go to lina Press, Chapel Hill, 1948, 293 pp. X3.75. original sources in the newspaper and magazine reports of the day, and he has researched in the If you ride along the concrete highway from Library of Congress. At the two state capitals he Pikeville, Kentucky, to Williamson, West Virginia, made use of the feud of letters between the Ken and see the cleanly painted houses sitting in tucky and West Virginia governors. His inter meadows and at the foot of curving mountains, views with older people in the region gave him a you know you arc in a happy and a peaceful feel of the customs, the manners, the speech of the region. You pass through Belfry and see a splendid Highlands and a look at the devious hollows and Fall, 1948 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 i meandering streams where the real feudists lived. He who has time to read only one essay in the Here then is the latest and surely the most im- brook might well read chapter five: The Unifica partial and dramatic record of a world-notorious tioll of the World and the Change in Historical feud. Mr. Jones makes an early beginning, with Perspcctl~.c. Here Is Philosopher Toynbee busy the Civil War and the bushwhacking lawlessness cracking Intellectual rocks. He begins with this which followed, and ends "when the guns are strong statement: ". . . and the paradox is that to stacked" in 1928, when Hatfield and McCoy pose clay we Westerners arc the only people. In the for pictures together. There are the court sessions world whose outlook oil history still remains pre and elections, the captured feudists shipped to cla Galnan." Then he opens up the historic III Louisville for trial, public hanging in Pikeville- f lucnce of the late-Renaissance voyagers upon the only one in the county's history and which at- world civilization in the succeeding .four centuries. traded thousands. Running through the fussin ~ ~~ur own descendants arc not going to be just and the fightin' is the ironic love affair of Rose Western like ourselves. They are going to be heirs Ann McCoy and johnse Hatfield. The author has `''r Confucius and Lao-Tse as well as Socrates, Plato, and Plotinus; heirs of Gautama Buddha as woven these elements and many more into a l~cutero-lsaiah and ,Jesus Christ; and heirs (if graphic history of the Tug River troubles. still wallowing in the Scrbonian Bog of politics) of Leonard Roberts Lenin and Gandhi and Sun Yat-sen as well as Berea College Cromwell and George Washington and Mazzini." Berea, Kentucky I recommend the omitted six lines to you. This one ------------ essay alone has enough intellectual thrill in it for CIVILIZATION ON TRIAL, by Arnold J, half a dozen ordinary books. Toynbcc. Oxford University Press, New York, Or take chapter seven, The International Out 1948. 263 pp. $3.50 look, where he faces the dilemma of the United ------------ Nations with U. S. and Soviet Russia on its horns. Because the thirteen essays comprising this book When he fails to find a possible third great power were written between 1926 and 1947, we seem to either in Europe or in the British Commonwealth see the author's great philosophy of history grow- or in the East, he draws this wise conclusion: in,, under hand. Woven into every chapter is some "What the world needs above all now is to get the idea from his STUDY OE HISTORY, expressed issue of free enterprise versus socialists off its in a delightfully human style. A philosopher who ideological pedestal and to treat it, not as a rnat can introduce himself as "a piece of sentient flot- ter of semi-religious faith and fanaticism, but as am on the eddying surface of the stream of time," a common-sense, practical question of trial and attests thereby his proper sense of humor. The error, of, more or less, circumstance and adapta cs,says are so clear, so free from any hint of con- tion." densation that they make an excellent preface to But singling out these two chapters for note the more solid pages of Somervell's abridgement. seems invidious when every one of the thirteen But CIVILIZATION ON TRIAL is much chapters is a call to high intellectual adventure. more than a preface. It is the third round on the The very first chapter, My View of History, re ladder of understanding. In time the basic ideas of minds the reader of what a thorough classical edu Toynbee's interpretation of civilization will be- cation can do for a man. Any one who is heady come the familiar thoughts of schoolboys, but not with pride over the achievements of western Chris yet. A few thinkers (not schoolboys) will read the tendom had better read at once chapter eight, six (soon to be nine) volumes of Toynbee's A where the author faces the catastraphe of ci vili STUDY OF HISTORY. More than a few men are zations. In chapter nine the author emphasizes now perched oil the second round of the ladder, the influence of the totalitarian Byzantine state reading Somervell's abridgement. Many more will in shaping Russia's public life over the centuries. soon sit on the third round, CIVILIZATION ON In chapter ten, after interpreting the self-saving TRIAL in hand, catching Toynbec's underlying operation performed by the new Turkey, he pre thought from this simpler work. dicts as the destiny of the majority of the Islamic Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Fall, 1948 peoples, "neither to be exterminated nor to be "Sam" make