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Mountain Life & Work vol. 28 no. 2 1952 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv28n20452 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 28 no. 2 1952 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1952 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. 25, MOUNTAIN LIFE WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN LIFE WORK V 0 L. X X V I I I , N 0 . 2 S P R I N G, 1 9 5 2 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS. LINCOLN HALL, BE REA COLLEGE. BEREA, KY. ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT BEREA . Ky. STAFF: RECREATION--Frank H. Smith, College Station, Berea, Ky. EDUCATION--Grazia K. Combs, Viper, Ky. HEALTH--Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Crossville, Tennessee RELIGION--Dr. Sam Vander Meer, Morris Fork, Ky. STAFF PHOTOGRAPHERS-- Ed Dupuy, Black Mountain, N. C. Roy N. Walters, Berea, Ky. Calvin Phipps, Berea, Ky. STAFF ARTIST--Mrs. Burton Roger s, Pine Mountain, Ky. MANAGING EDITOR--Charles Drake, College Station, Berea, Ky. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS Box 2000, College Station Berea, Ky. ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. P H 0 T 0 C R E D I T : Cover, Penland School of Handicrafts; pages 4, 5, & 6, North Carolina News Bureau, Department of Conservation and Development, Raleigh, North Carolina; 8 & 9, Miriam Heermans; 10 & 13, Extension Service, University of Tennessee, Knoxville; 14, 15, & 16, Hugh Morton, North Carolina News Bureau; 24, staff photo by Roy N. Walters; 39-44, Tennessee Valley Authority. D R A WIN G S : Mrs. Burton Rogers & Verna Katona. Le a= fe h an bl W~ ya J rl of Li Li to m s w 2 Li 0 s e !KERS, MATTER s, Ky. "IL OF e a, Ky. the emberagazine. cress RESSION crafts; f Con Miriam ssee, Bureau; Y Katona. SAVE SKIRTS, 2.ZoUsES,, APRONS with COTTON WARP YARN Let your imagination run free in the choice of color and patterns in aprons and skirts. Striking color effects can be obtained by blending color stripes as was done in the apron illustrated. Maroon is used, then red blended with maroon. Then a red stripe, red and orange blending, an orange stripe, orange and yellow blending, then yellow. This type of color blending is equally effective in aprons or skirts. Do not be afraid of combining colors in your hand weaving-a wide color range is available in Lily yarns and threads. To make the best selection for ,our hand weaving you will need Lily color samples ihich include a swatch of each color in each type oaf Lily yarn and thread. If you do not already have Lily color samples, order them by sending $1 to the Lily Mills. Then. you can select your threads by looking at the various colors side by side. Lily Art. 314 Cotton Warp Yarn is the choice of many hand weaving experts in aprons, blouses and skirts. For warps and wefts in large quantity you will want the economical one-pound cone. For color accents, order two-ounce tubes in the colors needed. 24 different colors are available in the various sizes. Lily Pearl Cotton Art. 114 and Lily Metallics are often used with good effects in border patterns of skirts. Hand woven skirts with border patterns generally look best when made up in a full, dirndl style. ART. 314 Price list sent free LILY MILLS COMPANY, Handweaving Dept. B, Shelby, N. C. Parkway Craft Center Opens by SAMP. WEEMS ~B'HIN NEARLY a half century ago Moses H. Cone purchased 3,600 acres \ of the mountainous wilds in Western North Carolina, he planned one day that it should become a public pleasuring grounds. This fabulous summer estate was named Flat Top Manor, and even during the lifetimes of Mr. and Mrs. Cone, summer visitors in the Blowing Rock area enjoyed horseback rides over the 25 or so miles of bridle trails. There were carriages too, but only one short road admitted the automobile. The magnificent forests were left to grow except for clearing around the manor. Now a part of the Blue Ridge Parkway, it has become the Moses H. Cone Memorial Park thus assuring that forever it will be preserved as a pleasuring ground for the people of the United States. The manor, appropriately enough, now houses the Parkway Craft Center, which on June 1 begins its first full season's operation. Through Labor Day the oldtime crafts of the mountain region are demonstrated, displayed and sold. In the handicraft museum are fine articles from the Frances Goodrich Collection and others which friends of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild have lent to round out the story of mountain crafts. The Center is operated by the Guild, and as a part of its program more than a score of the finest craftsmen of the region work there during the season so that the thousands of visitors may better understand and appreciate the genuine artistry of the mountain craftsman. ##### (THIS ATTRACTIVE SIGN INVITES TOURISTS A$ WELL AS LOCAL RESIDENTS TO PAY THE NEW CRAFT CENTER A VISIT. FROM THIS SIGN, THE ROAD WANDERS THROUGH SEVERAL HUNDRED YARDS OF WILD SHRUBS UNTIL IT REACh'.E$ THE CENTER.) d 3,600 acres e planned one fabulous sumtimes of Mr. ed horseback arriages too, cent forests ~ses H. Cone d as a pleas appropriatel05y begins its ie crafts of I the handicraft I and others lent to round program more during the id and appreci rs TO IDERS THROUGH THE CRAFT CENTER IS HOUSED IN THE 21-ROOM MANOR HOUSE IN THE MOSES H. CONE IvEMORIAL PARK NEAR BLOWING ROCK, N.C. THE FIRST FLOOR IS USED FOR DEMONSTRATING AND SELLING CRAFTS, WHILE THE UPPER FLOORS ARE USED AS LIVING QUARTERS BY CRAFTSMEN AND SALES PERSONNEL. A125. RALPH SMITH DEMONSTRATES AN OLD MOUNTAIN CRAFT Ã¢â‚¬Â¢--HOOKING A RUG. SHE AND HER HUSBAND ARE MANAGERS OF THE CENTER. a i LOOM IS ALWAYS A CENTER OF INTEREST, AND THIS ONE OPERATED BY X25. ELIZABETH KU TTSON IS NO EXCE PTION, AS SHE ABLY DEMONSTRATES ONE OF THE OLDEST 'OF THE MOUNTAIN CRAFTS. THE SHOP. WHICH OCCUPIES MUCH OF THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE CENTER, PROVIDES A NEW AND VALUABLE OUTLET FOR EVERY CRAFT NOW BEING PRODUCED BY GUILD MEMBERS. SALES HAVE EXCEEDED ALL EXPECTATIONS SO FAR. AN ADDITIONAL ATTRACTION THIS YEAR IS THE GOODRICH CRAFT COLLECTION. FOR BETTER WEAVING 100~~ VIRGIN WOOL WORSTED-YARNS BARGAIN PACKAGE OF MIXED COLORS IN SOFT 'fR'IST LONG STAPLE YARNS. AT LEAST a BEAUTIFUL COLORS IN A PACKAGE WE PAY POSTAGE ALI, THIS FOR $3.00 PER POUND MINIMUM ORDER :3 POUNDS IF NOT SATISFIED RETURN IN 10 DAYS AND YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED FOR OUTSTANDING BARGAINS IN OTHER TYPES OF YARNS, LET 15S KEEP YOU ON OUR MAILING LIST JOSEPH BRONSTEIN YARN CORP. 374 BROADWAY NEW YORK CITY 3, N.Y. A Weaver's working magazine The Magazine of growing interest in the si_ - ,~ retire Textile Field. Handweavcrs want more information about the textile industry, where many are making textile history. Information about people who arc' creating new designs on handlooms is significant to the textile trade. ~~Publisbed Quarterly. 7 year-E4.00; 2 years-f7.50; 3 years-$70.00; 5 years-$75.Oa Canadian postage, 50 cents extra; Pan American and foreign postage, $1.00 extra 2 NEW YORK I, N. Y. 46 FIFTH AVENUE OREGON 9-2748 Ã‚Â°"d -A4 Regional Craft Show at Pleasant Hill by M I R I A M H E E R MAN S One of the first regional craft shows, now being advocated 6y the Guild, was held at Pleasant Hill, Tenn., in April at the Craft Building. The Pleasant Hill Craft Center was built by the American Missionary Association with money received from the sale of Pleasant Hill Academy to the county school board when it became a public school. Miss Margaret Campbell and Mr. Earl Clark were largely responsible for its design and construction. The Center was built almost entirely with local labor, and it was dedicated in 1950 to serve the people of the Cumberland Plateau region as a center for the production of crafts for home use and for sale. Not until this year was such an ambitious undertaking attempted as the Crafts Fair. With the aid of Miss Maud El rod, Cumberland Co. Home Demonstration Agent, and Miss Wilbur Armisted, extension worker at the Univ. of Tenn., Miss Campbell succeeded in enlisting the interest of home demonstration clubs in Cumberland and many surrounding counties. Delegations crowded the building throughout the day, watching the demonstrations and looking at the exhibits. Pleasant Hill High School students came a grade at a time to gaze wide-eyed at the skill of the woodworkers, carders and spinners, weavers, carvers, rughookers and braiders, basket and lampshade makers, leather and metal workers, stencillers and weavers of shuck chair seats. Not be be outdone by the Asheville Fair, there was folk dancing morning and evening by pupils from the Pleasant Hill School, directed by Mrs. T. L. Cunningham, and folk music by a group of players led by Earl Lewis, a graduate of Pleasant Hill Academy. It was a great day on the "Hill" and made many people realize how rich this area is in fine craftsmen, including Mrs. Laura Blaylock, Aunt Nancy Page, Mrs. Flora Bumbalough, Rainey Brown, Frank Tabor, Earl Clark, Hollis McCormick, Mrs. Guy Henry, Jim Templeton, Mrs. Ray Page, Mrs. Joe Baisley, Ted Wightman, Miss Lillie Elmore and Mrs. C. C. Haun--to mention only a few. Many of the visitors at the Fair were seeing the Craft Building for the first time and were amazed to learn that such a well-equipped shop is available for working in wood and metal and for repair work. A small charge is made for materials and for the use of machinery. Short courses are given during the year by extension workers from the Univ. of Tenn., and Miss Campbell and Mr. Clark stand ready throughout the year to help in any way they can in widening the program of crafts for Cumberland Co. and the Plateau region. ##### Above, bfr. Frank Tabor, and oldtime chairmaker, demonstrates the proper w cry to come a mountain chair. tIe still uses tools made by his grandfather. ( A DIRECTOR OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION BEFORE HER RETIREMENT, MISS HEFRMANS NOW LIVES IN PLEASANT HILL WHERE SHE DOE9 SUPPLY TEACHING IN THE SCHOOL AND IN UPLANDS HOSPITAL IN ADDITION TO MAKING THINGS FOR HER HOME IN HER SPARE TIME IN THE NEW CRAFT CENTER. PHOTOS BY MISS HE ER MA NS.I)II) SAY HELLO When you visit the Craftsman's Fair in Asheville, July 2125, you will find that several of our advertisers have exhibits. Visit them and tell them that you saw their ad in MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. Both they and we will appreciate it! 