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Mountain Life & Work vol. 29 no. 3 Summer, 1953 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv29n30753 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 29 no. 3 Summer, 1953 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Summer, 1953 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. 25Ã‚Â° MOUNTAIN LIFE WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN VOL. XXIX, NO. 3 LIFE WORK SUMMER, 1953 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS, _ - LINCOLN HALL. BEREA COLLEGE. BEREA. KY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT BEREA. KY. STAFF: RECREATION- -Frank H. Smith, College Station, Berea, Ky. EDUCATION--Grazia K. Combs, Piper, %y. HEALTH-Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Crossville, Tenn. RELIGION--Dr. Sam Pander Meer, Morris Fork, Ky. STAFF PHOTOGRAPHERS--Ed DuPuy, Black Mountain, N. C. Roy N. Walters, Berea, %y. STIFF ARTIST--Mrs. Burton Ropers, Pine Mountain, %y. MANAGING EDITOR--Charles Drake, College Station, Berea,%y. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY--Perley F..AYer, Berea, Ky. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is published quarterly by the COUNCIL 0lp-) SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WCPXF.RS Box 2000, College Station Berea, Ky. ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS, MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. COVER: Charles W. Turner for Save The Children Federation (See page 40 for story); pages 4-32-36, Arthur Dodd; 8. George Pickow; 15-17-18, Division of State Information, Tennessee Department of Conservation; 16, Rex Gary Schmidt; 24, Charles W. Turner. DRAWINGS by Mary Ropers and Larry Curry. TREASURE CHEST 4E HAND WEAVING YARNS ie iber razine. COTTONS WOOLS LINENS Select your hand weaving yarns from Lily's Treasure Chest of fashionable colors, weights and textures-ideal yarns for every weaving need-rugs, towels, table mats, bags, draperies, garment and upholstery fabrics. Write for free price list or send $1 for complete color cards. (This actually costs you nothing as it can be applied to your next purchase of $10.00 or more.) NOVELTY YARNS NYLKARA ess and HAND WEAVING SS ioN SUPPLIES LOOMS n ~eOr9e BOBBIN RACKS AND gee Ã‚Â«les WARPING rRAMES WINDERS TABLE MODEL REELS The Hand Weaver's Headquarters LILY MILLS CO., DEPT. HWB, SHELBY, N. C. TENSION BOWES EXPATRIATE Look to the south, the east. Kentucky's hills Lie vague and cloudlike on the circling sky, Closing my valley, halting the casual eye That seeks to look beyond. The sunlight spills Graciousness, light, fertility on the plain, Striving to hold the heart. But eagerly My eyes, once blessed by mountains, look to see Past field and river to their heights again. Look to the south, the east. Can you not see, Companions of this fertile northern land, Past the green hills, the cities, and the plains? Can you not see blue mountains proudly stand Amid their swirling clouds, ageless and wise? Look! Can you see them mirrored in my eyes? --Bernice A. Stevens ((((( Bernice Stevens is, as might be gathered from this poem, a transplanted Kentucky " mountaineer." She now lives in Evansville, Indiana. ))))) 0i For IMPORTED LINEN WEAVING YARNS Send 35c for samples Wide variety of sizes in NATURAL, BLEACHED and COLORS LANE LOOM METLON COUNTER BALANCE NON-TARNISH METALLIC JACK TYPE YARN 20-inch PORTABLE FOLDING- GOLD, SILVER, COPPER LOOM COLORS Loom Anchors See our LANE LOOM before you buy. Write us for the name of our nearest sales outlet and demonstrator. FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. 6 AMONG THE MOST FAMOUS SINGING FAMILIES OF THE SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS ARE THE RITCHIES OF VIPER, KENTUCKY. NOT ONLY HAS THIS FAMILY CARRIED ON A FINE TRADITION OF FOLK SINGING. BUT INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS HAVE ALSO MADE SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CULTURAL LIFE OF THE AREA. ONE DAUGHTER. UNA. AUTHORED THE PAGEANT GIVEN AT HIND MAN LAST YEAR. JEAN HAS ESTABLISHED AN INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION AS A FOLK SINGER. HAS RECORDED A LONG-PLAYING RECORD OF FOLK SONGS. AND HAS PUBLISHED A BOOK OF SONGS FROM THOSE SUNG IN HER FAMILY. EDNA IS FORMER RECREATIONAL WORKER FOR THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS. AND IS NOW WORKING IN THE RURAL LIBRARY SERVICE AND IN THE RECREATIONAL PROGRAM AT HOMEPLACE, ARY. KY. IN THIS SKETCH. EDNA TELLS OF GROWING UP AMONG... The Singing Ritchies By Edna Ritchie "Twilight is stealing, over the sea, Shadows are falling dark on the lea; Borne on the night wind, voices of yore Come from that far-off shore..." THE VOICES DRIFTED IN from the front porch to the kitchen, where several of us younger members of the Ritchie family dabbled about at dishwashing. For several minutes we had been taking turns at poking the dish rag down into a glass to see who could make the most interesting picture. Hearing the singing, however, we soon forgot the pictures and flew to work with a will. " Les' hurry! They're singin' on the porch!" Like magic the dishes were done and we raced through the kitchen, the bedroom, the front room and onto the porch, each one scrambling for a seat in the porch swing. Alas! The swing was occupied, as well as the rocking chair, so we had to be content with pulling out a straight chair or with sitting on the old wooden chest that for years stood on the front porch. Sometimes the little ones would sit on the bigger ones' laps, and the middle sized ones would scrouge up against the wall. For maybe two hours or three we would sing ballads, folk songs, hymns, lullabies and nonsense songs-some in unison, some in harmony. We sang until the least ones were asleep in our arms, and the middle-sized ones grew droopy on the floor. This "singing on the front porch" is one of the happiest memories of my childhood. I remember dark nights dimpled with stars and fireflies; I remember nights of brilliant moonlight, when the shadows were dark and sharp. Then there were night when the moon was veiled in mist, bathing everything in fairy light. Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ J In spring the tree frogs and whip-poor-wills accompanied our singing; in summer the crickets and katydids; and always there was continued on page 8 SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and woofs-and samples of the weaving woofs described above-all for $1.00 postpaid, which will be refunded on first order of $10 or more. %) WN V 0A GA W4 GA t~r~ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of PATONS and BALDWINS Weaving woofs from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious woofs that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. R1tghPs Na1UifPtf, Jttr. GOLDEN RULE PRODUCTS Dept. B, 115 Franklin Street. New York 13, N.Y. M SINGING RITCIIF.S (II(IBALIS AND ABBIGAIL RITCHIE(CENTER AND RIGHT). EDNA *S PARENTS. ENJOY THE LOG CABIN MUSEUM AT HIND MAN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL WITH MR. RITCHIE'S 1',.O5" SISTER. MRS. SARAH NAPIER ILEFT). the brook--the branch, we called it--murmuring in the background. What are some of the songs we sang? Everything we knew, though never all in one evening, for that would have taken too long! Sometimes the singing would run mostly to old Regular Baptist hymns, such as The Prodigal Son Afflictions, tho' they seem severe, Are oft in mercy sent; They stopped the Prodigal's career And caused him to repent. I can still hear my father's voice soaring aloft on the high notes--Father, I've sinned, but oh forgiven. One of my mother's favorites is Oh, Come, Angel Band--the chorus of which goes: Oh, come, angel band Come and around me stand, Oh, bear me away on your snowy wings To my immortal home, Oh, bear me away on your snowy wings To my immortal home. 9 THE SINGING RITCJIIES At other times we got started on the narrative ballads:Jackaro, Barbara Allen, Fair Ellender and The Turkish Lady. Some evenings we would favor Stephen Foster or Negro spirituals. When the older girls came back from boarding school and college, they brought a wealth of new songs. Una brought not only the nonsensical college songs such as Bohunkus and Josephus, but many lovely, more recent hymns also. Among them was Frederick W. Faber's beautiful hymn, Hark, Hark, My Soul, which quickly became one of our favorites Hark, hark,my soul! Angelic songs are swelling O'er earth's green fields, and ocean's wave-beat shore; How sweet the truth those blessed strains are telling Of that new life when sin shall be no more. Angels of Jesus, angels of light Sing to welcome the pilgrims, The pilgrims of the night. I never hear that song without thinking of Una and her golden beauty and goodness. As time went on, others of us went to Pine Mountain and Hindman Settlement Schools where we learned a great many more ballads and folk songs than we had known before. Those of