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Mountain Life & Work vol. 02 no. 2 July, 1926 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv2n20726 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 02 no. 2 July, 1926 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky July, 1926 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume II JULY, 1926 Number II Conference Number Southern Mountain Workers Knoxville, Tennessee "ublishcd (quarterly by Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and nxtual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the Nat2on. INVITATION OME ride the wooded hills with me For siring is in the air. New life is straining at the soil, The trees no more are bare, And there are kin of yours and mine Among the cabins there. They lire so near to us, yet so far. More than a mountain range Divides us, yet our blood is one. We are akin, yet strange. They are the children of the fast, And we, of time and change. W e seek romance on distant shores, W e scatter bounty far, W e deer for signs of brother life Upon a baffling star, While need, romance and brotherhood Here at our threshold are. So travel the dim road with meNew thoughts are stirring there. They hate a need that we may fill, A treasure we may share. Their world is waking like the earthGod's siring is in the air. -Ameba Josephine Bum Delegates at The Southern Mountain Workers' Conference, Knoxville, Tennessee, April 6th to 9th, 1926 SOUTHERN Mountain Life ~ Work Vol II. JULY, 1926 No. II. Helen H. Dingman, Editor Dr. Wm. James Hutchins, Counsellor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson Mrs. John C. Campbell . . . . New York City . West Medford, Mass. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn . . . . . . . . Atlanta, Ga. Hon. W. 0. Saunders . . . . Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. John P. McConnell . . . . East Radford, Va. Dr. E. C. Branson . . . . . . . . Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. John J. Tigert . . . . . . . . Washington, D. C. U. S. Commissioner of Education Issued quarterly-January, April, July, October Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as secondclass mail matter Address all communications to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Berea, Kentucky We feel that the proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of Southern Mountain Workers are so important and worthwhile for those interested in mountain work that we are publishing them in full in one number for the convenience of our readers. With our October issue we shall again return to our regular thirty-two page edition. It is with real regret that Mountain Life and Work loses Dr. Edmund de S. Brunner as one of our contributing editors. Speaking of his resignation in his letter he says, "This in no sense is to be interpreted as any lack of interest on my part in the magazine, which I believe has a real place to fill." Dr. Brunner had so many demands made upon him that he has had to curtail his activi ties. We are sorry we are one of the losers of his valuable service. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn will continue his connection with the magazine which he started by being a contributing editor. From his new experience farther south we are expecting valuable help. SPEAKING OF THE CONFERENCE Barely does the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers close its annual meeting without those who have it especially at heart congratulating themselves with, "This is the best yet." Of the last meeting, however,, the fourteenth in its history, we can say unqualifiedly that it was the best,-"yet". At no conference have the speeches reached down deeper into the heart of rural problems; at none has there been a more broad-minded and courageous facing of the newer and more scientific aspects of the work with which we are at grips. In such a consideration of mountain work, the intimate details of personal experience must be lost except as they enliven round tables or bear upon some point under discussion. On the other hand, the gain of a more comprehensive view of the whole work, a realization of its ramifications, its kinship to social work and social agencies elsewhere, far outbalance the loss. Those of us who live in out-of-theway places are too inclined to regard our general conditions as peculiar, while in the same breath, we describe certain local peculiarities as if they were common to the entire mountain country. That we can, in Knoxville, subordinate for a time our personal prejudices and convictions and try to catch the light of a wider horizon indicates, we believe, real progress-the beginning of a new era in mountain work. What are we trying to do in the mountains, Page 2 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 and by what do we measure our success?these are questions which the mountain worker must ask himself with increasing frequency and earnestness. Dr. Wilson tells us that we ignore the implications of the word "rural," which in its lowest term is "peasant". We have not thought through the economic and social questions of the region in which our work is situated, or the bearing of our work upon those questions. He frankly says that we are sidestepping many important issues which have to do with the survival of mountain life, at least of the stock which settled the mountains. He implies that we are afraid to face them-or perhaps it is that we do not see them. Most troublesorrie and most fundamental is the economic question which drives extr2mists into recommending that the people be moved as rapidly as possible out of coves and remote corners to lands where the returns for labor will be greater. "True enough," Professor McAmis of the University of Tennessee said, "but they. will .not go. The economic problem is one of making a living under existing conditions." To these conditions it was not easy to apply at once Mr. Christensen's remarkably balanced and thoughtful exposition of the economic fundamentals of country life on an international as well as a national scale. But his conclusions that agricultural cooperation is an economic necessity, the greatest returns of which are in intangible things difficult to measure, and that its success depends upon its membership and the ability of that membership to use cooperative machinery, offer the thoughtful man or woman working in the mountain country, food for thought. Perhaps no part of the program showed the need of formulating aims and of the relation of one phase of the work to the whole, more than that centering about fireside industries. What justification have we in reviving these expressions of an outworn economic system unless it is producing something beautiful in itself-as beautiful as the maker can fashion it-something which helps the maker spiritually as well as financially and something which has a market value? Mr. Eaton's talk, which briefly might be called "the social value of beauty", and his contributions to the discussion, tied together convincingly the three important aspects of handwork, craftsmanship, social influence, and economic return. Each involves finally the others. It remains to be seen whether those carrying on mountain industries will grasp their cpmbined significance and strive unitedly to work for their realization. It is difficult for older mountain workers to think of the mountains except in rural terms, but the problems faced by Dr. Tadlock and Mr. Cooper at Blackey, Kentucky, are intensely real ones to many schools in the areas of industrial development. In a strictly rural environment a school may perhaps succeed for a long time pursuing an indifferent and detached course, but it cannot remain indifferent to the pervasive influences of adjacent mining camps and cotton mills. In the same way, as Dr. Steiner pointed out, good roads create conditions which must modify ideas of the community and community work. Mountain work is feeling such changes today. We must face their relation to what we wish to do. Again, what is to be our attitude toward the neglected and dependent child of the mountains? Dr. Carstens tells us we must cease to think of him in terms of the old "orphan asylum" and make him part of the larger question of preserving childhood and directing it into the normal channels of growth. Social workers, Dr. Carstens further observes, have mac'e a serious mistake in trying to build constructive programs with groups of people whose environment does not offer sufficient economic resource. All of this has a distinct bearing on our work. Subdivision, we are told, is a sign of growth. We hail, therefore, the information this year of an infant health section. Our health discussions in the past have been altogether too brief and unsatifactory. When the nurses and` doctors and other health agencies take hold of the discussion themselves, we may hope for helpful results. Indeed we feel that the round tables this year were a distinct addition. It is to be hoped that even if it is necessary to return next year to our usual two day program, (Continued on page fort-six) July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 3 Report of 14th ~Innual Convention of Southern Mountain YVorkers The Conference of Southern Mountain Worers held its fourteenth annual meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee, April 6-7-89, 1926. Approximately one hundred and seventy-five delegates were in attendance, the exact numbe~~ being uncertain oaring to the failure of many to register. Those registering represented all of the nine Southern Highland States, with the exception of South Carolina, as well as a number of other states. Twelve denominations capÃ‚Â°rying on work in the mountains had workers or officials in attendance, or both, and 'a number of independent schools and agencies as Berea College, Lincoln Memorial, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pi Beta Phi School, etc. also sent delegates. Among other agencies represented were the State Department of Health and of Public Welfare, Tennessee, the Universities of Tennessee, North Carolina and West Virginia, Tennesee Federation of Woman's Clubs, and a number of national organizations such as the American Red Cross, Child Welfa~~e League of America, and the National Committee .for the Prevention of Blindness. All the s;asions were well .attended and the program went tlaroziglz practically without change. It is to be regretted that we have not a verbatim report o.f all the speeches and of the stimulating and enthusiastic discussion which bore so directly on problems which must face all those who work in the mountain country. MOUNTAIN LIFE and WORK is indebted for the following account to various delegates who were kind enough to take notes on different sessions and return them to the secretary. PROCEEDINGS The first session of the Conference began Tuesday evening, April 6th at 7:30 o'clock. After opening prayer and song, the Chairman, the Rev. Isaac Messler, introduced the speaker of the evening, Dr. Warren H. Wilson, for eighteen years connected with the Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., and known nationally for his work and for his books on country life problems. The whole of his very stimulating paper follows, a paper which struck to the heart of mountain work. WHAT ARE OUR AIMS-OUR STANDARDS OF SUCCESS? Dr. WARREN H. WILSON Town and Country Department Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian G'lzzzaÃ‚Â°eh in the U.S.A. I am asked to state the objective in Mountain Work. What have you set yourselves to do? In what does success consist, for the religious or social worker among the mountain~eers of the Appalachians and Cumberlands? Now that the mountain people have schools, roads, jobs, wages and stores, either at their doors or within a day's journey, we have no longer the general task of averting famines or nakedness; and we may well raise the question -why should we not withdraw? Our first aim in mountain work is self-expression. Men and women from other states love to live in the mountains. Ministers prefer the mountain parsonage, the daily impressive scene, the weekly meeting with simple, strong personalities, to any other kind of life. Women workers -especially, it seems to me, who have tried other kinds of social and religious work, prefer long periods of service Page 4 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 among the mountaineers. There are also wealthy and generous people in other states, who satisfy an inner love for the mountains by supporting this kind of work with their gifts. It is well to keep this in our minds and to confess it with our tongues. We are not here to benefit any one so much as ourselves. Mountain work is happy service. Those who do not find it so, or who weary of it, should not, and will not, prolong their stay. Second, we respect the mountain people and desire to preserve them as an element in our American population. They' are a rugged, brave, natural people. They satisfy one's craving to live among a people free from the hypocrisies and pretenses of more congested communities. The work we do has its ends in their continuance upon these great highlands, a source of white, sturdy, Protestant contributions to our American life. It is a complex thing to preserve a social population. But it is to that end that most of the workers I have known are striving. There is a danger that this end will be pursued in the direction of idealising the mountaineer, as if he were a finally satisfactory form of American. Some of our workers talk and write, often we make addresses in our churches, to the effect that the mountain people are all that they ought to be, their habits and tempers to be unaffectedly admired, their example to be held up as a corrective of the ways of the people in cities and in the towns of the plain. But country people are like all the rest of us, subject to improvement, needful of correction. The mountaineers are untaught of, the modern spirit, are generally intolerant, are uncooperative and prone to antagonisms and to violence. One [must be careful that his respect for country people, and for mountaineers especially who get on one's heart, does not lead him to complacency. For that vice is the parasite that feeds upon all the faults of human nature. Complacency is the pander that provokes and employs the other vices; it makes us diligent in all the wrong-doings we are inclined to. One may admire the independence of the mountaineer, but when he makes him complacent he changes him to an egotist or a bigot of the most dangerous sort. And egotism varnished 'with compIacency is the most unsocial of all states of mind and heart. The third aim in mountain work is adolescent and adult education. The State governments are now undertaking to educate all the children and some of the adolescents. But the adult, as he faces the modern world, instead of the local cove or valley for which he has knowledge enough, is found to be ignorant and prejudiced. His own welfare is endangered by his static mind and by his lack of education for the new life which the roads and railroads bring. As a voter he may become a menace to the commonwealth unless in the lifetime of those now mature changes are wrought by scholars like those we work in the child's mind in school. A Mountain Pasture The permanent welfare of the mountains is to be found in agriculture and other primary industries. The modern processes of producing food, wool and cotton are undergoing rapid change under the hands of the scientist. The farmer who will not become scientific will have to yield in competition to the farmer who is taught in the schools. But the mountaineers 'o'2 America, unlike those of Scotland, are set against the teaching of modern scholarship. If they insist in the years to come, as they are declaring themselves to-day, that their educators must deny the teachings of scholars and scientists, they will gradually come to despise farming, which is a scientific pursuit. They will be forced by competition to desert their mountain homes, which cannot support their present population without use of the best July, 192$ ~ N Southern Mountain Lif a and Work gage 5 scientific methods. Many oÃ‚Â£ them will be assembled in company towns, for employment (r)n wages by men who utilize scientific knowledge to exploit them; and will degenerate into a class of ignorant workers, controlled by scientifically used capital. For some of this darkness of mind 6f the present population of mountaineers the ministers and workers are to blame, who reside among them. For they have generally hidden the liberal views, which they often though not always hold. They have access, as professional scholars have not, to the minds of the country people. They have too often taken counsel of prudence and expediency. They have too little regarded their difference in education and culture and have tried to make themselves intellectually identical with the strong minds about them. They have forgotten that Christianity is an intellectual religion seeking truth and sacredly preserving what truth God gives us to know. We need to organize the means of developing the intelligence of our mountain people, in respect to international affairs, to modern science and to a ,thoughtful tolerant citizenship. There is need of many Folk High Schools such as Mrs. Campbell is attempting. But even more there are needed many liberal and intelligent residents in the mountains, who will without hesitation and without pedantic zeal practice and confess their faith in the truths of modern science. A fourth aim of mountain work is the development of agriculture. This we will agree is a task undertaken by the state universities and departments. Yes, they impart the techniques of some agricultural processes. They tell how to prune trees, how to fertilize land, how to cull hens. But I never heard a representative of a state university attempt to tell a farmer how to think upon the great themes and cosmic theories which inspire university study. That is what the ministers in the mountains ought to do. That is what the Scotch ministers have done for two centuries, who made the Highlanders of that country the fathers of the philosophers of the world. It is by this that agriculture will be saved; not by learning how to make money alone, excellent and important as that is, but b5y arousing the imagination. For the development of other industries among mountain peoples there ought to be established a corporation with some capital that will begin manufactures in many places, and in the cities open shops for the sale of mountain industrial products. A fifth aim of the mountain work is to be satisfied in the organization of such hospitals in central places and health centers at the crossings of mountain roads, as shall guarantee the facilities of health to the people of the mountains. I will not pursue the matter further, as it is a theme not unfamiliar to this Conference. A sixth aim is the provision of art and play. To this also some attention has been given, though I dare say not as much as its importance would justify. I am desirous of passing to another aim. Therefore, I will only say that these two, Health and Recreation, are elements of mountain work, because they cannot be bought with money, they will not be provided by the state; and they are greatly needed fof the spiritual good of the people. The .seventh aim of mountain work is a religion of faith.' It is the custom of religious teachers in the mountains, who come, as most of there do, from the more representative and responsible denominations, which educate their ministers and send foreign missionaries and in many other ways evidence their adherence to the highest religious principles, to act as if their religion was the same as that of the mountaineer. But it is not. Christianity is not evidenced by the senses. It is a religion of the unseen. It cannot be too emphatically stated that there is a contrast between a religion that is "got", in the past tense, and a religion that is "the evidence of things hoped for." All,the native mountain religions I have heard of accept eagerly the evidence of sense, in terms of time and place. But that of Paul and Luther and Calvin is a religion of faith. Right hers is the reason, I believe why mountaineers are so seldom attached to church. In all the counties in which my church has placed i is workers the) percentage of the population in the membership is less than twenty, and often as low as ten per Page G ' Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 cent. For the country as a whole the percentage of all the churches was generally found to be about forty; that is in adherence to Christianity, as we know it in America, the mountaineer is only half religious. May not the reason be that the preaching appeals not to his imagination but to his feelings? He is an austere and imaginative being but he has offered him a religion that has no doctrine of creation, no system of doctrine, but only three or four materialistic fundamentals. A religion that has been put in the past tense is ended. The experience is closed, dated, mapped and recorded. What is there in that for a man who inherits a superior brain? Only disgust and disillusion. The highest aim of social work among mountain peoples should be their enlistment in a reasonable, intellectual, tolerant, expansive, engaging religion. This is what Christianity is, in all the great Communions, as it is taught in the seminaries and universities, where international standards of thought prevail. That it can never be, so long as religion is evidenced to the senses and recorded in terms of time and place. Among an austere people, who will never be rich, who must be satisfied with the joys of imagination and of intellect, it is especially fitting that the churches separate themselves from superstition and teach the religicn of Jesus and of Paul. These seem to me to be the aims of mountain work. They will be attained by the people in the country only under the leadership of devoted men and women, who give their whole life to the task. To seek them is to dignify one's own life and to satisfy the sprit. These aims have brought into the mountains some of the men and women who are now living here for the love of a beautiful land, a brave people, and for the faith in an unseen work of the Spirit of God. Dr. Wilson was followed by Mr. Chris L. Christensen, head of the Division of Cooperative Marketing of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Mr. Christensen made a fifteen months study of cooperation in Denmark and other European countries, and most of the unusually interesting slides which he presented were from pic tures taken by himself. The contrasting pictures of Norway and Denmark formed an interesting background to the economic paper which he delivered the following morning and which is also printed in full in this issue. MORNING SESSION April 7, 1926 In introducing Mr. Christensen on Wednesday morning, the presiding chairman, Dr. Warren H. Wilson, commented on Mr. Messler's words of the previous evening. Repeating the question, "Shall the mountain population continue?" he raised the following possibilities: First, the population would - continue as peasants; second, through industry combining in capitalized units, the people of the surrounding country would be employed as workers. Dr. Wilson felt that big-area farms were not a solution because (1) of the high cost of "brains" which are necessary to make such farms pay, and (2) because farming is an industry dependent on owners. The care of domestic animals, which in final analysis is the source of our food, is such as only owners can give. When this care is removed the farm ceases to prosper, for "the eye of the farmer fertilizes the land." Commenting further, Dr. Wilson urged that we be not afraid of the word "peasantry" which he described as an inherited specialized type of farming more closely associated with domestic factors, whether wheat, apple or animal, than with man. The basis of corntinuing a mountain population was the continuing of peasant life and of agriculture. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE MR. CHRIS L. CHRISTENSEN Director, Division of Cooperative Marketing, U. S. Department of Agricultural Economics It is most encouraging to those of us who are deeply interested and absorbed in the agricultural problems of the United States to find that your conference is giving attention to the economic problems of American agriculture. Agriculture still constitutes one of the most I 't July, 1926 Southern 1Vloztntain Life and Work , Page 7 important groups in our economic, social and political life today. The farmers and their families make up about twentyeight per cent of our population. They exceed in number any other single group engaged in one general industry. Not only do farmers constitute the largest common group in our national life, but the investment in agriculture far exceeds the investment in any other industry. According to the census of 1920 the value of all farm property in the United States was about 78 billion dollars. The capital invested in all manufacturing industries was about 45 billions; in mines and quarries a little more than 7 billions, and in railroads basing this capital on common and preferred stock and other obligations outstanding, almost 21 billions. The farmer's part in our national welfare is not confined to the production of material things. Contact with the forces of nature give the farmer broad vision, make him deliberate, patient, tolerant and not easily swayed by *mporar y emotions. The open country develops strong and self-reliant men and women, vigorous in mind and body, whose daily lives breathe the spirit of freedom and liberty and justice. The long days in the field give time for thought and reflection. . The rural citizenship has always been the dependence of the Government in time of war and its balance wheel when great national policies are being considered. Someone has said in effect that the farmers never start a war but it is they who must carry it on and finish it. Armies cannot fight without food. Germany was able to fight most of the civilized world for four years because she had deliberately built up her agriculture against such a time of need. England and France Would have been defeated but for the enormous food supplies furnished by the farmers of the United States. The statement is often made that our greatest wealth is in the children of the next generation. The blood and education with which they are equipped determines in the long run whether our civilization is going up or down. The 1920 census shows that the farmers are carrying about four million more boys and girls under 21 years of age than the towns and cities. This means tha; the farmers are growing, training, educating and turning over to the cities at working age from three hundred thousand to four hundred thousand young folks each year. The character making years of these future citizens are spent on the farm. Physical qualities and mental and moral habits are largely formed there. Hcnce, the importance of the rural conditions which will develop crops of future citizens of the highest quality. It is often said today that tie acute problems of agriculture are economic. Just recently my attention was called to a statement along this same line which was made wen 100 years ago by Col. John Taylor, of Caroline County, Virginia. In Col. Taylor's ". Agricultur al Essays" published in Baltimore in 1817, he made the following statement in regarc to the economics of agriculture, "There is no subject less understood, nor more generally m'staken than this; nor any more essential to tht, prosperity of agriculture." This statement, made 108 years ago, is almost as true today as t was then. The interest expressed in recent years in economics is encouraging. Economcs is more and more beginning to be a human science. The interest in the economies of agriculture rests upon the thought that this krbwledge is Neighbors Leave Their Plowing To Haul Line From The Railroad. John C. Campbell Folk Sclool. teaching us how to conduct the business of farming just as the well-managed farnly directs itself, and just as the big corp(ration controls its business. We have too Ion,, conducted farming without much fundamental Page 8 , Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 knowledge of the business of agriculture. It is with this thought in mind that I shall attempt this morning to discuss briefly some of the economic problems in agriculture. The great majority or people probably underestimate the significance of the agricultural revolution which has taken place the last half century, almost unnoticed. It is altering the entire fabric of our economic and social life. During the latter half of the last century the development of transportation, markets, inventions, and the use of labor-saving machinery made possible the rapid opening up of the vast areas of the 'ertile land in the Mississippi Valley. The production of agricultural crops increased about 58 per cent, while farm population per caaita increased by about 39 per cent. This femarkable agricultural development r esultel in the production of immense quantities of cheap food, which was used to build up industrial and urban life, both at home and alroad. The natural result of this great surpltB of cheap food and raw materials was the growth of the cities arid. the relative decrease of rural population. The agricultural revolution marched along hand in hard with the industrial revolutionsubstitutioz of machine labor for hand laborwhich macL way for our modern industrial world. Tre artisan laborers with whom the farmer in ;he old communal type of farming exchangedhis surplus food products for clothes and tools left the farm community for the industrial centers. The concentration of millions of ixdustrial workers into cities developed large mvrkets for farm commodities far removed from the agricultural producers. Agricultire has become largely commercial in the sense that the farmer is producing a surplus for distant markets. No cbubt, there are men and women in this conference whose experience and memory go back thvough his own life and tie up with the farm experience of his father and perhaps even or through to his grandfather. You can doubtles recall the farm experience that has been handed down to you, of the little farm which was in your family fifty, sixty, seventyfive oi even a hundred years ago. Visualize just for a moment with me the problems of the farm of that day. Will you permit me to sketch a mental picture which is perhaps typical of the experience of many people in this regard. Let us take an old homestead farm which was hewn out of timber in New York or Pennsylvania and was developed into a farm some ninety years ago. The grandfather had wheat fields, corn fields with hogs, and then numerous fields of fruit, grapes, pears, apples, peaches, etc. As each crop became ready for the market the old team of horses was hitched to the lumber wagon and the wheat loaded aboard, and early in the morning, long before the sun rose, the grandfather was off to some near-by town to market his wheat. It was drawn to the mills where they were grinding flour to supply the larger centers of population in the Atlantic Coast cities. As the fruit was harvested through midsummer, on to fall, and into the early winter, the same old team of horses was hitched up and a load of this fruit or the other, or probably a load of mixed fruits was drawn off to the same city and sold, not in a wholesale market, not even in grocery stores, but sold directly to the housewives. This indeed presents a type of simple agriculture. The farmer had no serious problem, at least not very much conscious thought, as to just how his farm production would be adjusted to the market demand. The farmer, in this simple type of agriculture, knew what the con, sumers wanted because he met them face to face, and out of his experience in meeting the consumer, the adjustment of his farm production problems naturally followed. Today, after just two generations, how different are the farm problems. The farmers growing wheat on the plains west of Chicago are far removed from the consumer and know but little as to what the consumption requirements of wheat are. They know little about the Factors that affect the price of their commodity -which in turn affects their farm income. The wheat problems of the Middle West farmer are tied up with the things that are taking place in Southern Russia. The sailing of great vessels, carrying cargoes of wheat from the rich wheat fields of Southern Russia, to the markets of Europe directly affects the pro July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 9 duction and market problems of the isolated wheat farmer in America: It may reduce his farm income, even to the extent of affecting the comforts of his family and the education of his children. The isolated livestock man in this country is affected very vitally by the economic conditions in Central Europe. If the industrial wheels of Germany are running at full capacity and the German laborers can fill their bread baskets, then there is likely to be a good demand for pork products in Germany which the American hog farmer will profit from. Tf England and Central Europe cannot buy the surplus foodstuffs in this country because of unemployment or because the exchange rate on the dollar is to their disadvantage, these facts all affect our farming problems. We have come into a new day in American agriculture, and if we think we can farm in our old individualistic way, just as our forefathers farmed, we are missing the great point in modern American agriculture. We are not only facing national conditions, but world economic conditions. Change from Pioneer Type of Farming to Commercial Agriculture. With the change from the simple type of farming, as practiced by our forefathers, to modern agriculture, there have come two important developments. (1) With the development of commercial agriculture, farm marketing has- grown from a simple process of exchange between neighbors into an intricate system in evhich various marketing functions have become necessary. Today there is a multiplicity of services to be performed in getting beef, or wheat, or oranges, or milk from the producer to the consumer in large industrial and commercial centers. When we analyze this rather complex marketing process more closely we find that large groups of people are required to care for the assembling, standardizing, selling, transporting, storing, processing, and finally distributing the commodity in small lots to the ultimate consumer. We need. to keep in mind that there are many services which must be performed before the consumer in distant centers of population can purchase his quart of milk, or five pounds of flour, or three pounds of potatoes (2) With the development of commercial agriculture the farmer-became so absorbed in producing foodstuffs for the large consuming populations in the industrial centerÃ‚Â°s that he lost the former intimate understanding and control o f the marketing process which his forefathers possessed. This resulted in the farmer drifting into the habit of looking upon farm production as something apart from marketing, and upon the marketing of farm commodities as something that started after production was complete, when as a matter of fact, production and marketing are inseparable. We need to recognize the fundamental relationship between farm marketing and production if we are to put farming on a profitable basis and develop an efficient marketing system. One of the great problems of commercial agriculture today is a proper balance between production and market demand. Natural science is showing the isolated farmer how to increase his production. Unless this production is in line with demand, it is not going to be profitable. Cooperative action in distribution by birr~elf with his fellows is absolutely essential in order that he may bring production in line with distribution and market femand. ~'o^e-n ag~icultu~e demands that we affect integration in the production and distribution of agricultural commodities. This integration will have to be affected through organization. Cooperative Organization Natural Economic Expression Cooperative organization among agricultural producers is a natural, economic expression in American agriculture today. :Modern civilization with all its social and economic complexities rests on cooperation. It is cooperation that makes possible such institutions as governments, churches and schools. The modern business community rests on cooperation. The mutual sentiment that brings people together in business activities, as well as in social, political and religious affairs, is nothing more or less than a willingness to think together, work together, play together and pull Page 10 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 together. It is natural that farmers should apply to their business this same group action that prevails among groups engaged in manufacturing, finance and commerce. In considering the cooperative organization in agriculture, I would like to have you forget, for the moment, the narrow sense in which the word cooperation is generally used., Cooperative marketing and cooperative supply buying are important activities, but they are a part only of the general question of agricultural organization. Therefore, important as the marketing organizations are, if we can keep them in the background for the time being, we shall be able to see the general problems more clearly and be better able to arrive at the relation of the coope~~atives to these problems as well as the aim and scope of cooperative organization. It is customary to think of the farmer as an individualist and as a man who is isolated physically and in habits of thought from the rest of the country. This condition is passing. The farmer's social and mental horizon is broadening constantly due to numerous factors with which everybody is more or less familiar. Nevertheless, in his production programs, the farmer is working alone. He is guided to some extent by the advice of his neighbors, by what he reads and, in late years, by the crop and market reports disseminated by radio and other media. But the farmer must make his plans as one of more than six million individuals who are engaged in growing farm crops. The wheat farmers' prospects are influenced by the decisions of three million other farmers producing the same crop, and he must make his plans without any certainty as to what they propose to do. If such a situation existed in industry, the need for consolidation or organization would be apparent. In fact, it was such a situation, on a lesser scale, that led to the consolidation of a number of steel plants in the U. S. Steel corporation. I am not advocating consolidation of our farms or corporating farming, but I believe this situation calls for organization of farmers. The problem of adjusting production to market requirements is a difficult one. It may be several years before we are able to make appreciable progress. But, if this problem is to be met, it must be done by organized farmers who have an understanding of the whole situation and a certain measure of control over it. The intelligent guidance of production, therefore, calls for organization. The farmers cannot meet this problem as unorganized individuals. When the crop is produced it must be sold, or transformed into livestock products that must later find a market. There are many factors that affect the cost and efficiency of marketing. Methods of financing, transportation, storage and distribution may be effective or ineffective depending on whether they are handled wisely or unwisely and whether the volume of business is large or small. The methods of standardizing, packing, or processing farm products have an important bearing on their market value. It is the producer who pays the costs of' marketing services and who loses through their ineffectiveness. Marketing is his business because every loss and every waste between him and the consumer is reflected back to him in a decreased demand for his product or an added cost for marketing service. The middleman is concerned with only one link in the marketing chain. He cannot be expected to undertake experiments leading to improvements in marketing because he has everything to lose from the failure of such an experiment and little to gain for its success. The farmer, on the contrary, is vitally in terested in eve, ,y phase of ma~ keti.ng. As an individual, he can do little to improve market ing conditions, but as an organized group can bring about great improvements in marketing technique. In the cooperative organization we have a producers' agency which permits of greater freedom of technical improvement, both in production and in distribution methods, thus benefitting society as a whole. New improvements and progress practices benefit all groups when put into use. Furthermore, the unorganized farmer is July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 11 at a disadvantage in meeting organized groups in industry and finance. It is true that prices of agricultural products are influenced chiefly by supply and demand conditions, but it is equally true that the concentration of a large volume of products in a strong organization has a stabilizing effect on prices. A wheat crop in the hands of three million farmers may be thrown on the market in such quantities as to cause at least a temporary depression. The same crop in the hands of a few strong organizations may cause no such depression because the buying trade has confidence that it will be marketed systematically. In other words, the farmer must organize to secure the bargaining power that will enable him to deal effectively with other groups. Here, then, . are three economic reasons for organization-the adjustment of production, the improvement of marketing technique and improvement of the bargaining position of the producers. Modern agriculture today demands that we bring about a better balance between production and distribution. The working out of a more efficient marketing system must go hand in hand with an intelligent adjustment of production to market demand in a more orderly manner and thus avoid periods of overproduction with great loss and periods of underconsuming public. The agricultural production may more readily become responsive to the market demands, the farmers will have to organize for marketing through the development of sound farm-owned and controlled cooperative associations. The extent to which the American farmers have recognized the needs of organizations in modern agriculture is indeed gratifying. There are now approximately 12,000 farmers' cooperative associations through which the farmers are helping themselves through group effort. More than 90 per cent of these are small associations, such as cooperative creameries, grain elevators, livestock shipping associations and the like. In recent years there has been a rapid increase in the number of large-scale, cooperative marketing associations which usually handle bnt one commodity, and which seek to serve their members not alone by reducing handling costs, but by merchandizing the commodity handled, that is by feeding it into the market in an orderly way with the view of receiving the best price obtainable. The business transacted by cooperative buying and selling organizations in the United States for the last year is estimated by the Department of Agriculture to be $2,500,000,000 -approximately one-fifth of the total of agricultural business. The Secretary of Agriculture, in his Annual Report for 1925, made this statement in regard to the cooperative movement "The most distinct and significant movement in American agriculture in this decade is the almost universal trend toward cooperation in the marketing and distribution of farm products. "There has been some cooperation by farmers in the United