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Mountain Life & Work vol. 26 no. 1 Spring, 1950 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv26n10150 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 26 no. 1 Spring, 1950 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Spring, 1950 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK RELIGION - Rufus Morgan RECREATION - James Brown EDUCATION - Luther Ambrose MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Staff AGRICULTURE - Wendel Hinkey HEALTH - Ethel King COPY ED. - Charles Drake Signed or quoted articles are not necessarily the expression of editorial opinion, nor do they carry the endorsment of the Council. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is published quarterly by the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, 82' Wall St., Asheville, N. C. ALL SUBSCRIPTIONS SHOULD BE sent TO THAT ADDRESS. All members of the Council receive this magazine free. Subscription price to non-members is $1.00 per year, payable to the office of the Council. All copy for MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is edited at Berea, Ky., and all arti- cles should be sent to: MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BOX 2000 COLLEGE STATION BEREA, KENTUCKY Address all communications regarding the publication, except subscriptions, to the above address. Picture Credit: COVER, Dorothy Mac Lean, Gatlinburg, Tenn. Picture copyrighted 1950. CRAFTS, Floyd Downs, Berea, Ky. HEALTH, rossville Chronicle photo, Crossville, Tenn. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES: Vivienne Roberts photo Sketches: Mrs. Burton Rogers, Pine Mountain, Ky.; Lester Pross, Berea, Ky. Box 2000 College Station Berea, Kentucky Dear Friends of the Council: Seeing a large man who has lost weight is always something of a surprise. This smaller edition of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK may give you something of the same surprise. However, it is necessary to publish a smaller edition for the time being, and we hope that you will bear with us until we can expand again. For the first time in its history, this magazine is entirely on its own financially. The friends who have subsidized it have said: "We wish you well, but now is the time to walk alone." After a year of crawling, we are ready to take this step because of the encouragement given by members of the Council. The desire to see the maga- zine continue springs from three reasons: 1. A recognition that MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK has made a contribution to highland life far out of proportion to its circulation. This contribu- tion in the last third-century was made by devoted people who have put their best into the magazine. 2. The desire for continuation is also based on a recognition that the Council is still a vital organization and must have some organ to main- tain fellowship and circulate ideas and accomplishments among its mem- bers throughout the mountain area. 3. The staff is volunteering its services. The Council has made available for four issues, no more. We must be a functioning publication, sup- porting ourself in one year. This can happen only if you are willing to send us (I) articles, and (2) subscriptions. Since we do not have a paid staff, we cannot dig out stories. You must take it upon your- self to see that we know about your work. An issue is always in pre- paration. We can use articles at any time. Beyond that, we must have 1000 subscriptions. Membership in the council carries a subscription with it. but we must have many non-member subscribers. Just this morning we received a letter from a Council member with an order for five subscriptions to be sent to friends. Won't you do the same? At $1.00 per year, we believe that it is one of the best magazine bargains in America today. Certainly no library, reading room, community center or church should be without it in the whole mountain area. Because our first issue is being put out by a different printing process and because all of us are new at the business, there will surely be some im- provements that should be made. Will you help us to improve by writing us as soon as you receive this copy? We want to hear from you. We would like to urge all of you to join the Council. Membership blanks may be obtained by writing the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, 8'-z Wall Street, Asheville, N. C. Sincerely yours CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS REPORT OF THE THIRTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE Florence Goodell, enthusiastic secretary of the Council, reports on the conference held at Gatlinhurg in March. Wednesday afternoon, March 8, familiar faces began to appear at the Moun- tain View Inn in Gatlinburg. "It seems like coming home," was often heard in the lobby and dining room. Within the next two days nearly a hundred friends of the Southern Highlands participated in the consideration of "Fit- ness for Living". The Health Committee, led by Dr. Heinz Meyer, gathered in one corner of the lobby at three o'clock to discuss the best possible program. Present were Mrs. Sally Edwards, Welfare Chairman, and Mrs. Hazel Hopkins, President, represented Sigma Phi Gamma International Sorority whose members contribute so much to the health program of the children in the mountains. Dr. Paul Andrew Kirsch of the Board of American Missions of the United Lutheran Church in America also attended the meeting. Dr. Meyer explained that we are trying to give service where needed in the area that crosses the boundaries of eight states. An effort is made to raise the living standards without relying on Federal help. The proposal which has been submitted by the Health Committee calls mostly on self-help. This has been approved by the members of Sigma Phi Gamma. The people who are being served feel a moral obligation to pay for these services. At foir o'clock the Executive and Advisory Boards met and, after introduc- ing those present, Dr. Bannerman called for reports. The Board voted to re- comment to the Council membership the continuation of the present arrangement with the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. Charles Drake, of Berea, pre- sented plans for reviving MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK in a less expensive form. It was voted to recommend that Mr. Drake edit a quarterly magazine for one year and that he be allowed $600 from the present balance being held for a publication. Mr. Bidstrup, Chairman of the Recreation Committee, stated that that Com- mittee will make plans for carrying on a program without an Itinerant Leader and askedfor cooperation from the Council membership. The financial report showed a slight gain of income over expenses. To maintain this balance requires the loyalty and interest of all present members as well as an increase in membership. A snowstorm prevented some members and the evening speaker from getting over the mountain. Dr. H. S. Randolph of the Presbyterian Board of Missions was kind enough to give an impromptu talk on church conditions in some of the mountain counties. Some are underchurched because there are too many churches serving small and almost non-existent denominational groups. A large percentage of the population in the counties studied are not affiliated with any church. Dr. Randolph recommended that Church Councils of all dernom- inations be formed so that all may cooperate in solving community problems. Many churches have no young people's group. Dr. I. George Nace of the Home Missions Council led the group in devotions before each meeting, stressing the importance of fitness for service. Thursday morning the weather permitted many of our members to get to the group meetings. These discussed the specific problems of the Church, Commun- ity Responsibility for Health, Recreation and the part Youth might play in the community. Dr. W. E. Garnett from the Rural Sociology Department of the Virginia Experiment Station, whose talk scheduled for Wednesday evening was postponed, spoke to the group immediately after lunch. He stressed the need and im- portance of medical work among rural peoples, especially since the majority of the children a re produced in rural areas. In the afternoon reports were given by the different interest groups. The Church Group touched on several problems - the under-churched communities mentioned by Dr. Randolph, making suggestions that several centers combine in studying the problem; Christian education in the public schools; evange- lism: young men from the area attending northern seminaries and not returning to the mountain area - but the deepest concern was the brotherhood of man. It was pointed out that, although the Council had voted to be an inter-racial group, there were no Negro groups in our fellowship. The recommendation was made that the economic and social conditions in the Southern Highlands be studied before and during the next Conference, with the thought in mind of discovering what action should be taken in regard to Negro schools anti centers. Out of the Recreation 6roupfs dis- cussion grew the following recommenda- t ions: 1. The continuation of the Smith College Workshop in the Southern High- lands. It has been suggested that Miss Elinor Kuhn, who has been selected for 1950-51, attend the Short Course and the Craft Course at John C. Campbell Folk School under a partial scholarship from the Leadership Training Program; that she work in centers where there is already leadership for the first part of the year and later go to communities where help is needed. 