use of the idiosyncracies of dialect f-ssiliz.ed nor to be assimilated, but to be submerg- and custom which always distinguish isolated ed by being enrolled in that vast, cosmopolitan, people; but they go deeper than that. Here is a nbiquitious proletariat which is one of the most good range of character and surprising, touching, portentous by-products of the 'Westernization' of and humorous incidents. In "A Blackjack Bar the world." gainer" O. Henry, a North Carolinian writing in The last two chapters deal mainly with civrli- prison, could see into the soul of Yancey Gorec ia~ion and religion. Possibly their drive would be knowing that men were looking at him with the stronger if the author defined or described `re- same pity, when the part he wanted to play was Colonel Coltrane, generous, kindly, upright. "Sam" lr;ion' as clearly as he interprets `civilization' in is a humorous tale of a "furriner" who foolishly chapter eleven, Encounters between Civilizations. called a mountain man an imbecile and of the Seldom is it that one finds a little book of less native's shrewd and taking revenge. "A Mother in than 00 pa-e~ so packed with food for thought, Mannville" has a mountain orphanage for a back meaty bones for good picking, and always the ground. The story is about a twelve year old ripe, rich flavor of beautiful English. orphan boy named Jerry who longs for a mother. Elizabeth S. Peck "The Lost Boy" is Grover Gant of Asheville, I'erea College struggling against the desire to buy candy. He failed and the result was that he "felt the overwhelming, soul-sickening guilt that all the children, all the NORTH CAROLINA IN THE SHORT STORY, good men of the earth, have felt since time began." edited by Richard Walser, Chapel Hill, University But "he only knew that something had been lost of North Carolina Press, 1948, 309 pp. $3.50. something forever gained." Many of the stories in This collection of fifteen stories is a part of the the volume we are considering touch on the pro accumulation of literature which has made it pos- blem of integrity. The mountains come off very s'ble for southerners to boast a,ain. The book is b , I b well in the struggle. further proof of North Carolina's right to share in . the credit. Mr. Walser says that though the stories Other stories touch on North Carolina's prob "do not profess to present a full picture of the lems of welfare. Four important ones are "Town state, they do reflect those characteristics and Drunk" by Wilbur Daniel Stelle, "Old Pines" by features of life in North Carolina which have re- James Boyd, "The Bouquet" by C. W. Chcsnutt, ccived significant artistic interpretation by writers and "The Enchanted" by Laurette Mac Duffle. of the short story." The material presented has The problems of race, conservation, dry rot, and fine literary qualities and was not chosen merely growing pains arc still with us; and however much for local color. There is real insight and appreci- we may admire or not admire the personal qual ation of the problems in the lives of the people itics which the characters in these stories display with whom these stories deal. As a result the reader we may well wish that change and wealth could is proud of the authors, the stories, and the coin- conic without the concomitant evils of material monwcalth which is their setting, a setting that .-nd human waste. "The Bouquet" is the story of never dominates but has a depth and a continuity Sophy Tucker's love for her white aristocratic in time and space from which the characters and teacher and her struggle to get a bunch of yellow actions logically spring. The emotional content is roses on the teacher's grave. Sophy Tucker is a high and of a universal quality. The drama is drawn North Carolinian of whom we are proud. "Old from life. The writers have been for the most part Pines" is the story of a Scotchman in eastern associated closely with North Carolina. Carolina, happy in his family and his railroad. His fortune was "founded on nothing less and nothing Four stories have a mountain setting; "A Black- more than the ruin of the countryside." "Town jack Bargainer" by O. Henry, "Sam" by Olive Drunk" is the story of Homan Macy, a backwoods Tilford I)argan, "A Mother in Mantlville" by boy who goes to Chapel Hill to learn to be a Marjorie Kinrlan IZawlings, and "The Lost Boy" by preacher. There he is exposed to new truth about Thomas Wolfe. "A Blackjack Bargainer" and the Bible and to the new scientific learning. He Pall, 1948 MOUNTAIN LtrL AND WORK Page 27 reacts violently and leaves. But he cannot get away story is "The Fallen Angel and the Hunter's Moon" from the new ideas; neither can he get rid of his by William Polk wherein there is shown the drunk carly gospel training. Chapel Hill can be proud ard's damnation featuring the fallen angel and an that it has been the force in education credited to elopement. "The Black Stag" by R. P. Harriss is a it in this story. splendid story about a game cock fight. "The The problems in the three foregoing stories arc Corn by Paul Green is about a custom a part of the background; there is no indictment. known to many sections, related here with an east Ill "The Enchanted," however, the indictment is eln Carolina setting where shucking, singing, eat clcar and immediately one begins to question. Un- "~g' and young love flourish along with the yarrow which Achilles