States for many years, but with the last two decades, and particularly during the last decade, the movement has assumed proportions which indicate that it is a response to a fundamental and universal need of present-day American agriculture. It is highly significant from all points of view that the best minds in agriculture, without regard to region or commodity, are unanimous in the opinion that group action in marketing must be added to individual efficiency if production in the high standards of American farm life are to be preserved and agriculture is to maintain its proper place in our national life. "Although cooperative marketing is a farmer's movement, it is not in any proper sense a selfish class movement and holds no menace either to consumer or other lousiness interests. Avricultu-al production is essential to national welfare, and the only guaranty of an adequate and dependable supply of agricultural products is a prosperous and contented agricultural population. It is obvious to any thoughtful mind that this happy result can not be obtained by agriculture unless it avails itself of the efficiencies and economies of organization and specialization which characterizes other industries in this day. Page 12 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 Consideration alike of intelligent selfinterest and public welfare must prompt other classes to support wise and intelligent efforts of farmers to place their important industry upon a basis of stability and prosperity. "Agricultural cooperation, as we understand it at the present time, is simply an extension of the principle of mutual helpfulness and exists between many groups engaged in industry, commerce, or agriculture." The efficiency with which cooperative organizations are meeting their opportunities is another question. There is nothing mysterious about the cooperative method of marketing farm products. It succeeds only as it is properly managed, financed and supported by its members. There are outstanding successes in cooperation. We can point to improvements in production practices, the development of grade standards, better distribution, cheaper and more certain marketing credit, lowered costs of insurance and storage and the development of new uses and new markets for the products handled. In addition to the . large organizations that could be mentioned there w,a thousands of local associations which are effecting substantial savinJs by reducing the cost of handling products. Mach is said as to the failure of cooperative enterprises. According to the best information that can be obtained by the EuT~eau of Agricultural Economics the failures in cooperative enterprises are probably no greater than failures in other enterprises. Gradually the principles which make for success in cooperation are becoming better understood. Oftentimes promoters have overlooked that mere organization of cooperative associa tions is not the end to be attained, but only the beginning. Every farmer knows that im proved farm machinery is of no use to him un less he puts it to work and guides it. Improv ed marketing machinery is likewise of no value unless it is intelligently intelligently directed. Organiza tion does not solve the marketing problems; it simply creates machinery -that can be used for this purpose. Much of the success of the co operative undertaking depends on finding men capable of running it efficiently, on the continued loyal support of the membership and on the volume of business done. While some of these failures oftentimes seem very discouraging we must remember that cooperation is in its infancy in this country, as compared with other economic and Progress of the Folk Museum Through Community Cooperation. John C. Campbell Folk School. social institutions with which we are familiar. At the same time a movement of this magnitude, with its tremendous economic and social significance, must be analyzed and guided so that its highest possibilities may be realized. Actual experiences and cooperative methods need to be studied and expressed in plain langguage in orc'er that they may serve as guide posts for the future. This the Department of Agriculture is doing. For more than twelve years the Department has been collecting and disseminating information about cooperation. During the past two years an unusual amount of attention has been given to this work. The Department is studying the principles upon which successful cooperation must be built, and making the results of its studies available through printed bulletins, through its press service and by wo?Ã‚Â°d of mouth through county agents and specialists. Men who have had successful experience in cooperation or who understand cooperative principles have no delusions as to the Government's proper function with regard to them. They know very well that Government effort; to organize cooperatives, or Government inter July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 13 ference in the conduct of such associations, no matter how well intentioned, is utterly against the principles of cooperation and can do nothing but harm. The Government cannot consistently, or properly, or safely organize or manage cooperatives any more than it can properly send federal agents into the fields to plow the ground, sow or harvest the crops, or feed the animals. No cooperative enterprise can succeed permanently unless it is built on the broad base of loyal and intelligent membership, which has learned the benefits of collective action, and which is capable of developing its own leadership and managing its own affairs. Cooperation has no magical properties, but is simply a form of business organization which is especially well adapted to the needs of the farmers. It cannot overturn the law of supply and demand, it cannot maintain prices which are out of line with economic conditions, it cannot dispose of a volume of products in excess of the normal needs of the consumers. If it can do any more than any other type of business agency, it is because the organization set up is controlled by the farmers, is working in their interests and enables them to make necessary adjustments in the quantity and quality of the products they raise. I view cooperation in agriculture as a business agency serving the producers both as an intelligent guide in their production program and an effective instrument for merchandising farm products. Instead of thinking of cooperation among farmers as a producing proposition or as a selling proposition, we need to think of cooperation as a business form of organization that penetrates our whole agricultural industry. By this I mean, cooperation in an educational way, must reach back to production practices and forward to marketing practices. Elevation of Standard of Living The application of better business methods to agriculture means much more, in the final analysis, than merely helping the farmers make more dollars and cents. We are interested in cooperative organization among farmers, as it touches the daily life of the farm man, woman and child and the rural community. We are interested in a high type of rural civilization. The ultimate effect of the cooperative movement, so far as its benefits to farmers are concerned, depends upon the way in which the gains, increased farm income-through cooperation, are used by the farmers who receive them. Unless these gains are devoted to better living on the part of farmers and the permanent establishment of higher standards of living in the farm home, then we have accomplished but little. We need to emphasize that the essential part of any program looking toward a permanent increase in the farmer's welfare is the elevation of the standard of living on the farm. We need to think more of home surroundings and of what can be done to make the home life happier and easier for the family. Attractive homes with kitchens equipped with labor-saving devices and living rooms with good books and paintings are human investments that go to build for a fuller life. The point I particularly want to emphasize is this: Through more efficient methods of production we have increased yields, but too often the farmer has not benefitted because the farmers have used these larger net gains to buy more land. The aggregate result has been increased production and low prices for his products and perhaps in the long run, no gain to the farmer. . Now through better marketing methods we are again attempting to get larger incomes for the farmer. The extent to which the farmer will benefit through more efficient marketing will depend upon the way in which this increased income is used. The gains that accrue to the farmer through more efficient production methods and cooperative marketing must be invested in a higher standard of farm living if the farmer is to permanently benefit from these improvements. Sir Horace Plunkett no doubt had this economic truth in mind when he formulated his program of better farming, better business and better living. Better farming and better marketing must be applied to better living, if the farmers themselves are to benefit. While the initial benefits of cooperation are economic in Page 14 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 character, ultimately the greatest gains to be secured through cooperative agriculture may be said to be social or spiritual rather than economic. DISCUSSION Following Mr. Christensen's paper a number of speakers brought out the fact that agriculture in much of the mountain country is still in its primitive stage, although industrial changes finally react upon it. The questions were: "What practical steps can be taken by mountain workers to hasten the growth of cooperative associations?" and, "Can Christianity christianize the economic life of the mountains? The discussion was unfortunately cut short through a mistake in the time, before Mr. Christensen could develop the relation of education to these economic questionsespecially the possible effect of folk high school development such as he had seen at work in Denmark. Mr. W. J. Goodman, District Agent, Extension Service, Western North Carolina, was unable to take his place on the program and sent in his stead Mr. E. F. Arnold, County Agent of Henderson County, North Carolina. Mr. Arnold spoke on cooperative developments among farmers in North Carolina, through the help of the Extension Division of the State College of Agriculture. The method of program of work was based on the expressed desire of the farmers themselves. Men and women were called in by the Extension Division to discuss and develop an agricultural program for their own section or county which would make for progress. In counties where communities were organized delegates were sent in to a county convention to discuss countywide problems. Each county in turn sent delegates to a district meeting in Asheville for a district conference. Thus in every case the special program for the county rested upon the leadership and the expressed ideas of the local men and women. As a result of this program of leadership, (1) fifteen hundred boys and girls are doing agricultural club work in western North Carolina. They are being trained to think of possibilities for farm and home, and the furthering of these possibilities through garden, poultry, etc. (2) Curb markets have been started in towns to sell home garden produce, much of which would otherwise be wasted. Experience has proved that this does not prohibit or stop local "peddling" but creates new and bigger markets. (3) Poultry culling and the sale of non-layers has been a successful and popular part of the farm program. (4) Two hundred thousand bearing apple trees are being cared for in Henderson County. Through cooperative effort, nitrate and liquid spray material have been purchased, at a great reduction, in sufficient quantity to spray thirty thousand. trees. By such work, needy homes have been reached and better health, greater happiness and contentment secured. In closing Mr. Arnold spoke of the relationship of farm work to other community organizations, especially to schools. He added, in reply to a query, that he personally had no fear of the unsettling and demoralizing effect of a tourist boom-a statement which was sharply questioned by others. Mr. Christensen closed the discussion by saying that to him the greatest returns for cooperative effort were not in dollars and cents but in intangible things difficult to measure. In final analysis cooperative buying or marketing or any other form of cooperative endeavor will not rise higher than the membership or local leaders. The cooperative method has demonstrated itself as peculiarly suited to the business of farming, and the extent of success is dependent on the capacity of the people to make use of the cooperative machinery. The best educational work is to develop in boys and girls the cooperative sense and technique. By vote of the Conference the meeting was turned over to Mrs. Campbell at 10:20 A.M. so that all those interested in adult education might be able to attend without conflict with other round tables. At the close of the session, so great was the interest in this phase of education that the discussion was adjourned until nine o'clock Wednesday evening when the delegates speaking at the various church prayermeetings in Knoxville would be free to attend. July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 15 ROUND TABLE ON ADULT EDUCATION Presiding, Mrs. John C. Campbell Mrs. Campbell opened the round table by speaking of the general interest in adult education. During the past year she had attended a number of meetings, held in different parts of the country under the auspices of the Carnegie Corporation, for the purpose of discussing the advisability of organizing an adult education association. As a result the America Association of Adult Education came into being in Chicago, March 26, 1926. One of the first questions raised at every meeting was, "What is adult education?" Naturally this was impossible to answer, for any form of education in which the pupils are over eighteen years of age is adult education. As such it is no new thing but has been carried on for years by many agencies-churches, Sunday schools, Chautauquas, correspondence schools, night schools, continuation schools, vocational schools and so on ad infinitum. In more recent years the moonlight schools and the various efforts of States and individuals to do away with adult illiteracy have captured 'the public imagination. As a result the public today is inclined to look upon adult education as something to teach people to read and write; a few unrelated facts being thrown in about history and government. The new point of view, however, brought out again and again in the regional conferences referred to before, is that adult education is not a mere erasing of illiteracy, or as a caustic writer suggests, "the giving a tongue to people most of whom would much better be quiet." Nor is it a mere teaching of means to a better wage, important as this may be. It involves the concept that education is progressive. It is not a process that stops with the ages of fourteen, eighteen, or twenty-one, but one which continues throughout life -a continuous growing and unfolding. It will be interesting to know what scientific studies such as are now being carried ox by Professor Thorndyke of Columbia, will show as to the comparative learning power of various ages. This will be a guide to kinds of education but will not change the concept of education as a continuous process. Mrs. Campbell continued, saying that the type of education in which she herself was most interested, that represented by the Danish folk high school, involved not a question of which ages learn most easily, but was based upon the peculiar response of the ages between eighteen and thirty to the appeal of ideals and to the influence of personality. Those younger than eighteen rarely have begun to think, nor have they had experience upon which to base their thought. On the other hand those older are apt to be less flexible. They are less able to adjust their life to new ideals. Mrs. Campbell called on Mr. Frank Smith of the Stanley-McCormick School, Burnsville, N. C., who had attended "Fircoft" the one folk school in England and attended and taught in the International Folk High School in Denmark, for a statement of the differences he had personally observed between teaching adults and adolescents. Mr. Smith stated that he believed boys and girls could not be taught with and as adults inasmuch as they have to be taught concretely rather than abstractly. Moreover, one cannot give them the same material one can give adults between eighteen and thirty. They have not the ground of adult experience and are often prematurely stimulated intellectually and emotionally. Nor can one have, for the same reason, lack of similar experience, the free basis of comradeship one can enjoy with adults and which is so noticeable in the folk high school. Dr. Wilson: I would like to ask Mr. Smith whether he would launch a program for adult education in Pennsylvania where there are many high schools etc. or in North Carolina where there are comparatively few? Mr. Smith: I do not feel that I have had the experience on which to base a reply. You might ask Mrs. Campbell. She has chosen North Carolina for her experiment. Mrs. Campbell: Naturally I chose the mountain country for my experiment because I am most interested in it. I do suppose, how Page 16 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 ever, that it would be easier to begin a folk school, where there is less competition from other types of education. The theory of the folk school is applicable anywhere. It seeks to stir youth to the realization of ideals; in teaching it lays the emphasis upon the influence of personality rather than upon books. It believes in making young people want before trying to fill them with facts. I have found that the county agents with whom I have talked appreciate this principle very clearly as it is related to economic life. As one said to me recently, "You make them want, and I'll teach them agriculture." There is an obvious place for the folk high school type of education in the mountains. Only think of the hundreds and thousands of young people who only go to school for a few years. Many of them come to us only for a year and then go back into the mountains again without further outlook than we have given to them. Dean Edwards, how many of your boys and girls leave Foundation School at Berea after a year? Dean Edwards: Probably about half. Mrs. Campbell: It seems to me vastly more important to open to them a new life, give glimpses of trends of thought, of progress and action than to pin them down to the printed page. Our chief concern should be what the student is and what his possibilities of development are than how he.is measured in terms of educational standing in the world today. Dean Edwards: We do try to give them a great deal more than they get in books. Mrs. Campbell: I venture to say, Dean Edwards, that the greatest thing you give to those boys and girls who come to you for a year or two, is not the facts you teach but what you are yourself. Miss Hobson: I cannot but feel that it is most important to teach the older people to read. When I send messages home by the children I can never be sure that they are understood for the parents so often are unable to read them. Mr. Eaton: There is danger of coming to rely too much on the written word as the chief means of education and communication. A re cent experience at Brasstown brought home to me very keenly the force of the spoken word over the written. It is charged with the spiritual power so necessary both to child and adult. From the floor: What will you teach? Mrs. Campbell: We have not yet decided on our course but we shall surely have besides the three Rs, history, some literature, sociology, and science. Dr. 