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Mountain Life & Work vol. 29 no. 2 Spring, 1953 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv29n20453 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 29 no. 2 Spring, 1953 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Spring, 1953 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. 25cAIN N O Z MOUNT LIFE WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN VOL. XXIX, N0. 2 LIFE WORK S P _R I N G, 1 9 5 3 PD F7lISHED AT T HC OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS. LINCOLN HALL, Ã‚Â©FREA COLLEGE. BEREA. KY. CNTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER qT BEREA,KY. STAFF: RECREATION- -Frank H. Smith, College Station, Berea, Ky. Fl)(1CATION--Grazia K. Combs, Viper, Ky. HEAL77-1-Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Crossville, Tennessee RELIGION--Dr. Sam Vander Meer, Morris Fork, Ky, STAFF PHOTOGRAPHERS-- Ed Dupuy, Black Mountain, N. C. Roy N. Walters, Berea, Ky. Calvin Phipps, Berea, Ky. STAFF ARTIST--Mrs. Burton Rogers, Pine Mountain, Ky. MANAGING LDITOR--Charles Drake, College Station, Berea, Ky. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS Box 2000, College Station Berea, Ky. ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. l PHOTO CREDIT: Cover, Ed DuPuy: page 10, Bernard May; 13, Charles E1. Turner; 16, Hal Cooner Studio; 21, Roy N. Walters; 24, Kentucky Bookmobile Project; 27, Homeplace; 37, Ed DuPuy; 38, Cherokee Historical Association COTTONS WOOLS LINENS NOVELTY YARNS NYLKARA and HAND WEAVING SUPPLIES LOOMS WARPING FRAMES BOBBIN RACKS AND WINDERS TABLE MODEL REELS TENSION BOXES TREASURE CHEST OF HAND WEAVING YARNS Select your hand weaving yarns from Lily's Treasure Chest of fashionable colors, weights and textures-ideal yarns for every weaving need-rugs, towels, table mats, bags, draperies, garment and upholstery fabrics. Write for free price list or send $1 for complete color cards. (This actually costs you nothing as it can be applied to your next purchase of $10.00 or more.) The Hand Weaver's Headquarters LILY MILLS CO., DEPT. H W B, SHELBY, N. C. SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample end color cards of linens, cottons and woofs-and samples of the weaving woofs described above-all for $1.00 postpaid, which will2-- refunded on first order of $10 or more. %) WA9'~V6WOA CAi U4 GA~T~ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of PATONS and BALDWINS Weaving woofs from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious woofs that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. Ing4ro.yFt1Urrtt, Jtr. GOLDEN RULE PRODUCTS Dept. B, 115 Franklin Street, New York 13, N.Y. S Why Buy Handweaving? by E. F. Churchill THE QUESTION, "Why buy handweaving ?" is often asked by travellers who come into our region and see handwoven products for sale. It is a natural question to ask, for there are now such beautiful, satisfying fabrics made by power machines: colors that are really "fast", textures that are unusual and interesting, materials that are durable and full of variety, whether in weights appropriate for suitings or sheerest gauze, and in price ranges to meet every purse. Why buy handweaving and often pay more for it? We find that we cannot give any casual answer which will satisfy ourselves and our questioner in a few easy words. We do believe, however, that there are perfectly valid reasons why we should continue handweaving throughout the Southern Mountains, and why people should be interested in buying it. People buy handweaving because there is a sentiment throughout the countrv for a handwoven article. Many of us who are now middleaged can remember a grandmother or a great aunt sitting at a loom-an interesting "contraption" of beams and yarns with a beater in front which swung back and forth as the shed was opened and cloth grew. We had blankets on our beds that were made of yarn spun from grandfather's sheep and woven by grandmother on her loom; we prize them because they are among our greatest treasures. We have linens, now small pieces because they have been worn by use for so many years and washed so many hundreds of times, which we can proudly assert were handwoven by someone in the family. Those of us who have attics can find, tucked away in some antique trunk, a pair of homespun'linsey-woolsey jeans or a dress woven years ago on a handloom. Sometimes the loom was almost a duplicate of one used by an Egyptian to weave exquisite linens in 4000 B. C. Those of us who are younger read of the handlooms of colonial days; we see pictures of them in history books; we know that most of the fabrics of those days were painstakingly made by hand. Indeed, there were no power looms until late in the 18th century-all cloths in all the world were "woven by hand" for over 6000 years. 6 WHY BUY HIWDWEAVING In spite of all our urge for the new and the modern, we will always have a sentiment for the traditional, for something that has in it the marks of the past, something which connects us with an era that was fruitful and dynamic in our national life. In this day when we are struggling to preserve the precious remnants that remain of our early American life, it is well to remember that the handweavers have kept for us such patterns as Whig Rose, Lee's Surrender, Cat's Paw and Snake's Trail, Double Box Knot, Monk's Belt, Rosepath, Honeysuckle and a host of others that reflect great events or loved surroundings. V.'e buy handweaving because each piece is the work of an individual. A piece of weaving begins, as does everything ever made, as an idea in the mind of a creator. Someone has an idea for a new pattern in linens, a new design in draperies, upholsteries, goods for a dress, baby blankets, couch throws. But an idea amounts to nothing until it is put into action. First the thread is bought: the right size, the right colors. A warp is made, the pattern drafted, and the heddles tied up so that a shed can be made for the shuttle to pass through the warp threads. The weaver sits at the loom, and soon the thump, thump of the beater announces that a new piece of cloth is being created from an idea which is now becoming substance. These are the processes by which all cloths are made, of course, whether by power or by hand. In handweaving, however, it is an individual who has sat at her loom seeing an idea grow into reality as she puts the shuttle through the warp ends, and watches the magic of cloth evolve from her efforts. It is an experience which she, and we through her, shares with the weavers of Egypt 6000 years ago, and with our grandmothers of a century ago. NOT ONLY IS THERE THIS CONNECTION WITH THE PAST, however, in a handwoven article, but there is also the developing impact of modern design. The handweaver has a freedom of creativity, an ability and an opportunity to carry out his impulses as they flash into his mind and mature into a finished pattern. It is through the inventions and imaginations of the handworker that many of the newest designs, both in color and in use of materials, are being made. The loveliest of rugs, designed by a prince of the royal house, and in colors and patterns that make the beholder long to own one, are being made on handlooms in Sweden. The handweaver can create small quantities of cloth for one i C,uu%~ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢. aj For IMPORTED LINEN WEAVING YARNS Send 35c for samples Wide variety of sizes in NATURAL, BLEACHED and COLORS LANE LOOM METLON COUNTER BALANCE NON-TARNISH METALLIC JACK TYPE YARN 20-inch PORTABLE FOLDING- GOLD, SILVER, COPPER LOOM COLORS LOOM ANCHORS See our booth while visiting the CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR Asheville, North Carolina-July 20-24, 1953 FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. WHY BUY HANDWEAVING particular time and place. In the UN buildings in New York, the Danish, Swedish and Finnish rooms have draperies and upholsteries woven by hand by expert handcrafters in their respective countries. In this country some of our finest young artists are giving expression to a new and dynamic drive within our national life 'l through their work on handlooms. The very old and the very new mingle in handweaving. This is deeply satisfying--often unconsciously--to a segment of our American people who are not themselves creative artists but who feel the developing richness of our artistic awakening. WE BUY A PIECE OF HANDWEAVING BECAUSE IT IS UNIQUE. There are so few of any one article woven that we can feel that we are buying something that is rare. There aren't enough handlooms or handweavers to flood the market with anything they might choose to weave. True, there are thousands of handweavers in the country, but the great majority of them weave for their own individual pleasure and satisfaction, to enrich their own homes or to make gifts for their friends. There are, comparatively, so few who can go into this work as a full means of livelihood, that the opportunity to buy a handwoven scarf, or blanket or linens is not too frequent. Any person who buys a piece of weaving from a competent craftsman can almost always be sure of getting a strong piece of cloth. The handweaver must use good material to make the best use of time. Poor material on a handloom costs more in time than it saves in money. The weaver uses wool and cotton yarns that are double or treble strength. She mixes her yarns to give greater variety and interest. Sometimes she may wish to dye her own yarns; more often she relies on the marvelous colors that she can purchase from the many excellent supply houses. Because each piece of weaving is an individual product, I wish that each could have the name of the weaver woven into it, as was the custom of the old itinerant weavers of the last century. It would be a pleasure to own a towel woven by Anne Grey, 1953, a blanket by Eliza Stewart, 1950, a table runner by True McCloud, 1952. Who of us today does not thrill over the ownership of a portrait painted by the early peripatetic painters of the 18th and 19th centuries, whom today we call "primitives" ? Perhaps our Anne Greys, and Eliza Stewarts and True McClouds of today are the "mute, inglorious Miltons" of our own past-yet-to-be. 1b the experienced and trained eye there is a joy in the evidences of the individuality in handweavings--sometimes a 9 WH1' BUY HANDWEAVING- - slight unevenness in the edges of Anne's scarves, the yarns beaten a bit closer together in parts of Eliza's blanket, the rhythm of True's swinging of the shuttle and the beater somewhat irregular, as the buyer in his mind sees and hears the strains which attend the creation of a new fabric. Just as a wall built of perfect bricks is a dead, uninteresting flatness because of its geometrical perfection, so the same wall made of hand-molded, slightly irregular bricks is alive with the lights and shades of a variegated, interesting surface. And so it is with weaving. We show with pride