us who attended Pine Mountain School ( May, Raymond, Kitty, Patty, Truman, Jewel and I) were fortunate to be there at the same time that Miss Evelyn Wells was, and through her we became acquainted with the Cecil Sharp collections. How wonderful to add The Lark in the Morn, Green Brooms and many others to our repertoire. Pauline and Jewel learned several new songs at Hindman also. Not only on summer nights, but around the fireside in winter we sang The Little Devils, The Ten Commandments, and all the beautiful Christmas hymns and carols we knew, the favorite of which was Brightest and Best. We sang it to the old tune as we learned it from our Grandmother Ritchie-- "Granny Katty." In her day it was sung on January 6 in celebration of "Old Christmas"--a time of quiet worship around the family hearth: Ever since I can remember, at least one member of the family has gone out early Christmas morning with a community group carolling at all the neighbors' houses in Viper. Sometimes there are as many as seven or eight of our own family, besides neighbors. At times our group has been so small that it is doubtful whether we woke very many with our feeble strains of Good Christian Men, Rejoice! At other times, however, we have quite made the heavens ring, flinging joy to the World with great abandon to the cold, still heights. We have even had, upon occasions, some bass voices! 10 -THE SINGING RITC71IES After the opening of the John C. Campbell Fblk School short courses, we again learned new songs for our twilight singings-powerful songs, such as Suomi Song and That Cause Can Neither Be Lost nor Stayed, as well as songs of contentment and love of the land, like The Tiller and The Happy Plowman. Patty, in particular, loved these songs and any others that extolled nature. Her favortie hymns were Fairest Lord Jesus and God That Modest Earth and Heaven. Somewhere she learned a tune for Yeats' poem, The Lake Isle of Innisfree, and for a long time that was our favorite twilight song--' And I shall have some peace therefor peace comes dropping slow From out the veils of morning to where the crickets sing; There midnight's all a-glimmer, and noon's a purple glow And evening's full of linnet's wing... It has been years since we gathered on the porch at dusk to sing our "songs of the past." But even though our precious clan is scattered over seven states, and with one studying in Europe, what a blessing to have memories of such glad, sweet times to call up at willl I like to think that on this soft June night, each one is on his or her own front porch, teaching his own family the songs he learned in childhood. There is nothing that gives a sense of peace, love and security like singing together. Voices of loved ones, songs of the past, Still linger round me while life shall last Cheering my pathway while here I roam Seeking the for-off home... 'INIVOgNclI U6 A New 1953 Revised Edition of WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all crafts invaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina 11 Mountain Youth Aid Fund Set Up by U. K. Ex-Teacher STUDENTS FROM MARTIN COUNTY, Kentucky, so impressed a University of Kentucky professor during his 37 years of . teaching that he set up an educational fund for them when he retired last year. Martin County is one of the eastern-most counties in Kentucky, and forms part of the mountainous boundry between that state and West Virginia. The teacher, Dr. Edward Tuthill, former head of the department of history and political science, and later dean.of the Graduate School at UK, never set foot in Martin County, but said he set up the fund because he was so impressed with the character of students from that county. The fund is available to students who are registered at any Kentucky college or junior college. Dr. Tuthill makes his home in Lexington and Salina, Kansas. ##### CONSERVATION MATERIAL AVAILABLE FOR SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY GROUPS MANY EXCELLENT PAMPHLETS, maps, posters and other publications dealing with forest conservation are '' available from the U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C. A convenient order-form pamphlet has been prepared for ease in ordering the material. Write the Service and ask for Form K-28. Much of the material is free and would be of wonderful help in rural schools, 4-H Clubs, and other community groups. In addition, district foresters can often give help in conservation programs. If you don't know your nearest forester, ask his name from the Service office in Washington. ##### WITH SOUND OF DULCIMER Each day is my spring, Each moment of pleasure; The bright pluck of light On the sensitive string. For day the curved wing To loop a fine measure, Fox fire at night A-burning to sing. --Albert Stewart ((((( A native of the Kentucky Mountains, Mr. Stewart taught last year at the Catalina Junior High School, Tucson, Arizona.))))). 12 BALD EAGLE: Friend 4 or Foe? hiii MRS. MARY HERBERT WE HAVE A REGULAR WINTER TOURIST down here in Florida who makes his way down through the peaks of Southern Appalachia every fall, skirting the gulfs and the coves, as he escapes from the cold north. He builds his love nest, propagates, and -- ahead of the heat--flies north again without a plane, without paying a penny. He is the bald eagle. He even has a winter home in Florida--a twelve thousand acre tract near Venice, donated recently by the wealthy Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt--the very same land from which the Seminole Indian was driven. The bald eagle is our national emblem, but he is also a marauder. No mistake about that, I've seen him in action. On his way north he lingers quite a while in the mountainous country of Tennessee, where as a child I lived on a farm. He comes right at chicken hatching time. He's already hatched his own and got them on the wing. It is said that he eats only fish at Venice, Florida. Maybe so, but he certainly does not eat fish in the mountains of Tennessee nor on the high dry plains of Texas, where I've also seen him. He eats the young of other fowl, steals them from the nest, or like all kings he takes whatever he wants wherever he finds it. There are two kinds of winged chicken thieves, the small dark one which darts like lightning for his prey, and the large one ten times as big with huge wingspread and a bald spot on his head. But a chicken thief just the same. The bald one, having been pampered in Florida is not afraid to come near the home and barn lot to get his prey. He's not even afraid of a man with a gun in his hand for there is now a fifty-dollar fine for shooting him, though you see him flying off with a frying-size chicken, your tomorrow's dinner. The Audubon Society of New York, through the custodian of wildlife, Richard Pough, has employed Charles Lavele Broley 13 __-_-_--BALD EAGLE-------_-_--_---------_---__---_-_-_ to band the young eaglets and to take care of them while nesting in Florida. I predict that the beautifully colored song birds that are a perfect complement to the gorgeous flowers will soon be scarce because of the marauding eagle. He will eat them just as in the back yard of my mountain home when I was a girl he ate my brown bantam hen that had hatched off seven chicks. I felt the breath of his wings as he swooped down and clutched my little hen through the back with his sharp talons. She gave a few dying wails as he flew over our one acre cotton patch on a sunny slope and lighted under the big green leaves and pink blossoms. I ran with all my might but found only a freshly picked carcass and a few brown wing feathers to become fertilizer for the cotton we would pick seed from while sitting around the winter fire. No, I don't like the bald eagle. Even though he is king of the air and has a winter home in Florida, he still is a marauder. I hope he sticks to a diet of fish, but I'm not trusting him for a minute. ###### (((((THE AU770R: Mary Herbert grew up in the Righland Rim section of the Cumberland Mountains, near McMinnville, Tenn., where some of the events recounted in this article happened. After living in West Texas for many years, she now lives in Datona Beach, Fla., where she writes. She has finished one novel, is working on another, and does magazine articles about Florida. ))))) FOLK SCHOOL WINTER SESSION: November 2,1953 - February 28,1954 YOUNG ADULTS in the Southern Highlands who wish to use the winter months for study, work and wholesome recreation will be interested in the Winter Session of the John C. Campbell Folk School, which runs from Nov. 2 through Feb. 28 this e ye ar. Set up to provide additional training for rural young adults, the school has no academic entrance requirements and no formal examinations. Each one rates his own progress. Learning comes through working, thinking, listening, talking, asking questions, playing, worshipping. Several areas of learning will be emphasized: history and n thought; farming, homemaking, handwork, recreation. Every