'Wilson: Will you teach the facts of modern science? Mrs. Campbell: I must remind you that the function of the folk school is not to impress facts, as such. It is less important to drive home a fact in modern science, which may prove not to be a fact in a few years, than to create an open mind. I should probably teach science as nature study. Dr. Wilson: Is nature study of much use to create an open mind? Mrs. Campbell: I cannot think of anything which would open the mind more than a little acquaintance with the starry skies above one or the earth beneath; the movement of the clouds and waters; the meaning of mountains; the trees and flowers about one, their means of survival, their beauty. Mr. Smith: What tie folk schools do is to humanize knowledge. The students become interested in books. A beginning is made in research and study which is very often carried on after leaving school. This is illustrated by the case of a girl who attended Pocono Peoples College for a course. This gi-1, 23 years of age, had been a waitress from a very hard environment. She had not been at school since she was twelve years old. When she first arrived she found it hard to establish contacts, but a remarkable change took place after she had been with us for six weeks. Her inhibitions melted away and she became the most vital and creative student in the whole group. She was the leader in the games with the group of women who come in from the surrounding country, took a leading part in a play that was given, and made a speech at the farewell dinner. Since reaching home she has read at least two books a week and a whole new world of interest has opened up to her. Others have been inspired to real creative efforts such as July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 17 writing poetry. From the f loor : How would you begin a folk school in the mountains. Mrs. Campbell: That is difficult to answer. It depends on local circumstances. My own belief is that it will grow most soundly only out of a community, and the first steps will therefore depend on the particular community. The Sunday School offers 'usually a natural point for non-dogmatic, non-theological opening of the mind. Miss Dingman, will you please tell how Mr. Zeigler handled his Bible classes at your short course at Berea? Miss Dingman: The first year he opened up the big truths of the Bible through biography, sketching the lives of the great characters and bringing their teaching forward to present day living. The second year he traced the large social and religious movements giving continuity and development to the religious thought throughout the years. President Hutchins: Will the same motive which actuated the Danes-the enrichment of life-interest the mountain ~~ people who in many cases are extremely poor and seeking to extricate themselves from their economic situation? They are naturally interested in grades, credits and promotion, all of which are diametrically opposed to the Danish theory. Mr. Smith: It is possible that such enrichment may have to wait for economic advancement but in Denmark they came hand,in hand. It was the vision that made the struggle worthwhile. Miss Dingman: We all seem to emphasize the materialism of the mountain people. I do not believe they are different from any other folks, and we know that in every human heart there are longings for better things. Does not the main difficulty seem to lie in our lack of faith and not in the people themselves? In conclusion Mrs. Campbell explained that she and Mrs. Butler had deliberately chosen for this first experiment a place where economic conditions were favorable. There were distinct problems they must face-among them the problem of the young people fourteen to eighteen years of age who had finished the country school and who had neither further educational nor economic opportunity unless they went out after it. What to work out for them until they were ready for the folk school was the question. The parents were usually eager to have them stay on the land and work with their hands. So far the only possible solution on any scale was offered by the boys and girls agricultural or Four H. Clubs. One of the most difficult problems was presented by the American's general attitude toward education. Such an experiment as she was undertaking was directly in the face of America's materialistic standards. Possibly the current would be too strong but the trial was worth making. "The folk school is really founded on faith in the common man and in the dignity of toil. Every man has a place in .the scheme of things and it is the right of everyone to enjoy the fullness of life." AFTERNOON SESSION April 7, 1926 Presiding, DR. ABRAM HARRIS , Board of Education, Methodist Episcopal Church MOUNTAIN HANDICRAFTS What They Mean To Our Home Life And To The Life Of Oze~~~ Country MR. ALLEN EATON Russell Sage Foundation The most natural way for me to approach this subject is to explain how I happen to be here. One afternoon last winter as I stepped from my office of the Russell Sage Foundation I met Mrs. Campbell who was hurrying to catch her train for Washington on her way home to the mountains. She asked me about a suggestion a mutual friend had made concerning an outlet for- the mountain handicrafts. I told her that the suggestion seemed all right as far as it went, but that I felt that the handicrafts meant so much to the mountain people and might mean as much to the whole country that I would like to see a careful study made of the whole situation with a view to answering a good many questions which now no one seem Page 18 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 ed wholly informed about. We found ourselves so much in agreement on this important subject that Mrs. Campbell did not make her train and when she did finally get away we found we had only begun to discuss the situation. She expressed then the hope that I might come down to the April Conference to continue the discussion. The Sage Foundation was interested enough to make this possible, so here we are ready for the conversation which through your permission I am going to monopolize for a few minutes. Although this is my first trip into the Southern Mountains I do not feel a stranger here. I left the Pennsylvania Station in New York the evening of March 31st, but I feel that the journey really began many years ago in the Blue Mountains of Oregon where I was born and raised, and where conditions were then much as they seem to me to be now in some parts of the Southern Mountains. I count my eight years' resic'ence in New York City a special stop-over privilege extended by the conductor who has been in charge of the journey which began in my native state Oregon a good many years ago, and which has happily extended to these mountains which remind me so much of my boyhood home. I always think of the handicrafts, or as you so beautifully call them the fireside industries* as the art expression of the mountain people. I understand that we shall have an opportunity at the round table conference which follows this meeting to discuss the economic questions involved in the handicrafts, a phase of the subject in which I am greatly interested; indeed, it is that especially which has brought me here. But may I, since it is my privilege to open this discussion, ask you to consider for a few minutes what might be called the spiritual side of this work? Some would not call this practical, but I feel that the spiritual side of any work into which people put their minds and hearts is perhaps the most practical consideration possible. I do not, however, wish to engage in a debate as to which is the more important, the spiritual or the economic aspect of the mountain industries, because any worthwhile consideration will include both. We who are gathered here represent many kinds of work; religious, educational, health, agricultural; and some are engaged directly with mountain handicrafts. But whatever kind of vÃ¢â‚¬Â¢o~ k we may be doing I feel very strongly that we all ought to take a great interest in these handicrafts which are perhaps the most outstanding art expression of the mountain people. But back of our special in The Lovely Shenandoah. terest in these handicrafts lies a universal force of which I should like to speak for a few minutes here. I am therefore going to ask you to try, w?d I am going to try myself, to forget for a very short while the mountain people and their problems and ask you to consider with me an idea that I think is too often overlooked by us, namely the vital relation of art to life. I can quite imagine some one saying to himself and wishing perhaps that his thought might reach me, ".Why with so many practical things to do should we concern ourselves about art? Art is all right for the rich or for the idle but what have we workers to do with it, we who are trying to improve social and living conditions and who work with people who can never hope to own works of art or have time to indulge in such luxuries?" Well, this is just the question I want to answer, first by telling you what I understand by- the term art, and suggesting its necessity in the lives of all people. Art has been given many definitions, some clear and some confusing, but as I understand it, and especially in its application to the field of social work, it is a very simple and a very definite thing. It means bringing into the "Fireside Industries" is the expression coined and given by President Frost as a name for the old arts of the mountain people, when he more than thirty years ago first began to see what a revival of these arts would mean to the mountains and to the country as a whole. July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 19 lives of more people the interest, the happiness and the inspiration of beauty, beauty either created or enjoyed. Of course, this concept breaks away from that rather tight-compartment idea of art still held by many people which would confine it to painting, sculpture, and classic architecture. It holds that the principles of art may be applied to all man-made things. As soon as we become conscious that art is above all else the most appropriate, the most fitting way of doing a thing, and that it may be applied in some measure to all the things which we make or with which we surround ourselves, then we have taken the first step toward an appreciation of its real significance. The next step is simple, and it is an essential one for all of us. It is to realize that both the need and desire for art are inherent in all men, that it is a vital part of normal life. I do not know of any one who has written more clearly about art and its relation to life than William Morris of England, who said, "Art is the Expression of Man's Joy in Work." He spoke as an artist and craftsman and I doubt if from the worker's standpoint anything better will ever be said. Morris did not limit his definition to any special kind of work, as some insist upon doing, but he gave us that great and needful truth, that it is not so much the thing that is done as the manner of doing it which determines a work of art. The thing may be a painting on canvas, a sculpture in marble, a cathedral in stone, an engraving in gold, a symphony in sounds; or it may be a table set for lunch in a mountain cabin, a kitchen chair of maplewood, a simple brick fireplace of excellent masonry, a garden of old-fashioned flowers, a weaving in linen, a well printed and bound book, or a photograph of a snowflake. If it is done with joy it is, to the creator at least, a work of art; and the pleasure which he has put into it may be shared in some degree by all who appreciate the quality of his work. The power of a thing of beauty in the lives of others than the artist is quite beyond calculation. Now if this concept is sound, and if the desire for art is inherent in all people, is it not clear that all of us, whether or not we be en gaged at first hand in the mountain handicrafts, are nevertheless concerned with them because of their important place in life. But I hear some one say "Isn't that a theory and as a matter of fact rather thin spun? Do you really know of any cases where the love of beauty takes the place of food or clothes or shelter? Is there anvthillg that can take the place of these?" And to this I answer "It is not my purpose to make comparisons in values, but I am as certain as I can be of anything that food and shelter are not enough, and that while they may be sufficient for existence, they are not enough for a normal life." Other things must come in as man lifts himself up to a better standard of living and a higher plane of social cooperation. Among these things are religion, a love of nature, and a desire to make and use and enjoy things of beauty. I do not believe that we think enough of how barren life would be with beauty taken from it, and I am certain that we do not know how much a part, an unsuspected part, it plays in the lives of many. May I, to escape the accusation of being merely theoretical, give two or three of the many instances in mind of the part which art and beauty play in the lives of people? The first instance is of what might be called the healing or therapeutic power of art. Pioneer work in this field was carried on some years ago in a sanitarium in Marblehead, Massachusetts, under the direction of the late Dr. Herbert Hall. Here hundreds of patients have been greatly benefitted and others permanently cured through working in pottery and other handicrafts; many patients creating incidentally excellent examples of art. Most of Dr. Hall's patients were those suffering from some nervous trouble and although weaving, toy making, and other forms of handicraft were satisfactorily practiced it was work in clay, the pottery making, which he considered generally of greatest value. The yielding quality of the medium, the ease with which errors could be corrected. the fact that with care almost anyone could form an attractive piece of pottery, and the fascination of watching it through the various processes ending with firing in the kiln, where it was made strong and perma Page 20 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 rent, all contributed to the interest and benefit of this work. But in the many cases treated, Dr. Hall always emphasized the importance of beauty of design and of color in the things done, saying that often the benefit to the worker was almost in proportion to the good form and color of the object. These cures did not end with residence in the hospital but opened to many a gate into a new garden of interest and beauty. In a well known Hospital for the Insane in a middle western state a few years ago application was made to the Superintendent, by a group interested in occupational therapy, to try some experiments with the patients in that institution. The Superintendent was not interested in the new proposal, but not wishing to antagonize those who favored it, finally said, "You might try the experiment out on Mary and see how it works with her." Now Mary was not a very promising patient for the introduction of occupational therapy into the hospital for she was extremely violent much of the time, destroying the furniture in her room, tearing up her bed clothes, and generally undoing everything that was done for her. But the challenge had to be accepted and weaving was decided upon as the best craft for the purpose. It was impossible at first to interest Mary in the rather slow process of weaving for she found much more satisfaction in the faster work of tearing things to pieces. So this proclivity was recognized and she was given an opportunity to exercise her preference by unraveling the threads of some old gunny sacks. This kept her very busy and when she had quite established herself in the job, which used up considerable of the energy formerly spent in destroying other things, some one colored a part of her burlap thread and brought her a simple loom on which she was told, if she liked, she might make a rug of the burlap threads she had unraveled. This possibility of combining colored threads interested her and she went to work on her first piece of weaving. I have seen this textile, a simple but attractive combination of orange and natural color burlap threads. Later Mary was given an opportunity to work out some of her own patterns and color schemes in better materials. This delighted her and finally she became a painstaking, skilful, and even an artistic weaver and an ideal patient. I remember well a rag rug she made, with a colored flower border on a background of black. It would have stood out in any exhibition for its original and attractive color combination and excellent workmanship. Finally she wove a beautiful bedspread of linen for the Governor of her state and her work came to be in such demand that she more than supported herself as long as she remained at the hospital. Now she has .gone back to her former employers, where she holds a responsible position with a good salary. This is but one of many cases of therapeutic value of working in the arts in the field of mental hygiene. Let me turn to an instance of the enjoyment of beauty in another field, that of industry. At one of the exhibitions of Prints for the Home held at the Sage Foundation two years ago there came in one Sunday afternoon a middle aged man who, because of his appearance and his unusual interest in many of the prints, attracted my attention, and at an opportune time I expressed the hope that he was finding some worthwhile things in the exhibition. He assured me that he was, and pointing to a reproduction of Whistler's "The Little White Girl," he expressed his delight at seeing a print in color of this picture that had interested him for a long time, but of which he had previously seen only fair reproductions in black and white. He then told me the whole history of the painting and of how Swinburne on seeing it had written a verse which he could not recall 'in full, but a copy of which he was quite sure he had at his home, "with his other junk" and which he would bring to me on next Sunday if I wished. Of course I did wish it and inwardly regretted that I would have to wait a week for it and to learn more of my new acquaintance. He was not dressed in much style, he looked a bit seedy, and his hands were stained with oil, giving them the appearance of belonging to a metal worker. His language was good and the right words always came, but his somewhat inelegant accent sounded like home. You know we Westerners do not July, 1926 Southern Mount;ain Life, and Work Page 21 speak with the elegance and charm of the people of New England or the South. We sound better, however, I think than the native New Yorker. But the quality of his spirit and the independence of his judgment refresh me now whenever I think of him. Promptly on the opening of doors the next Sunday my new friend and critic appeared with a neatly hand-written copy of Swinburne's verses. This information was only the beginning of delightful sidelights on different subjects in the exhibition,, most of which were new to me. He purchased a small color reproduction of 'The Autumn Oaks by George Inness to send to his father in Nebraska whom he had finally been able to interest in this great landscape painter. This man who was a bench worker in one of the New York copper and brass factories told me that during his life of more or less discouragement in the Middle States he had found a solace and help in the contemplation and study of painting which had meant more to him than any other thing, that he would probably always .be a bench worker, for he had had little schooling, but that every spare moment he could find he could use pleasantly and profitably in seeing original paintings, collecting inexpensive reproductions, and in reading their histories. He knew more about George Inness than any man I have met, and he told of the location of certain paintings of which I had not known. It was he who told me I must read The Life and Letters of George Innes, written by his son, one of the most interesting artist biographies that I know. I have never come across any man, not a painter, to whom the art of painting meant so much as to ,this bench worker in metal whose margin of spare time was filled with unsuspected charm and beauty. If we acknowledge the need of art in every man-made thing and believe that beauty is one of the prime necessities of life, certainly it follows that to encourage handicrafts in the lives of the mountain people who wish to practice them is a thing which concerns us all. But I wish we might think of the handicrafts in the mountain homes not only as a pleasant necessity, but as a privilege. The making of an object from first to last, beginning often with native material with which the craftsman is familiar and following it to its final form of utility and beauty is a privilege that not many people of this day can enjoy. A very large majority of our people are engaged in industrial work where the opportunity of self expression is very limited. Thousands upon thousands of workers in the factories of America spend the whole day punching a few holes in a piece of metal to be used in connection with some product in which they have little interest or concern. There are a great many people who do not seem to feel the great loss to the individual that has come though the shift from handwork to machine work. Although this chance has brought many advantages to society, it has also had its disadvantages. No one as far as I know has made any careful measure of the effect of such a shift upon the individual, and the workers themselves as well as a large majority of the public, seem to feel that the main thing in industry is for the laborer to secure a margin of spare time in which he may do what he likes. With full sympathy for a wider margin of time for workmen than is yet in sight, I want to express here my conviction that the greatest blessings that can come to a man is not in securing a margin of time from his daily work in which he can do what he pleases, but it is rather in finding daily work into which he can put his best self. That is what the artist and craftsman does, and it is a matter of such importance to both the individual and to society that we should rejoice whenever we find it and encourage it wherever we can. Here in the mountains the workers have the time, much of the material and many of the designs and motifs to shape objects of use, beauty and individuality. Some of these crafts were originated in these mountains, others have been carried on by the parents and grandparents of those now living and they have become a part of America's traditions. The handicrafts which fit the need of today should be preserved and continued, and others should be learned to meet new needs; but all should represent as far as possible the spirit of the mountains and the mountain people. But characteristic of the mountain people Page 22 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 as I hope their handicrafts will always be, I wish the woaTkers might feel, and that we might all feel, more strongly the relations of these handicrafts to the other handicrafts of our country and of the world. One great need of us all is a wider knowledge of what might be called the rural arts and crafts of America. We do not know much about the extent to which the handicrafts are now practiced in the rural parts of our country, and too few of our city dwellers are acquainted with the very important work done by the people of the Southern Mountains. I hope that we who have gathered here will take every opportunity Basket and Chair Maker, Fireside Industries, Berea, Ky. to encourage honest handiwork wherever we can find it and that we will think of the fireside industries of the Southern Mountains as important enough to deserve every support we can give it and get for it. Not only should we be interested in the handicrafts because of their value to the people who practice them and the part they plays in home life, but we should feel a concern for the countless thousands of people living in every part of our country whose part