a piece of pottery from the kilns of Picasso in southern France. We point with elation to a Timothy Cole engraving hanging on our wall, one of only 12 copies made before the plate was destroyed. In the same way we ought to be proud of the loom-art we are able to purchase for so little. When you purchase weaving of modern design, you may be making it possible for all the people of our country to have more beautiful cloth. Manufacturers watch trends in the sale of handwoven material, and when a new pattern or material shows great promise, they adapt it to the requirements of the machine-loom. The net result often is that attractive new weaves are made available to millions. When we buy a handwoven, article, we do not buy just warp and woof. We buy it also because we are able to satisfy our desire for a more intimate connection with an old art---perhaps the oldest in the world---and at the same time, if we so wish, own an unusual fabric created by a modern artist. We also realize our ambition to own something made by some particular individual, and so we are willing to pay the costs of that individual's time when she provides us with an article of use, of rarity and of beauty. The label Handwoven on an article is beginning to be the sterling hallmark in the world of textiles. If beauty, strength and individuality appeal to you, the question, " Why buy handweaving? " will be answered. ##### (THE AUTHOR IS CONNECTED WITH CHURCHILL WEAVERS IN BEREA. KY.) CRAFT SUPPLIES Free Price List Sent on Request .... Prompt Mail Service TENNESSEE CRAFTSMEN Att: Ronald Slayton 2006 Sutherland Ave. Knoxville. Tennessee HOMER LEDFORD: Mountain Musicmaker WHEN HOMER LEDFORD was a boy of seven in the Cumberland Mountains near Alpine, Tennessee, he made a banjo out of a lard bucket, and when he was eleven he ordered a six dollar guitar from a mail order house. Although both these instruments sounded equally bad, they served as outlets both for his youthful creative energies as a craftsman and for his musical ability as a folk musician. Today he is one of the handful of men in the Mountains who can build a dulcimer, or any other musical instrument for that matter. His dulcimers, especially, are snapped up by folksingers and collectors, and they have the reputation of being among the best made anywhere in the country. Although he is still a college student, young Ledford's skill is such that his first samples secured him membership in the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. He is an expert carver as well as an instrument maker, and his carvings have sold all over the country. Homer was born and grew up in an old-time mountain family on the Cumberland Plateau near Alpine. His early musical inclinations were fortunately matched by supple fingers and craft ----MOUNTAIN CRAFTSMF~V training at Alpine Academy. What seemed to be a bright future turned suddenly dark when he was forced to bed by a rheumatic heart. After two years the doctor finally let him up, but Homer was warned that he probably could never do even normally heavy work. The Vocational Rehabilitation Service sent the gangling teen-ager down to John C. Campbell Folk School on the chance that he might be able to develop his carving skill and become at least partially self-supporting. Not only did he learn to carve at the Folk School, but he was also asked to repair a broken dulcimer. It was the first he had ever seen, but it immediately fascinated him. He took it completely apart and observed exactly how it was built. After he had finished repairing this instrument, he decided to build one for his own playing. A visitor to the School saw it before it was finished and bought it on the spot. He has been making them ever since, and the demand always exceeds his output. After completing high school, Ledford went to Berea College, where he worked as a carver in the student industries and he continued to build dulcimers in his spare time. At the present time he is securing a major in industrial arts at Eastern State Teachers' College, Richmond, Kentucky , so that he will be prepared if he decides to teach. He is still undecided as to what he will do when he gets out of college. " I'd like to have my own shop in the country," he specifies. " I like the quiet pace of the country too well ever to be content in a city." He still has to be careful of his heart, but his wide grin and his nimble fingers are living proof that he has the ability and spirit to overcome any such temporary difficulty. ##### 01NOVVc'N6 A New 1953 Revised Edition of WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all craftsinvaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina 12 Is the one room school a hopeless failure as an educational institution? Judging from the experience at Prospect School in Hancock County, Tennessee, a small school can be an educational center for the whole community when the Teacher And Parents Work Together "MRS. ALDER, DO YOU THINK THE PARENTS will work with you on the improvement of your school if we can find a sponsor for it?" That question was put to Mrs. Willie Mae Alder last September by a Consultant of Save The Children Federation. The condition of the school left no doubt as to the need for sponsorship. The small, one-room building straddling Newman's Ridge in Hancock County, Tennessee, had possibilities for improvement that could be made only by cooperation of county authorities, the teacher, parents and the children. The room in which the children spend more than half their working hours had the usual desks, blackboards and maps. It was clean, but there was nothing in the room to catch a child's eye, or make him ask " What's that?" or "May I use it?". A concerned and helpful county school board had built a small half-room addition to the building four years ago. It had been used one year, but for the last two years had been idle. The kitchen had some equipment. There was a stove and a table for the cook to use in preparing food, and two larger tables on which the children ate. There were no dishes, silver, pots or pans. People in the community seemed to lack the will for a hot lunch program. The playground--or more accurately, the place where the children were supposed to play--is a steep hillside and had no equipment. The children played in the road rather than in the school yard. o " 1 believe the help of parents is the main thing in running a school and I believe I can get that cooperation. At least, I will try. " was Mrs. Alder's reply to the Consultant's inquiry. In view of the obvious need of the school and the apparent interest of the teacher, a sponsor, Mrs. Mary Louise Spang of Stamford, Connecticut, was assigned in October, 1952. Mrs. Alder was right. The parents would work with her. In just seven months a complete transformation took place in the school. As you enter the door now, your attention is attracted by a long white "nature" table by the front window. On it are samples of all the stones found in that part of the state, properly ~r identified. Further down the tables are jars of specimens showing the stages of growth of a frog. A glass terrarium contains a clump of clover, with a lizzard and a ground snake living under its leaves. Pictures of colorful birds, drawn from life by the students, decorate the walls of the room. " We went on field trips," explained the teacher, "and the children collected these rock samples. We identified them from our books when we got back to our room. We read about a frog in our science book so we decided to get some frogs and preserve them for our study .... I believe the children should get acquainted with the wonders of their own mountains." The lunchroom, which several months ago showed very little promise of being used, now gives forth inviting odors. R good used kitchen cabinet studs in the corner. There are bright new cooking utensils on the stove.'Clean linoleum covers the tables which are set with new dishes and silver. Every child in the school eats lunch in the lunchroom every day. The playground has been improved to the point that children no longer have to play in the road. Behind the school on a small piece of land, too small for active games, are four swings and a merry-go-round. In front of the school a portion of the hill has been graded out and a volley ball net set up. 14 --HIGHLAND EDUCATION "How did you do it?" Mrs. Alder was asked. " We all did it together," she replied. It was indeed a happy combination of forces: a concerned teacher, willing parents, cooperative county school ` 1~ authorities, and a Federation sponsor. These groups working to- .lJ gether brought about the change. Mrs. Alder tells the story in this way: Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ LAST SEPTEMBER I asked the parents to meet with me to see if they wanted a hot lunch program and were willing to help work it. One or both parents of every child in the school were at this meeting. We discussed the lunchroom. We needed pots and pans, dishes and silver. There the Federation sponsor made her contribution, for it was with her funds that these things were purchased. The kitchen cabinet and other little things we needed we bought ourselves. Then in October, I invited all the parents to have dinner at the school. There were too many to eat at one time, so we had them on two occasions. After lunch we talked about what the school needed and made plans for some school improvements. Our first work was on the playground. The men cut trees and, with the help of some of the boys, put them four feet deep in the ground for posts for swings. With help from the sponsor we bought enough chain to make two swings for our younger children and two for the larger ones. We built a merry-go-round, using part of a locust tree and a seasoned 2" x 6" board that one of our patrons had lying in his barn. One day the county road machine was grading our road and the operator worked some in the front yard of the school. Two locust poles and a net now give us a volley ball court. The parents seemed to enjoy coming to dinner and it was such a good chance to talk about the school and get their help that we have done it several times since last November. Before Easter, the parents came for dinner and stayed to color eggs. It was the first time many of the children and some of the parents had ever seen egg coloring. I believe that the parents had as much fun as the children in the egg hunt that followed. We also had some fun with the parents this past month. We invited them to dinner and then spent part of the lunch hour play- ~~ ing volley ball, with the parents playing against the children. We shall continue to have the parents come to the school for dinner as often as possible, because that is the best way we have found to get them together to work on our educational problems.