2. Obtain specialists in the various fields of recreation for communities asking for help. Representatives from several centers were i.nterested and will be able to pay something toward the expenses of such specialists. Mr. Frank Smith's services will be loaned by Berea College during July and from September to mid-December. 3. Centers do as much extension work as possible in their own regions. 4. Emphasis be put on training in recreational activities other than dancing, such as story-telling, nature study, creative dramatics, crafts. This can best be promoted by leadership courses and giving help in new cen- te rs. 5. Our concern should be not only with children and high school aged young people, but also with family groups. G. That any balance in the treasury from the itinerant recreation leader's budget and part of the funds in the Recreation Leadership Training Program account be allocated by the Recreation Committee for non-dance phases of the movement. 7. That the Recreation Section of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK contain news of the different training courses, reports of activities in the communities in the area, new material (including background), sources of material and our philosophy of recreation. d. That Mr. James S. Brown be asked to serve as Recreation Editor. Mimeographed lists of the books in the Recreation library were distributed to the Recreation Group. Mr. Georg Bidstrup was re-elected Chairman of the Recreation Committee. Other members are Miss Elizabeth Watts of Hindman, Kentucky, Secretary, Mr. Bard McAllister of Alpine, Tennessee, Mrs. Raymond McLain of Lexington, Ken- tucky, Miss Addie Dunn of Ringgold,Georgia. Mr. James Brown, recreation Editor of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WO?K, Mr. Frank Smith, Recreation Leader at Berea and Miss Florence Goodell, Executive Secretary of the Council were chosen as ex-officio members. The group discussing the communi- ties' responsibility for health was led by D. Heinz Meyer of Konnarock Medical Center. It was joined by the School Group under Miss Margaret Diz- ney's leadership because so few teach- ers were able to be present. Repre- sentatives of various centers and schools told of their individual problems and asked for help in solving them. A great need for education and for financial help was found. Many other questions were raised, for example, the organization of the community for health work, the coordination of the health and school programs and the prob- lem of funds for the hospitalization of tubercular patients. Possibilities for help in developing a health program were discussed. They included: 1. The state Health Department for immunization materials. 2. In Virginia, Maternal Child Health clinics provided and paid for by the State. 3. Maternal Child Health hospitalization provided by the states. 4. In connection with water pollution, state agencies will cooperate. 5. Crippled children's services are available. "AD 6. State Nutritionists may be called upon for help. 7. In Virginia, dental care may be provided for some pre-school and school children. 3. In the same state there are special clinics for orthopedics, epilepsy, rheumatic fever. 9. Under the Education Department, rehabilitation services are available and include re-education. 10. The County Agent is interested in improvement of crops which may sult in improved health. In the Youth Section, student representatives from six schools and communi- ties discussed their responsibilities toward the communities in which they live. Mr. Charles Drake, the leader, suggested that the reason for their meeting was two-fold - to try to find solutions to problems and to have fellowship together. The two main questions discussed were: 1. What contribution can a young person make to his community! 2. What vocation is most needed? After hearing from various members of the group about local problems, it was decided that there is a great need for recreation to satisfy all age groups. plans were considered for a good recreation program, the basic idea being to bring about the desire for individual activity to keep young people at peace with themselves. It was found that the recreation program should in- clude community participation for young and old, playing together; a small or large group of people of about this same age; and activities for the individ- ual to create something of his own. This brought up the subject of crafts and haw they should be used. The morning session closed with the questions: How does our community measure up to the standards we have discussed and what can we do to help? The aftenoon session considered the problem: flow do we develop a recrea- tional attitude? The following methods were suggested; 1. Get an idea p. Organizeinto a group to e,Ã¢â‚¬Â¢change ideas end get things done. 3. Talk the idea over in the community and consider opposition. 4. Work through an adult group - present them with a well thought-put idea of what we want Make use of the people that are enthusiastic and sincerely interested and we can overcome any difficulties that may arise. Try to get a crass-section of the community interested. People need a sense of responsibility. The discussion was concluded by the statement, "Its up to us, the young people, to take over the development of our own recreational program". made an appeal for help in obtaining material and subscriptions LIFE AND WORK. He asked each member to send in news items and to get five additional subscriptions for one year. The to be mailed to past subscribers and present members of the Mr. Drake for MOUNTAIN about his work first issue is Council. Mrs. Sally Edwards, International Welfare Secretary and Mrs. Hazel Hop- kins, International President of Sigma Phi Gamma International Sorority, were welcomed by President Bannerman. t1rs. Edwards spoke of their apprecia- tion of the hospitality and friendliness of the the cordial relationship between the individual where money and supplies were sent for bettering the the area. She then handed Or. Bannerman a check foi the funds collected from the members of the Sororit! Aomtain Children Fund." ^,iss felen H. Dingman, Chairman of the Vominating Committee, announced the following slate, which was put in nomination and elected unanimously: ,resident. Dr. Arthur ^1. Bannerman, Swannanoa, North Carolina Vice President, Dr. A. Rufus Morgan, Franklin, ~jorth Carolina recording Secretary hiss El izrt:eth ,Jatts, findman. Kentucky Treasurer. I"r. Lawrence D. Bibbee. Berea, Kentucky Assistant Treasurer, Miss Florence Goodell, Asheville, North Carolina For members of the Executive Committee to serve for three years: Dr. Francis S. Hutc 'Ins, Berea. Kentucky Dr. Robert F. Thomas, Pittman Center, Sevierville, Tennessee fr. 1!. S. Randolph, Secretary of 2ural Church and Indian Work of the Presby- teri? Church, J. S.;. !;r. Gnorq Bidstrup, Chairman of the recreation Committee, Brasstown, North Carolina !disc Florence '.code]), Executive Secretary The Fellcsahip Supper was held Friday evening. Dr. Bannerman referred to some of the members present who had attended the early Conferences. Dr. Hutchins introduced the: ,.PeLler, Dr. Frederick C. Smith, Vice President of the University of TennessEE, who pointed out that our present problems are not all new, quoting freely frun, publications of many years ago. The Recreation Committee provided entertainnent for all at the new Recrea- tion Hall of Greystone Hotel - folk games, folk songs and a charade. Frank Smith told a Jack Tale. as the group sat around the oiler: fire. Saturday morning the new Executive Committee held its first meeting. n1 r. Drake was granted an additional ylOv from the magazine fund to be used for promotion. At the repuest of the Church Group, a committee headed by Mr. A. Rufus Morgan was appointed to study church problems in the area. Other mem- bers are M r. Howard Kester, "4 r. Bernard !Ã¢â‚¬Â¢1. Taylor, Mr. John isl. Bischoff and r, r. D. C. Amick. Dr. Myer was asked to continue as Chairman of the Health Committee which consists of Dr. Schaeffer (temporarily out of the area), Dr. Robert F. Thomas, Dr. Adolf (the new physician in charge of the hospital at Homeplace, dry, Kentucky), Dr. f'etcalfe and Hiss !?argaret Dizney. The fol- lowing were appointed to the Advisory Committee: Miss Helen H. Ding man, Berea, Kentucky Mrs. John C. Campbell, i Hastings Lane, West IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢edford, Massachusetts Dr. Hermann N. Morse, Executive Secresary, Board of Missions of the Presby- terian Church I!. S. A., 156 Fifth Avenue, Hew York 10, Hew York Council membership, mentioned chapters and the centers health of children in $SyO, representing for their "Friends of Mrs. Sally Edwards, Welfare Secretary of Sigma Phi Gamma International Sorority, 4154 Nagle Ave., Sherman Oaks, California Dr. I. George Race, Executive Secretary of the Home Missions Council, 297 Fourth Ave., New York 10, New York Mr. Georg Bidstrup, Chairman of the Recreation Committee, made a short re- port, giving the names of the members of the Committee and asking that the office cooperate with its work as much as Possible. Mr. Morgan asked that in setting the dates for the 1951 Conference, Lenten season be avoided, if possible. Since Lent starts February 7 and Easter is on March 25, it was voted to hold the Conference Wednesday and Thursday March 28 and 29, ending the morning of March 30. Mr. Morgan was appointed Chairman of the Program Committee to be assisted by Mr. Bidstru~ Miss Heard, Dr. Bannerman and Miss Goodell. "Sociological and Economic Changes of the Region" was suggested as a topic and as a speaker, an out- standing sociologist who is familiar with conditions in the southern high- lands. A group