student has a regular job with pay, which helps carry his or her expenses. Additional work-aid is available. Total cost for the four months is $280, with work taking care of part of it. The school is private and undenominational. For further infor mation about the Winter Session, write Georg Bidstrup, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, N. C. ####### 14 fair Draws Biggest Crowd i TILE LARGEST CROWD ever to witness a craft exhibit in the south turned out for the Craftsman's Fair in Asheville this year. More than 10,000 visitors came to the Fair to watch 75 different demonstrators practice their crafts. Sales were up correspondingly. A new feature of the Fair this year was the awardi:-,; of $10 prizes for excellence in craftsmanship. This was dc.:c- to stimulate heightened standards among craftsmen and to provide a standard by which other craft workers might judge their own work. Award Winners Announced Eight exhibit prizes were awarded. They included: BASKETRY: Qualla Arts and Crafts Cooperative Assn., Cherokee, N. C. POTTERY: Mr. Lynn Gault, Brasstown, N. C. WOOD CARVING: Mr. Johnson Catolster, Cherokee, N. C. JEWELRY: Miss Jane Glass, Gatlinburg, Tenn. (for cuff links.) ENAMEL WORK: Miss Virginia Dudley, Rising Faun, Ga. WEAVING: (one prize in each class, I andII) I. Mrs. John Campbell, Sevierville, Tenn. (for upholstery material) 11. Mrs. Ruth Szittya, Cherokee, N. C. (for towel) MISCELLANEOUS: brooms, shuckery, boutonniere, etc. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky. (for broom) In addition to the above prizes for products, the blue ribbon for the outstanding sales booth at the Fair went to Qualla Arts and Crafts Cooperative Association, Cherokee, N. C. Allied folk arts were present in the form of folk singing, dancing, storytelling and the like. Mr. and Mrs. Georg Bidstrup of the John C. Campbell Folk School headed this program. The Fair not only provides a way by which the general public may see craftsmen work, but it also produces a ready market for many of the crafts produced. See the following pages for a pictorial account of the Fair in its 1953 session. WHO'S WHO IN THE PICTURES: (1) The Fair is not only a place for spectators to watch craftsmen work, but it is also a meeting place for the craft workers themselves. Many old friendships are renewed and new ones made during the Fair. Here, Walter B. Stephens(1), founder of Pisgah Forest Pottery, Arden, N. C., visits with Shadrack B. Mace of Mars Hill, N. C. Mr. Mace is sitting astride his drawhorse making chair posts. Both men are Honorary Life Members of the Guild./// (2) Dolls are always fascinating, no matter what their size. This one of corn shucks is being made by the capable fingers of Mrs. Martha Burns, Hindman, Ky. /// (3) The younger generation at the Fair showed that they carry on the skills of the veterans. Mary Roberts, a high school student, Berea, Ky., is shown at her loom in this picture./// (4) Miss Isadore Williams, Knoxville, Tenn., Market Specialist for the Tenn. Agri. Ext. Serv., took an active part in the Fair, serving as Co-chairman of Demonstrations, and organizing a large group of Tenn. demonstrators.///(S) The show had an international flavor in Gaeton Beaudin of Conada,who demonstrated on the potter's wheel for Penland Weavers and Potters, Penland, N. C.lll(6) Father and son teams are not unusual among craftsmen. Elmer C. Kear and son, Omah, of Gatlinburg, Tenn., worked together making brooms at the fair. ##### ((( All pictures by Ed DuPuy, Black Mountain, N. C. ))) All 20 Folk Hymns for Singing... v(2, ninc, 5hade ohm day is past a icl, c~or.d, ~ha. evening shnc r pear. O rnay .,tee all ramamber well the. rti,~ht oj cla.~tt S near. 21 . ~, ord km~ us 5 CZ f e th15 'tyflt, Secure f rom call OL1'C' dears, nay and els Auard us whit a w. slee.~ T ill morny l~Sh-t 4~~e o,.rs e 3 Arid when we early rise, And view the unwearied 5ut-l, Moy we set out to vitrl the prize Arid ctf terAlory rl-Ln. 4 And when our days 0.re cast And we from rime remova O may we in shy bosom re-5t ' The bosom of shy love. This lovely old hymn was collected at the Pine Mountain Settlement School, in Harlan County, Ky. Somber in tone, as are most of the Mountain Spirituals, it reflects the deep faith of so many mountci-n people. Drc-Jwings and lettering are the work of Mrs. Mary Rogers, Pine Mountain. _"t:;s is the second in a series of folk avmns. 22 Many of the people who write for this magazine do a lot of traveling, but one of the most peripatetic of the lot is our Recreation Editor, FRANK SMITH. Whether he is lilting across the floor in a dance or driving from one training session to another, the " recreation man" really covers ground. He did stop long enough, however, to send back this report about his activities this summer. We thought you would enjoy this article from one of... OUR ROVING EDITORS THE SUMMER SEASON is an interesting one in the Southern Highlands. I have wondered if the tourist has more fun than the recreation man. In the line of duty it is agreeable to go out from the hot and humid climate of Berea to the hills of North Carolina. The Southern Rural Church Institute at Valle Crucis is a training center for young Episcopal leaders, who are spending a summer in directing Vacation Bible Schools, and engaging as apprentices in ministerial duties in the mountain parishes of Western North Carolina and nearby states. To aid them in the acquisition of recreational skills and materials, enables a recreation man to feel that the program will be worthily presented over a wide area. To receive an assignment to investigate mountain square dancing is congenial; particularly so, since it enables one to take in tourist resorts such as Banner Elk and Fontana Village, and to visit the hospitable homes of two Berea students: Dare i Bumgarner and Pat Smathers. I should say, in brief, that the mountian square dance in the tourist areas is losing something of its distinctive charm, a factor being the inability of the tourist to follow the old maxim: "when in Rome do as the Romans do. " It would seem too that vacation leaders and square dance callers in these areas should be alert to guide tourists into an appreciation of native folk arts. The Craftsman's Fair as usual was an oasis of beauty. One has previously said so much about this, however, that it would seem superfluous to dwell upon the high quality of the craftsmanship. It is of great significance to the recreation movement to have folk arts represented. This gives a challenge to those who cooperate with the Fair Committee to portray them on the same high level that is maintained for the crafts. The Asheville Square Dance Festival will be visited in a few days. These lines, however, must be sent on their way to make a deadline.. The Asheville Festival will be the subject of a later article. Sincerely, Frank Smith - .~.:w. 23 TRAINING FOR RURAL TEACHERS, OTHER RECREATIONAL LEADERS AT CHRISTMAS SCHOOL THIS IS THE STORY of a young teacher and her first rural school. She took a one-room school that for several years had been at a low ebb. Teachers had come and gone; some had been too old; none had been really concerned about anything except "books. " The children had gotten out of hand; parents had little hope that the new teacher would do any better. In a few months after the new teacher went to the school, the children were a band of enthusiasts. The young teacher had found it a struggle, but in the end she won. She did so many new things with the children that they were captivated. They had a school paper, new games for the playground and for rainy days, a wonderful Thanksgiving puppet-play, new songs, picnics in the woods, and a story hour every Friday. I On the practical side, it is true that the teacher was the eldest in a family of ten children, and before she went to college had acquired the know-how for handling small children. While in college, however, she had wisely selected some elective courses in recreation; she had learned recreational skills and the possibilities of creative play. This made the difference! l UNFORTUNATELY, NOT ALL teachers go out so well-equipped but those who feel the need of this type of training will have an opportunity to receive it at the Christmas Country Dance School at Berea College this year. There will be a special unit for them within the-framework of the general program. This unit for rural teachers will include training in storytelling, the making and manipulating of puppets, singing games, informal dramatics, song leading, folk dancing and discussions of problems of special concern to the rural elementary teacher. The Christmas School this year will be held at Berea College, Dec. 27-Jan, 3, and is open to anyone who leads recreation or who is interested in learning new material and methods. The program includes three folk traditions: American, English and Danish. Teachers, students, agricultural extension workers, ministers, social