##### 15 BEREA TO ADMINISTER EDUCATIONAL FUND THE FUND FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION has made a 4*_2 grant to Berea College, Berea, Ky., for a program to improve the quality of education in isolated rural schools in the mountains of Eastern Kentucky. The Fund is a corporation established by the Ford Foundation. The annual budget of the program will be $50,000. The work will continue for a total of four years and is directed toward securing able young teachers for isolated rural schools in cooperating counties, according to Dr. Francis S. Hutchins, president of Berea. Dr. Luther Ambrose of the Department of Education will direct the project. The committee is now in the process of selecting 24 young teachers who will be assigned to counties including Rockcastle, Clay, Lee. Perry, Owsley, Leslie, Harlan and possibly one or two others. To qualify for one of these positions, a teacher must be a recent graduate of a four year college, and must be qualified to meet the requirements for certification of the State Department of Education in Kentucky. The program also includes a group of supervising teachers who will work with the teachers in the project. All teachers in the plan will be paid by the county out of regular school funds, but in addition, generous fellowships for summer travel and study will be provided. These will vary from $500 to $1000 and will enable the teacher to pursue a carefully planned course of graduate study which may lead to a Master's degree. It is expected that the selected teachers will continue in the program for three years. A second group of 24 teachers will be added to the project next year. The plan has the approval of the State Department of Education. It is planned that the program will do something more than just providing well trained young teachers. For example, the supervising teacher in each county will be available for work with other schools not in the program. Also, it is hoped that reports of the experience of the participating teachers will help teacher training institutions in the area better train some of their graduates as rural school teachers. Any teacher interested in applying for a position in the plan should write immediately to: The Registrar, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky, for information and application blanks. ##### BIG FUN IN A LITTLE SCHOOL TO THE CASUAL VISITOR, the Lothair School may seem like just another ordinary elementary school, but if he is there on Monday or Friday afternoon at 3:30 he will discover an added air of anticipation seldom surpassed in any school. The reason? The folk club is meeting, and there will be folk-dancing, singing and story-telling by elementary school students. This is truly folk-art at its best. Folk dancing came to be a part of our program through the efforts of one of our first grade teachers, Roberta Stidham. Eight Christmases ago Miss Stidham attended the Christmas Country Dance School at Berea College. After one week of dancing, singing, story-telling and other fun with a group of grownups, she came back to her little community with the idea that if 34 adults could derive such pleasure from folk-arts, why couldn't elementary school children also profit from them? That idea was the beginning of the folk club in our school--a club that has brought endless pleasure to many students and adults throughout an eight year period. 17 - FOLK ARTS IN EDUCATI~V Our beginnings were meager indeed. Outside of Miss Stidham's enthusiasm and the knowledge of a few games she had learned in her first introduction to the field, we had only three folk-dance records for equipment. However, we learned well and enjoyed thoroughly this limited number of dances during the beginning months. We started our club in January, and in the following summer Mr. Frank Smith was with us for a week of teaching. This week with Mr. Smith cemented our beginning. Our problem of space was solved when it was discovered that folding doors between two rooms could be opened and desks, fortunately on runners rather than being screwed to the floor, could be moved to the walls. Miss Stidham organized three classes. The lower grade class and the upper grade counterpart meet on different days, and the session for grownups is open on Friday evening from 6:30 to 9:30. We have a very active 4-H Club in our school and recreation is one of its major activities. Having learned how to make puppets at Berea, Miss Stidham taught a class in puppetry to club members. Each successive year they have worked up several shows. By charging admission and giving these shows at various schools, we are able to buy material for our handicrafts as well as records for our folkdancing classes. We have also supported our folk club with an annual Halloween carnival. In addition to the Halloween attractions, we have folkdancing throughout the evening for those who wish to dance. Miss Stidham has continued her recreational training by attending the Christmas School, and she has also studied at the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, N. C. Each year our students have the experience of participating in the regional festivals as well as in the one at Berea. After incorporating folk-dancing into our elementary school program for eight years now, we are fully convinced that it is invaluable in developing better adjusted personalities. We have seen the most introverted child develop poise and confidence through the medium of folk-dancing. The Lothair School--a little brick building by the side of the road--houses happier boys and girls as a result of its unusual folk club. ####### 18 LEONARD ROBERTS SHARES WITH US... jolt t.bj /0" 1,1611y... THIS .STORY is Type 910B---The Servant's Good Counsels. The folklorist may find a good parallel in Jacobs, CELTIC FAIRY TITLES, No. 22, with his note tracing the tale to BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE (May, 1818), and thence back to the GESTA ROMANORUM compiled about the year 1250. Jacobs and Thompson (THE FOLKTALE, 163-65) agree that such tales of advice and counsel go back to Turkish sources. I know of three other texts collected in America: JAFL 24:408; 27:213; and Beckwith, MAPS, XVII, 155-156. I heard this tale first from Bill Baker, Jr., while he was a student in the Berea Foundation School. He had heard it from his grandmother, and he and I journeyed to her home in the deep, rugged Greasy Creek section, eight miles below Pine Mountain School, where 1 recorded it again. This text is Bill's written version. RICH TOM OF IRELAND ONCE UPON A TIME there was a young man who had a wife and six chillren. He was a very poor man and didn't have any kind of income. So he pulled out one day looking for a job of work. After he had travelled a long ways he come to an old farmer's house and asked if he could get a job there. The farmer told him to come in and he fixed him some vittles and a place to sleep. The next morning the young man went to work and the farmer liked his work fine. Soon the young man had worked a year and he said, " I would like to go back to my wife and chillren," and he went on to say, "Now I would like to have my pay." The old farmer said, " I am goin to give you an advice that will be worth more to you than your year's work." And the man said, " I want to know twhat that could be." And the farmer said, "When you are out travellin, if anyone meets you at the crossroads and tells you it will be closer to your home if you will take the left, you must never do that. Just keep goin the way you was headed." So the young man decided to work another year. He stayed and worked another one, and at the end of the second year he asked the farmer about his pay. And the farmer said, " I have another advice -f MKTALE that will be worth more to you than your year's work." " Well, what could this be?" asked the young man. The old farmer told him, "When you are travellin never stay at a house where they's an old man with a young wife." So the young man took the advice with no pay and went on and worked another year. He made up his mind to go home to his wife and chillren. The old man said he'd give him another advice. He told him, "Always think three times before you speak or act oncet. " Well, the farmer give him a big cake to take home and a bunch of little cakes to eat on his way, and he set out for home. Party soon after he had left the farm he come to a crossroads. He saw three men settin above the road. He begin to think what the old farmer had told him. After he got up where the men was at they said, "`If you're travellin a long ways today you can cut off several miles if you'll take that road goin left." " Well, I shore need to save a lot of time," he said, and took the road to the left till he got the men out of sight. Then he turned and went the road he had started out on. After travellin a little ways he met up with some people. He asked if the road he had just passed was a nigh cut. They told him, "Law, ever' body that goes that way is robbed and killed. The boy was glad he took the old farmer's advice. He had travelled till it was gittin about dark. He went to a house and asked to stay all night. Here come a young woman to the door and said, " Shore, come in." He went in and set down. It wasn't very long till here come an old man in and set down. Soon they eat supper and while they's eatin this young man begin to study about what that old farmer had told him. After supper was finished he told them he had decided to go a ways further. They tried to git him to stay but he went on. He saw an old barn standin down below the house, so he decided to go sleep in this barn. He entered the barn lot and begin lookin for a place to sleep. He got in the bottom of the fodder rack and soon went to sleep. Along about twelve o'clock this man heard a noise. He laid right still and he could hear them talkin, the young woman among them. They was helpin her kill the old man. One of them throwed his coat over on the fodder rack where Tom was at, and while they was killin the man, Tom reached out with his knife and cut a square block out of that coat. After they had killed him the woman took her company back to the house. Soon as they left Tom got out of there and made his gitaway for home. He travelled for several days until he reached his home in the 20 FOLKT.4LE night. He went up to the winder and looked in. He saw his wife and chiliren layin in the floor. There was a man settin beyond the chillren. Tom flew mad and thought he would kill the man. Then he remembered the advice of the old farmer, so he went in and found out that the man was his brother and he had brought some food for his starvin family to eat. Tom broke open the big cake the farmer had give him. When he broke it open there was ten thousand dollars inside the cake. He shore was glad to get that big bunch of money. They had a big time eatin that cake that night, and in a little while the family was all well and happy. In a few weeks they was a murder case to be tried and they had a twenty-thousand-dollar reward if anyone could give evidence that would hang the ones that done it. Tom