't-7acucett of c~Rosfoa IMPORTED LINEN YARNS For HANDLOOM WEAVING Please send 35c for complete set of sample cards and price list. METLON Non-tarnish Metallic Yarn Free samples on request. Frederick J. Fawcett Inc. 129 SOUTH ST. Dept. M BOSTON, MASS. Exclusive Agent for LANE LOOM Send for Pamphlet H (ABOVE) WS. CHARLES VISITS WITH MIKE N1rCASLIN IN THE PHILLIPS MCCASLIN HOME IN CREENEV ILLE , WHERE ONE OF HER RUGS. A 11 ' X 1 9' IN SIZE. GRACES THE LIVING ROOM. " AS FAR AS I CAN FIND OUT, THIS IS THE LARGEST HANDBRAIDED WOOL RUG YET MADE." SAYS WS. CHARLES. THE WCASLINS BOUGHT IT FOR THEIR NEW HOME AFTER SEEING WS. CHARLES ADD COLORS THEY LIKED TO THE CENTER, WHICH SOMEONE HAD BEGUN AND DECIDED NOT TO COMPLETE.))))) A Rugmaking Hobby by R 0 S S L Y N WILSON Grows U p THE WARM colors of Mrs. 0. W. Charles' hand-braided wool (a rugs bring the beauty of a real craft product to homes all the way from Florida to New York, from North Carolina to California. What started out as a rugmaking project for her own home has grown into a real business for this Greeneville, Tennessee, housewife. In a new concrete block workshop beside the Charles home, two full-time workers braid the colorful wool strips, looping them together in the beautiful designs of Mrs. Charles' rugs. Six additional women do work for her on a piecework basis in their own homes. Neighbors, home demonstration club members, and others drop in to get materials and advice for their own rugmaking. Letters come from far and wide, ordering rugs to match samples of wallpapers and window drapes, or asking for Mrs. Charles' willing services for crafts courses throughout the Southern Highland area. B e g a n R u g m a k i n g 0 n 1 y Four Y e a r s A g o All this activity had its beginning only four years ago. At that time, Mrs. Charles was doing leatherwork. Designing and making handbags and other leather articles for sale, she was also doing a great deal of teaching at short courses, 4-H Club and Home Demonstration Club camps, and was in charge of leatherwork at the first Craftsman's Fair at Gatlinburg in 1948. That year, while teaching leatherwork at People's College, Greenville, S. C., she saw a woolbraided rug in her room and determined to make one for her own home. Before she left, Mrs. Charles learned how to braid the wool strips and to loop them together. Using wool scraps and discarded wool clothing, she began her first rug. "It took me three months to finish it," she remembers. " My biggest problem was getting it to lie flat." Not satisfied with this first effort, she started a second rug, learning from her mistakes with the first. This one she finished in six weeks, and still uses it in her dining room. H e 1 p e d b y U - T S p e c i a 1 i s t s While the second rug was under way, a course in rugmaking was held for Greene County home demonstration club members by crafts and marketing specialists of the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service. Attending this course, Mrs. Charles found answers to some of her problems, and got ideas that helped with her work and with her use of colors. Here, too, she says that she first got the idea of making the rugs for sale when someone offered to buy the rug she was making. The following year, Mrs. Charles was given a scholarship to attend a two-weeks' short course in rugmaking at the University of Tennessee, held to train crafts leaders who in turn would help others with rugmaking. Mrs. Charles, already known to crafts groups and rural leaders through her leatherwork, returned to Greene County to an accelerating schedule of opportunities for teaching others in rugwork. In 1950, Mrs. Charles demonstrated her rugmaking at the Craftsman's Fair, sold her first rug, and made plans for a workshop where she could make her rugs and carry on her teaching work more easily. R u g m a k i n g B e c o m e s a Bus i n e s s With orders for her rugs mounting rapidly, and more and more people becoming interested in rugmaking, Mrs. Charles finds herself as busy as two people. Exhibiting her rugs again at the Craftsman's Fair in 1951, she received $1500 in orders because people liked so well the rugs she had on display. Since the Fair, she has received over $3,000 worth of orders, and finds her rugmaking has become a substantial business almost overnight. Profits from the rugs are paying for construction of the craft house, planned for later expansion into home and workshop combined. Located on Highway 11E just north of Greeneville, the workshop is in a fortunate place to catch the eye of passing tourists. Many travelers see the rug displayed by the roadside in good weather, stop to watch the work in progress, and perhaps order rugs for themselves. To the craft house also come other rugmakers to buy materials, get help with their own problems, or work in company with other craftsmen. G o o d D e s i g n , W o r k m a n s h i p The beauty of Mrs. Charles' rugs is a combination of the materials used, good design, color, and quality workmanship. The materials are blanket ends from a factory in Indiana, which come in 1!-zinch strips, already dyed. Mrs. Charles dyes some of them herself to get the exact colors she wants for specific orders, using U-T tested dyes. The braids are looped together with heavy waxed linen thread, doubled for extra strength. An unusual feature of Mrs. Charles' rugs is the method she uses to blend the colors into each other and avoid the "stair-step " problem of changing colors. Instead of ending one color abruptly, she uses a few rounds of a braid blending that color with the next one; then continues with the braic; of the next color. Each order is an individual project with Mrs. Charles, who plans the design, selects the colors to go with those of other furnishings in the home, and lists all the information her workers need to continue the work whether she is present or away. With the help of U-T marketing specialists and prices set by other rugmakers, Mrs. Charles decided on a retail price of $2,50 a square foot for her rugs. Judging from her orders, and the way customers buy additional rugs after living awhile with their first purchases, people seem to feel that they are getting good value in terms of beauty and long wear. She has sold rugs to families in Texas, Oklahoma, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, New York, California and Wisconsin, as well as to any number in Tennessee. Several families have bought two and three rugs. W' o r k I s G e n u i This growing venture offers Mrs. Charles a great deal of pleasure as well as profit. "I learn something new about rugmaking every week," she says. This she feels is part of the fascination of rugmaking--the challenge to learn new things; the individuality of each rug; the satisfaction in the finished product. " When I'm away, I can hardly wait to get back to my rugmaking, although I enjoy the other work, too," she declares. The " other work " ,includes teaching and demonstration work in both rugmaking and leatherwork. All age groups use her services--4-H Clubs, home demonstration clubs, women's clubs of all kinds, schools, PTA's, crafts schools. She demonstrated rugmaking at the 43rd Governor's Conference at Gatlinburg. Her engagements for this summer include, in addition to a number of camps, a week at the Blue Ridge Parkway Craft Center; Somerset, Kentucky, High School; the Craftsman's Fair. So far, she has accepted all the requests she can schedule, making no charge outside actual expenses; but the work takes so much time from her rugmaking that she is having to consider limiting the amount of this work that she can accept. This is how a hobby grew up--as so many hobbies have done in Southern Highland craftwork. Mrs. Charles is making a product of charm, beauty, and usefulness; doing work that satisfies her own creative urge and talent; and spreading the satisfaction of a good craft well done, both to those she teaches and to those who buy her braided rugs. ##### (BELOW) THE CRAFT HOUSE WELCOMES FELLOW WORKERS FROM THE WHOLE (,BEENE VILLE AREA. HERE NNRS. CHARLES TALKS WITH ZIJELMA SIMPSON, WHO WORKS WITH HER FATHER, W. B. SIMPSON, TUSCULLIM FARMER, WHO LEARNED TO HOOK RUGS WHILE RECUPERATING FROM A BROKEN LEG. P 1 e a s u r e I Need Thy band CHORUS P% N _r :I Lord Thy hand to - day I'm nerd - ~^Ã‚Â° ' 'd in mine, Thy guid - ins hp^1 T' nine Zr. ,_ 0 And .n shine; ue; L; L, P 11 D. S. IF Tf?ERE is anything that mountain people like better than a " gatherin'," it's a " singin'.r When both of these are combined, it is not surprising that they turn out in great numbers. For example, more than 40,000 of them turn out annually for "The Great Singing on the Mountain," which is held on Grandfather Mountain in North Carolina, always on the fourth Sunday in June. By dawn, on that fourth Sunday, the cars are already streaming up Grandfather to hear the day-long medley of singing, instrumental music, preach in praying and