workers and recreational leaders come to it from many parts of the United States, and it is an inspiration to meet i them. Persons interested in attending may write for full particulars `Ã¢â‚¬Å¾i to: Frank Smith, Box 1826, College Station, Berea, Ky. , or to The Council of Southern Mountain Workers, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. ##### 25 We have heard many parents and teachers in rural areas bemoan the fact that their children have so little play equipment. This is the second of a series of articles showing how equipment can be made from readily available material. Equipment for School and Playground Bard McAllister IN SEARCHING for equipment that is both inexpensive and readily available to the average rural school or playground in our ores, we have set certain standards: We want equipment which is truly educational-that is, equipment which teaches the child new skills in a progression of motor and emotional development. The equipment must appeal to the child--he must derive fun and excitement from the It must be simple in construction so that the teacher and children can construct it. (If they can, anybody cant) Its construction must be economical and 'insofar as possible the materials must be easily acquired from the economy of the country. And most important of all, it must be safe. RY safe we mean that the gadget itself will not get out of order and cause injury to the child. We would not eliminate devices, the improper use of which might cause an injury. On the basis of these standards we come up with the following list of playground equipment: FELLED TREE. Fell a sizeable and well branched tree, carefully trim the densest branches and those under 1Y,"'in diameter, drag to desired location. This is number one on the children's hit parade of playground equipment. 26 PLAYGROUND EQUIPMBVT SAND BOX. Clear the school yard of objectionable stones by the game method; i.e., throwing, rolling and he-man-ing them to the desired location. Build a stone corral about a foot or more high and fill with sand to suitable depth. TUMVELS AND FORTS AND THINGS. Talk the county road commissioner into giving the school six or eight large concrete culverts. Arrange them to best advantage in accordance with the topography of the playground, and mount them in concrete footings(a necessary safety factor). If concrete culverts are not obtainable, oil drums with both ends cut out may substitute. Oil drums are more trouble to prepare. They must be thoroughly cleaned of rust and any foreign matters which remain after use. Close examination is required to remove any jagged edges or steel splinters. Several coats of paint are required to preserve them outof-doors. They also roll and tip 1 more easily than do, the concrete 41/ culverts. PL.4YQ?OUIVD A bunch of two and heavier stock over large sixes stones make ul Ju s !!1!!!!!!1!!!!!!!!!1!!1!1! mp o derf ing bo ard w They also made ramps and teters over culverts. In addition to the above, get the following raw materials for play: 4)" toe A load of slabs from the local saw mill. _, i"% Hammers, saws shovels, picks: just ask the kids and they will complete the list. Junk car! Talk one of the patron leaving his old car on the school grown heap---where it won't matter. s d Collection of tin cans! of the school into rather than rolling it over the embankment along the road. Make it safe by taking out the battery, if it has one, checking on broken glass, nailing down sharp metal edges. If you can find some old paint, let the kids take out their artistic urges on the junk 28 -PLAYGROUND EQUIPMENT - Fall flowering seeds to a~ a plant in the spring ,,t. \ q la p 1 d ~iy :a, ~ ~1~ vW." ~~ /~ ~5---- _ . ~/~ 1~ ...ropes. You see, these things don't look much like playground equipment so teachers and parents cannot understand, but children do. ##### (((((THE AUTHOR: BARD MCALLISTER IS RECREATIONAL DIRECTOR IN CARROLL COUNTY,GEORGIA. ALL OF THE ABOVE SUGGESTIONS ARE " CHILD TESTED" IN THE SCHOOLS AND PLAYGROUNDS AROUND CARROLLTON. THE ARTIST: ALL DRAWINGS ARE BV MRS. BURTON ROGERS. PINE MOUNTAIN. KENTUCKY, OUR STAFF ARTIST. )))J) GUILD MEETS OCTOBER 10 AT NORRIS ------------------------------- THE FALL MEETING of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild will be held on Saturday, October 10, at Norris Park, Norris, Tenn. Those seeking membership in the Guild should submit samples of their work in advance. All members and friends of the Guild are invited to attend the open meetings at Norris. For further information, write Louise Pitman, 8'/ Wall St., Asheville, N. C. CRAFT SUPPLIES Free Price List Sent on Request Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Prompt Mail Service TFNNESSFE CRAFTSMEN Att: Ronald Slayton 2006 Sutherland Ave. Knoxville, Tennessee LEONARD ROBERTS SHARES WITH US... 2 9 This is the so-called "Bear's Son " story, thought to have been used by the author of Beowulf a good thousand years ago. It has made other Scandinavian appearances along the centuries, and was brought to America by all comers, now having been reported in at least fifty versions. A good parallel or two may be seen in Campbell, Popular Tales of the West Highlands, nos. 16 and 57, in two or three Irish collections, and in Chase, The Jack Tales, No. 12, "Old Fire Dragaman." This story is written just as it was told by Don Saylor, Bledsoe, Leslie County, Kentucky. DI RTYBEARD HEY WAS THREE .ADVINTUREItS went out to explore--just to set what they could find in the world. Tom, Bill and Jack were their names. Well, they come to a land. It was unknown. Nobody lived there or anything--they couldn't find anybody. Two of them would go out and work--take turns. Well, one day Tom and Jack was out working and left Bill home to get dinner for 'em. And about the time Bill got dinner ready, he heard somebody knock. He went to the door and it was an old man there with a big beard come down about his stummick. He went in and asked him, says, "How long will it be till dinner's ready?" Bill said, "Oh, I just like goin' out and pickin' up a load of chips," and Bill said, " Do you want to go out and help me pick . em up?" Old man said, " No, I'll just wait for you." So Bill went and picked his load of chips up and come back in, and seen this old man goin'with his hat down the hill and all of their dinner in it. Well, the boys come home to dinner and he told them about it. Well, it come Tom's time to stay home and cook dinner. And he said, " I'll get him this time. I'll make shore he goes out with me." So he gets dinner about ready and this old man comes and knocks, and he goes to the door and there he is. He asks how long it is till dinner, and he says, " Oh, just like goin' out and pickin' up a load of chips," and he says, " You come out with me. I want to get a whole lot." Old man says, " No," says,` "I' 11 just wait in here." Tom just had to give up--this man wouldn't go with him. Well, he done the same thing--he run off with their dinner again. 30 IRTYBEnRDWell, it come Jack's time the third day. And he says, " I'll shore not be tricked by him." Says, " I'll fix him up good and proper." So he goes out and splits him a log open and puts some gluts in it, to hold it apart. He goes in and gets dinner--gets it about ready and this old man comes in and he says, " How long is it till dinner?" " Oh," he says, " I gust like goin' out and pickin' up a load of chips." Says, " You got to go with me." They argue around for a long time, and finally this old man goes with him. Well, this old man 1. would pick up chips around the log where them gluts was in there holding the log apart. This old Dirtybeard got his beard in the split and Jack he pulls . -. , ,~ `~; ~,~i them gluts out of the log and ~~ - j catches him. - ~l. Then he tugs b _ around while ~ ~~' .' ~~ Jack goes on and gets dinner. He tugs around, the old man, and gets loose. The boys come home for dinner. They eat and talk about it and say, " Well, we're going to follow him." Well, they saw the blood in the sand. They went a long ways and finally they come to the ending and they was a big hole in the ground there. Jack says, " I' 11 go down first." And they say, " 0. K. ", the boys did. He goes down and there sets that old beardy man with a razor. He says, "I'm going to cut your head off." And Jack says, " Well, I don't want to be killed with no dull razor. Let me look at your razor. I want to make shore it's sharp." And he says, " 0. K. " 4j He hands Jack the razor and Jack cut his head off down in the hole, and Jack ,hollers to Toro and Bill up above and says, " Come on down." They come down. They's all kinds of meat and things, and all 31 --yIRTYBF.n,FtD kinds of stuff to eat down there. .And three pretty girls down in there too. He says, "Well,, we'll take these girls back when we go. .. Tom and Bill they got out. They climb up on Jack's shoulders and got out. And Jack, he caa' t .get out, he is left down in there. They get his girl out and take