took his piece of coat and went down to the court house and got on the witness stand. When the time come, he took out his piece and matched it with the hole in the murderer's coat and told ' em how the murder was done. The woman and her lover was hung. And ever since that time Tom was called Rich Tom of Ireland. ---LEONARD ROBERTS. FINE MOUNTAfN. KY. SYLVIA CARSTENS, SMITH WORKSHIP STUDENT, IS AVAILABLE FOR RECREATION LEADERSHIP IN SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN AREA BEGINNING IN JULY THE SMITH COLLEGE WCRKSHIP STUDENT, who will spend the year working as a recreational leader in the Southern Highlands this year, is Miss Sylvia Carstens. From Manhasset, N. Y., Miss Carstens graduated this year. She spent her junior year with the Smith College group studying in Geneva, Switzerland. She is on the Dean's List at Smith. Sylvia will begin her training for recreational leadership in school and community groups by studying at the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, N. C. She will be available as a recreational worker beginning in July. If your school or community would like to arrange for a visitation from her anytime during the coming year, write the Council Office, Box 2000, Berea College, Berea, Ky., and arrangements will be made to send her if possible. FESTIVAL DRAWS TWO HUNDRED DANCERS by Jane Bishop Nauss SOME TWO HUNDRED folk dancers from high schools, colleges and community groups enlivened the Berea College campus during the 18th annual Mountain Folk in April. Representation at the Festival included: North Carolina Warren Wilson College, John C. Campbell Folk School, Lees McRea College and Shelby High School; Tennessee--Pleasant Hill High, East Knoxville High, Cumberland County High,and Lincoln Memorial University; Virginia--Richmond Country Dancers; Kentucky- Hindman Settlement School, Transylvania College, Hazel Green Academy, Homeplace, Erie School, Estill County High, Berea College, Annville Institute, Maysville High, Lothair School, Leslie County High, Sue Bennett College, and Lexington Folk Dance Center. A capacity audience witnessed the dancers in their final program of English, Danish and American dances. The spirit of the evening was summed up beautifully by one spectator when he called it " a magnificent display of wholesome dignity." Leadership was shared by Mr. Frank Smith, Berea; Mr. and Mrs. Georg Bidstrup, John C. Campbell Folk School; Mrs. Raymond McLain, New York City; Miss Ethel Capps, Knoxville; Mr. Price Tutt, Hazel Green Academy; Miss Edna Ritchie, Homeplace; and Mrs. Jane B. Nauss of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers. Music was provided by the able fingers of Miss Ruth White of the Hindman Settlement School. ###### 22 TRY IT OUT. . This dance is reproduced here in the hope that it will remain as part of the living tradition of the Southern Mountains. Use it and enjoy it in the same way that the folks of Williams Branch, Perry County, Kentucky, do. OLD TUCKER 1: All hands up and circle left: All the way 'round 2. Half way 'n back. 3. Dance, Tucker, Dance 4. Swing your partner once on a corner. 5. All hands up and circle left; All the way 'round 6, Half way 'n back 7. Come on, Tucker, give us one! 8. Swing your partner once on a corner; 9. Left hand lady don't you slight. 10. All hands up and circle right; All the way 'round 11. Half way 'n back. 12. Rights and lefts is what we're after; Change them hands and get a little faster. Make them big feet go whickety-whack. 13. Dance, Old Tucker, while you're young; When you get old, you can't dance none. 14. Wash them dishes, wipe them dry; Your true-love is passing by. 15. Ladies to the center and the gents know how. All the way 'round 16. Half way 'n back. 17. Gents choose a partner and it's who's left for Tucker. One man calls out these words in a rhythmic chant, pausing slightly between each line. Dancers are in couples in a single circle moving around an odd man, Old Tucker, who may be called upon to dance at any time. Dancers move with easy running steps. ~.,~Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ Ã¢â‚¬Å¾NTRIN FOLK DIES 23 DIRECTIONS FOR "OLD TUCKER" (1) Circle left. (2) Circle right. (3) Tucker dances a "hoe down "while the rest keep circling right. (4) Swing your partner. (5) Circle left. (6) Circle right. (7) Tucker dances. ( As above, 3) (8) Swing your partner. (9) Swing your opposite. (10) Circle right. (11) Circle left. (12) Grand right and left. (13) Tucker dances while the rest continue the grand right and left. (14) Continue grand right and left back to partner. (15) Ladies go to center of circle and stand, pushing Old Tucker out. He joins men in circle moving counter clockwise single file. (16) Men turn and dance in clockwise circle single file. (17) Each man chooses a partner out of the center and immediately starts promenading (counter clockwise) with her. Man left without a partner becomes the new "Tucker". Repeat as many times as desired, alternating "ladies" and "gents" to the center. this may be danced without music, letting the calling, foot-patting and clapping provide the rhythm, or it may be danced to arty lively old fiddle tune. ((((((((Editor's note: This extremely interesting version of Old Dan Tucker appears in published form in "Circle Left" by Marion Skean, published by Homeplace, Ary, Kentucky, and is unfortunately out of print. It is used here with the consent of Miss Lula M. Hale, the Homeplace Director. Miss Hale has for many years been a firm friend of the folk arts recreation movement in the Southern Highlands. We hope to publish directions for other mountain dances that are not to be found in general publications. )))))))))))) 24 One penalty paid by those living in the isolated communities of the Southern Highlands is the lack of books. This lack is not felt just in the Highlands of course, for it is common to all rural societies. Poor roads and great distances exaggerate the problem in our region, however, One possible solution to part of the problem .Ã¢â‚¬Â¢'.s a truck loaded with books, able to go almost anywhere. These traveling libraries are the ...... Bookmobiles The only reason that the average rural dweller doesn't read books is that he can't get them. And with the aid of bookmobiles and other book services, rural and small town citizens in the Southern Highlands are getting an increasing volume books to read. In North Carolina, for example, few indeed are the communities that are too isolated to have library service via bookmobile. The interesting thing about this development of rural library service is that it has "sold itself" almost immediately everywhere that it has been tried. In only a handful of places has it ever been abandoned after being tried for awhile. North Carolina has the most highly developed system of bookmobiles of any state in the mountain area. Beginning in Durham County in 1923, the movement has grown to the point where 91 of the state's 100 counties have the service. - -BOOKMOBILES- 25 It is a common sight to see the sturdy rolling libraries pulled up at a rural school in the upper reaches of the Smoky Mountains, or in front of some community center in the rough hill country of the Upper Piedmont Plateau. The state felt that the service is so valuable that the General Assembly appropriated $370,000 for the work last year and increased the fund this year. This figure represents only part of the total invested in the program, however, for there is a large measure of local support and responsibility in the program, county groups of every sort participate in it. One significant development in North Carolina is that larger units are replacing the little half-ton trucks that are now wearing out as a result of years of service. Instead of the 800 books that the trucks once carried into isolated mountain coves, the new units now carry at least 2,000, making possible much greater variety. GEORGIA does not yet have the number of bookmobiles in the mountain area that North Carolina does, but there has been a steady rise in the number through the years, with the traveling libraries now serving more than a third of the counties in the state. Much of the support comes from local sources. The Georgia Home Demonstration Council, an organization of rural women, gave the movement a push when it presented the State Department of Education with a demonstration bookmobile to be taken into counties not having them. After showing what could be done, the vehicle moves on to another county. In at least a dozen counties the visiting unit has led to the purchase of a local bookmobile for the county. One of the early demonstration units was in the mountain county of Habersham. Working out of Clarkesville, this bookmobile has been operating since the mid-thirties, and the librarians there have found a constantly widening interest among their mountain readers in better books of every sort. With small grants from the state legislature, TENNESSEE has set up a regional library service for its bookmobiles. Often covering as many as six counties in the mountain area, these bookmobiles cooperate with local county seat libraries, and they try to "plant" small libraries in country stores, community centers, schools and other places where local individuals will take on the responsibility of being librarians. A much larger territory is covered by this method, but more remote communities are often not visited. This system probably costs the least of any yet devised, but it sticks largely to the paved roads, of necessity. 26 KENTUCKY BOOKMOBILE DRIVE KENTUCKY has been one of the slowest states in providing bookmobile service for its mountain people, but she will catch up in a hurry if the current Kentucky Bookmobile Project is a success. Headed by Mrs. Barry Bingham, Harry Schacter and Dr. Donald P. Brown, the Project expects to get Kentucky citizens and business firms to put up all or half of the $3,000 necessary to put each of 100 bookmobiles on the road. If the goal of 100 vehicles is reached, this will make one available to every county in the state. Counties will be given their bookmobile when they are willing to provide adequate support for it. It is estimated that it will cost the county about $3,000 per year to operate each traveling library. The project is expected to be carried out with a minimum of state and federal funds. All bookmobiles will carry the name of the individual or firm contributing it to the Project. An initial supply of books will be provided by a "March for Books" in the towns and cities of Kentucky on November 19, plus a state-wide program of collecting books at a special movie. It is anticipated that about 100,000 books that can be used will be gathered in this way. Citizens of Kentucky should take an active part in this drive for the sake of their own county, as well as for the whole state. Donations of any size will be welcomed within the county organization that must be set up. Local civic, social, educational, service and religious groups must be activated to share in the local organization. Participation in the "March for Books" may take place even in the smallest community If you would like to have more information about this program, or if you would like to pledge your support to it, write: Dr. Donald P. Brown, Executive Director Kentucky Bookmobile Project 506 So. 3rd St. Louisville 2, ry. Help is especially needed in motivating county organizations to receive and support each bookmobile, and in convincing state legislators that they should support the program with necessary laws and finances. This project is a good test of the sincerity of the current drive for the return of responsibility to the local community. If it succeeds, then there is some hope that we can depend on ourselves rather than Washington. _--BOOKMOBILES 27 A PATTERN for bookmobile service in the mountains has been set by the work of Lula Hale at Homeplace, Ary, Ky.