in our circle of cooperation will be the enjoyment of having in their own home things made by the craftsmen of their own country. It is largely from the handicrafts of the Southern Mountains that many of our home makers in modest circumstances can secure articles of use and beauty that will bring them the satisfaction which they seek. Nor will the interest in the mountain handicrafts be limited to the people of our own country. There are many in Europe and other countries who will want some of the things made here. The revival of interest in the peasant arts of the mother countries is certain to extend to the rural crafts of the United States. The outlet for these products, which even now is many times greater than most people suspect, will if cooperation between the producers and consumers is worked out, continue to increase until what is being done now will some day seem quite small. Our great concern should be to see that the standard of the work be not lowered by this increasing demand. As far as we may we should see that the articles made are of sound material, of excellent design and that the quality of workmanship be always as good as those who are doing it are able to make it. If this is done, we shall do justice to the splendid ideals set by the pioneers who thus far have kept the standard high, and I feel that in time organizations and individuals far removed from these states will be found to cooperate almost if not quite in proportion to the needs of our mountain people. ROUND TABLE IN FIRESIDE INDUSTRIES Presiding, Mr. F. E. Mcetheny One of the outstanding meetings of the conference was the round table discussion of fireside industries held at the Second Presbyterian Church. The meeting was opened by a short informal discussion by Mr. Matheny after which it was turned over to reports of the various schools and weaving centers represented. . Miss Lucy Morgan of Penland, North Carolina, gave an inspiring report of the establish July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 23 ing and growth of their weaving industry. The weaving there is connected with the school, but the looms are placed in the homes. In this way the work of helping the community goes hand in hand with the school work. Miss Eleanor Stockin of Berea gave a splendid report of the weaving industry con-, nected with the College. This year they have employed over one hundred girls. She brought out the problems of student labor and showed the difficulty of producing skilled weavers when the students work for short periods in constantly shifting groups. Miss Bishop of the Phi Beta Phi School, Gattinburg, Tenn., told of their weaving which is done both in the school and in the homes of the community. Reports were also given by Hindman, Pine Mountain and Lincoln Memorial College. The exhibits were especially beautiful, carrying out a wide range of patterns, color schemes and variety of articles that can be made on, hand looms. Mr. Edward F. Worst of Chicago had sent a large box of beautiful weavings to Mrs. Matheny which she exhibited along with her work. Mr. Worst is no doubt one of the ablest authorities on hand loom weaving in America. We as weavers in the Southern Highlands can feel very grateful for his unselfish interest in us and our work. Mr. Eaton of the Russell Sage Foundation who was with us during the conference offered many valuable suggestions in regard to marketing the hand woven products. The meeting was alive with interest, everyone expressing themselves freely and asking questions most vitally concerning their ,particular problems. The time proved too short so we adjourned to meet again the following day at the close of the evening session. ADJOURNED SESSION Presiding, Mrs. John C. Campbell Mrs. Campbell laid before the meeting for consideration and discussion the possibility of organizing in the future a cooperative association for the handling of handwork now marketed through the various schools and independ ent agencies. "There are various points of view in which handicrafts are encouraged. Some consider them almost solely as a means of helping to meet the economic problem of small farm homes, especially those on poor land. Others regard them from the point of view of help to the finances of the school. Still others think of them as character-building agencies and as means of self-expression-without reference to the quality of work turned out. Still others see that true craftsmanship standards, character-building, the highest self-expression ,and final economic value, must all go hand in hand. At present, very good work, medium and poor are all competing with each other on a limited and very much the same market, while those locally in charge must spend a generous proportion of their valuable time in making connections with the market to say nothing of tying up bundles and getting them off. "Friends in New York tell me that the real market is hardly touched, yet some of these industries find it hard to exist while others 'can hardly meet the demand. If some of the agencies interested in developing fine standards of craftsmanship and in establishing a real economic basis for the work would combine, I can not but believe that we would be better able to build up and maintain standards, insure quantity and do away with competition between people working for much the same end. It would also enable the group to engage a competent marketing agent who would investigate and reach new markets." Miss Bishop of the Pi Beta Phi Settlement The sale of such work by members of our fraternity all over the country, for prices with which we locally have nothing to do, does mean a real income to the work, and what is even more important, an increased interest in our work. If we should lose our identity in a cooperative society which graded and pooled all handwork, and necessitated our not retailing to our own groups, I doubt if our officers would approve. Then what would happen to the things discarded because they do not measure up to the desired standard? Mr. Eaton: May I say that a cooperative association would not necessarily mean at all Page 24 Southern Mountain Life, and Work, July, 1926 the loss of a school's identity, or of the identity of the maker. That indeed would be most unwise and unfortunate. The cooperative association' would, as it were, put a guarantee on the article like the tag of the Arts and Crafts Society. It could not afford to put its mark on an inferior article which, however, could be marketed like any product, as a second. Miss Bishop: Already the coming of tourists to our section has resulted in the people :selling goods we have refused to accept ac they did not measure up to our standards. I do not know how we are going to meet this, or how it would work out were we in a cooperative association. From the floor: One school might concentrate on one kind of work and one on another. Mr. Eaton: That would be contrary to the whole spirit of the craftsmanship. From the floor: How would you meet the double cost of sending goods to a central point for grading and redistributing? The cost of ,hostage and express is one of our heaviest items. Mg's. Campbell: I am not at all certain how such details could be worked out, but such costs would be balanced, I believe, by the increased efficiency of field workers when relieved of marketing cares, and by increased production and sales. Miss Morgan: Such an association would solve all my problems. It was moved that Mrs. Campbell appoint a committee to look into the conditions of carrying on fireside industries in the mountains, to consider some means of working together, and to report at the next Conference. ROUND TABLE ON AGRICULTURE Presiding, Mr. McAmis of the Extension Division, University of Tennessee The question of agriculture in the mountains is how to make a living from the land under favorable conditions. Mr. McAmis said that the same principles of agriculture would hold in the mountains as elsewhere, but that there is not the great field for future development that there is in agricultural lands. The topography of the mountains is such that they lend themselves better to reforestation than to raising crops. In the raising of corn the mountains cannot compete economically with corn raising in the corn belt. Mountain lands can never compete with good lands; but since the people will not move out of the mountains to better farming sections, the only thing to do is to help them use what they have to the best advantage. The following is a list of clops showing their relative importance to the mountains 1. The Garden: This is of the first importance in the mountains. There is a real market for every product in each member of the family. 2. Good Pastures. Owing to the fact that there is little or no lime in the mountains, Korean Laspecleza does best because it does not require lime. Ten pounds would make a good stand on an acre. This is a soil improving crop and also will furnish seed. Mr. McAmis gave each member of the Round Table a little package of this seed. He asked them to take it home and give it to some interested farmer who would plant it in rows this year. This package of seed would produce enough seed to plant a plot seventy feet square the following year, and the year after there would be seed enough to plant a real field. 3. Hay Crops. For these soy beans and legumes are needed. It has been proved by careful experimentation that soy beans will make more feed and produce more milk per acre of ground than will corn. They also enrich the land which corn does not. It would be practical for mountain farmers to raise legume crops in place of large crops of corn. The corn crop should be only enough to supply them with what they need for corn bread, and could be classed as a garden crop. 4. Grains. 5. Cash Crops. These include potatoes, honey, etc. The following discussion brought out the point that the summer tourists and mining camps are the market for these products. Mr. Mateel said he believed in developing orchards for cash incomes. The question of terracing was discussed as a means of preventing the soil from washing, since soil wash July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 25 ed from the mountains is gone forever. Professor Anderson of the University of Kentucky said that unprofitable mountain lands should be acquired by the State or Federal Government and reforested. It was also suggested that social workers should encourage people to seek better farming sections where they could make a better living. Such a policy has been followed by the Experiment Station at Quicksands on its territory of fifteen thousand acres on upper Troublesome in Eastern Kentucky. The great objection to this plan is, however, that the people love the mountains, and in spite of handicaps wish to remain in them. MORNING SESSION Thursday, April 8th, 1926 Presiding, Pres. William J. Hutchins, Berea College, Berea, Ky. REPORT OF MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Dr. Hutchins reported progress on Mountain Life and Work, a quarterly magazine published in the interest of the mountains. It is now in its second year and affords a medium of exchange of ideas among the people interested in the mountains and also interprets mountain life to the people outside. The Editor for the past year, Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn, because of other responsibilities has been compelled to resign and Miss Helen H. Dingman of Berea College, has accepted the position of Editor-in=chief for the coming year. The hope is that the same list of contributing editors who have served during the past year will continue their help. Dr. Hutchins stated that it was the plan to conduct an exchange column in order that different sections of the mountains might know what is taking place in other parts. Dr. Edward Hughes of Bluefield, Virginia moved "That the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers express their gratitude to Berea College for having undertaken the publication of Mountain Life and Work, which is of such interest and value to all engaged in mountain work and that the Conference pledge their moral support to the future of the publication." he motion was passed unanimously. Dr. Hutchins announced that the annual expense was about $1,100, and that the circulation was about five hundred twenty. Miss Dingman asked the members of the Conference to be generous in their news contributions. Dr. William G. Frost sent his greetings to the Conference and regretted that he could not be present. The members of the Conference who had conducted services in Knoxville churches on Wednesday evening reported cordial and wellattended meetings. A resolution was passed favoring a survey of the religious and social interests of the mountains through the cooperation of the Russell Sage Foundation or some other organization. In this connection some one explained that a similar survey had been contemplated by the Inter-Church Movement about the time of the war. Dr. John Finley had been Chairman of the Committee, and it was suggested that he would be a valuable man to see in connection with the proposed survey. The question of the place for the next conference was brought up and Mrs. Campbell, the Secretary of the Conference, asked that all those who had suggestions to make, should write them on paper and hand them in for the guidance of the Executive Committee which was to select the place for the coming year. At a later meeting the Committee went over the returns and decided for the present to continue meeting in Knoxville. THE BEREA OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL Miss Helen Dingman of Berea College reported the second year of the Opportunity School held in Berea in January. This is a short inspirational course for adults, eighteen years and over, modeled after the Folk High School courses of Denmark. The first year there were twenty-three in attendance and the second nineteen. Although the enrollment was a little smaller there was a real gain in that more older people left their Page 26 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 homes and work just for the special purpose of the month's study and inspiration. The registration represented twelve counties of eastern Kentucky and three of eastern Tennessee. Three were married and had families. In the group were teachers, farmers, housekeepers, a store keeper, a brick mason, a telephone operator and a preacher. A charge of fifteen dollars was made for the course and a few scholarships were given. The headquarters for the group was a big room with a fire place, fitted with a reading table, a piano, a victrola and easy chairs. Lectures were given in history, government, sociology, literature, science and Bible. There were classes in practical arithmetic, penmanship, oral reading and letter writing. Laboratory periods in agriculture and home economics were offered. Singing was an important feature. Each lecture opened with a song and every day there was the opportunity of learning new songs. Both the men and women had three classes a week in gymnastics in addition to recreational periods where new games were taught them. What one was most conscious of as the course advanced was the socializing process that was going on. Many came from communities where they had had few social contacts and were therefore reserved and individualistic. As one of the teachers wrote afterwards, "A few weeks actual experience in social living.eating together at the group table, gathering in the group living room, listening together to talks, themselves joining in talks and in sing-, ing, entertaining guests, and being themselves guests-and the thing is done. Amazing in so short a period is what one sees of shyness becoming responsive, of eccentric individuality beginning to adapt itself to others, of insular views of life opening to broader horizons." The course ended with a banquet at which each of the seventeen students present gave a toast telling what the course had meant to him. These expressions revealed new avenues of thought opened up and a greater hunger for knowledge and truth. As one said, "I cannot say that I accept everything I have heard but I am going back determined to study and search for the truth." At the end of the report Miss Jameson sang a ballad which had been composed by one of the members of the 1926 Opportunity School group. REPORT OF JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL Mrs. Campbell brought to the Conference copies of her report to date of the John C. Campbell Folk School. It follows The John C. Campbell Folk School is an attempt to apply the principles underlying the folk high school of Denmark. to the problems of the Southern Highland Region. It is an experiment in adult education, named in memory of John C. Campbell, who, after twenty-five years of study and service in the Southern Highlands, felt the need of vitalizing and dignifying the whole content of our rural civilization. In a type of education based on the folk high school of Denmark he saw a hope of preserving what is best in Highland culture and of opening the way to deeper and richer life. For those who are interested I have prepared a brief statement of the theory of the Danish folk high school. It is enough here to say that it is a school primarily for young adults, eighteen to thirty years of age; that it sets no requirements; gives no examinations; offers no credits; that its primary purpose is, through the influence of personality and oral teaching, to arouse the individual so that "he will never stop growing." It distinguishes, in other words, between acquiring and developing. It does not try to assume responsibility for local changes, but to awaken that desire for a better life which is the only sound basis for change. Principles which have taken form in one country will doubtless take a somewhat different form in a new environment. We emphasize the experimental character of the Johr. C. Campbell Folk School. It must find a new approach to old subjects; it must develop a new technique of teaching. Furthermore, if the teaching is to enrich rural life, it must be rooted in a deep belief in the country; not perhaps as it is, but as it may be; in its power to satisfy; to offer a full life. Not the most difficult, but the most favor July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 27 able conditions should be the ground for such initial adaptions. We have felt that the first mountain folk school should be placed in a region plainly possible of agriculture development, a natural center not too far from the railroad, and among a substantial, land-owning population who really desire it. In selecting Brasstown, North Carolina, we believe we have found this favorable combination of circumstances. A section poor, but capable of agricultural development, a natural center for an area of some fifty square miles, it is on a good highway, within eight and a half miles of Murphy, the terminus of two railroads (the Southern and the Louisville and Nashville), and about one hundred miles from the markets of Asheville, Knoxville and Atlanta. Its greatest asset is its citizenship, a strong group of small farmers with a high reputation for integrity. Ninety-seven per cent are landowners. Their desire for a "school which will help the country" is partially indicated by the following summary of pledges, representing 116 citizens, and made entirely on their own initiative as an earnest of co-operation. The form of these pledges was drawn up by a local lawyer so as to be binding The Farm House In Early January. Over $800 in cash; locust posts; telephone poles; building logs; firewood; native shrubs, trees and bulbs. In the first three years of the school, 1,495 days of labor, 397 with team. Yearly, 388 days' labor are pledged without time limit. In addition to the above list, about thirty acres of excellent land, partly in woodland and in the center of the community fronting on the high road, were given by a leading citizen and his family. An adjacent farm of seventy-five acres, with a farm house, has been purchased to provide for future development. A further twenty=five acres of distant woodland have been promised. The John G. Campbell Folk-School begins its life as a home and farm in Brasstown community, a home and farm in which the citizens of the region have a real share and stake. Those who live and work in it are members of the community, with a share and stake in the community life. Their life is different only in that its main purpose is not the welfare of one family but the welfare of all. They seek to understand and to serve the best interests of the neighborhood. This end will govern as far as possible every step in the School's development, whether agricultural, social, or educational in a limited sense. In other words, the ultimate form which the John C. Campbell Folk School is to take must grow out of community need and the consciousness of that need. Such a growth will, of necessity, be slow, its direction uncharted and conceivably unexpected, but we who have seen abroad the vitality of the principles upon which the folk school rests and are satisfied as to their fundamental rightness, have faith to believe that a school based on the Danish theory and adapted to local conditions will result. We look forward to a small boarding family, not exceeding one hundred boys and girls in all, who come to live with usa new group every year-for the five or six winter months when farm work is at its minimum. We picture these bays and girls sharing in the tasks and in the pleasures of our farm home; we see them gathered in the big community room for vivid personal lectures on history, geography, literature, sociology, civics and nature study; we follow them into the class rooms where they learn to think through arithmetic which deals with daily problems, where they express themselves in reading and writing, where they discuss what they are learning. We listen to sound of hammer, saw and plane in the carpentry room; we watch them at their daily physical