discussion on interracial problems was mentioned, to be initiated by the Church Group. CM~Ã‚Â°FRLANN PLATEAU RURAL C0M.)NITY CONFE2ENCE the The Rural Community Conference of the Cumberland Plateau was instituted 23 years ago, when a group of interested people were called together to dis- cuss their common problems. Each year since then, the conference has been held in various towns and villages of the Plateau, giving inspiration and a chance to share ideas to the people participating. Themes have included the whole range of rural community living, and from fifty to two hundred people have attended these one day conferences through the years. In recent years when a new emphasis on community life was springing up in many rural communities of the area, and more and more communities were organ- izing, when County Agents, civic groups, and social agencies were encouraging community improvevent through organization, the Rural Community Conference has centered around community building. This year, when attention is being focused on the Mid-Century White House Conference on Children and Youth, the Rural Community Conference will have as its theme, "The Rural Youth in the Mid-Century". The 1950 Annual meeting of the Rural Community Conference of the Cumberland Plateau, will be held on Aug- ust ll, at Spencer, Tennessee. The Guest Speaker will be someone from the National Committee of the White House Conference. It is hoped that the youth of the area will take part fully and responsibly. With this in mind, same young people have been invited to sit in on the meeting of the Executive Com- mittee, when it meets in Crossville on May 22 to complete plans for this year's conference. Mr. Bard McAllister, Director, Alpine Rural Center, is President of the 1950 Executive Committee. Other officers and members of the committee are: Mr. C. R. Jansch, County Agent, Wart burg, Vice-President; Mrs. Olive Henry Southard, Save the Children Federation, Crossville, Secretary-Treasurer; Mr. 4rley Namby, County Agent, Spencer; Mrs. Jane Tollett, Teacher, Crossville; Mr. Harry Martin, 4-f! Club Agent, Jamestown. -- Olive Henry Southard Crossville, Ten n. CUMIRERLAMD MEDICAL CE'JER DEDICATED 4 new pattern for rural medical service for the entire country is being established with the dedication of the new Cumberland Medical Center, Cross- ville, Tennessee, March 16. Although it is under the legal control of the City of Crossville, the Med- ical Center will serve as a focal point for health work throughout the whole plateau region. Many sources contributed the $705,000 necessary for the completion of the Center. Loans and grants were obtained from the Federal Government under the Hospital Construction Act, from the State of Tennessee, Cumberland Co., the City of Crossville, and private donations. The center has been in the planning and construction stage for over six years- Its 50 beds and 12 bassinets are thought to be adequate for needs of the region. Dr. Robert Metcalfe is chief of staff. Rot only will the Center contain adequate hospital facilities, but it also contains the County Health Unit, under the direction of Dr. Marion Young, and examining rooms for local physicians. Its laboratory and X-ray facilities are available to all doctors in the area. A consultant staff of eight doc- tors from Oak Ridge and Knoxville will provide specialized care for almost any possible type of disease. In order that the Center may reach as many people as possible, neighbor- hood out-clinics have been organized under the direction of Dr. Metcalfe. Ten regular clinics in scattered rural communities on the Plateau are held each month. The number will increase as more communities organize health programs and provide clinic buildings. One feature of the clinic organization which is attracting widespread attention is the Share-The-Cost pi3n for off;ce calls and common treatments and medicines. The plan is on a family basis with each family paying approx- imately $2 per month into a community treasury. The doctors are paid from this fund. Plans for the Center and Clinics grew out of pioneering ~~ork done by Dr. May Wharton and her helpers at Uplands Hospital, Pleasant Hill, Tenn. This hospital was started almost 30 years ago, and was for many years the only hospital on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee. During its history it has carried on clinic work in many rural centers. Although Dr. May is technically "retired" she is spending all her time now converting Uplands to its new role. The tuberculosis sanatorium will tinue to operate with a group of about 25 patients. The General hospital will care for chronic cardiac, rheumatism, lung disorders, and the like. con- The staff and Board of Directors at Uplands did much of the planning and early work on the new Medical Center in Crossville. More than $45,000 was contributed by Uplands to the new building. The new Medical Center has received wide support from the area and more than 4000 people visited it when it was dedicated March 16. Recently over $1200 has been contributed to the Center through the S. C. Bishop Memorial fund. Mr. Bishop, editor of the CROSSVILLE CHRONICLE, was, an original Director at Uplands and did a great amount of work for the new hospital. He died just a few days before it was dedicated. His family re- quested that no one send flowers, but that contributions be made to the Mem- orial Fund for the Center instead. X-RAY FUND AT PINE MOUNTAIN When local people get behind a health project, you always see action. Look at what happened at the hospital connected with Pine Mountain School, Pine Mountain, Kentucky. Henry Creech, son of William Creech who gave the land for the founding of the school, is a member of the Advisory Board of the school. At the time of the Christmas appeal, he made his gift to the school and decided to find someone else in the community who would do the same thing. He approached a neighbor. This man, who hadn't worked for six weeks, willingly gave him two dollars. Someone who was standing by offered a donation and the idea sprang up that the whole area should be canvassed for a special fund. Since the hospital serves a larger area than other branches of the school, a hos- pital X-ray fund was decided on and representatives in various communities vied with each other in bringing in their collections. When the -results were tabulated it was found that about 165 donors had contributed $615.00 in a winter when many men were unemployed because of the mining strike and a six-weeks lay-off in one lumber camp. The good will demonstrated in this quite spontaneous campaign is heartening indeed. UNITED BRETHREN DENTAL WORK Miss Ethel E. King in writing about the dental program of the South Cen- tral Kentucky Mission of the Evangelical United Brethren Church, give the following report: We are located in the South Central Part of Kentucky, about 40 miles south of Danville, in the hills. We work in six different counties and in the twelve particular areas in which our church is operating, about 4-6 of the communities are near enough to a town to get dental care, providing they have the money. In the particular area where we have done the most of our community work (northern part of Adair County), we have had the State dental trailer for the past several years. This last year we were able to have it for four weeks and took it to our other parsonage where we also do community work in Russell County. We also reached a small community in Cumberland County where we have a church located. In our particular area, the reason more do not go to the dentist Is not so much distance, as a way of getting into town and the money. We have treated all children free of charge, and have done it through our community aid from the church. We have taken care of some of the older chil- dren but tried especially to have the children of high school age, who go to High School to be taken care of. The adults often would like dental care and would be willing to pay if we had the time to give it. If further dental care could be given, I think it would do much to improve the general health of the communities, since almost all the people are in need of some dental care of some type or other. RURAL NURSING INSTITUTE An Institute in Rural Public Health Nursing open to graduate nurses and senior nurses in the last six months of training will be held at Berea Col- lege June 12 to July 15, 1950. The institute is designed to enable nurses to improve their understanding of rural communities and their health problems; to discover resources avail- able for dealing with these problems; and to secure actual experience in rural health work. The Institute has been planned in consultation with the State Director of Nurses Education and has the approval of the State Board of Nurse Examiners and the Director of the Division of Public Health Nursing. Six semester hours of college credit will be given for those completing the work. Room and board will be $80, plus regular fees. Inquiries may be addressed to Miss Delia Emerson, Office of Admission, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. NEW HEALTH PUBLICATION We cannot recommend too strongly a new Children's Bureau Publication, your Child from 6 to 9, for parents, teachers and Public Health workers. your Child from 6 to 12 is a new pamphlet published in 1949. As the title implies, it discusses various aspects of health promotion and health protec- tion through the child's growth and development from six to twelve years. It is a companion pamphlet to Your Child from 1_-_6. Specialists in various fields have contributed to this very helpful aid to better understanding of the child. Some intriguing chapter