knew. "Seven Boys Take a Hill" less one has been familiar with Wilmington, the Lay David Cornell De Jong tells the story of seven Somerset of the story, during the years 1918-1938 he cannot answer the question. To the natives of boys in a wood with a realistic treatment of one boy's adventure. "Apricot Pie" by Prances Gray Somerset lift is "pleasantly uneventful." To Phil Patton is a good slice of North Carolina home Scott on his return after twenty years, life in life without the apricot pie. "Bantle Woman" by Somerset seems "sterile, barren, and empty of mean- Bernice Kelly Harris tells the story of one man "Death ing." VG'hen he lcavÃ‚Â°es the thoug "ht comes to him; and two Marys, one in a coffin and one saved by into life." And he had a sudden over whelming need for noise and conflict and activity, a coffin. Mrs. Harris grasps the life of the poor for everything that New York stood for." One with both hands and sets it down sturdily. may question the value in noise, conflict, activity North Carolina in the Short Story ably fulfills without excusing dry rot. its purpose. "The Downfall of Fascism in Black Ankle Mary Eliason County" by Joseph Mitchell is a humorous story Department of English about three drunk bootleggers, three blasts of dyna- Lces McRae College `initc and the Klu Klux Klan. Another humorous Banner Elk, North Carolina ANNOUNCEMENTS ANNUAL CONFERENCE that the date has not yet been selected, but the Plans arc being made to hold the Thirty-seventh Place will be the Ezcl High School, Morban Amiual Mee ting of Southern Mountain Workers at County. It will be an all day festival. Those Gat Tennessee, March 1, 2, and 3. Reset- planning to attend should write to Mr. Moors for vations should be made early at the Mountain View the program and other particulars. Hotel. All who arc on the Council mailing list The Southeastern Kentucky Region will hold its will receive notices giving details of the program festival at the Hyden High School, probably about and information in regard to rates. Others de- the third week of October. Those interested in at siring such notice will please notify the Office Di- tending should write to Mr. Roy Howard whose rcctor, Council of Southern Mountain Workers, address is Hyden High School. Berea, Kentucky. Mrs. Georg Bidstrup, Chairman of the North ------------ Georgia-Western North Carolina group, tells us REGIONAL FESTIVALS that their festival will be held November 6 in Four regional festivals are to be held this fall. Murphy, North Carolina. The office has received word from Mr. Thomas As we go to press word has not been received as Moore, Chairman of the Central Kentucky Region, to the date for the festival which will be held in Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Fall, 1948 Central Tennessee. The Chairman for this region health, agriculture, crafts, education, religion. The .40 is Miss Marguerite Taylor, Livingston. route will cover parts of Kentucky, Virginia, North It is of interest that the holding of regional folk Carolina and Tennessee, passing through spectacu festivals, originally due to war time restrictions, lar scenery at the height of the fall coloring. has become a significant part of the recreation pat- Workers in the Southern Highlands, represent tcrn in the Southern Highlands. Many useful pur- atives of organizations sponsoring the work and poses are served by regional festivals which are others interested in the area have expressed the impossible of realization at the Mountain Folk worthwhileness of this opportunity to observe the Festival. institutions and to become acquainted with other Readers of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK People having the same interests: The fellowship wI like-minded travelers is in a real th who reside in any of the regions where festivals pleasure.' arc to be held will find in them much of interest and inspiration and arc cordially invited to attend. The Black Brothers Bus Company will again ------------ supply comfortable transportation at the same rate as heretofore. An effort is being made to keep the CHRISTMAS COUNTRY DANCE SCHOOL cost about $40 at the same time providing for coin The Eleventh Christmas Country Dance School, fortable accommodations: To be sure of getting a sponsored by the Council of Southern Mountain space make application in September. A full .bus Workers and Berea College, will be held at Berea must be assured by October eighth. Applications should be accompanied by a deposit of $10 which beginning with an informal musical program the will be applied to the cost of the tour. The deposit night of Sunday, December 26, 1948 and ending at ill be returned if the reservation is canceled be noon on Saturday, January 1, 1949. The school w 1 wM be alon- the same lines as in the prcvious years fore October first. All inquiries should be ad i dressed to with emphasis upon American, English and Danish traditions in folk dancing and with classes in chil- Office Director drcn's singing games and other simpler material Council of Southern Mountain Workers suitable for use by rural teachers, 4-H Club leaders Berea, Kentucky and religious workers. Folk singing will have an ----------- important place in the program and opportunities OUR NEW STAFF MEMBER will be afforded for those interested in such things as playing recorders, storytelling, and spontaneous The Council