( See article: "Mountain Worker;' this issue.) Homeplace started running the first bookmobile in Kentucky in 1930. They now run two trucks bearing the legend, Homeplace Library, to dozens of schools and communities in Breathitt. Wolfe and Perry Counties, lending as many as 65,000 books a year. Miss Edna Ritchie and Mr. Everett M. Allen are the driver-librarians who travel over every imaginable type of road to deliver their cargo of learning to children and adults of the mountain region. This work is sponsored privately by the E. 0. Robinson Mountain Fund. Another significant bookmobile project has developed in mountainous Bell County from the county seat of Pineville. Headed by Mrs. Charles King, the project got started when Mrs. George H. Gray contributed the bookmobile and the Pineville Library was willing to sponsor it. Mrs. King takes her library to 63 different schools throughout the hills and valleys of the county, continuing her work even in the summer so that the children may have something to read when they are not at school. Every day during the summer children gather at some closed school to await the coming of the " book lady." And they are not disappointed, for the bookmobile always comes through with a load of enjoyment and learning. ##### Cmountain orker LULA HALE FRIEND AND... by Elizabeth Watts HOMEPLACE is just what the name implies--a beautiful spot where friendly people live and neighbors are welcome. If you visit Homeplace at Ary, Kentucky, you will be welcomed by Lula Hale, its founder and director, and very soon you will realize that the wonderful spirit of the place is due to her. Miss Hale was born in Letcher County, Kentucky, where she lived until she was ten, walking 2yz miles each day to school and learning first-hand the problems of a country child who wants an education. Then the family moved to Hindman and she attended the Hindman Settlement School, where she graduated. Later she prepared for teaching and taught eleven years, four of them at Hindman. From Hindman she went to Quicksand and later was Field Worker for the University, working through the Agricultural Experiment Station there. It was then that she met Mr. E. 0. Robinson who had made his fortune in lumber in the mountains. He recognized Miss Hale's abilities and asked her to start a project that would help families in their home communities. For a year she made a survey of various types of work in this country and abroad, and in 1929 started her work. She rented a house until the present site for Homeplace was chosen and the beautiful log house built. The work that has been done at Homeplace is a result of Miss Hale's understanding of the needs of a rural community. Cooking was taught the older girls of several district schools, using a neighbor's kitchen until the schools were consolidated and the classes continued by the county. -MOUNTAIN WORKER Homeplace tries out practices suggested by the county agent, leading the way for other farms in the area to follow. They have a dairy and beautiful green hillside pastures. They have demonstrated that milk can be sold at a profit and that well-cared-for chickens will pay. The first bookmobile in the state went out from Homeplace. Now they have two of these traveling libraries serving 54 schools in three counties, with 1500 children borrowing a book each week. A well-equipped woodworking shop was built and the boys and men of the community have built much of the equipment used in the HomePlace buildings, as well as furniture for their own homes. Health work has been important from the beginning. The County Board of Health held pre-natal and pre-school clinics there for a number of years and a full time nurse was employed in 1939. Later, clinics for goitre and other ills were held and patients sent away for treatment until 1948 when the beautifully equipped hospital was dedicated at Homeplace. Homeplace has a Community House where old and young have meetings. There are groups for folk dancing, girl and boy scouts, homemakers, Sunday School and a Sunday night young people's meeting. All worth-while gatherings are welcome and on summer nights the children come and play on the lawn. Miss Hale always says that her fellow workers have been largely responsible for what Homeplace has accomplished, but those who know her realize that Homeplace is what it is because of its guiding spirit ---Lula Hale . ...NEIGHBOR 6y Frank H. Smith THE STORY OF LULA HALE as a mountain worker is a fascinating one. It would be impossible to think of Homeplace without a realization of the creative touch and the complete devotion which she has given it. Along Troublesome Creek she is an understanding friend and neighbor. She always has the latch-string out; going to visit Homeplace, to those who know her, is exactly like going home. It is natural, like the sunshine and gentle breezes of a summer day. Not only does Miss Hale have a deep love ofor her own people, but for her native hills as well. She has an intimate knowledge of all the flowers and birds that surround her. Lula Hale was among the early graduates of Hindman Settlement School, and she makes no secret of her gratitude to the founders, 30 Katherine Pettit and May Stone. Her ties with Hindman have been very close---she was chosen as narrator in the Hindman Pageant last year. Before going to Homeplace, Miss Hale was a teacher at Quicksand, where she was later employed by the University of Kentucky in what we call in these days "public relations." With Lula Hale, that was simply being a good neighbor. The neighbors in this case lived in remote valleys, to which she traveled on horseback. The former Dean of the College of Agriculture at the University of Kentucky, Thomas P. Cooper, has testified that to Miss Hale 's wisdom and understanding was due much of the early success of the Robin son Experiment Station at Quicksand which has meant so much to the mountain region. The program at Homeplace has led to the enrichment of life, not merely among the folks of Troublesome Creek, but over a wide radius beyond. Not only has the center been responsible for important services in the fields of homemaking, woodcrafts, health education, better farming and library services, but it has also been a center for the preservation of many of the best elements in mountain life. Fbr example, many of the songs and dances of that region were preserved through the efforts of staff members at Homeplace. At the same time, it has been a thriving center for an ongoing recreational movement. It is an honor to be able to pay these words of respect to Lula Hale. ######## TEACHER AVAILABLE Dr. Jen-chi Chang is available for teaching or religious education work after the closing of Highland Institute this year. He holds the degrees of B. A. from the Univ. of Shanghai; M. A. in Bible Education, Columbia Seminary, Decatur, Ga.; M. A. from Mississippi Southern; B. Th. and M. Th. from Dubuque Seminary; and Ed. D, from the Univ. of N. D. After working as a teacher and as director of a rural welfare service in China, he served in UNRRA as a senior specialist. In this country he has worked as Director of Christian Education, Presbyterian Indian Mission, Pine Ridge, S. D., and as a teacher at Highland. If you are interested in this teacher for your staff, write Guerrant, Ky. Dr. Jen-chi Chang, WANTED: Information on Mountain Health THE HEALTH COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL is interested in preparing a "'Blue Print for Health in the Southern Mountains," and we ask your help in preparing it. What are the specific, unmet health needs of the area? Have you made a study of your community or county? Do you know of any survey which has made a significant contribution towards an understanding of the health problems of this section? Do you have ideas of how basic health needs may be met? Have you initiated on a local level a program that might be used in other areas? If you can answer these or any other questions about health, will you help us get started by sending such information to the Council Office! We are interested in the TOTAL problem of health, so don't hesitate to write about anything in the field. ##### i ---FROM THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER How Forest Fires Cut Tree Growth "It is rare when burned-over land can grow as much as ',4 cord per acre per year. Fully stocked and protected lands can grow to 1 cord and more per acre per year." So says the Southern Pulpwood Conservation Association in new bulletin stressing the especially heavy losses from forest fires in our Southern states: "Of every 100 acres of burned acres in America," it says, "77 occur in the South." The vivid chart below shows how seriously fire injures both the height and size of trees. zo Forest Fires Slow Down _ o ,e rneset u Tree Height Growth -o~Pr ,D About the t 14 Jest' ' to = t s Je~~ t s to 4 p~ 'Np to o e ~G~ -~ipEf' ~ e ve, ~ Ht ON 1 - a i q o~1 oft 0 %N HEtG _ - q v~ G1O 1970 1977 1976 1919 4 YEARS OLD 7 YEARS OLD 10 YEARS OLD 11 YEARS OLD a Same Age o , , ; BURNED 32 Folk Hymns for Singing... All i s Well .a t WIUA is 46is+6a A"up-oa mytmrne? Is de0.V Is ',f deo.A ? W6A i- ~C3 Soon wi11 Venc~ 4t7i5 VIfQ~ i 10.tne, 'S 'If jeQW15 'It ~~Ca_A? ~~ tku5 -soon S~a~~ he -prom CV1rLj rQih and sorrow 411, the king j Gjo rj see. All is wtMAll's wak~ Weep not, mj ~~riends, weep no-L gor Ã¢â‚¬Â¢rnel ,5 wee1l, 0.11 vs well sins -~orjIV'n jor1 .tvin,) 0.ncl I am ~rce, All is Well) Q11 is we-11 T69re's no-E 0-. eIoud +kat doA arise, _F O hude m~ jesU-s Trom ml ey-s. Soon sha () Moc.mA -E-he All is we. n" .II is Well (((((The Spirituals are among the few native American music forms. Although the Negro Spirituals are better known, the so-called " White Spirituals" of the Southern Mountains furnish a rich source of religious feeling. " llll Is Well" is the first of a series of these Mounta,n Spirituals, and we hope that it may prove to be a singable addition to our common heritage. It was collected from Mrs. Ellen Mitchell, Berea, Ky., by Eleanor Gruman. 