headings are: "How families influence their children's social adjustment" "Helping children make the most of their mental ability" "When home and school get together" "What play means in the life of a child" "Fears, worries, frustrations, and their outlets" "Developing wholesome sex attitudes" "Your community's services for your children" Other chapters deal with still other physical and mental health aspects as the care of children through these ages in sickness and in health. Copies of this may be obtained thru your own State Health Department, Mat- ernal and Child Health Division. If possible, it should be placed in the hands of every mother in your community. If it is not obtainable locally, it may be obtained through the Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. for 20Ã‚Â¢. --Margaret Dizny SOUTHERN HIGHLAND CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR The third annual Craftsman's Fair of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild at Gatlinburg, Tenn., July 24-29, will provide an opportunity to visit one of the finest handicraft fairs anywhere in the country this summer. Here, where the great Smoky Mountains, with their cool breezes and vast ex- panses of mountain tops, make a most inviting and appropriate background, vis- itors are delighted as they watch skilled craftsmen of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild demonstrate the processes of the twenty handicrafts which are now being done in the Appalachian Mountain regions of the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and West Virginia. Of especial interest is the antiquity and authenticity of many of the crafts. Pottery and weaving, for instance, have been in continuous existence since pio- neer days, and many have still the same family operating the potteries and us- ing the same looms and patterns which have been in the family for years and years. Other crafts at the fair are spinning, carding, vegetable dyeing, quilting, rug hooking, silk screen work, metal craft, basketry, woodcarving, broom-making and many others, all of which are examples of the high quality of crafts pro- duced, as well as the variety of crafts now being done by thousands of crafts- men throughout the area. The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild has come a long way since it first was organized back in 1930, when a few craftsmen and craft-minded people com- bined their efforts to help the mountain people, by guiding them into more ex- tensive handicraft work and by preserving their heritage of traditional skills. 12 extensive handicraft work and by preserving their heritage of traditional skills. As a result of this venture, there has grown up an extensive arts and crafts movement throughout the highlands. The Guild has become a large and forceful organization interested in preserving the traditional in handicrafts as well as guiding them into new fields of creative effort using native mater- ials and resources. Adding color and gayety to the Fair are the folk-dances and ballad-singing which are so much a part of the heritage of the past which characterizes the culture of the mountain people. For the user of handicrafts, for the lover of folk dances, for the amateur craftsman, for those interested in American folk ways, the Fair is an educa- tional opportunity of great importance because it reflects the culture of the Southern Highlands. Anyone desiring information about the Fair may obtain it from Craft Education Program, 62 Wall St., Asheville, N. C.; or from Floyd Downs, Box 609, Berea College, Berea, Ky. ---Eloise L. Downs Berea, Kentucky SOUTHERN 41GHLAND HANDICRAFT GUILD MEETING The meetings of those particularly interested in handicrafts in the Sou- thern Highlands were held immediately following the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers in Gatlinburg. They were glad to know of the revival of MOUNTAIN LIFE AHD WORK and have agreed to send material for a craft section of the magazine. Miss Clementine Douglas of Asheville was elected President of the Guild. Southern Highlanders Inc., shareholders are invited to join the Guild under a special application form, not requiring approval of samples by the Stand- ards Committee. Miss Amy Wood ruff was appointed Director and Florence Good- ell Associate Director of the Program. The Guild Trustees appointed two committees to make plans. The Education Committee, which now takes the place of the former Joint Committee of the two organizations, is headed by Miss Marian G. Heard, and the Sales Coordination Committee by Mrs. J. Edward Davis, who was chosen chairman by the four shop managers. Mr. Davis, former Director of the Program, has accepted a position as Associate Director of the Arts and Crafts Division of the Indian Service. He will travel from Alaska to New Mexico, but will keep his home in Asheville and be free at times to help with the craft program, especially the Fair, of which he is general chairman. A fine meeting was held on sales problems - the four shop managers gave their side of the story and then all of the producers, large and small, had an opportunity to tell some of their problems. The discussion was lively and many important points were brought out. Details for the Fair were constantly under discussion. The folders are ready for distribution - all friends of the Southern Highlanders are asked to spread the word about the Third Annual Craftsmanys Fair of the Southern Highlands. Send inquiries to the Guild office, Si Wall Street, Asheville, N. C. ---Florence Goodell Asheville, N. C. RECREATION SUMMER WORKS40PS KENTUCKY RECREATION WORKSHOP. The fifth Kentucky Recreation Workshop will be held on the campus of Berea College from May 7 to 13. This workshop will pro- vide instruction in folk games, puppetry, folk tales, music, games, dramatics and crafts as well as opportunity for discussion of organizational and other problems of recreation. Cost: $8.00 registration fee; $1.00 conference fee; board - $2.00 - $3.00 per day. For further information write: Harlon Cren- shaw, Edmonton, Kentucky. BEREA RECREATION LEADERSHIP WORKSHOP. The second annual Recreation Leader- ship Workshop will be held at Berea College from June 12 to July I, 1950. The Berea Workshop has been developed as one answer to the need for a wider recreation program in the Southern Highlands and includes music, story-telling, informal dramatics, pottery, puppetry, folk games and folk dances. Mary Gould Davis of Columbia University will again teach story-telling. Total costs for persons in the Mountains - $50.00; for those outside - $65.00. College credit for those who desire it. Limited scholarship aid available for young people in the Mountains. For further information write: Frank H. Smith, Box 1826, Berea College, Berea , Kentucky. THE SHORT COURSE OF THE JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL. The Short Course will be held at Brasstown, N. C., from June 14 to 24. It will include American, English and Danish Country dancing, folk singing, carving, puppetry, recorder playing and discussion periods. Philip Merrill will again be in charge of music. Cost: tuition for those in the Southern Highland area $5.00, for all others $10.00; board and room $30.00. A few part-time scholarships are avail- able. For further information write: Mrs. Georg Bidstrup, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, N. C. THE CRAFT COURSE OF THE JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL. Because of so many de- mands, the Folk School is for the first time offering a craft course, to be held at Brasstown, N. C. from June 26 to July 8, in which woodworking, carving, weaving, vegetable dyeing, and, it is hoped, metalcraft will be taught. Cost: tuition for members of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild - $10.00, for others - $20.00; board and room - $36.00. For further information write: Mrs. Georg Bidstrup, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, N. C. 14 FOLK ARTS WORKSHOP OF TRANSYLVANIA COLLEGE. An intensive ten-day workshop will be held at Transylvania College, Lexington, Kentucky, in folk music and folk dance. Three quarter hours credit will be granted. Mrs. Raymond F. McLain will be the director. Reservations must be made by May 15. Further information may be secured by writing the Admissions Counsellor, Transylvania College, Lexington, Kentucky. FESTIVALS Plans for the regional youth festivals are just now being made. Marguerite Taylor, of Livingston Academy, Tennessee, writes: "Our region- al festival for this fall will be held at Baxter Seminary sometime around the middle of October with Miss Lois Fenn in charge. It will be held on Sat- urday afternoon and night. We also have a local organization now that is just getting started. It is called the Cumberland Play Party and includes the following schools: Baxter Seminary; Tennessee Polytechnic Institute; White County High School; York Institute; Allardt Community; Homestead Junior High School; Cumberland County High School; and Livingston Academy. Each month the group meets at one of the schools. We are doing the very simple dances and trying to follow the Mountain Folk Festival list." _The _A_dult _Fe_s_t_iv_a_l - The first Mountain Folk Festival for Adults was held at Lincoln ;qemorial University, Harrogate, Tennessee, and in November 1949. It was a great success; more than 130 people attended and enthusiasm was high. Plans for the second festival, to be held the third weekend in November (the place to be announced later), are well under way. People everywhere are urged to start adult groups in their communities and to start them early. The dances for the 1950 festival are: Circassian