exhortation. Although the recent advent of public address system " horns" used by sect preachers has added a raucous note to the event, the Great Singing is still a powerful outpouring of the religious fervor of the highland people. The Singing started 28 years ago when fewer than 150 people met to sing hymns near the top of what a French naturalist called ' the most beautiful mountain in America.' The size of the group has grown constantly since. J. L. Hartley of Linville, N. C., has been Chairman since the meeting was organized. The success of this event should give everyone working in the area a hint about the extension of this idea into other sections. ##### (BELOW: A SMALL PART OF THE CROWD THAT GATHERS FOR THE SINGING ON GRANDFATHER N'ITN.J f 41.h, a.n..rn~ . . . CRAFTSMAN"S FAIR o f tlu. S oAhun1n. H icjh.Lw,zd H m,Ucnaf t bt.u._ld.. ASHEVILLE -NORTH CAROLINA -JULY 21-Z55? HI HO . . . . . COME TO THE FAIR. Artisans by the hundreds, "'mountains of eight states, show how handicrafts have been preserved and developed through the centuries--useful and beautiful contributions to a true American culture. Members of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild display their wares and demonstrate their skills while others sing and dance in the authentic folk tradition of the mountains, inviting you to take part. See fabrics being loomed from vegetable-dyed threads, spun from flax or fleece. . . Carvers who whittle alongside woodworkers with modern equipment, , , Basket making by Cherokee Indians . . . Chair makers, iron smiths, jewelry fashioners and textile decorators. . . The potter at his wheel, shaping clay in forms of infinite variety. Catch the feel of the craftsman's joy in creating. . . Hear and see the recounting of mountain legends and tall tales and the play of puppets. . . Take home with you the wholesome spirit of the fair, and the products of mountain craftsmen. CARDING & SPINNING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ VEGETABLE DYEING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ WEAVING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ BASKETRY RUG HOOKING & BRAIDING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ BROOM P CHAIR MAKING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ POTTERY JEWELRY & LAPIDARY Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ METAL WORK & WROUGHT IRON WOOD TURNING & CARVING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ MARQUETRY Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ SILK SCREENING & BLOCK PRINTING Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ KNOTTING SHUCKERY & "WOODS PRETTIES" For tourist information and reservations, write the Chamber of Commerce, City Hall, Asheville,.N. C. Adill-h5 $L00 ChI ldren $.50 HOURS IOfltm-IOpm,. FÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ or further informatics write -Southern Highland Handicraft Guild, 8 1/2 Wall Street, Asheville, N. C. Penland Announces Courses THE SUMMER SESSION at the Penland School of Handicrafts opened June 2 and will continue in 3-week periods until Aug. 23. The winter term begins Aug. 25 and runs until May 1, 1953. Weaving courses in all sessions will be under the direction of Rupert Peters, formerly director of visual education in the Kansas City, Mo., public schools. He will be assisted by Miss Irene Besudin, Col. John Fishback, and Mrs. Dorothy Weichel. More than 50 looms, from tapestry frames to 12-harness damask, are available for student use. Carlyle Smith, who studied with Baron Flemming of Sweden, will have special classes in silversmithing. He is an instructor in the School of Fine Arts, Univ. of Kansas. Courses in design will be offered under Toni Ford. Pottery will be taught by Joe Lukins and others. Related crafts will be directed by Mrs. Eulalie Burns, with four teachers assisting her. Crafts taught will include silk screen printing, stenciling, leatherwork, chair seating and crafts suitable for occupational therapy and camp activities. Simpler crafts for housewives, home demonstration workers, and recreation leaders are emphasized each spring. There are no entrance requirements, except interest in crafts, according to Miss Lucy Morgan,Director. Courses and instructors meet all requirements of and are approved by the N. C. State Dept. of Trade and Industrial Education, and the department cooperates with the school through existing laws for federal assistance in vocations education.#*### CRAFTSMEN . . . Do You Know? WHERE T O GET WHAT "The Notional Directory of Crafts Suppliers." Listing more than 300 addresses of firms which sell equipment and materials for the artist, craftsman, school shop, hospitals, institutions and others engaged in art or craft work. Classified and alphabetical, easy to use. No craftsman should be without it. Send ZSc for your copy. Penland School of Handicrafts Penland, North Carolina HINDMAN HOLDS HALF-CENTURY PAGEANT FIVE decades of history, depicting the transition of a people and a way of life from crude pioneer livelihood to modernism, passed in review this month in a pagean* ~~ at the Hindman Settlement School. It was staged on the Settlement Green, a grass-covered gently sloping hillside flanked with native trees. Around about were rustic stone and wooden buildings of the school blending with their sylvan setting along the sandy banks of the Right Fork of Troublesome Creek. Hundreds of benches and folding chairs had been set up for the folks who came to honor the 50th anniversary of the school. It probably was the greatest crowd ever assembled in one place in Knott County. The pageant, written by an alumnus, paid gracious tribute to an ancient Mountain patriarch and two great ladies from the Bluegrass whose lives were woven into the pattern of the settlement school which brought "larnin' " and culture and a better way of life to an isolated region. The author, Mrs. Una Ritchie Yahkub of Chapel Hill, N. C., took as her principal characters the three people whose vision fused into the founding and development of a settlement school in a hidden valley 50 years ago. One of these was her grandfather, old Uncle. So. Everidge, whose one-room log cabin still graces the school's generous campus. The others were Miss Katherine Pettit and Miss Mary Stone of Lexington, who were teachin ` , classes in a tent at Hazard in 1902 when Uncle Sol walkev J,' all the way from Forks of Troublesome to enlist their aid. Forks of Troublesome now is the Knott County-seat town of Hindman, from which the school gets its name. Uncle Sol, although 80 at the time, made the long hike barefoot to Hazard that he might beg the "quare" women to bring education to the valleys of Troublesome. They answered his plea, and the old man in appreciation gave some of his best bottomland for the school. The pageant staged 6y Hindman Settlement School to help celebrate it's 50th year has been widely acclaimed for its originality and its sympathy for Mountain life. This is part of what Gerald Griffin of the East Ky. Bureau of the Louisville Courier- Journal wrote about it. We hope that space will permit us to publish more about the pageant in our next issue for the benefit of those who could not attend. Ed. WORMS SENT MY SON TO COLLEGE A 40-page, illustrated booklet tells how my son made enough I in three seasons to pay for three years in one of the best universities of the South. Two acres of rough land, converted to worm production, sold as fish bait, did the trick! Mountain land is ideal 'for worm production. If you are near a market and have humus available, you can cash in on this profitable business. Totes of rich top soil are produced as a by-product. Send for: " L R R G E R R E D 8' 0 R bt S " -- $1.00 ( MONEY REFUNDED IF BOOK RETURNED UNDAMAGED, SHOULD YOU FIND WORM PRODUCTION IS IMPRACTICAL FOR YOUR LOCATION.) N A T U R A L BAITS PUBLICATIONS, 15 Rockwood Ave., ROCKWOOD, T E NN. NT f a god ant \\ ed and ~ool nks ,. now LEONARD ROBERTS SHARES WITH US... /.A t.bj /.,, te1(111,1?`t ... THIS SIMPLE little story has not been collected, to my knowledge, ion this side of the Atlantic. I invite any notes on it that would help me classify it among traditional folk tales. It dues not seem to belong to Type 311, in which two sisters in the power of a giant are rescued by the clever youngest sister. It might be a distant version of Type 431, found only in Grimm, No. 169: "The House in the Wood." But says Stith Thompson, authority on the prose tale, in his study, THE FOLKTALE: " Only nine versions of this tale have been noted, and all of them seem likely to be mere retellings of the Grimm story." It is possible that I have here a rare tenth version. Recorded by Jimmy Pennington, age about 16, who heard it from his grandmother in Leslie County, Kentucky. THE LITTLE BLUE BALL 0NCE UPON A TIME there was a woman and she had three daughters. One day one of them was out in the yard sweeping, and a little blue ball come rolling down the hill, and she bagged her mother to let her go and get the little blue ball. She said, " No, I'm afraid you'll foller it into the giant's den." She said, " No, I won't, mommy. I'll come back." She took off after the little blue ball and she follered it into the giant's den. The giant said Wash my dishes, feed my cat and dog Make up my bed, sweep my house And I'll give you a hundred dollars And a buggy and let you go home Well, the giant went off, and that night when he come back the little dog was out a-barkin and jumpin up on him. He said, "You didn't feed my dog, did you?" She said, "No, I'll go feed it." He said, "No, I' 11 feed it myself." He cut her head off and hung it up in the closet and went and fed his dog. The next day the other little girl was out in the yard sweeping, and