33 Town and Country Church Development RURAL CHURCHES in 13 southern states--including eight in the Highlands--now have an opportunity to analyze and improve their local programs through Emory University's first annual Town and Country Church Development Program. Emory is located just out of Atlanta, Georgia. "It is evident that the southern churches are taking advantage of the plan," says Dr. Earl Brewer, director of the Program, after well over a thousand rural churches sent in their reports. Many of these were from the Appalachian region. The Development Program, open to all denominations, is designed to give rural churches an opportunity to take stock of their local program, and then at the end of the year give a report on what progress they have made in the past year. This year's report period runs from April 1, '52 through April 1 of this year. These Reports of Progress will be gathered in each state and a Rural Church of the Year in each state will be selected by a state committee. A Rural Church of the Year in the South will be chosen from among the 13 state winners. Awards of $500 will go to state winners, with a like amount going to the regional winner. The churches will be judged on three major themes: making a better nation and world; a better community; and a better church. Churches located in communities with a population of 5000 or under are eligible to compete in the program. Counting first place awards, sixty-six cash prizes totaling $12,200 will be awarded in all. The awards in the program will be made in July at Emory's annual Town and Country School. The Sears, Roebuck Foundation is cooperating with Emory in the Program. Mr. D. W. Brooks, general manager of the Cotton Producers' Association in Atlanta, is chairman of the Central Committee, the organization which has overall direction of the program. Dr. Ralph Ramsey of the Extension Service, University of Kentucky, and long-time member of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, is the state director in Kentucky. Mountain churches not entered in the program this year, but desiring to know more about it, should write Dr. Earl Brewer, Emory University, Georgia. ##### 34 NORTH i GREENVILLE TRAINS WORKERS NEIL THOMAS AND HELEN PHILLIPS. CAMPUS LEADERS by Jean Martin- Flynn WELL, PREACHER, this is the first revival we've Uj ever had that it didn't take two preachers to hold it--one at the door to keep order and one in the pulpit to do the preaching." That tribute was paid last summer to C. H. McCarson by one of the members of Mountain Hill Church on the crest of Glassy Mountain in upper Greenville County, South Carolina. i McCarson is one of the many students at North Greenville Junior College who study during the week and then work in the churches in the surrounding area on Sunday. He makes the five i mile, thirty-minute drive up the rutted dirt road to the church on top of the mountain every Sunday afternoon. The student preaches in a solidly built church which stands on the site which had seen three log churches come and go before the building of a stone church by the people who live on the mountain. They recall proudly that the church was finished in 26 days. It has since been enlarged to give more Sunday School space. Every Sunday, McCarson , his wife and his son Sammy get into a truck purchased with borrowed money last year and leave the college for the trip up the mountain. When they leave the paved highway, they start picking up church members who are trudging up the road towards the church. These people are passionately devoted to their land. Hilly and rocky, it affords a poor living. Corn patches cling precariously to the sides of the hills. Water comes from springs, and if a family --,NORTH GREENVILLE TRAINS 35 WCIRJ~RS lives a quarter of a mile from a spring, parents and children still have to carry every drop of water they use. Most of the homes are built of logs blackened by time and weather, but they are brightened by multitudes of flowers planted around them. Apple trees and grape vines flourish on Glassy. Glassy Mountain people have an existence devoid of the comforts most people take for granted. There is no electricity, no mail service. During part of last year there was no school after the county closed the school and consolidated it, but provision has now been made to bring the children down the mountain by jeep so that they may catch the school bus. All these children make for a good Sunday School and Vacation Bible School, which the McCarsons have helped teach as part of their work in the Mountain Hill Church. The McCarsons are carrying the message to those who would not otherwise hear it at a great sacrifice to themselves. Before their conversion and dedication to the ministry, the McCarsons were making as much every week as he now gets a month as a student under the Veterans' Administration program. He served for 18 months in the Pacific area during the last war. The couple sold their home and came to North Greenville in 1950 after they had heard about the school from a student who was present at the service in which they were converted. On the campus are other families preparing themselves for religious vocations, and in the dormitories are many boys and girls engaged in the same preparation. For example, Helen Phillips, president of the B. S. U, and Neil Thomas, president of the Student Federation, both plan to devote themselves to Christian service. An active worker in both church and campus organizations, Helen plans to continue her education at Furman preparing to be a director of religious education. Neil plans to go into the ministry, and is already taking an active part in youth work by serving as a staff member at Ridgecrest Baptist Assembly. He plans to major in history at Carson-Newman next year before going to seminary when he graduates. Located at Tigerville,S. C., North Greenville Junior College has been training people like the McCarsons, Helen and Neil for more than 60 years. During these years there have been many changes, but the beautiful surroundings of the college remain unchanged. Built at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains, the school has been conscious of its place through all its years. Packs Mountain, Seed Tick Mountain, Calloway Mountain, Allens Knob, Glassy Mountain and Hogback -- they face the student as he stands on the front steps of the administration building. And to his back 36 NORTH GMEENVILLE TRAINS WORKERS - rises old Baldy. In the distance on all sides rise the blue outline of more magnificent mountains. North Greenville was designed to afford mountain students educational opportunities within their means and suited to their needs. It also was founded with the idea of reaching and training the mountain ministry that they might more effectively lead their churches by precept and example into sympathy with missions, education, and the deep and wide concerns of God's Kingdom in the world. These dreams were a big order for the North Greenville Association when they opened the school in 1893, for this section of South Carolina was then rightly known as the Dark Corner. In that time, sixty years ago, ignorance abounded, superstition flourished, quarrels were settled with knife or gun. In the early morning, smoke from the stills on the little streams that fed the Tyger River rose like mist. Building a school was a large order for the 40 churches--most of them rural;-that made up the Association, but as layman John Ballenger of the Tigerville community later affirmed, "This school is the greatest missionary work of any ever undertaken by the Association." The school began as a high school on a ten acre campus and has grown until now it is an accepted junior college, with 650 acres of land and an adequate plant. Dr. M. C. Donnan has been president of the school since 1928. A graduate of Furman and the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Dr. Donnan has been responsible for the great growth of the college. Students not only take an active part in campus religious activities, but in the local church as well. Dr. E. B. Crain, present pastor of the church and a graduate of North Greenville, lives half way up the hill between the church and the school. Fourteen missionaries have gone out to service on home and foreign mission fields from the school. Of this mission school, Mr. J. T. Gillespie, a former teacher who is now a Home Board workers, says: "The Dark Corner is going to become the lighthouse of South Carolina, and the beacon light of the Dark Corner is North Greenville Junior College." ##### (((((ABOVE: W. E. F. BUCKNER WORKING AT HIS FORGE. CRAFTMAN'S FAIR IN JULY VISITORS WHO MAKE an annual pilgrimage to the Craftsman's Fair will probably miss one familiar demonstrator this year: Mr. E. F. Buckner of Stocksville, N. C., who makes the delightful animal forms like those at the bottom of this page. Mr. Buckner makes these, and many other items, of iron in his forge to the delight of collectors and museums everywhere. His work has a feeling of joy about it that is most unusual in those who work with iron. Because of illness it is improbable that Mr. Buckner will be able to demonstrate this year, but a host of other craftsmen will show their skill at the Fair, including several new ones who have not demonstrated before. The Fair will be held in the City Auditorium in Asheville, N. C., July 20-24. We hope to publish a series of pictures of the Fair in the next issue of this magazine. NZ/1 k\N\/ rrSo #is by John Parris AFTER PLAYING TO MORE than 400,000 spectators in the past three seasons, Unto These Hills, the drama based on the history of the Cherokee Indians, began its fourth year on June 27 and will run through September 7, at the Mountainside Theatre, Cherokee, N. C. An additional attraction this year is the newly opened Indian Village, recreated to show how the Cherokees lived in 1750. Written by Kermit Hunter and directed by Harry Davis, the drama tells the story of the Cherokees, and their hero Tsali,who ~~ gave up his life so that a remnant of his people might remain in the Mountains. Since the play is sponsored by the Cherokee Historical Association, a non-profit organization, it has been a great source of help to the Indians on the reservation. Not only has it provided more than $200,000 in salaries to Indian members of the staff and cast, but it has made possible many other advantages to reservation 41NTO THESE HILLS 39 residents. Among the developments brought about by the drama are the following: Building of a curb market in which the Cherokees can display and sell their surplus farm and home products. The awarding of $2,400 in cash prizes annually for the best products in woodcarving, basketry, weaving, pottery, agriculture and forestry. These prizes are aimed at encouraging and stimulating improvement of Cherokee arts and crafts, production of more and better farm products, of better farms and farming, and of better forestry