her on bask home with them. Well, he stayed down in there, and they's a hawk flew down in there, and Jack asked him, says, "Can you fly out with me?" Says, " I'll s give you all the meat you can eat if you can." And he eat so much meat that he couldn't fly out with him.He says, "Well, I gust can't do it." And Jack stayed a day or two longer, and they's a big eagle~flew in. And he says, "I'll give you all the meat you can eat." Well, this time he eat the meat afterwards. So he flew out with Jack, and he gave him all the meat he could eat. Jack hit out for e home. When he got there Tom and Bill had picked out two of the purtiest girls and married them. So Jack had to take what was left over. And he got married too, and they settled down and lived happy ever after. ##### --Ã¢â‚¬Â¢LEONARD ROBERTS. PINE MOUNTAIN. KY. WORKSHIP STUDENT AVAILABLE SYLVIA CARSTENS, the Smith Workship student in recreation, is available to help in recreation in a number of selected communities where a beginning worker might be valuable. She has some time available during the winter and spring. Communities requesting her services are asked to provide travel and maintenance while she is in the community. ~J If you are interested in having Miss Carstens in your community, write immediately to the Council Office, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. LOG CABIN Little-bitty . . . . . hit mought so be, `,, But it doesn't look that-away to me: Ever' log in it once a tree That aimed at the sky; the chimley-herth Once a piece of the living earth And old Kentuck; and shutter and sill Puncheons, ruf-boards, or what ye will, Hewed and rived by my pap's pap When he was young and full of sap. There's Coy's fiddle--I tell ye what!-Mammy's churn, and the big black pot For Monday wash; and the shot-gun thar Over the door, that's kilt a bar; 1.04 Porch out front, and a picket gate With flowers a-blowin early and late-Why, ever 'one of em's dear, so dear, If I'd done been in Heaven a year I'd still want out, to get hack here. -_-DCWA READ GOODALE 33 What changes are taking place in the isolated rural communities of the Southern Highlands? In this article, Dr. Giffin gives the results of a study of one such community:.. Down in the Valley ROSCOE GIFFIN ( PART TWO) FAMILY GROUPS IN THE FIRST ARTICLE in this series, we considered in some detail the characteristics of a community of 631 people living in one consolidated school district in the mountainous part of Kentucky, as derived from a socio-economic survey made during the summer of 1950. Although both useful and interesting information may be obtained from a study of the populace as a whole, the picture may be far from social reality since the great majority of people do not live alone as isolated persons, nor do they live as a population mass. They live in households of various sizes and types and with a diversity of characteristics. These households are the social entities which contain the principal patterns of living'that give each society its distinguishing characteristics. Parents act as the agents of the society in transmitting to their children those ways of living which are its cherished customs. Informal friendship groups, the school and the church perform a similar function, but in our society the basic cultural impress is made by the family or household unit. In the following article, the households will be described with regard to type, sources of income, and levels of living. In a concluding article, attitudes and values will be described, along 3 4 -APPALACHIA TODAY with the role of religion in shaping the culture of these people. " Howdy! Come and set awhile." In making the survey, we were almost invariably greeted with a `~ hospitable, " Howdyt Come and set awhile," as we approached each household, whether we were up in some remote cove or along the main valley. Contrary to some of our early misgivings about the willingness of the people to answer our many, and sometimes quite personal questions, we usually found that our major problem was trying to break off the interview so that we might go on to the j next house. MOST OF US, in thinking about a family household, would cast our mental image in terms of parents and children. But the makeup of households is far too varied to fit into such a simple model, although over 60 per cent of the families studied consisted of husband, wife and one or more children. Family units ranged in size from three to thirteen persons. 1111 Another 12 per cent were composed of husband, wife, children and some other person(s), usually~a relative. Husband and wife alone accounted for 10 per cent of the cases, and a few others included some other person living with a childless couple. Over 12 per cent of the households (15) were headed by women without any male companion. In only three of these were no children present as a ', responsibility of the woman. Families which had been broken by death, desertion or divorce constituted only 13 per cent of the I total. " My husband works for ' Had I been more familiar with the economy of the hills, it would not have come as such a surprise to discover that only three households out of the 121 claimed farming as the primary source of cash income. In three other cases, farming was one of two major sources of cash. The reliance on non-farm employment in an area at a considerable distance from an urban center, to say the least, is a bit unexpected. This pattern is a consequence of the increased pressure on resources for living which, as was shown in my previous article, is an unavoidable consequence of the high birth rate and the limited amount of land for cultivation. Only about 450 acres were being cultivated at the time of this survey and in most cases the scale of operations was very small, usually not more than a - large garden. Since the setting of.this study is in the mountains of Kentucky, work associated with the lumber and coal mining industries was primary, employing more than 60 per cent of the workers. - -APPALACHIA TODAY 35 Of these two industries, lumber involved 41 men and coal 20. Next to these, but only nine in number, were those employed in some aspect of distribution, such as trucking, wholesaling and retail ing. To conclude the list of employed persons: four were in con struction work, and a group of 11 relied upon at least two major occupations, involving a wide variety of combinations. For most elderly persons and female heads of households, cash ' income had to come from some source other than employment. And in this age of loosening family responsibilities, children and relatives are usually conspicuous by their absence as providers for the unemployable. There were seven cases of households with male heads dependent upon public assistance and 14 with female head relying upon a similar source of income. The cash income available in these cases leaves one wondering how they manage and what pressing needs must go unmet. The median ze income for households with retired male heads was $750 annually; in those with female heads, the median was but $490. nd " We raise a few pigs every year. " Despite the fact that the households of this district are no longer part of an economy of self-sufficiency, they yet depend t ~.~ heavily upon home production to supplement the earnings in "public ~,~ works" or public assistance. Certainly this would be true in more marked degree than in an urban setting, even though these people are no longer basically agriculturalists. Much of the income which is home-produced is extremely difficult to estimate from a dollar and cents point of view. Even that production which is easily observed is difficult of measurement. But to get at least a rough estimate of the importance of this source of income, the interviewers inquired into the amounts produced of meat, fresh and canned fruits and vegetables, milk and dairy products, and eggs. Coal and wood obtained from the land were also included. These quantities were then stated in dollar valuations by the use of market price multipliers. To the total of these values was added an estimate of the rental value of a house owned by the occupants. The estimates ranged all the way from no home production of the type we sought to measure, up to several cases in excess of $2000. Home production and cash income are closely associated in that low values of each tend to occur together in the same households, ~ with the same being true at the other end of the scale: high home production and wages go together. Verily it can be said: y" " To him who hath shall be given." Economists often explain income as the result of the input of land, capital and labor, and in this study these factors were 37 IIPPALAMIA TODAY found to be definitely related to the value of home production. Since space does not allow presentation of the details, summary assertions only will be made. Among the households which cultivated less than one acre, the median value of home production