a little blue ball went rolling down the hill. She said, " Momoy, I want to go get that little blue ball." She said, " No, I'm afraid you'll foller it into the giant's den like the other little sister did." She said, " No, I won't," 22 She took off after it and she follered it into the giant's den. The old giant said Wash my dishes, feed my cat and dog Make up my bed, sweep my house And I'll give you a hundred dollars And a buggy and let you go home So he went off, and come back in that night. The cat was a-meawin, and he said, "You didn't feed my cat, did you?" " No, it was around while I was washin the dishes meawin and made me mad and I wouldn't feed it." Said, " I'll go feed it now. " He said, " No, I'll feed it myself." He cut her head off and hung it in the closet and went and fed his cat. The next day the other little girl was out in the yard sweeping. The little blue ball come rolling down the hill. She said, "Mommy, I want to go and get that little blue ball." She said, " No, I'm afraid you'll foller it into the giant's den like the other little sisters did." " No, I won't." She took off after it and follered it into the giant's den. He said Wash my dishes, feed my cat and dog Make up my bed, sweep my house And I'll give you a hundred dollars And a buggy and let you go home He went on off, and when he come back in that night she had fed his cat and dog, made up his bed, washed the dishes and all. He give her a hundred dollars and a buggy and let her go home. And she went home and lived happy ever after. ##### L I T T L E F E S T 1 V A L P L A N N E D A -T F A I R If you are a folk dancer and plan to 6e at the Craftsman's Fair on Saturday, July 25, you might like to take part in the "Little Festival that is to be held then. If you are interested in dancing, write Marguerite Bidstrup, Brasstown, N. C., for particulars. /Olt JOf2 j O`' J1f2 lf2 23 THE LITTLE MOHEE IKE TALKING DON'T HOLD1THE 1 HALF NOTES BUT 2 BEATS / WENT OUT SAIL- ING j TEAS IN THE SPRING TIME I WENT TO WEST IN-DIA TO REST UP My MIND 1. 0 I went out sailing, 'twas in the spring time, I went to West India to rest up my mind. 2. As I went out walking down 6y the sea shore The wind it did whistle, the waters did roar. 3. As I sat amusing myself on the grass, 0 who did I see but a fair Indian lass. 4. She came and sat 6y me, took hold of my hand, Said, You look like a stranger from a far distant land. 5. But if you will follow, you're welcome to come And dwell in the cottage that 1 call my home. 6. Together we wandered, together did rove, Ti l we came to a cottage in a cocoanut grove. 7. She asked me to marry and offered her hand, Sa ing, My father's the chieftain of all of this land. 8. My father s a chieftain, a ruler is he, I'm his only daughter, my name is Mohee. 9. 0 nom dear maiden, that never can be, For ~ have a true-lover in my own countree. 10. I will not forsake her, for I know she loves me, Her heart is as true as any Mohee. 11. The sun was fast sinking far over the sea As I wandered along with the Pretty Mohee. 12. It was early one morning, one morning in May, I broke her poor heart 6y the words I did say. 13. I'm a- going to leave you, so fare-ye-well, my dear, My sip's sails are spreading and home I must steer. The last time I saw her she stood on the sand And as my ship passed her she waved me her hand. 15. Swing, When you get over to the girl that you love emember the Mohee in the cocoanut grove. 16. And when 1 had landed on my own native shore Both friends and relations gathered 'round me once more. 17. 1 looked all around me, not one did I see That really could compare with the pretty Mohee. 18. And the girl I had trusted proved untrue to me, So I said, 1'11 turn my course back over the sea. 19. I'll turn my ship backwards on the dark storm sea, I'll go and spend my days with the pretty Me. (Written down and tune put in share-notes by Richard Chase, 27 Feb.,1952) (Above: A scene at the recent Festival attended 6y the authors. AMERICAN DANClNG AS SEEN BY ENGLISH DANCERS kb J 0 H N & B r; T T Y S H A SS px ~ ALTHOUGH WE came to the United States from England more than two V, 0 years ago, it was not until last January that we heard about the pit dancing in the Southern Appalachians and the Mountain Folk Festival at Berea College. Since we were both active folk dancers at home, the list of dances on the programme for the 1952 Festival were mostly old favourites, and the chance of doing them again for two and a half days was too good to miss. On the way to Berea we felt a mixture of anticipation and trepidation. We were looking forward to the dancing, but we were not certain how much we still remembered, or even whether the dances would be done in the manner we had learnt; although we did know that there was a strong tradition of dancing in the Mountains and that Cecil Sharp had collected many songs and dances from this region. However, as soon as we arrived, we knew that everything would be fine. The campus of Berea College has a feeling of warmth and friendliness; and the exuberance of the young people registering, together with the sound of the bells in the College Chapel pealing out the familiar tunes of songs and dances, made us feel at home at once. Immediately after supper on Thursday, everyone poured into Seabury Gym, and we soon found ourselves on the floor dancing. At first we had difficulty in remembering the figures, but the dances were exactly the same as those we had done in England, so, with some help from the other dancers, we were soon quite at home. We were very much impressed by the activity of the young dancers, who never seemed to be tired of dancing, and also by the spirit with which the dances were done. There were always far more people dancing than watching at every session, and we have been to very few dances in England where there was such a generally high standard of dancing. This is an obvious indication zs of the enjoyment everyone derived, which was due to a number of things, not the least being the very excellent playing of Ruth White at the piano, who captured so well the spirit of the dances. The next two days went in a flash as we danced, sang folk songs and listened to tall tales in the company of more than two hundred fifty other young people of all ages, all having the time of their lives. In the mornings there was an early session of dancing, followed by a chance to catch our breath as we listened to Dick Chase and Bill Wheeler tell us about 01' Dry Frye and other early inhabitants of the surrounding hills. Edna Ritchie and others sang some of the mountain songs and ballads, in addition to songs from other parts of the world, and we all joined in singing those we knew. After lunch and supper, we danced again. Frank Smith and Ethel Capps directed the English and American dances, and Georg and Marguerite Bidstrup taught some of the dances they recently brought back from Denmark. This was the first time we had met Danish dances, and it was interesting to compare the many similarities of these dances with the other dances in the programme. Between dances and during meals, we talked with many of the dancers and discovered how firm a foothold these dances have gained in this part of America. We also discovered how far some of the people had traveled to attend the Festival, and the large number of other dancers those present represented. The Festival ended with a Grand Finale on Saturday evening. For the first half of the programme, there was a packed and appreciative audience to watch the dancers. The Festi-al Dancers, in bright dresses and white ducks, came onto the floor to the strains of the Helston Furry Processional, and for the next ninety minutes the audience was treated to a lively exhibition of a large variety of dances. In addition to social dances from several countries, there were also displays of Morris and Sword dances from England. It gave us an exhilarating feeling to watch once again the waving handkerchiefs, to hear the sound of Morris bells, and to feel the steady pound of feet as the men went through the complicated evolutions of the North Skelton Sword Dance. We were perhaps a little surprised to see so many girls taking part in the exhibition of the Morris, but they were good dancers, and we enjoyed watching them. To sum up our impressions of the Festival, we should like to say how much we enjoyed our visit. Now that we have been once to Berea, we hope we shall be able to attend in other years, and on other occasions. It was exciting to find that the dances which we enjoy so much are being danced with the s:^ie enjoyment in other parts of the world, and our visit has given us encouragement to try to form a group of our own to do these dances. ##### (Dr.