practices. The development of a school of fine arts, crafts and dramatics for Cherokee students and adults. The awarding of $750 in cash prizes for community improvement through annual contests. This is aimed at bringing about wellrounded community development in each of the six Cherokee communities. The contest is based on the beautification of highways, homes and yards, improvement of gardens and farms, community social and recreational programs, and the development of local 1 eade rsh ip. The establishment of a $3,000, four-year college scholarship for Indian students in the needed fields of dramatics, anthropology, medicine, dentistry and home-making. In addition, a fund has been set up for the purchase of tools and equipment essential in an expanding development of Cherokee crafts. An interesting development growing out of the drama is a series of Sunday vesper services in the Mountainside Theatre led by some of the nation's most outstanding ministers. These nondenominational services will continue throughout the summer as part of the program of the Association. OCONALUFTEE INDIAN VILLAGE, the reconstructed Indian town of 200 years ago, is located on a site near the Theatre and is on a camping area used by nomadic Indians 6,000 years ago. The Village contains five structures of authentic ancient design and an open air temple where tribal rituals were held. Ringing the compound is a palisade of more than 2000 locust poles. Inside, the Village is a living museum where Indian men, women and children daily carry out their ancient way of life. The largest building in the Village is the council house, the men's ceremonial and political structure. It was here that Cherokee warfare and ball play were planned. Generally closed to women, the house was the area where all tribal decisions were made. 40 UNTO THESE HILLS Seven-sided, the council house contains a central fireplace on the earthen floor, while around the wall are placed the weapons and ceremonial objects used by the men of the tribe. Wooden masks used in the Booger and Eagle Dances are arranged with the Eagle Dance wands and gourd rattlers so important in treaty making and alliances. In the rest of the Village, the Indians go about the daily I tasks that occupied them 200 years ago: making pottery, baskets, bows and arrows, blowguns and dugout canoes. The project was directed by John Witthoft, state anthropologist of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, and a foremost authority on the Indians of the southeast. The Village is under the supervision of the Tsali Institute for Cherokee Indian Research, with the cooperation of the universities of North Carolina, Tennessee and Georgia. Indian workmen were employed almost exclusively in building the Village, and the staff is made up to a large extent of reservation residents. ##### (((JOHN PARRIS IS DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS FOR " UNTO THESE HILLS". A NATIVE OF S~LVA, N.C.. HE GREW UP HEARING THE STORY OF THE CHEROKEES FROM CHIEF SAMPSON OWL. AFTER A DISTINGUISHED CAREER WITH THE UNITED PRESS AND THE ASSOCIATED PRESS, HE IS NOW DEVOTING HIS TIME TO CREATIVE WRITING. HIS BOOKS INCLUDE Ã‚Â° THE CHEROKEE STORY." ))H) SAY HELLO! SEVERAL OF OUR ADVERTISERS will have booths displaying their products at the Craftsman's Fair. You will find all of them friendly folks anxious to help you in your particular endeavor. Plan to spend part of your time at the Fair with them. And while you are at it, tell them that you saw their advertisement in this magazine. ##### FIVE CRAFTSMEN ELECTED TO GUILD Five new craftsmen from the Southern Mountains received membership in the Southern Fighland Handicraft Guild at its spring meeting. Members are admitted only after samples of their craft are submitted and approved by the Standards Committee of the Guild. New members and their craft include: Daniel Boone, Burnsville, N. C.--WROUGHT IRON Mrs. Blanche Foster, RFD 2,,Boone, N. C.--PINE NEEDLE BASKETS Kalmia Craft;, (center), Rabun Gap, Ga.-WEAVING Mrs. Frances Luzenski, Radford, Va.--JEWELRY Frederick Wm. Maiwurm, Asheville, N. C.--JEWELRY SUPP CRAFT LY SERVICE OFFERED BY T ENNESSEE CIt AFTS1viEN i TENNESSEE CRAFTSMEN, 2006 Sutherland Ave., Knoxville, Tennessee, are filling a much needed place in the field of craft supplies. They are stocking leather, lamp bases and wiring kits, unfinished furniture, metal tools and supplies, reed and basket bottoms, stencil supplies, Hong Kong grass, and mahogany lumber in small units. One of their popular pieces is a kit for building the coffee table shown above. Everything is included for finishing the ,job. More supplies are to be added as demand develops. A five page price list will be sent to anyone asking for it. Address all requests to the above address. ##### Penland Snapshot Workshop THE PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFT is sponsoring a 10-day `rÃ‚Â® photographers' workshop,October 7-17, under the direction of Joe Clark. Both amateur and skilled photographers will find value in the course. Anyone wishing to attend the Cherokee Fair on October 3 and then come on to Penland may do so and have use of the darkrooms until the workshop begins. Anyone unable to attend the whole session may come by the day for any length of time. Cost: Tuition $25.00 for 10 days, or $2.50 by the day. Board and room cost from $3.75 to $7.00, depending on living quarters desired. For application blank or more information, write: The Registrar, Penland School of Handicrafts, Penland, North Carolina. ##### 0" M 16 CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR c f the S o.~.t1,eAft N:ghlom dd ASHEYlI.IE,N~ CAao~INA .lva,Y f0th.tlwA. 4th. 1953 42 The Changing Highlands POPULATION DO PEOPLE IN THE MOUNTAINS move around or do they stay put? We asked James Brown of the Department of Rural Sociology, University of Kentucky, to prepare a study for us dealing with shifts in population within the 236 counties of the Southern Appalachians. These figures, which appear on the opposite page, are based on 1950 census findings. About the study, Dr. Brown writes: The population of the Southern Appalachian counties is still an overwhelmingly rural population according to 1950 census figures. Two-thirds of the area's population was classified as rural, only one-third urban. In the United States as a whole, the urban population forms nearly two-thirds (63.7%), whereas the rural population forms only a little more than one-third (36.2%) of the total population. The definitions of urban, rural-farm, and rural-non farm population were different in 1950 from those used in 1940 and make interpretations of changes from 1940 to 1950 difficult. Even so, certain general trends are obvious. The rural-farm population has decreased sharply. In 1950, for the first time, the area's rural-farm population was smaller than either the rural-non farm or the urban population. The rural-nonfarm population has increased rapidly and now is the largest of the three groups. Some of the characteristics of this increasingly important part of our mountain population will be examined in a later issue. The urban population has increased most rapidly of all. ##### Farm Population Ratio Highest in South Per Cent Farm Population Is of Total Population on April I, 1950 `v,:k H. w /2 ~ON,. N. D. 22 1 13 1S ~3 41 ~N~w,s !Y '~% 2 , E 18 u,o. s o. ~E~. '~~~ 420 39 25 21 1I ~~ I w ,~ r7 2 3 uE0. EEL wo Hcuio 8 '"^~ 30 30 COED. A0. 9 17 11 Rt~~ I 12 ,cz. IS 15 23 22 33 22 N.,E 31 .34 c 00.u A0.N. LENN to 19 25 42 -- cu G~ s 33 E, 50 31 28 ,; 'J For the ~r 21 of United Stafes 15_3% Source ofData: 8 j-~~,Yy Bureau of the ~ensu S's %llc,a.,. o-T,_.: ,x: m,o.m.a LATION OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS - Urban, al-Farm, and Rural-Nonfarm - 1950, 1940, 19: (236 Counties) Urban PODUZatiOE Rural_Farm P Ulation Rural-Nonfarm P elation 1950 19 1930 19 0 19 o 930 -19 0 19 0 1930 Total (236) 2,699,315 1,909,642 1,682,896 2,380,608 3,044,690 2,761,399 3,014,2822,467.505 2.182,050 Alabama (25) 777.E 525,885 470,645 416,797 542.894 533,099 390,234 342.039 297,026 Georgia (21) 97,112 72,113 58,863 130,639 168,076 161,084 146,524 98,369 75.527 Kentucky (34) 138,890 100,133 91,026 345,642 460,525 382,846 351,534 303,365 274.513 Maryland (3) 84,246 83,198 77.636 22,414 29,736 28,854 83,041 64,858 58,398 North Carolina (26) 161,758 131.570 106,182 299,788 366,889 329,857 279,163 191.985 166,453 South Carolina ( 3) 113,768 45,086 34,040 55,171 74,201 79,179 78,321 90,916 70,867 Tennessee (44) 576,800 406,839 360,942 436,805 533,706 473,901 446,557 320.519 271,361 Virginia (42) 319.588 230.540 206,630 368,699 479,237 450,164 464,408 353,432 308,533 West Virginia (38) 429,705 314.278 276.932 304,653 389,426 322,415 774,500 702,022 659,372 Number and Rate of Change in Urban, Rural-Farm and Rural-Nonfarm Population Urban ~i01 --50 19)0-40 Per- Per Number cent Number cent Number Per cent Rural-Farm 1940-50 1930-40 Number Per cent Rural_Nonfarm 1940_ 50 1930_40 Number For- Number Per -cent cent Total (236) 789.673 41.4 226,746 13.5 -664,082 _21.8 283,291 10.3 546,777 22.2 285.455 13.1 Alabama (25) 251.563 47.8 55.E 11.2 -126,097 -23.2 9,795 1.8 4.8,195 14.1 45,013 15.2 Georgia (21) 24,999 34.7 13,250 22.5 - 37,437 -22.3 6,992 4.3 48,155 49.0 22,842 30.2 Kentucky (34) 38,757 38.7 9.107 10.0 _114,883 -24.9 77.679 20.3 48.169 15.9 28,852 10.5 Maryland ( 3) 1,048 1.3 5,562 7.2 _ 7,322 _24.6 882 3.1 18.183 28.0 6,460 11.1 North Carolina (26) 30,188 22,9 25,388 23.9 - 67,101 -18.3 37,032 11.2 87,178 45.4 25,532 15.3 South Carolina ( 3) 68,682 152.3 11,046 32.5 - 19.030 -25.6 _ 4,978 - 6.3 -12,595 -13.9 20,049 28.3 Tennessee (44) 169,961 41.8 45,897 12.7 - 96,901 -18.2 59,805 12.6 126,038 39.3 49,158 18.7 Virginia (42) 89,048 38.6 23,910 11.6 -110,538 -23.1 29.073 6.5 110,976 31.4 44,899 14,6 west Virginia (38) 115,427 36.7 37,346 13.5 - 84.773 -21.8 67,011 20.8 72,478 10.3 42,650 6.5 cooler in %:dD6 yua 60 to 6s. Government was not Communist. P r y i d a partly The troops I reviewed contained - cloud High in the liberals and people of all kinds y and warmer. of views who stood for liberty 60's. and against Fascism. The salute standitordFi.idRedivas _ -.__ ...__ _. .