training in the gymnasium; we hear them singing-for it is song that welds them to Page 28 Southern Mountain Life and Work gether. Nor is their singing, discussing or learning a thing apart from the community. The doors of the lecture hall swing open to those of the community who care to enter. Many come to share, day by day, in the program of the School; they take part in its festivities and its pageants; they help to work out its problems. If they wish for certain practical short courses, we shall from time to time call in those who can supply this need. Such, in brief, is the ideal toward which we work. Such is the way we hope, slowly, step by step, year by year, to increase the number of thinking, aspiring young people who will see the promise of the country, who will strive to make country life what it may be. How well and how soon we can realize this ideal depends upon a number of thingsespecially upon the continued cooperation of the community, and the help, moral and financial, of those who believe in what we are trying to do. The immediate program of the school calls for the repairing of the farm house and outbuildings. For this purpose a few trained carpenters, who have worked out their pledges, are being employed. The rest of the labor is largely .pledged. So far the hauling has been done free of cost. Two of the citizens have given the old, handhewn log houses which are being set up on the place as nearly as possible in pioneer fashion, to serve as a museum for the fast-vanishing relics of early days in this country. Logs and poles to replace those decayed and new puncheon floors are being supplied by other citizens, and again all labor freely and gladly given. Spring will mean the putting in of a crop to build up the soil. The pruning of trees, vines, etc., has already been done under the direction of a State expert with the assistance of the two nearest County Agents. This program for 1926 we have begun on the small budget of $7,000.0'0, a budget which has been secured by the support of three v.,nurch Boards-Presbyterian, U. S. A. Congregational and Episcopalian-and by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation, thru its interest in adult education. Naturally, such a budget cannot cover the Community House, which must soon be built to serve as lecture hall and July, 1926 center for community gatherings, and which will include carpentry, weaving and sewing rooms as well as class rooms. Some satisfactory water system should be arranged for at once. Electric lights will simplify living and reduce fire risks. Our agricultural pro The Farm House In Early April. gram in the near future calls for barn, stock, poultry and other equipment. These must precede any attempt to make a self-supporting demonstration farm for this section. REPORT OF SURVEY IN WEST VIRGINIA By The National Committee On Prevention of Blindness Miss Eleanor Brown of the National Committee on the Prevention of Blindness spoke briefly on the work done by that Committee in response to a request for a survey which came from the Teacher Training Institute in West Virginia. Although the survey has not been completed the activities of the Committee offer many constructive suggestions to the mountain worker. The report is as follows I feel as if I were here under false pretenses, because the study which I wished to report on to the conference, for various reasons could not be made. The nearest that I can come to a report that will be of interest to workers in the southern mountains is to tell of visits made last summer by the National Committee for the Prevention of Blindness to the Teacher Training Institutes in response to an invita July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 29 tion from the West Virginia State Department of Health. Another member of the staff, Miss Julia Fulton, and I had the opportunity of at tending a number of the West Virginia Insti tutes and talking to the teachers about eye sight conservation. In each. instance we came up against three very different .problems with which teachers have to deal. First, the problem of school lighting. The teacher must make it her duty to understand what proper lighting is and use every means in her power to obtain this for the children under her charge. She can help influence the school authorities to provide sufficient window space and proper artificial lighting and she can see that the light provided is used in such a way that the harmful effects of glare are avoided. These Children Need Not Have Been Blind. Second, the problem of school hygiene. In meeting this question a teacher has the oppor tunity not only of improving and keeping up to standard hygenic conditions in her school but of educating the children themselves in cleanly habits and proper care of their eyes. Through the children she has an entry into the homes and is able to extend her health gift. teachings to the parents. Third, the problem of obtaining examination and medical treatment for those children who are found to have visual defects and diseases. Teachers should be able to use the Snellen Chart for testing the vision of their pupils and should appreciate the importance of applying this test to every child coming under their care. They should have sufficient knowledge to recognize symptoms of eye trouble and be prepared through cooperation with numerous agencies and individuals to obtain correction for those cases that are in need of it. With a knowledge and utilization of resources at their command readjustments can frequently be brought about that will change the dreary prospects of a handicapped child to the hopeful promise of a boy or girl whose faulty eyesight has had proper attention. These problems, I repeat, were brought emphatically to the National Committee's attention during its contact with rural school teachers in West Virginia. They are not, however, questions for teachers alone to solve, but ones which all of us who are in any way connected with welfare work and the improvement of social conditions must take a hand in, whether our lines lie in urban or in rural communities. Each of us must realize his responsibility for putting his best efforts to improve physical conditions, and the greater one's influence in the work the greater is one's power in guiding the neighborhood's thought and action in the right direction. You who are members of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers have this influence and this opportunity. As I came down into the Southern Mountains and looked from the train windows these lines of John Oxenham came to my mind as particularly appropriate: "Praise for the love that keeps us through the night, P~!aise, for the power that guides the world aright; ;And praise, praise, praise for His great gift of sight." Let us do all we can to keep that precious Page 30 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 REPORT OF EXTENSION WORK IN WEST VIRGINIA Miss Pauline R. Spangler, Extension Worker for State Agricultural College work, Morgantown, W. Va., and State leader of girls' 4 H Clubs spoke enthusiastically of the Conference, saying, "I am getting from this conference just what I came for." She spoke on the activities in her section, stating that many communities were putting on country life conferences, comparing conditions in their localities with what might be. These are "free for all" meetings "with dinner on the ground." The communities are scoring themselves on a thousand paint standard and they include in the grading, all of the things which they consider vital to community life. They have discovered that there are people who have an interest in certain subjects which by many had not been suspected. For instance 85 to 100 per cent of the members of the conferences attended special meetings on the subject of poetry, where attention was given to the subject of rural verse, one of the favorite subjects being Whittier's "Snowbound." Miss Spangler also spoke of a community training school in which the people followed their trails of interest. The 4-H Clubs, organizations having the fourfold ,,interest of head, hand, heart and health, were to be found throughout the state of West Virginia and were particularly active in the vicinity of Morgantown. The conviction is gradually growing that the girls and boys are more important than the cows and pigs. Among the recent activities of the clubs has been the restoration of Jackson's Mill, a grist mill where Stonewall Jackson once lived. This has been turned into a club meeting house and camps have grown up about it. Stonewall Jackson, who is a great favorite with the people of that region, is reputed to have said, "You can be whatever you want to be", and this seems to be the motto of the 4-H Clubs and others interested in community development. THE VAULE OF SONG Rev. Dennis Whittle, Luray, Virginia. "Let us have a singing, smiling, united people." This quotation is found on the cover of a handy song book of "Community Songs." It expresses a great hope. The hope that our people as a nation shall be united, happy, and full of song. Music, we are told is a universal language. Many love it, but so few participate. This is due, to a large extent, to the lack of proper instruction during the formative periods of childhood. The country today, is a feeder for the towns, and yet scarcely any music is taught in the rural schools. In our work, in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, not many miles south of Luray, we have laid great stress on music, and especially on singing. The difficulty of going into a new community `vas to know just where to begin to find out just what the children and people already knew. One cannot teach singing, unless one loves to sing oneself. We have to be full of music ourselves. We must show that it is part of our very nature; a real outlet for our emotions. How often the first note has been sung in a humble home with a group of children gathered around. It may have been just a simple chorus, or a cradle song, an old folk song, or a hymn that all knew. As one teaches and encourages individuals in the different homes, one can later teach them in groups, and then the school, or the church becomes the logical place: 1n the summer often we have just gathered under the trees to sing. Children, as soon as they have gained confidence, love to sing. I am thinking of a little boy just now. He lives across the goad from where I am staying. I called there, and gradually found out the hymns he knew. As his mother said to me, "He just loves to sing; often he will sit for an hour at a time singing through the pieces' he knows." Some of the old people sing the folk songs, but they often fail to pass them on,and sometimes these songs are frowned upon as being worldly. One day the teacher in a rural school invited me to come in and teach the children to sing. It was the usual one roomed July, 1926, Southern Mountain Life and Work D age 31 school with childen of all ages. The teacher looked tired after a hard morning's work, and the children were restless. The teacher seemed glad to see me. The first song I taught was a spelling song "It isn't any trouble just to S-M-I-LE". This was followed by an action song, entitled "A Gymnastic Relief". The feature of this song was the motions that the pupils had to go through-smiling, stretching, raising the arms above the heal, jumping lively, stepping forward and backward, and finally shaking hands with one's neighbor. It gave me an opportunity of teaching the children how to shake hands, and telling them the meaning of the handshake. I also sang, and taught a folk song "Frog went a courting." As I came out of school I met an old man of eighty years. He had been outside the schoolhouse listening, and enjoying it all. "I know that song you were singing", he said, "it is one of the old time songs," and forthwith he sang his version of "Frog went a courting." That same evening I went home with him, and this time he was the teacher and I was the learner. No doubt we often envy the man who can tell a good story. Once I had the privilege of going on a long mountain hike with such a man. Tired and hungry, the first night we begged shelter in a mountain home. After supper we had the story telling hour, and he told story after story, and the cry was always for more. And yet, how much more powerful is a story, in ballad form, sung to appealing music. Music does help to make friends. Whether the singer is as a minstrel of old, going from castle to castle, or as a humble friend, going from cottage to cottage, it matters little. He is always welcome, and the log fire burns brighter because of happy hearts. But music has another value. It helps to make people cheerful, "to drive dull care away", and it also helps to unify and develop a community spirit. Organized singing was found of value in army camps. If you get men to sing, they will grumble less. Singing was being taught as part of the program to many young soldiers before the close of the war. It was found to be invaluable in building up "esprit de corps"; in helping to create that spirit of unity that was necessary to a success ful fighting force. So in the schools today organized singing is invaluable in developing a true school spirit. I am thinking of a little school, at the foot of the mountains, where for three years the children have been carefully trained in singing. The teacher was not a skilled musician, but she loved to sing, realized its value, and was not afraid to lead off. For the first year s~~e was aided by no musical in A Church Group of Singers. strument. The second year a portable victrola was loaned to the school, and when this had to be returned, the school was able to obtain one of its own. Starting with very simple choruses, later were added negro spirituals, folk songs, and lullabys. Such songs as "Old Black Joe," "Swing Low Sweet Chariot," "Barbara Allen," "Carry me back to old Virginia," Mother Goose Songs, and many others were sung. In every case the aim has been to meet the immediate needs of the children, and through a careful thought out plan to lead them on to attempt more difficult songs. At the end of the first year the children gave a concert of their own, though they depended on the teacher to lead and direct. Over this period of three years there has Page 32 Southern Mountain been a very marked development. They have learned to listen as well as sing, and have been helped by the wise use of selected Victor records. Singing has become more and more an outlet for the emotions, a spontaneous expression of real joy. The children love to sing, and parents take pride in it. Some time every day the whole school assembles, it is a two room school, and sings together. A few weeks ago a very creditable program was given by the children, and a group of young girls rendered, unaided, special selections. Outside of the work of the day school, the Sunday School and Church Service much work has been done in the individual homes in special "Singing Schools" and also in the local jail. The Singing Schools, held during the summer months were always popular, and ended with a program. At these schools the repertoire consisted of well known folk songs and patriotic songs and a good grade of hymns. As the writer is closing this article, there is a group of children waiting after school for singing. In a few moments he will be with them, laughing and happy, touching responsive spots in their hearts, and sharing the joy that smiles and the love of children bring. "Let us have a singing, smiling, united people." Miss Stockin closed the morning session by singing the ballad, "Down in the Valley." (The music and words of this ballad are given in this number of Mountain Life and Work.) AFTERNOON SESSION Thursday, April 8, 1926 Presiding, Mr. James L. Fieser, Vice-Chairman, American Red Cross. A MOUNTAIN SCHOOL IN ANEW MINING REGION REV. E. V. TADLOCK Superintendent Mountain Work, Presbyterian Church, U. S. With Mrs.-Campbell's kind approval, I shall endeavor in a few bold strokes to suggest, by way of background for Mr. Cooper's address, Life and Work July, 1926 the transition by which a rural mountain community was transformed over night into a teeming mining section. Until recently Letcher county was one of the most remote of mountain sections. For a quarter of a century its nearest railroad contacts had been Stonega, Va., forty miles to the south, and Jackson; Ky., seventy miles to the north, over roads often impassable. In 1913 the Eastern Kentucky division of the Louisville and Nashville railroad was extend~ed up the North Fork of the Kentucky River from Jackson, ttie county seat of Breathitt, through Hazard, the county seat of Perry, and Whitesburg, the county seat of Letcher county to the foot of the 1?lack Mountain, dividing line between Kentucky and Virginia. In a laurel thicket at the mouth of Rockhouse Fork, midway between Hazard and Whitesburg, the railroad built a station and named it Blackey. The location with reference to the Rockhouse Fork, Line Fork, Carr's Fork, and other tributaries of the North Fork, made it the natural trading center for a large section of country. A village quickly sprang up. In 1914, less than a year after the coming of the railroad, a school was built under the auspices of the Southern Presbyterian church at Blackey and received the ambitious name, Stuait Robinson College. It was the first high school on the North Fork above Jackson, antedating those at Hazard and Whitesburg by several years. All timber accessible to the river had been floated out. The tie and stave industry was the only source of cash revenue for the section. The men split their white oak timber into staves and hauled them to the railroad. Every siding was a stave yard. In 1917 the stave business met violent death at the hands of Mr. Volstead and the German submarine. Labor went begging at seventyfive cents and a dollar a day. The mountains were poor, indeed. During the period of depression many of the mountaineers sold their mineral rights to representatives of the coal corporations. Fortunately the depression did not last. The war time demand for coal came on, accompanied by a development dizzying in its rapid July, 192E southern Mountain Life and Work Page 33 ity and magnitude. The people awoke one morning to find that the coal operators had come, like robins, in the night. Coal companies, railroad contractors and power companies were competing in the labor market. Wages soared from one to five .dollars, and teams from four to ten dollars a day. The back-country youth went home from pay day with more money than his father had seen in a year. People from the outside and from other mountain sections came pouring in. The population increased one hundred and thirty-three percent between the censuses. Railroad spurs were thrown up creeks and hollows. Laurel thickets were cleared away and mining towns built. The commissaries brought on stare furniture, wheat flour, ready-to-wear and phonographs. Jazz superseded the ballad, the "bob" claimed the time honored tightly drawn "top knot," and synthetic silk displaced the traditional calico. Hillside farms could not support the new standards of living. Men were compelled to seek the "public works." Women and children remained at home to run the farm. Innumerable families deserted their homes for the mining camps. A spirit hitherto unknown, and not always for the best, gripped the mountains. It became expedient to lock doors. The mountain man found that he could get paid extravagantly for everything he had and did. In too many instances the famous mountain hospitality became a happy memory. The religious problem was made more difficult, as old standards and ideals tumbled before new and imperfectly assimilated ones. Many good church members, caught in the swirl, became indifferent. There was a distressing slump in church and Sunday School attendance. Good old United States dollars were more tangible than treasures in heaven. The educational problem was vastly complicated. The teachers deserted the schools for more remunerative employment. Scores of schools were untaught for several years. There was, however, a tremendous new demand for education, and the churches and settlement schools found themselves swamped with applications. To make a long story short, Stuart Robin son, in an effort to meet the crisis, abandoned its meagre equipment and built a plant valued at $150,000. Mr. Cooper has been asked to tell you something of the programs by which this school seeks to contribute to the solution of the problems of an industrial section. STUART ROBINSON SCHOOL MR. W. L. COOPER, Principal Stuart Robinson School is the farthest back in the Cumberlands of any of the schools founded by Dr. E. 0. Guerrant. The population of this section was at one time purely a people who had never come in touch with industrial influences. They followed the one occupation of farming, in which it was up-hill work to make even a meager living. Within twelve years nearly one hundred coal mines have opened, which to-day are worked by this same people. The transition from a small wage of from fifty to seventy-five cents a day to $4, $5, and $10 came almost over night. The result was that a people who have had an inherent tendency toward educational and religious influences, but who have been neglected for a couple of centuries, have been almost swept off their feet by the spirit of materialism brought in by the great mining industry. Our great problem then is to redeem an innate tendency of a wonderful people toward education and religion and save them from materialism. The problem is a hard one and we almost feel that we are lost in trying to solve it. The following are some of the ways in which we are trying to do this: first, through the educational work of our grades and high school combined with manual work; second, through the social activities of the school, such as the honor club, literary clubs, dramatic work, athletics, etc.; third, through our health work, consisting of class instruction, the weighing of