& Mrs. Shaw are newcomers to our pages. Dr. Shaw is a scientist working at Columbus, Ohio. They have been in the U.S. about two years.) PINE MOUNTAIN SETTLEMENT SCHOO_L_ OFFERS VACATION POSSIBILITIES Pine Mountain Settlement School offers vacation possibilities to those who like an isolated mountain scenery and rustic surroundings. Room and board are approximately $4.50 per day, and a limited number of guests can be taken throughout the year. Write: Burton Rogers, Pine Mountain, Ky., for information. OUR READERS WRITE: Recreation Editor Mountain Life and Work Dear Editor: May I comment on the philosophy of your Southern Mountain recreation movement discussed in thought-provoking articles by Frank Smith and Edna Ritchie in past issues of this magazine. As a sociologist I am very much interested in folk values and their preservation, and as a hobbyist I find immense personal and social pleasure in the folk arts, particularly in the folk dance. It was my good fortune to have attended several sessions of the Christmas Country Dance School, and now, having spent the past three years in the Rocky Mountain west, I should like to venture a number of thoughts concerning your movement and the " westernism" in the folk dance field that seems to be encroaching upon other traditions. It seems to me that it behooves every lover of genuine folk traditions to ponder gravely this encroachment and its implications. ( Ed. Note: Mr. Katona has articles on this subject in RECREATION magazine for Nov. 1950, Nov. 1951.) First, let me say that you have something fine, beautiful and genuine in the three traditions, English, Danish and Southern Mountain, that you have been furthering in the folk dance field. Keep them. Keep them fine, beautiful, , and genuine. That is your cultural pleasure and your cultural contribution. Let others follow their traditions and proffer their contributions. And let ` us all share these traditions. EXIi1BIT101VISM AND COMPETITION LEAD TO ..... Gaudy whirligigs like this... 27 But to share traditions does not mean to mix them up; it does not mean to throw them into a melting pot and make a stew of them. Only through our uniqueness, through our differences, can we make contributions. When we give up our uniqueness, we cease to contribute to the whole and the whole ceases to be enriched. That is why I hope you do not take on other folk traditions, beautiful and genuine as they may be. That is why I hope you will not be taken in by the extremist trend known as westernism. Ironically enough, the so-called "western square dance" is neither western nor folk. It is the commercial concoction of urban promoters who are revered by zealous followers as fathers of the square dance. It is not danced by the "folk" of the west--the farmers, ranchers and miners. It has the same relation to the folk dance as Tin-Pan Alley has to the folk song. Let me give some almost incredible instances of the dance extremism of the urban west. I once heard the president of a square dance club deliver a long-winded harangue against any kind of social exchange of partners. Recently a California dance promoter made the statement that the only genuine square dancing is the California brand and that the sooner the nation takes up this California brand, the better for everyone concerned. In a big city the folk dance clubs raid each other for stars in order to put on more dazzling exhibitions and to win more contests. At a state contest extravaganza where callers, fiddlers, square dancers and couple dancers compete against each other, dancers wear numbers on their backs like y~~~-ol0_~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ (~'Il1(~~ Dance Derbies like this... 28 marathon racers. The Swedish Hombo, a lovely picture of smooth, undulating grace, is transformed into a series of stunt whirls. You who have labored for years to build up a superb folk movement might shudder at the thought of the lovely, rollicking English Dargason "improved! by having the men propel the women along with a succession of dizzy hand twirls; at the thought of the gaily lilting Danish To-Ting embellished by a number of assorted twists and turns, i and at the thought of the smoothly flowing Kentucky running set trans ~~formed into a jagged sequence of spins, ~~kick-backs and yo-yo twirls. If once you let the extremist influence in, you probably will get bigger rapidly. But this will not be growth; it will be increase by means of shoddy accretion. Your beautiful traditions will cease to be. As regards your growth, allow me to make a suggestion. Retain your English and Danish traditions, but at the same, time, give much more emphasis to the Southern Mountain tradition. It seems that heretofore the English and Danish traditions have overshadowed the Southern Mountain. There is a wealth Costume displays like this of folk culture in the Appalachians; let us explore and partake of it more than we have done. It is one of our finest American traditions, and after all, our own ~culture is first at hand. The folk arts, like many other things, begin at home. Above all, do not sell your beautiful folk heritage for a mess of pseudowestern pottage. Yours sincerely, Arthur Katona (Mr. Katona is Assoc. Prof. of Sociology at Colo. A. & M. College, Fort Collins, Colo. Drawings are by his wife, Verna Bendelin Katona, and are drawn from life. We are always happy to publish constructive letters that are to the point.))) U N I V. OF TENN. NOW INTERRACIAL ------------------------------------------------------ Negro students who cannot find equal facilities elsewhere in the state are now eligible for admission to the Univ, of Tenn. graduate schools following a recent meeting of the Board of Trustees. The Trustees had previously entered suit to prevent the entrance of Negro students, but the suit was dropped after recent rulings of the Supreme Court. ##### RECREATION ht veer LEADER AVAILABLE THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS probably will have available once again an Itinerant Recreation Leader in the person of Jane Bishop Nauss, who is widely known as the former Recreation Director of Hindman Settlement School. Her husband, Edward J. Nauss, has just finished his work for a master's degree at the University of North Carolina, where Jane also has been a graduate student. Since Uncle Sam probably is going to take advantage of Ed's availability, Jane has agreed in such event to do this work for the Council. Ed is also deeply interested in the Council, and fully shares his wife's ambition to make a contribution to recreation in the Southern Highlands. Jane was a student in high school at Pine Mountain Settlement School, where she was trained as a folk dancer by Winnie Christensen. At Pine Mountain she became a folk song enthusiast. 4t Berea College she belonged to the Country Dancers for four years, and went West with a group that Frank and Leila Smith took to dance at the University of California. She was active in the Berea Players, and wrote a play entitled " A Gentleman Came to Our House," which appeared in Mountain Life and Work, summer issue, 1949. Jane sends greetings to her many friends in the Southern Highlands. She writes, " Although it is indeed under rather unexpected and not altogether happy circumstances that I return now to the Highlands, it is a happy fact to know that I will be at home, with people.and with recreation. Mr. Ayer wrote, not so long ago, that 'It (our area) must share the best of its traditions, its folk tales and songs, its crafts, its natural resources, the independence of its people and their ideals, and its youth, not only with all parts of the area, but with all America as well.' That stuck with me as being significance in a nutshell, and now it deeply underlines for me the Council's reinstatement of the itinerant recreation work. I only hope that I am equipped to extend my energies toward the multiplication of that sharing." The Smith College workship in recreation is held this year by Lee MacMahan, who will also be available in the area beginning around September 1. These two recreation leaders are available singly or together by arrangement with the Council office. Any community group--school, church, PTA, civic club, SCF, Extension Service setup, or other organization interested in local people-should contact the Council at Berea College, Box 2000, Berea, Kentucky, at once with tentative proposals of needs and dates. Costs will be determined on a time and travel basis and will be kept to a minimum, giving due consideration to the local needs and cooperation. 30 Caroline Sherman has contributed a noteworthy collection of reviews to this magazine through the years. A worker in the USDA, she has maintained a keen interest in rural life. Because we have not had adequate space to review all the new books written in and about the Appalachian area during the past four years, we asked her to bring us up to date on ...... Mountain Writers & Writings: by CAROLINE SHERMAN 1949-5 VARIETY IS not a characteristic of the writing about our Southern Appalachians, but the books of the last four years offer diversity. Fiction dominates, and some of the other books are on the border line. As imagination can sometimes convey truth more effectively than does plain statement of fact, we do not decry its use in otherwise true narration if its use is acknowledged somewhere within the covers. Jesse Stuart comes first to mind as he has so frequently written of these Mountains. Perhaps his best is his fairly recent recital of his struggles in connection with the schools of his locality: The Thread that Runs so True (Scribner). He says therein that he has given up the handto-hand and face-to-face contest with the conditions that so hamper public education in his counties in Kentucky, for while he found some immensely rewarding young people and had some keenly satisfying results, the obstacles seemed too defeating to be labored with forever. His loss to the schools is partly balanced by our hope that this may provide more time for writing and talking to groups far and near about the need. Stuart's thrust and vigor and conviction have never been more effective than in this account of his life and work. His latest in book form, Hie to the Mountains (Whittlesey House), is a lively tale containing some strikingly told episodes, especially the freefor-all in the corn patch. The general outline of a boy's desertion of his valley home to live in the Mountains is not convincing, but the picturesque fight that sent him there certainly is, as well as the life, in the cabin and the hills, that follows. The next most prolific highland writer is Janice Holt Giles, who, during these years, has published The Enduring Hills, Miss