~_ ._-_ y-- ordi IN THE NEWS... when ought bussia 2 A.M. 55 3 A.M. 34 4 A.M. 54 5 A.M. 54 6 A.M. 54 T A.M. 34 A Resume of Current Articles and Books Dealing With Our Urea and Its People The Air Force withheld names of victims and survivors until next of kin were notified. The four-engine craft was cross ing this sparsely settled central Nebraska ranch area en route from Great Falls, Mont., to Lake Charles, La., when it smashed into the ground. There were no witnesses to the crash, but ground marks ind' "~r~, ed the plane bounced off on( Year Ago: xien. w: sow, ~. Ã‚Â«5. I have seen statements by I across a ravine and into a ~~ sin: Rises, s:zz; sees, T:4T. on the other side, about a quar Weather Map-Page 9, se~c~on z. ~ Column 5, back page, this section ter of a mile away. FOREST USE * The Progressive Farmer carried a story in its April issue about an association of charcoal producers who are turning weed trees into a source of income on the barren lands of the southern end of the Cumberland Plateau near Spencer, Tennesse. Written by Bettie Tavakoli, the story tells how the new industry was begun by "Judge" J. M. Taft, who got his idea for the industry while in England and France during the war. Using low grade hardwoods, the producers have developed both kilns for burning the charcoal and an association for marketing the product under one brand name. Most of the charcoal is used locally in the expanding recreation industry in that part of the mountains. Spencer, headquarters of the new industry, is near TVA lakes as well as being in the center of heavy forests used by hunters. Equipment is relatively simple, consisting of a cement block kiln and a muzzle-loading cannon sharpened at one end for splitting larger logs. The basic skill involved is learning just how much air can be admitted during the "burning" period so that charcoal is produced rather than a pile of ashes. Taft says that demand outstrips supply so far and that the potential is almost unlimited. The author indicates that this might be a small industry suited to rural communities in forest areas. In writing about utilization of cull timber, J. Edwin Carothers said in this magazine (No. 2,'51) that charcoal making might well be one way of doing it, but that a danger might lurk in the using of timber more valuable for other uses, thus defeating the original purpose. CRAFTS Handweaver and Craftsman published two articles about crafts in the Southern Highlands in the firing number. The first article is The Revival of Cherokee Arts and Crafts, by John Parris. He tells how most of the Cherokee crafts were all 45 - IN THE NEWS - but lost until a few sympathetic teachers helped to preserve them in the 1930's. There has been a continual growth in the movement on the Reservation at Cherokee since that time, and there is the hope that it will reach even greater heights as new craftsmen are trained and more equipment is available to the individual craft worker. This article by Mr. Parris is doubly valuable because it traces the historical context in which this craft movement is set. The pictures which accompany the article are probably one of the most comprehensive groups published in recent years, and they depict every type of work now being done. A native of Silva, just a few miles from the Reservation, Mr. Parris writes with deep appreciation of the 'original southern highlanders' and we only wish that more authors would write with the same spirit about the area and its people. The same issue of the magazine has a story about The Valhalla Weavers of North Carolina. Located just outside Tryon, the weaving room and shop produces and sells a large number of tweeds and homespuns, rugs, handbag materials, household linens, and other items. Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Lawrence manage the shop, and more than 25 weavers are used in producing fabrics. Wool for the weaving is produced by sheep grown in North Carolina, and it is spun at the century-old mill at Helton, North Carolina. The cover picture on the spring issue of Handweaver and Craftsman is of Mary Frances Davidson, a craft teacher at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. She is shown demonstrating vegetable dyeing of yarn at the Craftsman's Fair. The photograph was taken by Ed DuPuy of Black Mountain, North Carolina, whose work has often appeared in this magazine. And since we are on the subject of crafts, have you seen Handweaver and Craftsman:? Particularly if you are a weaver, you will find it invaluable. Published quarterly, it may be obtained at $1.00 per copy, or $4.00 per year, at 246 Fifth Ave, New York 1, N. Y..Order subscriptions at this address. THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST. MAY. 1953 has an article by Helen Krechniak about crafts in the Tennessee mountains. The first of a series, the article tells how weaving, for example, has grown to be a million dollar industry in Gatlinburg. The article is not about just one center, however, for Mrs. Krechniak points out several other communities where weaving and other crafts are still carried on in Tennessee. A copy of this magazine may be obtained by sending a request to TEn1NESSEE CCIKSERVATIONIST, Nashville 3,Tenn. 46 $1 00, 000 Fire Hits Buckhorn School WIMEHSPOON SCHOOL at Buckhorn, Ky., was all but wiped out by two fires that struck the campus during the spring. The school has served young people of the mountains for over fifty years. The president, Dr. Elmer Gabbard, has indicated that the school will be rebuilt and that active plans are being made to fit the new plant to the specific needs of the area. Many of the young people left homeless by the blazes are orphans, and almost all lost their clothes and other belongings. People of the community opened their homes to the victims so that school was able to continue. No one was injured in the fires. Many church and civic groups in Kentucky staged drives for immediate relief of the students so that all were able to have food and clothing immediately. SIGM PHI GAMMA Aids Since the dining hall was destroyed, there was an immediate need for new equipment. Officers of Sigma Phi Gamma International Sorority, who happened to be in the area soon after the fire, advised the use of funds for the purchase of a refrigerator from their contribution to the Council of Southern Mountain Workers. Because of the nature of the Council and the special need at Buckhorn, Frigidaire Corporation and its local dealers very generously made a large box available at a greatly reduced price, so the school now is able to provide adequate refrigeration in its new kitchen. This was only one of the many samples of appreciation shown to the school for the good work they have been doing. ##### AN IDEA FOR YOUR COMMUNITY. . . Miss Avery of the Wooten Community Church, Wooten, Kentucky, writes us about the church service conducted by the local 4-H Club. Enlisting the help of the Home Demonstration Agent and the ) local club, a program was planned around the four H's of Head, i/ Hands, Heart and Health. Why not try this in your own church? 47 Staff Needs (((((((((((((The Council of Southern Mountain Workers gives assistance in discovering, for institutions and programs, trained workers who have a genuine desire to serve where they are most needed. The Council also endeavors to provide the names and brief data about people who are seeking such opportunities. Such an exchange of information about program needs and available personnel will be publicized in this magazine whenever possible, free of charge. While the Council endeavors to use discretion in this publicity, it cannot imply more than the bare facts herein stated. Investigation of individual qualifications and evaluation of recommendations must be considered the responsibility of those who find this service of help in their search. Some of these positions may have been filled by the time you read this, but at press time the following places were open: DOCTOR AND NURSE NEEDED AT PINE MOUNTAIN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL. PINE MOUNTAIN, KY. WRITE MR. BURTON ROGERS. SECRETARY NEEDED AT CROSSNORE SCHOOL, CROSSNORE, N.C. WRITE DR. MARY SLOOP RESIDENT NURSE AND RECREATIONAL DIRECTOR NEEDED AT HIND MAN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL, HIND MAN, KY. WRITE MISS ELIZABETH WATTS. LIBRARIAN. CLASSROOM TEACHER AND OFFICE MANAGER, OR COMBINATION. AT LOT TS CREEK.SCHOOL. CORD IA, KY. WRITE MISS ALICE H. SLONE. INSTRUCTOR IN BUSINESS (TYPING AND SHORTHAND) NEEDED AT ANNVILLE INST., ANNVILLE. KY. WRITE M7. ALFRED OPPENEER. SOCIAL SERVICE WORKER NEEDED WITH FRONTIER NURSING SERVICE. WRITE DR. WRY BRECKINRIDGE. WE ND OVER, LESLIE CO.. KY. WASHINGTON COLLEGE ACADEMY NEEDS YOUNG DEAN OF WOMEN INTERESTED AND ABLE TO LEAD SOME RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES. WRITE T. HENRY JABLONSKI . WASHINGTON COLLEGE ACADEMY. WASHINGTON COLLEGE. TENN. SECRETARY. BOOKKEEPER. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHER AND A PASTOR FCR THE AREA NEEDED AT PITT MAN COMMUNITY CENTER, SEVIERVILLE, TENN. CRAFT TEACHER NEEDED AT TALLULAH FALLS SCHOOL. TALLULAH FALLS. GA. FOR SCHOOL YEAR 195354. MUST BE ABLE TO GET TEACHERS CERTIFICATE. WRITE MR. C. B. AKIN, SUPT. TEACHER OF SECRETARIAL ARTS NEEDED AT SALEM COLLEGE, SALEM. W. VA. WRITE K. DUANE HURLEY. PRESIDENT. CRAFT WORKER FOR EVANGELICAL UNITED BRETHREN COMMUNITY CENTER AT BARNETT CREEK, COLUMBIA, KY. WRITE DR. U P HOVER MALE, 1426 U. B. BLDG., BAYTON 2, OHIO. GENERAL PRACTITIONER NEEDED IN JACKSON CO., KY. WRITE JACKSON COUNTY KIWANIS CLUB, MCKEE. KY. THE COUNCIL. AT THE REQUEST OF THE FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY IN WASHINGTON, HAS SUGGESTED SEVERAL POSSIBLE APPLICANTS FOR POINT FOUR APPOINTMENTS FOR CRAFTS INSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN FOREIGN FIELDS. IF YOU ARE QUALIFIED AND ARE INTERESTED IN THIS WORK EITHER NOW OR LATER, WRITE THE COUNCIL OFFICE. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below, and send with $I .00 to the Council of Southern Mountain 15orkers, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, KentQcky. NAME'~' ADDRESS Active individual membership $ 3.00 to 4.00 Supporting membership 5.00to 24.00 Sustaining membership 25.00 or more Institutional membership 5.00 or more --Subscription to M.L.and W. included in all memberships I do not wish to join or subscribe at the moment, but I do wish to be kept informed about the program of the Council Additional questions and comments (Please detach and mail to Box 2000, Berea College, Berea, Ky.) --- --------------- --------------- -------------------------------------- THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MO(INTAIN WORKERS works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian Region with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help solve some of the peculiar educational, social, spiritual and cultural needs of this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and by means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. -Participation is invited on the above bases 3rd For Members! 3rd issue Ship According to our 9th P records, your membership 195-2 See +~,f and/or subscription PoÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ appears to have expired subset pt 'rst Ã‚Â£, as indicated. We are i .ryrsS ~~.~ continuing to send you 3ra ex `rd ~P current issues in the Issue gth APO, belief that you do not 1952 lSSUe 5 wish us to drop you from IBS h. N our membership. We would 2 jss st~ f~`~~. appreciate your reaffiliat lss ~e "' o' ion upon whatever basis G you wish. SG Gf. s~3rs e+.oi sC~t. G'G Y~~ Gm 7 gth .-Pa.tat~lo' sa a 1O 1.9s `'6 2 IF THIS CORNER IS NOT TURNED UP, YOUR AFFILIATION IS UP TO DATE!