was only $440. With further increases in the acreage, the value also increased and reached a maximum median of $1190 for those cultivating over 10 acres. The principal measures of capital used were various forms of livestock which showed a distinct tendency to be present in greater numbers among households of above average value of home production. Since hogs are a major source of meat among these people, they figured prominently as a form of consumer's capital. Households of a large size both cause a demand for home production and make possible a labor supply for its production. Thus it is not surprising that a rather steady increase in production was noted as attention moves from the smallest to the largest households. " We don't have much, but you're welcome..." In contemporary America the level of living of a family is usually thought to consist of the quantity of goods and services which are available to it either through home production or purchase. Although we all realize that there are other elements in life than goods and services, such as " We like it here 'cause it's peaceful and quiet, " the measures of the level of living I have used are entirely materialistic or monetary. For any family this level is dependent on the toal amount of income available to it, either as cash or home produce, and the number of persons with whom the income must be shared. As measured by urban standards, in particular, the cash income situation of these households leans heavily to the lower ranges. The median income of the data in Table 1 is but $1660. This means that for the year ending in July, 1950, one-half of the households for which information was available received less than the sixteen hundred dollar figure. Table 1 HOUSEHOLDS BY AMOUNT OF CASH INCOME LEVEL of UNDER $600. $1500. $2500. $4000. No TOTAL INCOME $600 1499 2499 3999 AND UP INFO. NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS 18 30 44 14 4 11 121 The distinct difference between the cash earning power of these households and those of the rest of the nation is indicated by the fact that for 1950 Federal Reserve Board studies showed a national median of around $30001 38 APPALACHIA TODAY Households in the Southern Appalachians generally contain more persons than is true of most of the rest of the U. S. With this and the preceding information regarding cash income in mind, it is obvious that the level of living available to individuals must necessarily be much lower than for most other members of the U. S. population. At the rate at which the national economy has been turning out cash income in recent years, the amount per person has been well over $1000. But for the people of this school district at the time of this study, the per capita figure was approximately $330. The relationship between the number of occupants and the cash income available per person for various size households appears graphically in the chart below. From a maximum of $640 for the twoperson households, the per capita figures fall rather precipitously to $150 for the single case of 13 persons. For those households of six persons and less, the per capita income is at least $300. For those of seven and more persons the income available per person is generally less than $200. Chart 1 INCOhE PER PERSON 8Y SIZE OF HOUSEHOLD. Size CASH INCOME PER PERSON IN DOLLARS 0 1 0 290 30 4 0 59C 0 1 xxf 2 xxxxxxxxxxx-xxx-x:;xXXYyÃ¢â‚¬Å¾LX.'.,~~,:3t.XYXX:sXr.x i, 5:?:%Xa.XX.Xxx 3 F.xxxxxxxxx-r-xxxxxxx X_lxxxxxxxxxxxx 4 x -Xx.xxxxxxxxxxx_xxxxxxx-rxxxx_xxxxx~,xxxxx 5 xxxXXXxxxXXxxxzxXxxxxXXx~:xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx~,~-, 7 xxyrlu-~xxxxy S xXxxXxXx-xxxxT O XXXXxxxxxxxx 10 xXxX --x_7cxXXxxxxxXXX 11 xXxrxx~_xxxxxX 13 xxxxxxx~ Fill I xxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.;: 'There were no households of 12 occupants. 39 -APPALACHIA TODAY Since a graph must of necessity be relatively simple if it is to convey its message, it has not been possible to include such added information as the~,number of households of the various sizes nor the total number of people residing in them. Due to the fact that there are not equal numbers of households of each size, it is worthwhile to add a few other comments. Although the larger households, such as those of seven and more, are not particularly numerous, they do contain nearly half the population. In relation to available income, this means that some 48 per cent of the persons are living on a per capita income that is generally under $200 per year. In a predominately cash economy, this is hardly a handsome figure. Another view of the situation: The 35 households of seven and y more persons commanded but 29 per cent of the estimated cash income of the district. The other side of this picture is a bit more pleasant, of course: The other 332 persons lived in the 86 house holds of six persons and less, and received 71 per cent of the income. And in all these cases the per capita income ranged up wards from $300 to a maximum of $640. " We grow our own..." Although nearly all of these households depend upon home production to supplement cash income, the actual ammounts are distinctly limited by the leak of agricultural resources and the fact that most of the men are employed at other tasks. Nevertheless, the median value of home production was $?55, with a heavy concentration of the cases in the range of $500 to $1250. Just as the levels of cash income are decidedly less than those of urban areas, so the levels of home production are undoubtedly much higher than those of city people. Again we find that the size of household has a marked influence on the extent to which.the level of living was increased by such production. Even though the larger households had consistently more home production than those with a smaller number of occupants, domestic production did not increase in the same proportions as the increase in size. Consequently, the households with over eight persons, as a rule, produced goods and services valued at under $100 per person as compared with well over $200 per person for those with three persons or less. Regardless of the amount of statistical data which is presented 1(/,r ~ to describe the material aspects of the level of living, the picture can never be made complete. In fact, words can hardly substitute for the feeling which one gets about the levels achieved by some of these people when he actually visits in their homes. I have had some personal experience working in urban slums, 40 APP.4L~4CHIA TODAY but I do not believe I have ever encountered such inadequacies of housing and equipment as we found in an unpleasantly large number of these households, while others were marked by surprisingly good equipment and adequacy of size. These latter few, however, are not sufficient to wipe away the memory of the grinding poverty which is the lot of so many where there is so little to go around. On the other hand, from the view of the problem of social organization, I shall probably be forever awed by the achievement of social order that is represented by ten persons living in a two room house, sleeping in four beds in one room, and the beds always made up neatly at any time of the day. This is an achievement which does not enter into the measures of the level of living I have used, but is nevertheless an accomplishment which merits in the eyes of this writer a mark of high praise. One closing observation regarding a relation which has interested me very much is that high and low amounts of cash are usually found in correlation with high and low amounts of home production. Where the median value of~home production was less than $600, cash income was but $500; for those with $4000 and over of cash income, the home production median was $1170. It is obvious, then, that in this rural environment cash income is not a substitute for home production at the higher levels, as appears to be true of urban conditions. Rather, home production tends to supplement cash income and in increasing amounts as cash income increases. These data suggest a rather important conclusion for those interested in the development of areas similar to this one: the resources of knowledge, energy and capital necessary to achieve a given level either of home production or cash income are essentially the same. ##### ( THIS IS THE SECOND OF THREE ARTICLES BY DR. GIFFIN.) .