Willie, and Tara's Healing (Westminister Press). Mrs. Giles has a genuine feeling for the mountain scenes and people. Some of her descriptive paragraphs call for second reading; some of her more sentimentally philosophical paragraphs can be omitted. The second of this group revolves around a remote mountain school. All are unpretentious, sincere, and rooted in solid values. Another Giles, named Henry, came on the scene last year with a novel that suggests real literature. Harbin's Ridge (Houghton, Mifflin) is effectively planned and written, in essence poetic, though sparse and searching. Contentment seems to prevail on this ridge, but from the first the reader is aware of sinister undercurrents. They surge to the surface eventually in an ending of dramatic inevitability. The story is powerful, compassionate, and touched with distinction. Harriette Arnow's Hunter's Horn (Macmillan) can claim a place among our best rural fiction. It is intensely regional but invested with universality partly because Mrs. Arnow accepts people as they are. There is vivid storytelling, crowding incident, animated and absorbing characters, insight and humor and understanding, and excellent writing. Felix Holt, apparently a new writer, won critical approval with The Gabriel Horn (button). Whereas these other books have dealt with recent times, Holt's is of the Kentucky frontier. In a lively narrative father and son migrate the length of the State in pioneer fashion. Their adventures and the colorful characters they meet make exciting chapters. Another excellent historical novel of the mountain frontier is Kentucky Stand (Scribner) by Jere Wheelwright. There is plenty of action as land is taken up and then held by dint of heroism. Daniel Boone appears in the pages. And here is Bryon Herbert Reece. His first full volume, Better a Dinner of Herbs (button), is an esoteric piece of writing. The story is laid in the far Southern Piedmont, but it could have happened in any primitive community. It is so trancelike at first that its period is in question. It emerges as a stark though everyday and inevitable tragedy. A spirited,recital of facts that is spiced with some fictional methods and touches is The Singing Hills (Crowell) by Lillian Craig. She was determined to know at firsthand the people and ways of the deeper reaches of these Mountains. She spent several summers on foot in isolated coves and on lonely hillsides in cabins of sometimes almost unbelievable conditions. She found the people kindly though suspicious--and eventually responsive to methods and persuasions that seem at times decidedly fictionized. She confesses to some telescoping of events to get an effective whole but vouches for the essential truth of her vivacious tale, which is written with no particular grace of style but with humor and vivid concern. One book for older girls seems so authentic and so well calculated to interest outside girls in this regional life that it is included here. In Mountain Laurel (Putnam) we are taken by the author, Anne Emery, to a remote section of the Smoky Mountains of Tennessee where a young daughter is striving to take her dead mother's place with the growing children. It requires sacrifice and patience and hard work; she finds solace in continuing her mother's weaving. The impact of outsiders is here and the influence of the settlement house. There is a touch of the mountain music and an adroit use of the rhythms of mountain speech without direct recourse to dialect. Undoubtedly the pageant given in the Cherokee Reservation, Unto These Hills, A Drama of the Cherokees (Univ, of N. C. Press), sponsored by the Cherokee Historical Association, should be mentioned. The interesting text is by Kermit Hunter, and those who have seen and heard the pageant find it stirring. It is hoped that this revelation of the early inhabitants, many of whom refused to leave these loved Mountains regardless of the inducements to go or the perils of staying, will continue to attract visitors. What is the state of writing in and about the Highlands? The books covered in this sketch, which is perhaps not exhaustive but is certainly representative, indicate that it is both productive and promising. There are no thoroughgoing or scientific studies here, but Horace Kephart's Our Southern Highlanders was reissued (Macmillan) and Botkin's Treasury of Southern Folklore (Crown) naturally takes care of the region well in that domain of writing. Moreover, Callahan's Smoky Mountain Country is scheduled for publication later this year (Little, Brown), and Mary Breckinridge's Wide Neighborhoods (Harper), the story of the heroic Frontier 32 Nursing Service, is becoming available as we go to press. The new writers of these hills, whether they are now living there or are writing from experience and memory, are several, and their work in some instances is of a high order in structure of story, narrative skill, and talent for expression. A few of these books can take their place among the best of their year or perhaps their decade. All are free from what may be termed liter-40 ary exploitation, for all bear the hallmarks of genuine interest and intimate knowledge. ##### A:TREASURY OF WESTERN FOLKLCY3E, B. A. Botkin, Crown Publishers, New York, N. Y., 1951, 806 pages, $4.00. Readers of MLW need only a few words of introduction to this, the third of Botkin's regional folklore collections. This volume takes in almost all outdoors since it embraces the history and settlement of all our nation west of the Mississippi. In order to handle all the aspects of this vast territory, from exploring and trapping to mining and cattle punching to sheep herding and farming with its attendant plagues that surpass all those of Egypt, Mr. Botkin has enlisted the aid of an army of witnesses. He has used the findings of the outstanding historians: Bancroft and Parkman, Everett Dick and Stanley Vestal. He has excerpted kernels from the belletristic writings of Dan De Quille, Mark Twain, Bret Hart e. He has selected the best from collections and articles by the folklorists of the region: J. Frank Dobie, Botkin, Alan Lomax, Mody C. Boatright. The Guide Books to the many states have been gleaned, as well as scores of newspapers. Here then is a study of our western land and people, from informative definitions of "coyote " and "Sooner " to vivid accounts of the tragic Donner Party, the Mormon Handcart Brigade, and the hopeless last speeches and struggles of the Indians. The folklorist will find his oral traditions in Part V, with its sections of tall tales, folktales and legends; and in Part VI, given to song. The curious general reader will find the entire volume a colorful panorama of western Americana. ..Leonard Roberts REV. A. RUFUS MORGAN HONORED The Rev. A. Rufus Morgan, Franklin, N. C., was presented the "Rural Fellowship Award " at a recent meeting of the Clergy Conference of the Episcopal Church. Only three such awards were made for the past year. The citation which accompanied the Award stated in part: For many years he has been a faithful friend and pastor to the rural mountain people, in a devoted and efficient ministry. His leadership to the Church's rural work in the Fourth Province has been an inspiration to many. Re was the prime mover in founding and directing the Southern Rural Church Institute. As a priest who loves rural people and has labored long among them, he is a worthy recipient of this Award." The Rev. Mr. Morgan has held many offices in the Council of Southern Mountain Workers and has been a constant attender at the Conferences since they first began. ####### DRYING LUMBER ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ AT THE WOODWORKING SHOP by Gilbert H. Fechner, Forester Tennessee Valley Authority 33 I'M GLAD I live in an area where the woodworking craft has not been forgotten. Here in the eastern Highlands of the Tennessee Valley I can start out in almost any direction and find a craftsman who can build me a chair or table to almost any design. My choice of woods is not limited; this craftsman works with the most beautiful woods in America. His shop is small; he seldom employs more than two people. He uses less than 50 thousand board feet of lumber a year. But add all these small woodworking shops together and you have a million dollar. business! This craftsman, like everyone else, has changed with the times. Furniture is still his main product, but he also makes millwork, cabinets, and the like.2 Pine and yellow poplar are the species he uses most, but oak, walnut, cherry, maple, and cedar run close behind. G o o d R i r Sea s o n i n g Imp o r tan t As much as I would like to write about woodworkers, this is an article for woodworkers. It has to do with one of the toughest problems these fellows have to face--lumber seasoning. If you airdry your lumber, you may get some helpful hints from it. Your air seasoning pile is very important. The quality of your products depends on it. Although many products require kiln-dried material, even kiln-dried lumber is often air seasoned first. Defects caused by faulty air-drying cannot be corrected in a kiln, and defects cost money. When you trim a board because of end checks, stain, or decay, you are throwing money away. WILLIS M. BAKER, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF FORESTRY RELATIONS. NORRIS, TENNESSEE. Z) IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE. PRODUCTS INCLUDE FURNITURE. MILLWORK. CABINETS. TRUCK BEDS. NOVELTIES, HANDICRAFTS, BEEHIVES, HANDLES. ,FLOORING, CASKETS, AND TOBACCO STICKS. 