Circle, Parts I and 2; Portland Fancy; Old Mole; Hole in the Wall; Hull's Victory; Big Set and Quadrille figures (the basic figures); Speed the Plow; the Gay Gordons; New- castle; Picking Up Sticks; Dargason; Totur; Danish Double Quadrille; Contra Dance I; Swedish Masquerade; Comical Fellow; Waltz Country Dance; La Russe; The Rifleman. The songs will be: Lavenders Blue, The Orchestra Song, Now the Holly Bears the Berry, Wondrous Love, the Devils Questions, The Tiller, One morning in May, and Deep in the Forest. If you would like to have an announcement of the Festival with details about materials for the dances and songs as well as further information about Festival plans, write Mrs. Raymond F. McLain, 469 North Broadway, Lexington, Kentucky. FOURTEEN YEARS OF PLAY AT HINDNAN Since 1936, Hindman Settlement School and Knott County in Kentucky have had a Recreation Director. Through the school months of those fourteen years the "play-woman" has made her busy way from one group to another; to the grade sc'aol situated on the Settlement Campus; to the high school, where students from the Settlement, the town, and from surrounding rural communities join together; and to the rural schools all over the county. The idea was conceived and the continued existence of a Recreation Leader has been made possible by the Settlement School. It was the hope of the leaders of the school that they could provide wholesome play for as many in the area as possible. In the rural schools, the recreation leader comes in contact with the greatest number of children. Here, she directs playground and singing games during the "good weather" months of the year. During the winter months, when outside play is impossible, indoor games are carried on with just as much enthusiasm. Singing and story-telling were kept, at one time, for those in- door days, but now maintain their rightful part of the play period no matter what the weather may be. Often, a part of the time in the schools is spent in choosing and discussing books which are sent out with the Recreation Leader by the Settlement Librarian. In the early days of the recreation program at Hindman, these trips into the rural schools were made by bus, by foot, and sometimes by pre-arranged rides to the schools. Then the Settlement station wagon "Nonesuch", was made available three days a week. And now, just as the program has seen development, the means of dependable transportation has come about in the form, of "Jump Josie", the sturdy jeep, which spends each day of the week perform- ing some important task for the Settlement The County Superintendent of Schools, realizing the importance of having such a person in the county schools, has welcomed the program and offered help in several ways. The cost of the mileage in the county is taken care of by the County Board of Education. The Superintendent gladly suggests which schools can best be reached at which time of the year, and which schools out of the eight-some in the county most want and need directed play. The three days a week originally spent in the rural schools has recently become only two, and the third day is being spent by the Recreation Leader at the high school gymnasium, making folk dancing a permanent part of the public high school program. Except for the occasional small groups in the community, until this year folk dancing had been a part of the program at the Settlement only. And so it seemed good to all who knew of it, when Frank Smith directed a ten day folk-dance program at the high school which has continued with "study-hall" groups one day a week since early last fall. Since the beginning of the program, the Recreation Leader has spent a day each week at the Hindman grade school, directing playground and singing games for a period with each of the eight grades. With the program in the county schools, the high school, and the grade school, there is yet to be pictured the activities on the Settlement campus. Hindman's Recreation Director has for several years been fortunate in having good music from the fingers of Ruth White. She plays for the three evening folk dance classes each week, and for the folk dance parties on Saturday night. The play of the young feet in the "big room" at Recreation House is enriched, too, by the play of their voices, as the students sing together at the weekly "Ballad Group", and before the dancing starts at every party. Who has the Recreation Leader been? The first was Marie Marvel, ably bring- ing to maturity the infant program. Then came Pauline Ritchie Kermeit, Sophia Lee Holiday, Opal Payne Sputlock, Diana Lockard, and Jane Bishop. Paul ine and Sophia were both graduates of Hindman, giving back, with interest, that which Hindman had brought to them. The R are some exciting, extra-important times that enter into this program of play each year. Aren't they found in many places? A Regional Folk Festi- val, a Christmas pageant, an annual Christmas party - made special by a 16 "Minuet", Father Christmas, or perhaps a Mummers Play - an assembly program of folk dancing and singing, the Mountain Folk Festival at Berea, the Com- mencement Play, May Day, and perhaps Graduation. There is here a togetherness, a cooperativeness, a spirit that comes from working and playing together. --- Jane Bishop NOW THE HOLLY BEARS A BERRY This carol was very popular at the Christmas School, and so many people have requested copies that we are printing it here. While the subject matter of this lovely carol would seem to link its use to Christmas, it seems to have been one of those sung until Easter time. It is sometimes called the St. Day Carol because it was heard and taken down on St. Day, so called after a Breton saint. It will be remembered that there is a closer connection between the folk sona of the Bretons and the natives of Cornwall than other parts of Great Britain sharing a Celtic background. This would seem to be quite unrelated in symbolism to the Holly and Ivy carols which are not generally of a religious type but are usually associated with merry-making at Christmas time. It is like the traditional carols in which the holly and its berries are made typical of Mary and the Holy Child. There is another carol of this type, collected also in Cornwall, in which the holly is affectionately called Aunt Mary's tree. This carol may be found in the Cornish Song Book edited by Ralph Dunstan. It comes from Gwennap where it was sung by Thomas Beard. The new edition of Songs of All Times, which will be published soon, will include Now the Holly Bears a Berry. RECREATION LIBRARY The Council of Southern Mountain Workers has a Recreation Library for the use of those living within the area served by the Council. The books have been chosen to meet existing needs and to suggest and help with the develop- ment of new skills in the broad field of recreation. Books may be kept for a period of three weeks and may be renewed. There is a charge of y5Ã‚Â¢ per book to cover, packing charges, mailing, and insurance. At present books will be mailed, upon your request, frvm the following address: Mrs. Raymond F. McLain, 469 North Broadway, Lexington 12, Kentucky. A complete list of the books in the library may be obtained by writing Mrs. McLain. Miss Edna Ritchie of Viper, Kentucky, until recently Itinerant Recreation. leader for the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, has accepted a position at Someplace, Ary, Kentucky, ostensibly to drive the bookmobile, but she is in such demand for teaching singing games in the schools she will have to do a double job. Miss Elinor Kuhn of Easthampton, Massachusetts, has been chosen for the Smith College Workship for 1950-51. She is coming to the Short Course at Brasstown in June and will stay in the area until the following spring. We are all looking forward to meeting Betsy the Fifth. Mary bore Tesus Christ our Saviour for cc) be.) 12olly , 12olly,12oLly, ,And diz first cre-e- q izha. Ã‚Â§r-eari cyoWthehoily bears cite berry usAraexi, as Call AIILII, Pmd Mary bore. Tasus who died oztc3xe ccosv,, (Ra~rcLnm, n)owdlrc 1,oUy bears rha berry cm rzd.as rye blood, And ('nary bore 7esusjorta do poor s~rs~ood;(R~ fraudÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ cvowOxz hotly bears c-he berry as b1ackns cE!,z coal, And C`~ory bore,T~,~, who dia.d soru s N), ('P19-f rnalm, RELIGION THE WAIREN WILSON COLLEGE RURAL CIUIC~ VOCATION It was the summer of '49. The Synod of the Mid-South of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., was in session. In true Protestant fashion the distinguished members --clerical and lay -- were decrying the sad state of the Church. At the moment Christian education in a secular world was being mourned. Then a rural preacher got the floor. "Brethren, what you say must be true. for you are familiar with the trends of our time. But to inspire some hope in discouraged hearts may I say a word about a young woman, a graduate of Warren Wilson College over there near Ashe- ville, and the work this girl is doing for me?" The good brother shifted his weight to the other foot and continued quietly, slowly. "This girl of mine had two years at Warbn Wilson College. I guess she did- n't learn what a young lady out of Smith and Yale Divinity learns. No she couldn't have, could she? But she's doing a pretty fair job with my country people." "I don't know ...." The preacher looked perplexed, paused, then went on even more haltingly and in an apologetic tone. "They taught her some rather silly things, really. How to change a tire on an automobile. How to drive the thing. How to run a mimeograph machine. How to lead recreation for folks ranging from 3 to 93, meeting in a one-room church on a rainy day. How