~R COVER . . . f UFAWWMENIM The cover picture this time was taken by Charles W. Turner I for Save the Children Federation at one of their sponsored schools, Prospect School, Hancock County, Tennessee. (See page 12 of our last issue..) F v, The thing that struck us about the picture was the complete absorption of the boys in their game. It was so complete, in I fact. that they failed to notice the impish angel in the background who is holding the net down so that he teammates can return the 6a11! VJ, Farms Continue To Be Small I n Appalachian Region 41 THE APPALACHIAN REGION is the only one in the nation where the average size of farms did not increase between 1920 and 1950 according to census of agricultural data just released. Both the Delta and the Southeast regions, where the average size of farms in 1920 was smaller than the-average in the Appalachian region, now show averages larger than those for the mountain region. The highland area now has nearly a fifth of all the farms in the United States, but only about 7 per cent of all the farm land in the nation. Two factors operate to prevent these figures being completely CHANGES IN FARM SIZE, BY REGIONS, 1920 TO 1950 ~FiqurH ever burs rePresenl overage e reoqs perform, f6ut11NÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ ! ~ mio ivso ',, P~elne CENSUS Of U. f. AViRAOf 'U"C'LlUfff DATA U, t DEPARTMENT Of AGRICULTURE NEC. Ittft-f*IURGU Of AGRICUL111RA1tC0110Y1te authentic, however. One is the way the census is taken. If a farmer owns 120 acres and works it with three sharecroppers, the Census Bureau may count it as three farms of 40 acres each. The other factor is that the Bureau uses the entire states of Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Virginia in its designation of the "Appalachian Area." Until the figures can be broken down by "IMP' counties, however, the above figures can be accepted as being of the right magnitude. The growth of small part-time and residential farms surrounding industrial developments is listed as one reason for the continuing small size of highland farms. ##### 42 In our last issue John Parris told about the history and development of the Cherokee Drama, UNTO THESE HILLS. In the article below, Kermit Hunter, author of the drama, tells of the many desirable results that have taken o place off the stage. Mr. Hunter has not only written the Cherokee play, a but numbers pageants about Daniel Boone and Abe Lincoln among his other works, p a ANOTHER VIEW OF ,~ y #ills p Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã¢â‚¬Å¾, KERMIT HUNTER _ ~~~~~ H to THE GENERAL PUBLIC, without knowing anything of the a years of struggle and hard work which went into the fr Cherokee drama, UNTO THESE HILLS, is apt to measure the e success of the production in terms of the crowds at the box office, ac The real success of the play lies, however, in other factors. The tr~ financial strain of the opening weeks of 1950 has been eased, of as course, and the Cheorkee Historical Association is glad that the .I,1 play can operate "in the black, 11 but it is even more proud of bu some other things--factors which have to do with permanent m values and lasting contributions, of In the first place, there is coming into being in the United h States a different attitude regarding the American Indian. As late s as 1950 no such attitude existed, but during the past three years there has been growing up in American movies, in fiction, in on newspapers, and in our general approach to the Indians, a much oft more tolerant and appreciative attitude. It is no exaggeration to ati say that much of this attitude is a result of the production at as Cherokee, because UNTO THESE HILLS has been discussed in ply all parts of the country, even in congressional committees about im Washington. Telling the truth about at least one portion of the do American Indians has had a tendency to inspire a more forthright No and common-sense approach in other parts of the United States. ac The Cherokee drama does not propose any solution to any problem, the but it does urge that all men live together m peace and under- to standing. FROM THE STANDPOINT of financial return, the production at Cherokee has meant new life to the tourist business in western fog North Carolina. All the tourist facilities within fifty miles of pe Cherokee have been affected sharply by the presence of the drama. TI Telephone facilities, power lines, and public highways--all these 1 1. have been gradually improved as the demand became more insist ent for facilities to care for the Cherokee production. Chambers the Reprinted from the FARMERS FEDERATION NEWS, 131 Roberts,St., Asheville,N.C. pe 43 ________CHEROKEE DRAMA-_______-_______________________ of Commerce estimate that each tourist who stays overnight in an area will spend about $15, When one considers that some 400, 000 people have seen UNTO THESE HILLS during its three seasons, and that at least one spectator in four is a tourist spending the night in the area, one can understand why the Cherokee drama is N%Wa major industry. THE PRODUCTION now furnishes jobs to scores of Cherokee, provides the teaching of drama in the Indian school, provides a scholarship to an outstanding student each year to college, and engages in numerous other activities designed to help the Cherokee. However, it performs another function which many people are apt to overlook--helping to bridge the great gap between the university and Broadway for young actors, technicians, and drama students from various parts of the South. Nowhere else in America, except in North Carolina, can a college student or an amateur actor in community theatre find a chance to get a summer of good training and be paid a salary at the same time, to such a degree as he can in the various North Carolina dramas, of which UNTO THESE HILLS is the largest. No one can measure the real contribution which UNTO THESE HILLS and the outdoor dramas are making to the American theatre, but summer after summer hundreds of people find good dramatic training under excellent conditions. The great distance between Broadway and the university campus his being shortened by these productions. Perhaps the most important factor in the Cherokee productionÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ one which is often completely forgotten in the great talk of box office figures and historical pageantry, is the important consideration of the theatre being taken back to the people. At Cherokee, as in.other places, a group of ordinary businessmen conceived, planned and carried out the whole production--not theatrical impressarios or Broadway producers, but merchants, lawyers, doctors, and everyday citizens fromrhe cities andtowns of western North Carolina. By the same token,, most of the staff and the acting personnel are non-professional people who have taken into Ã‚Â°'the organization of UNTO THESE HILLS and trained on the spot to handle various jobs. THE THEATRE has for centuries been a means of expression for the people. In ancient Greece it sprang out of the need of the people for saying their beliefs and ideals, expressing themselves. 3'The same fundamental need was back of the old English morality splays of the 15th and 16th centuries. The whole tradition of the theatre as an art form has been the expression of the manners, the beliefs, the customs, the ideals, and the aspirations of the people themselves. The,modern era has seen so much ' Durir _ 44 ____CHEROKEE DRAMA--____________________-__________ Are commercialization through movies, radio, television, and even By rn Broadway productions, that the theatre is in danger of losing its Wi primary place in the realm of art, u~ The outdoor drama, of which UNTO THESE HILLS is an out standing a- example, is one of the best answers to this situation, ~ toy The association which produces the play is dedicated above all lnb a s to "perpetuating the history and traditions of the Cherokee T Indians, 11 just as the sponsoring organizations at Manteo, Wat Asheville, and Boone, N, C, , are devoted first of all to some reenina m civic, non-profit purpose. This means that the play itself will always be non-commercial, that it will be held to a high artis- CH tic standard, and that the moral tone of the production will be high. It means that the people back of the production are not concerned with filling their own pockets, since not one person in Pub the Cherokee Historical Association realizes one penny from the are production. And above all it means that the theatre in America stc is receiving a substantial boost, that drama is getting back into t e: the hands of the people, where the highest ideals and the cleanest ex( ', aspirations of mankind can be expressed clearly and simply, without embarrassment or sophistication. UNTO THESE HILLS re: is indeed theatre of and for the people. pr( tic ~/ inl ,' 13: i OUR READERS WRITE i To the Editor: In renewing my subscription to Mountain Life and Work, I would like to tell you how much my husband and I look forward to each by issue of your splendid publicatoin, ca: It is always attractive and brimming with stimulating articles and information which cannot be found elsewhere. Ju~ We were introduced to it by our good friend, the Frank Smiths mop and the Jethro Amburgeys of Hindman--and with each issue, we are again grateful to them. em We hope you will continue to include the traditional tales, songs it and dances in the magazine. You are performing a valuable al service for us "outlanders", be, Many thanks and our very good wishes for a successful future. Sincerely, ~~ 0' ha Mrs. Viven Richman 6628 Jackson St. Pittsburgh 6, Pa. pa be so th During .Storm BY TM Associated Press, Lexington, Ky., June 10.