students every month, careful inspection of health conditions and personal conferences under the direction of our school nurse. Annually a clinic directed by Dr. E. P. Guerrant, Medical Advisor for the Mountain Work under the Presbyterian Board, is held at the school. Fourth, and most, important of all, Page 34 Southern Mountain Life, and Work July, 1926 through the religious life of the school we are trying to solve this problem. Nothing equals the power of the religion of the Lord Jesus Christ. Through our church, the Sunday Schools, the C. E. Societies, the community work, and visiting in the homes we are trying to bring this power into the lives of the people. We know we are meeting, at least, in part, a great need, yet we feel our helplessness to do all that ought to be done. We often work like a child groping in the dark. However, we are trying to learn the best way to cope with problems peculiar to a field of this kind, hoping thereby to point out to institutions that follow us the difficulties and pitfalls, and thus make it possible for others to render a greater service than we have been able to do. INDUSTRIAL ROUND TABLE Presiding, Rev. Edward W. Hughes, Bluefield, Virginia. The round table for the discussion of industrial problems met Thursday afternoon at the First Presbyterian Church. The discussion centered about the effects upon the mountain people of the mining, lumbering and quarrying industries. The industrializing of the mountain resources was, in the opinion of the group, deadening to the constructive instincts, and inhibited the forming of habits of thrift and a feeling for conservation. Among the points mentioned was that the flat rate which mine operators charge their employees for coal and lights works directly against the development of economy and independence, and that a careless, indifferent attitude toward the property results from living in rented houses built by the mining companies. The possibility of obtaining the cooperation of the heads of the companies in working out remedial programs was somewhat discussed. The consensus of opinion was that the employers have hearts, and they vaguely realize the evils of their industrial system but that they do not know what to do about it. If approached in the right way they would welcome counteractive influences. The following resolution looking toward definite action on the part of the conference was proposed by President Hutchins of Berea and adopted by the group The Industrial Group recommend to the Conference ~ that the Executive Committee direct or engage in research with reference to the influence of the mining and lumbering industries upon the moral and economic condition of the mountain people; that a report and possible recommendations, may be presented to the Conference next year. This committee is to be reported later. ROUND TABLE ON HEALTH Presiding, Mr. Everett Dix, American Red Cross Mr. Dix opened the discussion by telling of the work of the Red Cross in giving courses A Little Southern Mountaineer Whose Eyesight Was Preserved Through Proper Treatment. throughout the country in First Aid Work, and Home Nursing and Hygiene, giving concrete examples of where such teaching has been extremely useful. A demonstration of "bathing the baby" by two members of Miss Virginia Gibbes' class of Girl Scouts was very well done, and proved July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 35 not only what can be done in instructing the young girls, but was very interesting to those present. Miss Malvina Nisbet outlined the divisions and resources of the State Board of Health, so that people might know how it functioned and in what different ways it could prove helpful to those it serves. Posters from the Red Cross added greatly to this year's exhibit. Different state boards of health represented, showed in their exhibits printed material available on application and in some instances had pamphlets there for distribution. PUBLIC HEALTH SECTION OF MT. WORKER'S CONFERENCE Public Health Nurses are not greatly in evidence at the Mountain Worker's Conference which is held each April in Knoxville. Whether it is due to the fact that they are very scarce in the mountain sections represented, or just not able to leave their work, is the question. However, this year, the few in attendance, with the able support and enthusiasm of two physicians, got together the second day of the conference for lunch, and, after a brief personal introduction on the part of each present, and an interesting discussion of the need of advanced maternity training for nurses, Dr. Franc Morrell moved that the group be organized into the Public Health Section of the Mountain Workers' Conference, with Miss Malvina Nisbet as Chairman, and Miss Phyllis Higinbotham as secretary. This motion was seconded by Miss Bessie Swabb. Among interesting personal glimpses related, was Dr. Morrell's story of her volunteer work at St. John's-in-theMountains, in Virginia, where she would start out on horseback to visit a case, be passed on to the next family, and perhaps be gone from home three days at a time. ROUND TABLE ON MUSIC Presiding, Miss Gladys V. Jameson, Berea College, Ky. For the first time in the history of the Con ference a round table discussion of musical problems was held this year. Only a few were present but they were vitally interested in music, and the small number at the meeting made it possible for every one to speak. Each one introduced himself and told of the musical activities in his school and community and then spoke of the greatest musical need in that school or community. The common cry was for trained teachers, but since so few schools can afford a worker of that type, it seemed useless to dwell too long on that phase of the situation. All agreed that the best substitute for such a teacher is a revived, remodeled, inspired species of the old-fashioned singing school. Z he- a seem to be many singing schools in operation now, all too frequently conducted by An Old Songster, And His Wife poorly trained (or entirely untrained) persons whose musical ideals are low and financial aims high and whose efforts sometimes bring detrimental results to a community. It was suggested that great good could be done if some specially trained and gifted person could be persuaded to go about from school to school, spending a few days at each in a sort Page 36 Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 of music festival, bringing suitable songs to. the children, some fine simple choruses for community singing, and fresh material of permanent practical value to the teachers. Chautauquas do not reach places so remote from the railroads, so the field is free. Talking machines were considered as a means for promoting interest in good music and a list of records suitable for rural schools was requested by several persons. Part of this list will be printed in this issue of Mountain Life and Work and more will appear in later publications. The subject of hymns became' one of the most vital of the hour. The old question of cheap emotionalism in the tawdry gospel songs of today, and the means for opening the minds of the people to the fine "Like Father, Like Son." A Home where They Like To ding. hymns of the church, occupied the last minutes of the discussion. The Rev. Mr. Whittle talked at some length on his experience in teaching good hyms to the children of his community, very gradually leading them into a love for the best, by having them memorize many of them. Talks on the meaning of hymns and how they came to be written, and the .actual memorization of some verses are frequently a part of his services. Certainly people can never learn to love and use that which they have never experienced. Perhaps just a very simple presentation of the choice hymns, a holding of them up before the people that their glorious light may shine through to color their lives, is one of the biggest spiritual services that can .be rendered in the mountains right now. A common feeling among heads of schools was voiced when one man said "I keep writing ,'my board not to send me people who know so much about higher criticism, but more people who can sing and play." Music strikes straight into the hearts of our people. We must bring them to a keen sense of that which is beautiful in their own ballads and hymn tunes, and we must enrich their imaginations with fresh beauty of art songs and folk songs from all lands and ages. EVENING SESSION Thursday, April 8, 1926 Presiding, Rev. Issae Messier On the evening of April 8th, after a number of songs under direction of Miss Jameson and Mr. Whittle, Mr. Allen Eaton of the Sage Foundation presented a group of fine lantern slides, showing the new American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum, New York. In concrete fashion, the American Wing indicates the awakened interest of America in her own handicrafts of which the mountain industries are one of the few survivals. The pictures were an appropriate introduction to the adjourned fireside industries round table which followed. MORNING SESSION Friday, April 9, 1926 Presiding, Mr. C. H. Trowbridge President, Weaver College, Weaverville, N. C. The first business of the last session of the Conference consisted of tendering votes of thanks to the Lawson-McGhee Library for the use of its assembly room, to the University of Tennessee for its generosity in providing the lantern and an operator for two of the sessions, and to the W. A. Johnson Company for volunteering to provide delegates with typewriters during the Conference. Three announcements were made by Mrs. Campbell. She first requested that the interest in Mountain Life and Work be expressed in subscriptions and contributions to its various July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 37 numbers rather than in less helpful and more effusive words. Announcement was made of the appointment of a committee to consider the problem of mountain industries in an effort (1) to look toward united effort of all handcraft agencies, (2) to find what the local field of fireside industries is, (3) to maintain craftsmanship standards, (4) to reach wider markets. The committee was to consist of one representative from each school with an exhibit at the Conference. It was decided that a report of the training needed for mountain work as formulated from questionnaires distributed at the 1925 conference would be printed in Mountain Life land Work. Mrs. Campbell summarized the answers to the questionnaire as follows 1. What are the problems we need to discuss? a. Economic and social conditions. b. Standardization of discipline and of entrance requirements, labor, etc. c. How to correlate ourselves and our particular form of work with other agencies, local and national. d. All problems of cooperation (Mountain folk are so independent and individualistic, we must help them act together in all of life). e. How to do the most lasting work. f. What is the most lasting work. 2. What misconceptions injure workers? a. That all mountain people are alike. b. That conditions are as they were. c. The mountain people are essentially unlike others. d. That one kind of culture should or could be imposed on a group of a different kind of culture. e. Too much emphasis on "The romantic life of mountain people." f. Too much emphasis on "Book learning and college degrees." g. The "I came to tell you how to do it" spirit. h. Conception of lack of capacity in mountaineers. 3. Name three or four mistakes you have made or have seen others make. a. Expecting concrete results in too short a time. b. Unwillingness to let people lead in their own way, i.e. to give them credit for what they really know. c. Not keeping an eye always forward on the possible future development of the mountains. d. Inability to be simple enough in speech and act. e. Showing a feeling of superiority. f. Talking about the shortcomings of people in their presence. g. Being too stiff and unbending in holding children to too exact a standard. h. Failure to recognize the nobility of the work. i. Failure to adapt previous training to requirements of the field. j. Lack of patience. k. Giving too generously. 1. Speaking too freely. m. Coddling people. n. Too little preparation for workers. o. Too large a percentage of lop-sided workers, especially in religion. p. I will not call it a mistake but it seems a pity that so much is done for the people from above, as it were, and they have to do without the "personal touch" of the worker. q. Not being generous enough with housemates (I believe -it is a mistake not to have a house under management of a head worker who has ability to manage.) r. Choice of leadership. s. Pushing people too fast. t. Failure to properly diagnose conditions. u. Doing too much work and not placing responsibility on the people. 4. What training, or native qualities, or experience, or abilities have you been thankful to have? a. Country birth. and early training. b. Country school-teaching. c. Sympathy for all kinds of people. d. Ability to sing. e. Everything, every quality of mind or spirit, every experience which has deepened my understanding of life and brought me a better understanding of my neighbor. Page 38 Southern Mountain Life, and Work f. Three hundred years of ancestors who have been pioneers. Mountain qualities are pioneer qualities the world through. g. Adaptability, sympathy and an unpatronizing belief in the people. h. Knowledge of the Bible, knowledge of people, training in methods with children. i. Ability to find humor along the way. j. The fact that I was not afraid in the dark, nor of drunken men, and had the ability to make them realize that I was master of the situation whether in the dark or in a church service. 5. The first lacks you felt. a. A failure to thoroughly understand my people and the realization that they did not understand me. b. Lack of musical ability. c. The fact that I had never lived on a farm. d. Lack of understanding of the great scope of the mountain problem. e. Ignorance of natural history, health work and sanitation. f. The fact that I was not a teacher or a nurse. 6. What knowledge and qualities and abilities have you looked for and hoped for inyour new helpers? a. A genuine love for human nature as such. b. The maximum knowledge of the specialty for which they are engaged. c. A willingness to learn. d. New approaches to world-old problems -the real missionary spirit. e. Sympathy, adaptability, understanding, sympathy with life, ability to live with other workers. f. Ability to do more than one thing well. A few answers indicated that early in March or late in April would be convenient times for the Conference but the majority seemed to feel that the usual time of the Conference-in the neighborhood of the first week in April-was as convenient as any time. Few answered the query as to the advisability of a summer course or whether workers could be secured early enough to attend such a course late in August. July, 1926 PROBLEM OF THE ORPHANED AND DEPENDENT CHILD Report of Address Given by MR. C. C. CARSTENS, Executive Director, Child Welfare League of America. One could not fail to be interested in Mr. Carstens' analysis of the changing psychology of child care which is coming through the advancing study of psychiatry and the social sciences. The fact that institutions for the care of dependent children no longer have segregation as their main purpose is one too little recognized in some of them. The traditional methods of treating social problems by withdrawing the unadjusted individual from society is still in vogue. Yet certain tendencies are indicated by the fact that some institutions are organizing their activities as community service stations, interesting themselves as definitely in children without the walls as in those within. Further, the fact that "orphanages" are becoming "schools" and that "societies for the friendless" are going out of favor indicates that there is a growing recognition of the psychological effect of nomenclature on an "inmate". As Mr. Carstens pointed out, it is disheartening to think of living in an "asylum" when the dictionary tells us that the very word means "cold storage." But not all care of dependent children is conducted in institutions and there has been in recent years an interest in family home care which has led a good many "reformers" to the extreme of insisting that all care must be non;institutional. One new conception is that the value of one type must not be considered as versus that of another. Both will probably find their place in child treatment so long as the problem of child care remains, and ".`the dependent child we have always with us." In non-institutional care, too, there is a changing point of view. Placement is being done now by states rather than by private agencies on a nation wide scale. Further, adoption is no longer used as the basis of placement. Adoption helps to solve the problem of July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 39 the "blue-eyed, gilt-.edged baby", but the unlovely child whom no one wants must be cared for too, and must be reckoned with in the life of the community. Placement, today, is but part of the whole problem of readjustment of a child, a process which must depend on individual diagnosis and treatment for success. The fact that publicly supported organizations have a service to render to financially independent families whose problem children can be benefitted by them is another significant item in model social theory. Mr. Carstens' detailed and absorbing account of the seven year old truant, Paul, and his effective treatment, brought out very tellingly the value of the individual care which takes into account the physical, mental, and environmental factors in any specific case of maladjustment. More distinctive than any other emphaaa on the modern social theory of child care is that placed on preventive measures. The establishment of 2vell-baby clinics is helping to avert tragedies rather than remedy them. Habitclinics for'very young children are being established to prevent mental disease. School visitors are helping to adjust home conditions before they precipitate calamities and the school is being used increasingly as "the bridge over which trained service can walk into the home and into a complicated social situation." The Child Guidance Clinic Service is making the services of the psychologist, psychiatrist, and social worker available for rich and poor alike. In addition to all these specialized agencies, communities are equipping themselves for the care of the adolescent child by providing the concerts, libraries, playgrounds, and general recreational facilities which will prevent the delinquency which serves as such tragic evidence of community disorganization. In conclusion, Mr. Carstens pointed out the fact that there is not much use in working with people until they are established on a sound economic basis. The fact that ten neutral ju-`ges, specialists in their fields, should have chosen Kenosha out of fourteen middle class cities in Wisconsin as the best one in which to bring up children was an interesting commentary on the social effectiveness of a com munity blessed with a thriving, well-directed industry. And the sum and substance of it all was that the dependent child is the end product of poor health conditions and bad conditions in general. Any plan for his care must include a vast variety of interests, and all aspects of the scheme must work in together to form one whole which shall be a constructive, intelligent program of individual care. The following points were emphasized in the discussion which followed the address. 1. State-wide organizations for child care are preferable to purely local agencies. Attention was called to the North Carolina sys A Play Group In Virginia Mountains. tem of public welfare which provides state direction over local, working units. 2. Social service without institutional care is highly desirable. The establishment of "orphanages" in connection with existing schools is not to be encouraged. As Mr. Carstens put it, "Don't start an orphanage if you can help it." Mothers' pensions and various other forms of state or local aid often make it possible to avoid breaking up a partiallybroken home. 3. Colonizing schemes which involve pulling families out of normal environments are to be deprecated. 4. The services of a public health nurse are the prime requisite for effective child care in rural districts. Without parental consent, medicinal treatment cannot be enforced and the best way to provide it is by the aid of a nurse who shall first win the confidence of her Page 40 Southern Mountain people and then persuade them to prevent and cure bad health conditions. 