to play the piano--just simple hymns of course--no con- cert artist stuff. --But, come to think of it, we haven't had a request for a concert artist yet." A laugh rose from the floor of Synod. Anew air of optimism too! There on the rural fields--where the people are--rural girls are given practical train- ing and put to work among rural folks--before these girls reach middle age! The pastor continued, telling about his girl's Sunday school teaching, learned in practice teaching at the college, about how she helped organize a new church, how she visited among the people with ease (she had grown up in a mountain community and had conducted a rural survey at the college). The men and women of Synod listened and took hope. A few rural preachers asked the college pastor for details. The two-year course (a three-year plan with an internship period is now be- ing tried experimentally) covers the simplest courses on Principles and Admin- istration of Christian Education, Simple Theology, Church History (with a rural bias), Recreation Leadership, Rural Church Music, Personal Relationships, and Field Work, including summer church service. The denomination's Board of Christian Education furnishes materials and services for vocational testing and guidance. Vocational departments at the college (Business, Auto Mechanics, Home Economics, etc.) and local agencies cooperate in the rural church pro- gram. All in all it makes a rather interesting experiment in rural education. The test of the pudding is in the eating, of course, and Warren Wilson College reports considerable pride in the four girls they have sent to the field in the first two years of the program. Come and see us, and we'll tell you more about it and show you around. --R. Irving Deihl, Jr., College Pastor DALE HOLLOW LARGER PARISH rch The Dale Hollow Larger Parish is an inter-denominational larger parish established in 1945. Its sixth year begins with a promise of continuing growth in Christian usefulness. The reader may want to refer to the Spring, 1948, MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK to find information on this project in the sec- tion called "What We Are Doing." To finance the. work the local people give ever more generously. Substan- tial gifts of money for salaries, housing, and equipment, come to the Larger Parish from the central missionary organizations of the Presbyterian, Method- ist, and Christian denominations. The heads of the rural church work of these three groups, together with their regional executives, meet for annual planning conferences with the Larger Parish Council in the fall. Though the geographical area of the parish is un-changed there are now some twenty churches and preaching points being served by seven ordained men, a Christ- ian Education worker, and other staff members. A layman, Otto Franklin, now is the chairman of the Larger Parish Council, and another layman, Bard Mc- Allister, is the secretary. The Council is a representative body which meets quarterly and has the chief authority in the parish, with power of approval or veto of proposals made by the staff or others. Several of the "other" staff members mentioned above are employed as managers for church-sponsored community industries and a forest reserve and farm in the Presbyterian zone at Alpine. Another is employed by the Methodists to manage the Dale Hollow Tuberculosis Center--a small rest home on Presbyterian Property, now housing eleven patients in a former girls' dormitory. Vinton D. Bradshaw, Christian minister, Wirmingham, Tenn., is the secretary of the Staff. His wife is larger parish treasurer. Vernon W. Bradley, Monroe, Tenn., a Methodist pas- tor, is the chairman of the Staff. The chief aim is to win pepple to Christ so fully as to bring homes and communities beneath His control. It is a pri mary conviction that unity is a characteristic of Christian communities, and that "churches" which are actually a hindrance to such unity are proving false to the Christ who teaches love for God and love for neighbor, too. The Larger Parish ideal is to have a strong church in each town and rural neighborhood. Where the people cannot worship together in one church, an effort is made to reduce the harm done by such division, through inter-church cooperation within the neighborhood. In Taylor's Cross Roads the Presbyterian members studied the church situ- ation with their minister, Bernard Taylor, and decided there should be only one church in the community. Then, rather than to ask the Methodists to do what they wouldn't want anybody to ask them to do, change to another denomi- nation, the Presbyterians voluntarily joined the Methodist Church. Now there is one church, instead of two weak ones, in this open country neighborhood. In another part of the parish the Board of National Missions of the Presby- terians gave their lovely stone building to a group of local citizens, who had be been helped to organize a Christian Church here after study of the population by the larger parish staff. The community now has at its center the Miller Chapel Christian Church, named in honor of a beloved pioneer Presbyterian pas- tor, James H: Miller. At Smyrna, where the building is owned by four denominations equally, the larger parish helped the local people to secure a resident pastor, B. W. Cov- ington, a Presbyterian. A sense of real unity in Christ was strengthened greatly when Methodist, Christian, and Presbyterian ministers joined in a house to house visitaton, helping members of churches of several denominations to see that loyalty to their true Church meant loyalty to Christ and the Christian program in the community, rather than to a particular denomination. This growing sense of unity in the neighborhood began at once to be shown by a greatly enlarged Sunday School attendance, as well as by an active Community Improvement Association The evangelistic and educational programs of the Larger Parish area have been improved tremendously since the institution of the parish plan. Another field of major emphasis is community service, participation in every worthy program of improvement as a demonstration of brotherly love and mutual trust among neighbors. In one section, as indicated above, this com- munity service program includes the nurturing of small rural industries (wood- working, pottery, and weaving) as experiments in economic ministry to an area rich in natural resources in the rough, but lacking in processing plants to give needdd labor wages and work responsibilities to numbers of local young people. In a day when witch-hunting and mutual distrust, both within and outside the church, seems tobe growing into a bigger national sport than baseball, and when faith in one's fellow citizen is considered almost un-American, many people in the Dale Hollow Larger Parish are nourishing neighborliness and respect for others. There are evidences of the Holy Spirit's work to be seen in this interdenominational program. JOHN M. GLENN The Council of Southern Mountain workers lost one of its oldest and staunchest friends when John M. Glenn died on April 21, 1950 at the age of ninety-one. It was when Mr. Glenn was director of the Russell Sage Foundation that John C. Campbell, as secretary of the Southern Highland Division, started the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers in 1913. From that time until his death, Alr. Glenn was deeply interested in the work of the Council and stood loyally back of all its projects. In the next issue we hope to have an article telling more of his support and friendship. EDUCATION PROGRESS AT PINE MOUNTAIN Many changes have taken place at Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky. Mr. Burton Rogers, director of the school, tells about it in the following article: This year has seen many changes at Pine Mountain Settlement School. In place of the hundred boarders, more from other counties than from Harlan, taking a high school course. we now have some two hundred children of our own immediate community filling our buildings each school day. Under a new plan of cooperation with the Harlan County Board of Education, we have consoli- dated five public one-room schools. Most of the children come in by county school buses. Attendance has surpassed all expectation, in spite of bad roads, winter weather, sickness and other obstacles. Five teachers, select- ed by the Pine Mountain Board of Education, are providing the first exper- ience of specialized teaching for nine grades which our children have ever had. A new hot lunch service has been established along with the new school. At the lowest rates charged in the county, almost every child in school is taking the hot lunch this first year. The State nutrition consultant was helped considerably with the educational value of this lunch experience. The Pine Mountain Hospital has expanded in several respects. It is now established in our largest and newest building where 18 beds are being set up. The staff is increased to three registered nurses, in addition to the resi- dent physician. The hospital is the only one in our county on the north side of Pine Mountain, and serves a radius of up to thirty miles. Last month a campaign initiated and carried out by several neighbors succeeded in raising in the neighborhood served by the hospital a fund of more than six hundred dollars for the completion of the x-ray equipment. At a time of considerable unemployment locally, this effort has been highly remarkable and encouraging. The Pine Mountain farm now sees a new opportunity to explore the most suitable use of the land in this community. The Ayrshire herd has recently been rated among the top ten percent of herds of this