34 As a small shop owner, you have seasoning problems that large shop owners seldom have to worry about. You deal with small amounts of lumber. You must have various species, thicknesses, widths, and lengths on hand, all of which make your seasoning job that much harder. But your goal is the same: to dry lumber as fast as possible with the least amount of degrade. How fast lumber dries depends on the weather. The drier the air, the higher the temperature, and the more wind there is, the faster lumber will dry. We can't do much about the weather, of course, but we can pile lumber so as to take advantage of every weather condition that speeds up the drying process. The stack's the thing! We will see later how the method of piling can help change the " weather " inside the pile. Your lumberyard should be well drained and clean! For species that dry easily, a high location is best. Turn the stacks so the sides are toward the prevailing winds. This gives the most circulation. The new chemical weed killers are ideal for keeping yards clean. Weeds under and around the stacks slow down air circulation. Rotting boards and timbers in the alleys and foundations may infect your green lumber. B u i 1 d i n g the S t a c k To build a good lumber pile, you must first of all have a strong foundation. Timbers, cement blocks, concrete, or posts are all suitable materials. Lay the foundation as carefully as you would a house foundation. It's worth the effort. Remember, your lumber can be no straighter than the foundation you dry it on. Air moves through a lumber stack either crosswise or downward. Hence, enough space must be left under the pile for moist air to escape; you should have at least 18 inches. If you build your foundation out of timbers, you should either treat them with a wood preservative or use the heartwood of species that will not rot easily. Wood preservatives now on the market make it easy for you to treat your own timbers. Ask your county agent about them, or write for some of the publications listed at the end of this article. Putting in new foundation timbers every three or four years is an unnecessary expense. Run stringers from front to rear of the pile. This allows you to place cross members at any spacing you like. If the foundation is made to take 16-foot boards, you can also use it for shorter lengths. Of course, you can set cross members permanently if you think that would make a better job. If you fasten them down, use one-for every two feet of pile length (a cross member supports a column of stickers). The height and width of the pile is pretty much a matter of 35 choice. Of course, the wider the pile is, the slower the lumber will dry. Narrow piles are usually best for small shops. Six to eight feet is a good width; ten to twelve feet is about right for height. The pile should slope about one inch per foot from front to rear. This drains water off the top of the pile and also helps get rid of any that might get into the pile. Slope is usually built into the foundation. A less satisfactory way to get it is to use cross members of different thickness. The front of the pile should also be pitched; that is, each course of lumber slightly overhangs the one below it. This helps keep water out of the front of the pile. The whole pile should be level crosswise. Allow plenty of flues, or chimneys, so that air can move freely through the pile. The more flues there are, the faster the lumber will dry. They may be 6 to 12 inches wide, spaced every 15 or 20 inches, for softwoods; less for hardwoods. In addition to flues, leave a space between boards in the layer. Wood tends to take and keep the shape it had while drying. You can bend a piece of green wood quite easily; it may even sag under its own weight. That is why you need plenty of stickers in the pile. Use dry stickers--either kiln-dried or thoroughly air-dried. If you use green or wide stickers, you will get some stain. Another objection to green stickers is that they will not stay the same thickness; some will shrink more than others. This brings up another important point. Stickers should all be the same thickness. One thick sticker, or one thin one for that matter, can permanently bend all the boards in a layer. Use narrow stickers, just as narrow as you can make them and still have the strength you need. Four-inch pine boards ripped down the middle make good stickers. Oak or other strong hardwood could be used down to about V2 inches wide. It pays to use high-quality material; straight grained, too. Don't use green edgings! They may stain or rot your lumber. They are seldom the same thickness and hardly ever straight. Never use the same boards you are putting in the pile; that can lead to all kinds of trouble. How many stickers you need depends on the thickness of the lumber and its tendency to warp. The thinner the lumber and the greater its tendency to warp, the more stickers you need. For 4/4 oak lumber, for example, stickers placed every two feet do the best job. If the stickers are slightly longer than the width of the pile, they will be a little easier to handle. Lining up the stickers is also important. Put them right above each other, over a supporting cross member, and parallel to the front of the pile. If the front of the pile is pitched, pitch the sticker rows the same way. This helps distribute the weight even ly throughout the pile. If stickers are out of line, you get pres sure on a board with no support under it. The result: a whole layer of warped boards. The front sticker row should be flush with the ends of the boards; it might even extend slightly beyond the ends. Since much of your lumber is high grade, you had better put a roof over the pile. It will keep water out and protect the top layers from repeated wetting and .drying. The roof doesn't have to be fancy. Two layers of low-grade boards are all you need--the top layer covering the cracks between the boards in the lower layer. Keep the roof a few inches above the pile so as not to cut off circulation. Let it extend out beyond the pile on all four sides. If there is any danger of its blowing off, put some weights on the roof or tie it down. You might use any of several types of piles. Each has its good and bad points. The flat pile is usually best for boards of the same length. (See figure 1 next page) It's all right for almost any species. The box pile, on the other hand, is best suited to random length lumber and is probably the one you will use most. The longest boards determine the length of the pile and are placed in the outside rows, from bottom to top. Shorter boards go on the inside of the pile-one or two even with the front and then one or two even with the back. (See box pile diagram.) The pattern of boards, front and rear, is set in the first layer. Keep this same pattern all the way to the top. Thus you end up with several flues or chimneys part way through the pile, running from bottom to top. The outside ends of all boards are supported. Those ends that do overhang (qdd lengths) are in the center of the pile. (See figure 4 ) Another method of stacking, called end racking, consists of a long pole supported by posts about 10 feet high. Boards are leaned against this pole edgewise from either side. This type of pile is sometimes used for species that must be dried in a hurry to prevent y stain and decay. Boards thus piled are not supported and are free JZ to warp. Since they are exposed, they are also subject to checking. The purpose of the crib pile is about the same as end racking--to get fast drying. Boards in the crib pile are laid three per layer to form a triangle. Both end racks and crib piles tale up a lot of room. They should be used only when you are planning to restack on st 37 the lumber in a flat or box pile. This rehandling is expensive; it might be cheaper to control stain with a chemical. FLAT PILE STICKERS I Dry 2 Even thickness 3 Straight FOUNDATIONS I Strong enough to support load 2 High enough for circulation beneath18Ã‚Â° rear 3 Straight 4 Treated with wood preservative or heartwood of durable species 5 Stringer permits adjustment of sticker spacing Fig. 1--The care with which the pile is bu t6e quality of the lumber after it S o m e S e a s o n i n g D e f e c t s Stain3 and decay 4 are the work of microscopic plants that feed on the wood or the sap. They spoil the appearance of the wood and may weaken it. These plants need moisture to live and grow. Wood that is thoroughly dried and kept that way will not be attacked by stain or decay organisms. To keep stain under control in lumber piles, do one or more of these things: 1. Increase space between boards. 2. Increase number and width of flues. 3. Build higher foundations. 4. Use thicker stickers. 5. Use narrower stickers. 3) SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS BLUE STAIN OR SAP STAIN. OF DECAY. 4) OF ilt greatly determines is dry. TEN CALLED ROT, DOTE, OR DOZE. IT IS NOT A STAGE 38 6. Use dry stickers. 7. Kill weeds in your yard. 8. Increase space between piles. 