of Southern Mountain Workers is dramatics. fortunate to secure the services of Miss Edna Ritchie of Viper, Kentucky, as the new itinerant The Country Dance School is primarily devoted recreation leader. She and her family have al to leadership training for persons working in the ways been interested in recreation, especially in the Southern Highlands. However, at the last school Southern Appalachians, their ancestral home. twenty states, particularly in the South and the Miss Ritchie was born in Hindman, Kentucky, Middle West, were represented. but her family soon moved to Perry County. She For further information write attended Pine Mountain School for two years of Frank H. Smith high school, then entered Berea Normal where she Council of Southern Mountain Workers obtained an elementary teacher's certificate. By Berea, Kentucky alternating teaching with study, Miss Ritchie ------------ earned her A. B. degree from Berea College in 1936. FAIL TOUR After graduating, she taught in the public The Council of Southern Mountain Workers is schools in Ferry County, where she organized a planning another get-acquainted tour by chartered glee club and a folk club. Since the fall of 1946 bus from October I S to 23. Visits will be made to she has been a member of the staff of the John C. institutions with varying social welfare interests- Campbell Folk School teaching folk songs, folk i Fall, 1945 MOUNTAIN Lill: AND WORK PagC 29 dancing, and singing games in two nearbv rural Ritchie to the staff of the Council and look for schools. ward to xvorking with her. ------------ Our new recreation leader is well known to Miss Amy Wing, Smith College 1948, will hold those of our readers who have attended the Christ- the Smith College Workship for the coming year. mas Schools or Folk Dance Festivals, as she has She will be located at two different institutions un often participated in them. She will carry forward til after the first of the year and then will ac the work which Miss Marie Marvel has so ably company Miss Ritchie on her trips to the com done through the past years. We welcome Miss munities in the area. THE ART OF STORYTELLING (Continued from page S) dom from selfconsciousness. Its greatest enemy is boys and girls brings security. It is the sharing aificiality. Its greatest asset the endless treasures ith (~thers of something that belongs to all hu rt] I I I wi that lie between the covers of books. Often at the manitv. Storytelling is as old as the human race. end of a story, the storyteller has a sense of having Of all the arts it is the simplest and the most failed in his interpretation. But each failure teaches gracious. a lesson. It is one more step on the road to success. Editor's mote: As the sense of power grows, the great stories in Miss Davis has sent this list o f essential boos our literary inheritance challenge him. To pass on for the storyteller: to a new generation one of the great epic tales like the French "Song of Roland" or the Finnish FHE ART OF THE STORYTELLER by Marie "Kalevala" is to open young hearts and minds to L. Shedlock, Appleton-Century a wider horizon, to the qualities in man that are THE WAY OF THE STORYTELLI?R by Ruth ageless and deathless. What greater reward is there Sawyer, The Vikin ; Press anywhere than the laughter of children? To make TOLD AGAIN by Walter De La Mare them laugh together over "Mollie Whuppie" or Alfred A. Knopf "The Pumpkin Giant" is to give them a happy memory that will stay with them as long as they A BAKER'S DOZEN compiled by Mary Gould live. During the last World War, on a tiny island Davis, Harcourt, Brace in the Pacific Ocean a soldier wrote a letter to ENGLISH FAIRY TALES edited by Joseph the Children's Librarian of his home town. "It is Jacobs, Putnam Christmas Eve," he wrote, "and on Christmas THE LONG CHRISTMAS by Ruth Sawyer Eve 1 always think of the Story Hour in the The Viking Press Library. I can smell the Christmas greens and see THE POT OF GOLD by Mary E. Wilkins the red candles burning. I can hear your voice , telling the story about the white bear and the Lothrop, Lee and Shepard trolls. I remember every word of it. I could tell TALES FROM GRIMM by Wanda Gag it myself here where there is no Christmas-just Coward-McCann the coral and the sea and sky." YANKEE DOODLE'S COUSINS by Anne Mal When we speak of "privileged" children we colmson, Houghton-Mifflin mean those who have the greatest sense of securi- THE BIG TREE OF BUNLAHY by Padraic ty. To listen to a good story in a group with other Colum, Macmillan i G v -j ~- ... u ;. r R a t ' ..Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ' .Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ , - - 'I, l .. e' hR_. . ' IT'S NOT TOO EARLY ' to start planning to attend OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL to be held on- the Berea College campus from January 3 to 22, 1949. But better still,- talk to your neighbors about going to . OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL and perhaps several from your community can come this year. ' There are no educational requirements for enrollment. Ap plicants must be at least eighteen years. Above eighteen, there is no age limit. ' For further information write to Miss Helen H. Dingman Chairman of Opportunity School Committee Berea College, Box 589 BEREA, KENTUCKY Printed by The BeFea College Press Berea, Kentucky ' i 9 .