breed in the United States. Whatever Pine Mountain can prove, throuqh its machinery and other resources, should be of value to neighboring farmers, whether a given experi- ment turns out to be successful or impractical. The industrial building is being made available to the neighbors so that men may come to the woodwork or mechanics shops and women to the home econom- ics or craft rooms. From such small beginnings it is hoped that a full pro- gram of adult education may grow. Pine Mountain's lovely Chapel is now being used by neighbors for worship services. This is not only most important in itself, but stands as a symbol ofa new unityin work and in worship throughout the community that shall ulti- mately include every important phase of its life. PATTERSON SCHOOL, LEGEW00O, N. C. 4 copy of the Patterson School News announces a campaign to raise $50,000 for the school to be used largely for buildings and building and grounds im- provement. The hope is that the funds may be raised within the Diocese of W Western North Ca blina of the Episcopal Church, but gifts from other friends will be welcomed. Charles Snyder, a graduate of Berea College, joined the staff this winter to teach the classes formerly taught by his father. ERIE SCHOOL, OLIVE HILL, KY. A letter from Mrs. Doris H. Steinberger, Superintendent of the Erie School, brings news of the activities of the students who worship, work, study, and live in the Christian atmosphere created by a staff of devoted teachers and workers. HOMEPLACE, ARY, KY. If you are traveling between Jackson + Hazard, Kentucky, stop for a friendly visit at Homeplace, a community center and hospital. I did just that recently and was rewarded by being shown through the new hospital by Dr. Adolph and by a friendly greeting from Miss Lula Hale, the director of the work. It is a pleasure to me to have Miss Hale come to Berea and ask to inter- view our graduates for replacements to her staff. So many have been employed in recent years that Homeplace seems to be closely related to Berea College. RED BIRD SETTLEMENT, PEVERLY, KY. An educational experiment is going on here under the direction of Mr. Baschoff, Superintendent, Mr. Estridge, Principal, and Mrs. Estridge, teacher. They have developed an ungraded room or opportunity room for students who are old enough in years to be in high school, but who, because of poor teachers, poor attendance, short school terms, or no schools, have not acquired the school skills necessary for success in regular high school classes. These students are permitted to progress at their own rate. The program is simi- lar to the work done by Mrs. Barnett in the Foundation School of Berea Col- lege. REGIONAL MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS A very well attended meeting of representatives of mission and church re- lated secondary schools and community centers in Eastern Kentucky, was held at Hindman this fall. A second meeting is scheduled at Ezel in Morgan County for this spring. These days spent together in exchange of ideas have proved of practical as well as, inspirational value. If therehave been other regional meetings, the editor would like to receive reports. Send any information you have, plus your published pamphlets and letters to Mr. Luther Ambrose, Berea College, Berea, Ky. 23 BEREA COLLEGE WILL ENROLL NEGRO STUDENTS FROM THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN REGION In September 1950 Negro students may again enter Berea College. After an interruption of almost half a century the college will resume its historic position in interracial education. In 1904 the Ky. Assembly passed the so- called Day Law which prohibited the education of Negroes and whites in the same school. Berea was forced to discontinue the admission of Negro students, a practice which had prevailed since the close of the Civil War. 4n amendment to the Day Law, enacted in March, permits all institutions of higher learning, both public and private, to receive Negro students if their boards of trustees vote to do so, and provided that an equal, complete, and comparable course is not available at the Ky. State College for Negroes at Frankfort. Under a Federal Court Decision, Negro students have already been accepted in graduate and professional schools in the state. But this recent legislation made possible the enrollment of Negroes inin all undergraduate schools desirinq to receive them. In viAw of the long tradition at Berea and the deep interest the present faculty and student body has shown in enlarging educational opportunities for Negroes, it was to be expected that Berea would take early action along the lines permitted by the new law. ,1t their annual meeting on bpril 14, upon recommendation of President Francis S. Hutchins, the Berea Trustees adopted the followinq resolution: Taking note of the recent action of the Ky. Legislature with reference to the education of Nekro youth, the Poarrf of Trustees of Berea College takes the two followinF, actions: 1. We reaffirm our dedication to the youth of the .4npalachian Mountain region to which we have trieri faithfully to minister for nearly a century,and we continue to see in these young people a challenge greater than we can hope to discharge in any foreseeable length of time. 2. We. also express our interest in the efforts of Negro youth of this region to secure an education and we hereby empower our administration to admit such ,'Negro students from within this mountain region whom it finds thoroughly qualified, coming comoletely within the provisions of the Ky. law, and whom in its judgment it appears we should serve. By this resolution, the trustees reaffirmed two of the fundamental princip- les of Berea: (I) "God hath made of one blood all nations of men," and (2) the college exists to serve the educational needs of the young people of the mountains. Berea was the first undergraduate colleqe in Ky. to take action in favor of accepting Negro students. Since then the Univ. of Louisville has voted to accept them in both undergraduate and graduate courses, and to abolish the Municipal Univ.,the tax supported Negro college there. Robert Bellarmine Univ., a new Catholic institution in Louisville, will admit Negro students when it opens its doors for the first time next fall. Two other Catholic colleges have taken similar action. While as yet no Negro students have been formally accepted at Berea for the fall term, there are several applicants and it is likely that several will be received. There is much pleasure at Berea that the historic position of the school has been reaffirmed in regard to Christian Brotherhood. ---Louis Smith 24 AGRICULTURE FORESTRY IN HIGH SCHOOL AND IN ADULT EDUCATION A recognition that the forests of the highlands rank second only to coal in potential income production has lead many workers to see new ways by which our forest may be restored and utilized. Mr. Sherman Whipple, Forest- er at Berea College, has worked out the following basic course in Forest Con- servation. It can be used either in high school or with an adult study group meeting weekly. Bulletins, films, lectures from Extension and T. V. A. specialists, as well as actual demonstration and practice in the woods would serve instead of any single textbook. The course outline, which follows, would perhaps need slight adaptation according to the local .ituation. Acreage and volume of forest areas in U. S. Public owned Federal, State, Institutional Private Industrial, Farm Returns from forests in U. S. Classification of products Veneer, sawlogs, pulpwood, etc. Comparison with other crops By percentof area to percent of return By number of workers involved Returns and workers in other wood working industries other monetary returns Water for electrical power, irrigation, etc. Trapping for furs Recreation other uses of forest areas Aesthetic, recreational, improvement of land Subject matter involved in developing and working forests with the best con- servational practices and the highest returns. Biology of woody plants Physiology of growth Structure of tree Crown and component parts Trunk and roots Circulation system influence of light 25 Requirements and looks of average good forest Helping the forest to qrow, (Siliviculture) Intermediate cuttings Weeding, thinning, liberation, salvage, et c. Final cutting Clear and selective cutting Prunning Perpetuating the forest Natural regeneration Seeding, planting, etc. Protection of the forests Fire, disease and insects, man and animals Products of the forest Measuring of products while still in original form Cruising methods Measuring products Sawlogs, poles, pulpwood, etc. Harvesting of forest products Sawlogs, pulpwood, posts, poles, etc. Conservational care of woodland products Seasoning, treating Marketing of forest products Variable markets, sales contracts, cooperatives STRAWBERRIES FOR CASH CROP In the search for cash crops suited to the small acreages and cooler cli- mate of the highland region, many crops have been tried. One of the most successful in Cumberland County, Tennessee, has been strawberries. In urg- ing farmers to grow more berries recently, County Agent D. V. Patton said: "The acre income on berries has closely approximated the income on tobacco which is our highest income crop. The berry income on some farms has exceed- ed all other sources of income. They are more stable in price than most fruits. Children can help harvest them. They are adapted to the family sized farm. They provide income at a time of the year when it is most needed. In addition, they can be grown on old or new land. We have yields close to 200 crates on new ground, with much higher yields recorded on old ground. Even with the severe freeze and frost last spring, most patches paid well with some exceeding $100 per acre. It takes work to produce a good acre of strawberries, but it takes a lot more work to produce that same value in most other crops." The friends of the John C. Campbell Folk School at Rrasstown, North Carolina, and of Mr. Howard Kester, sometimes of Black Mountain in the same state, but presently of New York City, are congratulating them both on the fact that they will he working together after June 1, 1950. Mr. Kester has been chosen Director of the School. Georg Bidstrup, ably assisted by Mar- guerite, has been carrying on since Dr. Foyer left last summer. The new amphitheatre at Cherokee, N. C. will be put into use this summer during the Cherokee drama, 'Unto These Hills'. It will seat at least 2600 people,and is being built by local labor our of native materials. The drama will be presented July 1 to Labor Day. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES CHEROKEES PRESENT DRAMA 27 Another dream of preserving Cherokee and mountain history and culture is about to become a reality. Anyone passing through Cherokee, N. C., on high- way 107 will see a large sign with this very interesting information: "Site of Mountainside Theatre - where a Cherokee Indian Drama will be Held July I until Labor Day, 1950." It is planned that the presentation will become an important event of each summer season for many years to come. "Unto These Hills - A Drama of the Cherokee" is the name of this production. The idea of such a production has appeared in one form or another many times during the last half century but it became the fortunate lot of the Western Carolina Associated Communities, an organization made up of civic-minded individuals of the eleven extreme Western North Carolina counties, to actually set the ball to rolling. To satisfy, certain legal requirements, the Cherokee Historical Association was organized by the Associated Communities with the proper authority to get things in working order. The eleven counties were organized to raise funds, memberships were received, officers were chosen and duties assigned. The State legislature, upon being contacted, made a generous grant of money to be used for production. The services of the Carolina Playmakers were secured. Harry Davis of the University of North Carolina was chosen as director. The try-outs were so arranged as to give the people of Cherokee and surrounding areas the first chance at the parts. The site of the Mountainside Theatre seemed a "natural" to those who had the privilege of viewing it one cold day in January 1947. The earliest ideas expressed indicated that the drama could best be produced on the Cherokee Ind- ian Reservation so there the search for the proper site began and there it ended-just a few hundred yards off highway 107, on the left if one is going toward Knoxville. A natural amphitheatre-shaped cove with a little stream running through lies hidden as if the Maker had saved it for such a noble pur- pose. It was chosen without much ado. Soon work began carrying out the idea that the construction be made to blend in with and borrow some of the everlastingness of the mountains. A well-engineered road was so constructed as to preserve the privacy of the spot yet put the amphitheatre within a mile of the stream of traffic to and from the Reservation and the Great Smoky Mountain National Park. When one is on the amphitheatre hillside looking away from the stage and other man-made structure, the only glimpse of civilization is a little stone church across the Ocona-Luftee river over on Elowadihi (Yellow Hill) where many cherokees oft en assemble to worship. Work on the stage and seats has been carefully done, most of it by native people using native stone. Stone tiers provide seating for 2600 or more 28 people. The stage is made in three sections so that there will be no time lost between scenes. Trees have been left to help provide natural scenery. The Cherokee Tribal Council secured and gave the land for the amphitheatre, various government agencies and private concerns lent support wherever possi- ble. The writing of the script was assigned to Kermit Hunter, a graduate stu- dent at University of North Carolina. He has visited Cherokee several times to confer with Cherokee and local people, well versed in Cherokee history, so that he could get more of the real feel of the story than he was getting from the research he was doing with all available written materials. The 14 scene story begins with the visit of De Sota in 1540 to the land of the Cherokee. Tecumseh, Andrew Jackson, Junaluska, Sequoyah, Daniel Webster, John Howard Payne, John Ross, Tsali - all have their part in unfolding to the audience the thrilling story of a great Indian nation in its association with an ever advancing surge of white settlers. Mr. Hunter emphasizes the nobili- ty of common citizenship in both the Cherokee and the whites and the ever- timely fact that all men can, with understanding, live in brotherhood even in times of great economic and social expansion. At times one will see the un- desirable outcomes of the meeting of forces of evil but just as interesting, if not more so, he will see happy and lasting results of the joining of forces for good. Some have been afraid that because the Cherokee people did not use flashy headdress of the plains Indians the story might lack color. Mr. Hunt- er appears quite sensitive to the subtle color of the Cherokee life and set- ting, so one need not fear that the drama will lack either color or life. The music, costumes, dances, etc., will all carry out ideas and customs of the Cherokee people. Slow music rill denote death, sadness, loss; while the faster, lighter airs will be associated with victory, life and joy. The entire setting will have a deep meaning to one sensitive to the spirit of the mo-taln people - white and Cherokee - as they move quietly about their daily living, loving, hoping. ---Mary Ulmer Cherokee, N. C. The Summer Vacation Camp of the OOENTRY AWE SOCIETY OF AXERIG will be held at Long Pond, Buzzards Bay, Mass., August 6-27. Located on picturesgrie Cape Cod, Pinewood Camp offers eating, swimming and hiking, in addition to the regular program of folk dancing, folk singing, and recorder playing. The first part of the camp will be the General Session, August 6-20. This session will include American and English dance, folk songs and folk lore. There will be teaching groups both for beginners and experienced dancers. The Leaders' Workshop and the Folk Music Week will coincide in the week of August 20-27. In addition to the -bgular C.D.S. staff, Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Kennedy from the English Folk Dance and Song Society, London, will be guest teachers and Lecturers. Folders and information can be obtained from Miss May Gad, Director, The Country Dance Society of America, 31 Union Square W., New York 3, Ai. Y. 29 BOOKS "THE JOY OF HAND WEAVING" by Osma Couch Gallinger (International Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa. $5.50) is a complete and practical book for both the be- ginner and for those who have a fair knowledge of the art of handweaving. The book is divided into two parts. Part I deals with fibers, the histori- cal background of hand weaving, and the meaning of weaving. Clear and con- cise instructions are given,--backed up by excellent drawings, illustrations, and photographs,--explaining in detail the process of making simple articles such as bookmarks, rugs, mats, etc. Step by step instructions are also given for making cardboard, frame, and two-harness table looms. By the time the reader has finished Part I he should have a thorough knowledge of the basic principles of weaving, such as terms used, planning and preparing a warp, setting up the loom, uses and kinds of knots, preparing the weft, and the actual weaving of useful articles. Part II deals with four-harness looms and how to use them. How to warp and thread the loom, the principles of overshot pattern weaving, characteristics of various types of patterns, and planning borders are some of the unit headings. Instructions for designing one's own pattern drafts and the thread-chart for warp-settings are two of the most helpful units for those who 'know a little about weaving'. Although the book is designed for the hobbyist Q home weaver it is equally valuable as a text book for craft schools, recreational centers, camps, or occupational therapy workers. The Bibliography, the Sources of Supplies for the Hand Weaver, and Periodicals and Bulletins on Weaving given in the back of the books are of invaluable service to the individual weaver and to the teacher of handweaving. This book may be borrowed from the Council Office, 82' Wall Street, Asheville. --Alice Pratt Asheville, N. C. A NOTE TO ALL LIBRARIANS--- This issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is Vol. XXVI, No. 1: Spring, 1950. Only two issues of Vol. XXV , 1949, were published. These two issues were Sprihg and Summer. No Fall or Winter issue, 1949, was published so none is available. You will receive the full number of subscriptions for which you have paid. Miss Lois E. Fenn Ba~e~--semi a COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS g2 Wall Street Asheville, N. C. Enclosed find $3.00 for membership in the Council and subscription to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. ADDRESS ------------------------- Clip and mail COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS 8i Wall Street Asheville, N. C. Enclosed find a list of gift subscriptions to be sent to the following friends. I am enclosing $1.00 per subscription. NAME ADDRESS