9. Treat your lumber. BOX PILE Place longest boards in outer tiers Alternate shorter boards from end to end Fig. 2--The box pile is recommended where random length lumber is used. It prevents overhanging ends. Foundations and stickers are placed the same as in the flat pile. Chemicals that control stain can be applied by brushing, spraying, or dipping before the lumber is stacked. Your dealer can give you advice on what chemical to use and how to use it. Some of the publications listed at the end of this article may also be helpful. The direction of grains and the location of growth rings in a board largely determine the way it will shrink. Wood shrinks most around the tree (parallel to the growth rings). Next most shrinkage is from the outside to the center of the tree. Wood shrinks hardly at all up and down the tree. Figure 6, page 42, shows these 5) " GRAIN " USUALLY REFERS TO THE DIRECTION OF WOOD FIBRES (STRAIGHT GRAINED OR CROSS GRAINED). " TEXTURE " DEFINES THE SIZE OF THE FIBRES (COARSE TEXTURED OR FINE TEXTURED). directions. Since boards are not always sawed parallel to the bark, we often find cross grain. We also get cross grain when the grain doesn't run straight up and down, but spirals around the tree. Fig. 3- End racking used for rapid drying to prevent stain, requires much space. Since boards are free to warp, this method should only be used as a step before flat or box piling. ~st i k-~i ~, Because of this difference in grain direction and shrinkage, and because wood dries from the outside in, two defects are apt to ,ese develop in wood as it seasons: checking and warping. When wood is as dry and stays as dry as the air around it, it will not check or warp. Fig. 4--The development of end and surface checks is common when dense species such as oak are crib piled. Checking--There are two types of checks--you have seen them both--end checks and surface checks. Moisture leaves the surface of lumber first. As it does, the surface wants to shrink, but can't because inside the wood is still swollen. This causes stresses which may crack the surface of the wood. In the same way, moisture leaves the end of a board ten to fifteen times faster th~ the sides. Hence, the ends want to shrink before the middle is ready. This causes end checks. You may have noticed that some woods check worse than others. This is true. Usually the heavier the ,,vood, the more likely it is to check in drying. Whereas stain usually means that drying is too slow, checking me; means drying is too fast. To control surface checking, do one or more of these things: 1. Reduce space between boards. 2. Use thinner stickers. 3. Use fewer, narrower flues. 4. Reduce distance between stacks. 5. Place roof over stacks. If the trouble is end checking, try these: 1. Keep stickers flush with ends of boards. 2. Shade ends of pile. 3. Use end coatings. End coatings will pay on your high-grade material and thick stock. A good end coat slows down the rate of moisture loss Fig. S--Self-stickering may cause stain or decay to develop at board crossings. Dry, narrow stickers will reduce this. 42 through the ends of boards and thus does away almost entirely with end checks. The end coat must be applied before checking begins. It won't do any good after checks show up. SHRINKAGE OF WOOD 4 to 14 9'Ã‚Â° $ - 2 to 8 Less than I % Fig. 6--Since wood does not shrink the same in all directions, it tends to check and warp. Proper piling reduces this tendency. You can mix your own end coatings. Here are some suggestions: Aluminum powder (or paste) mixed with spar varnish makes a good coating. Mix 1'fi to 2'h pounds of powder with each gallon of spar varnish. Apply at least two coats. Hardened gloss oil can be made by mixing 100 parts (by weight) rosin, 8 parts quicklime, and 57.5 parts thinner (mineral spirits). Filled hardened gloss oil contains 25 parts (by weight) fibrous talc, 25 parts barytes '1 and 100 parts hardened gloss oil. Asphalt base coatings are also ' good. Your paint dealer can help you with them. Wood naturally tends to warp. This is true because it does not shrink the same in all directions and because wood is not always straight grained. There are four common types of warp: bow, crook, cup, and twist. You can trace nearly every kind of ass tes, also Fig. 7--Misplaced stickers cause bends in boards that cannot be removed later. Well-placed stickers distribute pile weight evenly-. warp to either grain direction or method of piling. Some species, of course, warp more than others. You can reduce the amount of warp in your lumber by doing these things: 1. Use strong, straight foundations. 2. Keep stickers lined up over foundation cross members, parallel to front of pile. 3. Use plenty of stickers. 4. Be sure stickers are all the same thickness. 5. Put boards of same thickness in each layer. 6. Box pile random lengths. 7. Leave no overhanging ends. 44 8. Use weights on the top of pile. 9. Keep roof over pile. Fig. 8--Overhanging ends encourage warp. Box piling eliminates overhanging ends. A W o r d A b o u t S p e c i e s I said earlier that some woods stain and decay more than others and that some warp and check more than others. Now which will do which? Here are three general rules: 1. The lighter the color of the wood, the more trouble you can expect from stain and decay. This is true even for the sapwood of walnut or cedar. 2. The heavier the wood, the more likely it is to check. 3. The more cross grain a wood has (including that caused by knots), the greater the danger of warping. 45 The following table gives you some idea of what to watch for in the various woods. If a species rates "low " in all three columns, it is easy to dry. If it rates "high " in all three, it is hard to dry. Table 1. Seasoning Dangers of Some Common Woods of the Tennessee Valley DANGER OF :APPROXIMATE NUMBER :OF DAYS TO AIR :SEASON TO 20% MOIS SPECIES CHECKING WARPING STAIN AND DECAY :TURE CONTENT-'/ ASH LOW NE DIUM HIGH 70-110 BIRCH LOW MEDIUM HIGH 150-200 BEECH MEDIUM HIGH HIGH 150.200 CHESTNUT Low Low Low 85.125 ~r GUM MEDIUM HIGH INDIUM 70-160 NNW HICKORY HIGH MEDIUM HIGH 150-200 MAPLE. HARD MEDIUM MEDIUM HIGH 150-200 OAK. RED HIGH ODIUM HIGH 170-250 oft OAK, WHITE HIGH NEDIUM LOW 240-300 PINE. WHITE Low Low HIGH 60-150 PINE , YELLOW LOW NOD IUM MEDIUM 40- 70 - WALNUT HIGH LOW LOW 120-1 70 YELLOW POPLAR LOW LOW HIGH 40- 70 DRYING TIME DEPENDS ON THE LOCALITY AND THE TIME OF YEAR LUMBER WAS PUT IN THE STACKS. FROM FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY TECHNICAL NOTE 233, MADISON. WIS CONS IN. 1 930. ers do u r a. by The general principles of air seasoning are the same for your shop as for the big lumberyard. The stack is the important thing. If you build your lumber piles carefully, you can control seasoning defects and thus save money. The box pile is probably best suited to your needs. Take special pains with the foundation and use the best stickers you can find. And above all, build a neat pile. If your pile looks neat, many of your seasoning problems are solved. (Reprints of the above article may be obtained from the Tennessee Valley Authority, Division of Forestry Relations, Morris, Tennessee.) 46 Here are some other publications that you may want to get. Most of them are free. G e n e r a 1 W o o d and S e a s o n i n g Approximate Air Seasoning and Kiln Drying Periods for Inch Lum4i ber. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note 233. Madison, Wisconsin. Stickering of Western Softwoods for Air Seasoning. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note 219. Madison, Wisconsin. How Wood Dries. By William J. Baker. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Report No. 81642. Commercial Timbers of the United States. By H. P. Brown and A. J. Panshin. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N. Y. The Air Seasoning and Kiln Drying of Wood. By Hiram L. Henderson. J. B. Lyon Company, Albany, New York. The Properties and Uses of Wood. By Arthur Koehler. McGrawHill Book Company, New York, N. Y. The Air Seasoning of Wood. By J. S. Mathewson. U. S. D. A. Technical Bulletin No. 174. Air Drying of Lumber. By Edward C. Peck. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Report No. 81657. Wood Technology. By H. D. Tiemann. Pitman Publishing Corpora tion, New York, N. Y. Wood Handbook. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. E n d C o a t i n g s Aluminum Coatings for Moisture Proofing Wood. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note 228. Madison, Wisconsin. Coatings for Minimizing Changes in the Moisture Content of Wood. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note 181. Coatings That Prevent End Checks. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note 186. W o o d Pre s e r vat i v e s Cause and Prevention of Blue Stain in Wood. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note 225. Madison, Wisconsin. Methods of Applying Wood Preservatives. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Report No. 8154. Wood Preservatives. U. S. Forest Products Laboratory Report No. 8149. Control of Wood Decay by Certain Brushed-on Preservatives. By Ray R. Hirt. New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse 10, New York. Reducing Blue Stain Losses in Lumber. By Robert L. Krause. Southern Lumberman, August 15, 1950. Nashville, Tennessee. ##### Host Staff Needs 4' ((((((((The Council of Southern Mountain Workers gives assistance in discovering, for institutions and programs, trained workers who have a genuine desire to serve where they are most needed. The Council also endeavors to provide the names and brief data about people who are seeking such opportunities. Such an exchange of information about program needs and available personnel will be publicized in this magazine whenever possible, free of charge. While the Council endeavors to use discretion in this publicity, it cannot imply more than the bare farts herein stated. Investigation of individual qualifications and evaluation of recommendations must be considered the responsibility of those who find this service of help in their search.))))) A LIBRARIAN, NURSE, RECREATION DIRECTOR, and MANUAL TRAIN ING TEACHER are all needed for next year at the Hindman Settlement School, Hindman, Ky. Write Miss Bess F. Graham. H 0 USE M 0 T H E R, Grace Nettleton Home for Girls, Harrogate, Tenn. This must be a person of character and experience who desires a good home for herself and the chance to work with girls who need her love and understanding. Write Mr. & Mrs. N. C. Dacus. 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