-Wilma Jean Reams of the Hazel -- Are Reported Green Club in Laurel County today won a, public-speaking BY The Associated Press contest for girls at 4-H Club Week at the University of Kentucky. , Wi will receive a trip to the National 4-H xt November. _ nu IN THE NEWS... public to( ay Cash, shall, McCracken; Donald Melton, in b A Resume of Current Articles and Books Sanders, Taylor, and Yelton Poe, Mason. a s Dealing With Our Area and Its People o John- Agricultural d e m o n stration T tapleton, teams in action today were from Wat hio, and Lawrence, Mason, Warren, Mull. reeninK m par a car owne a rn, , e. lenberg, Owen, Pulaski, and 15a CHEROKEE INDIANS FARMERS FEDERATION NEWS for July, 1953, in published a Cherokee Indies Special. Of particular interest were e articles by Kermit Hunter, John Parris and Morris McGough. The s story by Hunter is reprinted in this issue of MLdW, Parris tells how the Cherokee language is almost a forgotten memory :st except for a handful of older Indians who still speak it. McGough tells the story of how the five communities on the 'S reservation have organized into community clubs, and what progress has been made in community development in a very short time through these organizations. Farmers Federation News is certainly one of the most interest ing of the regional farm papers. Write for a sample copy at 131 Roberts St., Asheville, N. C. Wildest Spot in the Mountains . . . The Atlanta Journal and.Conatttultoo \Iaeazfne carried a story about Linville ould urge in western North Carolina in its August 2 issue. Written by Erwin A. Heers of the U. S. E'orest Service, the article is called Linville Gorge Defies Civilization. Heers tells how the Gorge was designated as a "wild area" just two years ago, and of how the 7,400 acres of primitive the mountain land will be kept that way by the Fbrest Service. e Linville is in the Pisgah National Fbrest and is 42 miles east of Asheville. The wildest spot east of the Mississippi ngs it was supposedly visited first by DeSoto among the whites although it was used as a hunting ground by the Indians long before that. Although the river that runs through the bottom of the Gorge is only 14 miles long, very few men now living have ever made the trip. It is possible to drive to the edge of the area, but only paths actually go into the wilderness. Fortunately the Gorge has been so isolated that it has never known the lumberman's ax, and so it still exists as a virgin forest. The article is illustrated with colored pictures showing the wild beauty of the Gorge as well as some of the plants that grow there. 46 , IN THE NEffS - EDUCATION THE SATURDAY EVENING POST of May 2 carried a story about Berea College and its program of helping deserving students get an education whether or not they have any cash at all. Written by Henry and Katharine Pringle, the story tells about the early days in Berea when students sometime came to college to stay out of fueds, and how the students have changed as the mountains have. The Pringles have caught an understanding that some writers about the area have not: that the average mountain youngster of today is remarkably like any other young American, except that he is probably more used to work and slighted less corrupted by commercialized negativisms. Given an opportunity, he takes his rightful place in our society. The title of the article is The School Where Nobody Loafs. The authors fail in only one place to give a clear picture of the school where every student must work at least two hours a day outside his studies. This omission is that Berea is again interracial, as of three years ago, following the amending of the Day Law, which had prevented inter-racial education in Kentucky for half a century., YOUR HELP Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ One of the needs of our area is cm understanding of what is happening, and what is being written about it. We hope that this brief resume of current articles will be of help in keeping up with contemporary events. However, we need your help, for we cannot be sure of finding a_11 the articles about the Southern Mountains, especially in local or technical publications. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Will you help us by sending us copies of articles about the Mountains, being sure that the date and publication name are attached, so that we may tell others about them? Many thanks! Staff Needs 47 (((((((((((((The Council of Southern Mountain Workers gives assistance in discovering, for institutions and programs, trained workers who have a t genuine desire to serve where they are most needed. The Council also endeavors to provide the names and brief data about people who are seeking such opportunities. Y Such an exchange of information about program needs and available ut personnel will be publicized in this magazine whenever possible, free of charge. While the Council endeavors to use discretion in this publicity, it cannot imply more than the bare facts herein stated. Investigation of individual qualifications and evaluation of recommendations must be considered the responsibility of those who find this service of help in their search. by Some of these positions may have been filled by the time you read this but at press time the following places were open: DOCTOR AND NURSE NEEDED AT PINE MOUNTAIN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL HOSPITAL. PINE MOUNTAIN, KY. WRITE MR. BURTON ROGERS, DIRECTOR. the DIETICIAN AND TEACHER OF PRACTICAL HOMEMAKING NEEDED AT THE JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL, BRASSTOWN, N.C. WRITE TO MR. GEORG BIDSTRUP, DIRECTOR. ter RESIDENT NURSE NEED AT HIND MAN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL. HIND MAN, KY. WRITE Day MISS ELIZABETH WATTS. r LIBRARIAN. CLASSROOM TEACHER AND OFFICE MANAGER. OR COMBINATION, AT LOTTS CREEK SCHOOL. CORD IA, KY. ALSO NEEDED A MATURE. CAPABLE WOMAN TO SUPERVISE GIRLS AND GIRLS WORK. TEACHING EXPERIENCE PREFERRED BUT NOT NECESSARY. WRITE MISS ALICE H. SLOANE. HOME ECONOMICS TEACHER NEEDED IMMEDIATELY AT ANNVILLE INSTITUTE, ANNVILLE, KY. WRITE MR. ALFRED OPPENEER. VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND SHOP TEACHER, ART TEACHER, AND FARM 1S MANAGER AND HERDSMAN NEEDED AT PITTMAN COMMUNITY CENTER, SEVIERVILLE. TENNESSEE. an1IOC TEACHER OF SECRETARIAL ARTS NEEDED AT SALEM COLLEGE. SALEM, W. VA. WRITE nS, DR. K. DUANE HURLEY, PRESIDENT. CRAFT WORKER FOR EVANGELICAL UNITED BRETHREN COMMUNITY CENTER AT BARNETT CREEK. COLUMBIA. KY. WRITE DR. U. P. HOVER MALE, 1426 U. B. BLDGÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ DAYTON 2, OHIO. MUSIC TEACHER. SCIENCE AND HISTORY TEACHER. HELP WITH BIBLE IF PREPARED. AT GLADE VALLEY SCHOOL. GLADE VALLEY. N. C. E. B. ELDREIGE. SUPT. BY REQUEST, THE COUNCIL MAY SUGGEST APPLICANTS FOR POINT FOUR APPOINTMENTS AND OTHER FOREIGN SERVICE. IF YOU ARE NOW QUALIFIED AND ARE INTERESTED IN THIS WORK, OR EXPECT TO BE IN THE FUTURE. WRITE THE COUNCIL OFFICE TWO STAFF MEMBERS NEEDED FOR THE COUNCIL: t. PERSON TRAINED IN RECREATION TO TAKE POSITION OF ITINERANT RECREATION LEADER FOR THE COUNCIL: 2. OFFICE MANAGER EXPERIENCED IN DICTATION. TYPING FILING AND SUPERVISION OF OFFICE PERSONNEL. WRITE P. F. AYER.. BOX 2000, COLLEGE STATION. BEREA. KY. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below, and send with $1.00 to the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, Box 2000, College Station, Berea. Kentucky. NAME Active individual membership Supporting membership Sustaining membership Institutional membership --Subscription to M.L.d W, included in all memberships I do not wish to join or subscribe at the moment, but I do wish to be kept informed about the program of the Council $ 3.00 to 4.00 _ 5.09 to 24.00_ 25.00 or more _ 5.00 or more Additional questions end comments (Please detach and mail to Box 2000, Berea College, Berea, Ky.) THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN RORKF.RS works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian Region with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help solve some of the peculiar educational, social, spiritual and cultural needs of this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and 6y means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. -Participation is invited on the above bases 4,h u. Isr . 6Prs 1 I9Svi Sl!P ~PO' 2 SUbsc ~a 4 th riprl Ã‚Â°n a 1.9J'.rrn4P U SL_C dAl' d 1952 Is IF THIS CORNER IS OT' TURNED UP, YOUR AFFILIATION IS UP TO DATE! For Members! According to our records, your membership and/or subscription appears to have expired as indicated. We are continuing to send you current issues in the belief that you do not wish us to drop you from our membership. We would appreciate your reaffiliation upon whatever basis you wish.