5. Apparently the only home available for small children in the southern mountain area is the Appalachain School at Penland, North Carolina, which accepts children between the ages of three and fourteen. Correspondence on the subject may be addressed to Miss Amy Burt at Penland. IDEALS AND AIMS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION Report of Address Given by DR. JESSE F. STEINER, l of Public Welfare, University of North Carolina Dr. Steiner's discussion carried unusual weight because it was prefaced by an account of five years experience in an attempt to organize two counties adjacent to the University. The work in these two spaysely settled arid economically backward counties, comprising a territory the size of Rhode Island and containing as their largest cities two towns of two thousand, has brought out the fact that rural community organization is a more complicated and serious problem than we had sometimes thought. The original thought that one County Supervisor of Public Welfare would be adequate to organize a community has proved inaccurate and the staff of workers which has been shown to be required is economically almost out of the question since the people have yet to be convinced of its desirability. Against this significant background Dr. Steiner outlined some of the major problems of community organization, leading up to his analysis by tracing the historic development of the movement. One thing which is often overlooked is the fact that the community organization movement began well before the war, though its post-war emphasis has brought it into prominence. It .has developed from several different sources. Primary importance is the Charity Organization Society Movement which grew out of the conscious need of unify Life and Work July, 1926 ing the social work agencies. Next, comes the contribution from the Settlement with its establishments of social centers of one sort or another. The War Camp Community Service programs emphasized the organization of agencies for the utilization of leisure time. The Red Cross health programs required knowledge of health conditions in the area served by the county chapters and "community studies" began to be made in this connection. The Country Life Movement directed the attention of people to the social problems of rural organization and the Community Chest Movement recognized the community as the unit for financial organizations for public welfare. Through all this rapid development of "movements" few people tried to denne the liaising The Walls of the Folk Museum. John C. Campbell Folk School. community, but colleges began to offer courses on it organization and community studies and organization were hailed as the panacea for social ills. Within the last five years much of the eathusiasm has abated since structural devices have failed to solve the problems of the modern community. The adjective is significant. Modern methods of transportation and the modern industrial order have led to the emergence of modern communities in which the unit is much larger than formerly, the locality has less significance, and primary control breaks down. What the size of the geographic unit which constitutes the community shall be is a matter of debate among sociologists and social workers. Some would include an open country area, some would organize according to the school July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 41 district, others advocate basing organization on the urban area, and still others choose the county or other arbitrary political unit as the basis. This last choice has the advantage of providing means for financing community projects, though up to this time county work has meant more or less effective work in the county seat and spasmodic efforts in outlying districts where the roads are good. The isolated "pockets" off the good roads receive virtually no attention. Whatever the geographic unit, it is ~ being recognized of late by social engineers that communities are limited by artificial and natural boundaries and that the ecological conditions must be reckoned with before effective organization is possible. The real, estate man capitalizes his recognition of their significance. The social worker must face it as well. All community work must depend on. a solid economic foundation. It must be undertaken after the community has definitely considered its own economic potentialities and has admitted its dependence on other communities. Rural and urban territories will have to cooperate in many sections before that sound economic basis for commmunity welfare can be assured. That there should be democratic participation in community activities is granted universally-in theory. It must be recognized that in actual practice social work has been highly paternalistic and has been most effective when conducted by outsiders. This arises naturally from the fact that the people are not concerned about it and inevitably rely on the interested minority to furnish the leadership. Democratic participation will come gradually as the people awake gradually to the significance of the whole thing. Probably the greatest difficulty in community organization has arisen out of a misconception as to its fundamental nature. It is too often discussed in terms of machinery or administration. Actually the essence of the problem is one of social control of the changes which are occurring so rapidly in this age-as in all ages. So far we are in the early stages of conscious organization of such control. We have not formulated the essential principles, we have not discovered the laws, but as society becomes more complex and population more dense, we are sure to find ourselves in greater and greater need of those principles on whose formulation an adequate control of social forces depends. THE BRASSTOWN SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSOCIATION MARGUERITE BUTLER John C. Campbell Folk School "I can hardly keep from singing, I've been so happy all day!" This remark from the newly appointed Treasurer of the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association (called credit unions in all states but North Carolina) shows the spirit of happy Officers of the Savings & Loan Association. Brasstown, North Carolina. and confident adventure with which this group of enterprising farmers have organized their first co-operative undertaking, and augurs well for its success. The John C. Campbell Folk School had been residents of Brasstown community a month or so when at Mrs. Campbell's invitation, a group of neighbors came in one evening to hear Miss Angela Melville tell about the cooperative credit unions being so successfully organized and operated by hundreds of groups in factories, shops, post offices, department stores, and communities in twenty-four of the fortyeight states of the Union, and by rural groups in North Carolina since 1915. North Carolina is the only state with an appreciable rural de Page 42 Sozethern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 velopment, but that the law was passed in that state primarily to serve the farmers of the state is shown by the fact that, whereas in all other states the supervision of these co-operative financial organizations rests with the State Banking department, in North Carolina it is under the State Agricultural Department, Miss Harriet M. Berry of the Division of Markets being State Organizer and Supervisor of these Savings and Loans Associations. In 1925 the name of these associations in the State of North Carolina was changed from "Credit Union" to "Savings and Loan Associations" because of a feeling on the part of some of those interested that the former name did not fully explain the purposes of the organization. Only as a part of the educational program of the School was this first meeting held, but the interest aroused would not let the matter rest. Much talk went on in the community about this plan of community financing. "A man could borrow then to buy him a cow?" "We could' get our fertilizer as a group, in larger quantities and at better prices, thru a loan from such an Association, you say?" "This would be helping the community by using the surplus money earned in the community for our own credit needs, wouldn't it?" Keen, rock-bottom comments, showing that the principle of co-operative credit had been grasped in all its significance of self-help. We were fortunate indeed to have Miss Melville to answer many questions. For two years under the National Credit Union Extension Bureau she had organized both industrial and rural credit unions in many states of our country. She believed in the credit union, and having lived as a member of our community for several months, believed in the success of one here. Not only were every one of us filled with her enthusiasm and interest, but also made to realize the duties, responsibilities and detail of work involved in such an association. After about a month of this discussion, Mr. Fred O. Scroggs, local merchant and farmer, called a meeting taking in some forty farmers of the community and their wives-a representative group from a geographical point of view. In spite of very bad weather on the day appointed for the meeting, seventeen citizens attended, and thirteen others sent word of their intention to co-operate and live up to the decisions of the meeting. The interest was so great, and the people so keenly aroused it was decided to put through the organization of a Brasstown Savings and Loan Association, and an organization Committee, with Mr. Fred O. Scroggs as Chairman, was appointed to go into all the matters necessary to organization. Through the co-operation of Miss Berry, State Supervisor, all forms necessary for organization were secured, and at a long and thorough meeting, the organization committee drew up its by-laws, and appointed a date for the organization meeting, sending word to Miss Berry, asking her to come and organize them. This organization meeting was held on April 17th and at her address at the meeting, Miss Berry told of the excellent work being done by the Lowes' Grove Credit Union. She also told of the various steps being taken by the State Agricultural Department to co-operate with the farmers in all such enterprises, offering the services of the Department to the new or-, ganization which she said was the first rural credit union in the State organized in a mountain community. The Association started with twenty-eight charter members and five junior charter members, and forty-five dollars paid in on shares and deposits. At the time of writing, five weeks after organization, there are forty-one members and nine junior members. The total paid in on shares and deposits is $267.05. One loan for a Jersey calf has already been made and two applications have just come in, each one asking for a loan for a Jersey calf. Not only does this community intend to use their co-operative Savings and Loan Association to meet the smaller credit needs of the community, but also to encourage the habit of saving among the children of the community. The parents are all anxious that even the smallest children be members and make their weekly deposit if only a few pennies every Saturday (from one until three o'clock in the afternoon) when the Association is open for business. Mr. Scroggs has generously offered his stoke as the headquarters for the Association, and on market day we expect to see a good many" July, 1926 Soztthern Mountain Life and Work Page 4 pennies, hitherto all spent for candy or "bait," find ,their way into the coffers of our Association. Many an egg, traded for two cents value in "flies" or candy sticks will, we are sure, be halved, so great is the community pride and interest in this undertaking. The following officers and Committee members were elected at the organization meeting Directors, Mr. J. O. Penland, President; Mr. J. W. Clayton, Vice-President; Miss Marguerite Butler, Secretary; Mr. John Deal, Treasurer; Mrs. L. L. Scr oggs. Credit Committee, Mr. F. O. Scroggs, Mr. Wm. Clayton, Mr. Lye Payne; Supervisory Committee, Mrs. John G. Campbell, Mr. T. B. Hampton, Mr. D. H. Caldwell * Kristen Kold, the great Danish folk school Members of the Savings R. Loan Association, Brasstown, North Carolina teacher, speaking to one of his pupils who regretted that he could not remember afterwards what Kold had said in his lectures, said: "Don't trouble yourself about that. If it were but knowledge about which we were speaking that would be another thing. It is just like out there in the fields-if we lay the drain pipes in the earth we must put marks in the earth so that we can find ;them again; but when we set corn, it is not necessary to mark the place. It comes up again." Those of us who were at Brasstown during the ten or twelve weeks while the community digested its information about co-operative credit association, faced the difficulties and responsibilities they would have to meet in operating such an association, and then of their own will and impetus took upon themselves the new responsibilities and burdens of operation of this co-operative enterprise, feel that this step will "come up again." Come up again in rich human values of neighborly service, in enlightened understanding of daily economic problems through the handling of them, in fostering local leadership, broadening sympathies and deepening understanding. As Desjardins, "Father of Credit Unions" on this continent, said of the mission of these organizations: "However important it may be to prevent the farmer and the working man from falling into the clutches of the usurers, it is of even higher importance to educate and A Demonstration By State Horticulturist in Pruning Grapevines. enlighten these same farmers and working men so that they may be in a position to protect themselves; to teach them to manage their own business so that they may become thrifty and valuable members of the community- . . . . Success for the young democracies of this continent depends upon the prosperity and worth of life to the millions of workingmen who compose them." That the "worth of life" may be added to in the Brasstown community is the earnest hope of these brave men and women who, in taking upon themselves new burdens to bring it to pass, are "so happy" they can "hardly keep from singing." wage 44 Southern Mountain Life and Work -' -- ~ July, 1926 Friendly Books for Quiet Nooks By Florence Holmes Ridgway MOUNTAIN LIFE PORTkA1TZTRE The person who goes unchartered among books and magazines articles about the Southern Mountain folk may find himself in a wilderness of confusion. The mountain region has long been a favorite hunting ground for auth~ors and publishers in search of viands with which to tickle the palate of a sensation loving public. The resulting output of material about the mountains therefore, is large in quantity and much of its quality must be called in question. The searcher for information may well inquire "What has been written that is dependable?" In looking over this field of literature one may discover three groups of writers. The -exploiters are in the majority and have had the largest influence in shaping popular thought. A smaller group which has gained attentive hearing by reason of their obvious sincere purpose is made up of what may be termed enthusiasts; usually they are engaged in some worthy welfare enterprise but have allowed their outlook to be narrow. The third group, regrettably small, is composed of those who write with fairness, accuracy and balance. To this group much appreciation is due from both the mountain people and those in the country .at large for they have promoted mutual understanding. They are the real portraitists of the mountain people. Of this group the most outstanding figure is that of John :C. Campbell who wrote The Southern Highlander and his Home Land. This book is more comprehensive than any other on -the subject. Living in the mountains the greater part of his life, traversing them in every direction and .entering into the everyday lives of the people, he acquired a very intimate knowledge and understanding. His scholarly presentation of .their history, his analysis of conditions and resources, his judicial weighing of the .problems and his carefully chosen narrations :make .his book of inestimable use fulness to the student of mountain life. The volume was reviewed more at length in a former issue of this magazine. A book from the pen of a native of the mountains naturally awakens our expectations and no disappointment comes in reading The Spirit of the Mountains by Emma B. Miles. Altho written a score of years ago it remains a very enriching contribution to mountain bibliography. She writes of the inner life of her people with a keenness of understanding made possible only by subjective experience. No writer points more plainly to the forces which have shaped the beliefs, attitudes and habits of the mountain people. "The poignant sweetness and the infinite pathos of common things" fill her pages. "Why do these people stay in the mountains"? is a question one often hears from "furriners". Mrs. Miles replies in part: "Only a superficial observer could fail to understand that the mountain people. love their wilderness -love it for its beauty, for its freedom. I once rode up the mountain with a grandmother who cried out, as the overhanging curve of the bluff, crowned with pines, came into view: `Now ain't that finer than any picter you ever seed in your life?-and they call us pore mountaineers! We git more out o'life than anybody.' " Of their religion she writes: "The mountaineer will have none of the thousand and one adjuncts of modern forms of worship lest they obscure his vision of vital truth . . . . If he makes himself ridiculous, as might often seem to the more sophisticated view . . .and cries down all graces of refinement, one must bear in mind that it is because of a real passion for simplicity; it is not the mere blundering crudeness of a boor." Speaking of the popular idea about crime in the mountains, the author states a fact which cannot be too often repeated: "That more killings do not occur in the mountain country in proportion to the number of inhabi July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 45 tams than elsewhere is a fact beyond dispute . . . . Crime, as such, is not condoned by any' mountaineer worthy the name. The criminal belongs ,to the submerged, the unwashed, the unfit, and is besides, hopelessly in the minority. It is only the desperado here and there who figures so consipicuously in the newspapers; the peaceable many are unknown to the public." The chapter "Some Real American Music" holds forth the hope ,that the music of the mountains may have deserved recognition because it is "not only peculiar, but like the Southern mountaineer himself, peculiarly American . . . . Crude with a tang of the Indian wilderness, strong with the strength of the mountains, yet, in a way, mellowed with the flavor of Chaucer's time-surely this is folk-song of a high order. May it not one day give birth to a music than shall take a high place among the world's great schools of expression?" The author values likewise the literary qualities of mountain thought and speech. "Inasmuch as it contains the American spirit, humor-)us and honest, this literature of a humble folk may contribute toward the formation of that national literature which American people are seeking. Let no one who would . welcome an expression truly national despise the quaint lore of the Southern mountaineers . . .This dialect is, of course, sprinkled thickly with corruptions... But, even so, there is enough excellent Saxon and Gaelic to prove the right of the dialect to a place of honor. Homely as it is, one gains here an idea of the old unpolluted language of the English people, simple, sincere, full of the energy of forcible Saxon words, unexcelled in clearness, spirit and strength. I think that I personally obtain a peculiar pleasure from the reading of old authors not granted to many, from so familiar knowledge of the old form in which they wrote. I am enabled to read more as their own contemporary public may have read them... There is a certain wild and elemental poetry in this speech of the mountaineer. He is never quite commonplace for all his uncouth exterior . . . . Terse and piquant proverbs abound in the everyday talk of mountain homes . . .. It has happened Ã¢â‚¬Â¢nore than once in the history of the world that a collection of just such proverbs has formed the beginning of a literature. And if songs and tales and rhymes that have never been rendered into letters can be said to be literature, we surely have one of our own, however crude it may be." To many readers the part of Mrs. Miles' book which will linger longest in memory is her vivid portrayal of the lone, pathetic figure of the mountain woman. "At twenty the mountain woman is old in all that makes a woman old-toil, sorrow, childbearing, loneliness and pitiful want. She knows the weight not only of her own years; she has dwelt since childhood in the shadow of centuries gone . . . Thus it comes that early in' childhood she grows into dim consciousness of the vastness of human experience and the nobility of it. She learns to look upon the common human lot as a high calling. She gains the courage of the fatalist; the surety that nothing can happen which has not happened before; that, whatever she may be called upon to endure, she will yet know that others have undergone its like over and over again. Her lot is inevitably one of service and of suffering, and refines only as it is meekly and sweetly borne. For this reason she is never quite commonplace. To her mind nothing is trivial, all things being great with a meaning of divine purpose." In the future of her people Mrs. Miles has a great faith. She believes that the question of "elevating the masses" is not applicable to the mountain people in the ordinary sense of the word . . . . "The need is for development not foreign to our natures, cultivation of talents already in blossom. Let us be given work that will make us better mountaineers, instead of turning us into poor imitation city- people . . . . . work that shall uplift instead of degrade; work that shall make the influence of the mountaineers a peculiar and beneficent force in their beloved country . . . . I make the statement more as a hope than as a prophecy, but I feel sure of my ground in saying that these North American Highlanders will yet .become a grand race... To the mountains, in time to come, we may look for great men, thinkers as well as workers, leaders of religious and poetic thought, and statesmen above all . . . From Rage 46 Southern Mountain the mountains will yet arise a quickening of American ideals and American life." From Almetta of Gabriel's Run by Louise S. Murdoch one catches the true atmosphere of mountain life as no other book has given it. Qualified by experience and personality for the writing, she gives in story form a study of mountain life which combines accuracy with depth of penetration and delicacy of portrayal. For many years Mrs. Murdoch was connected with a school in the mountains and she indentified herself with the people in a singularly beautiful way. She makes slight attempt at plot but gives a quiet narrative of the everyday life of a mountain neighborhood. One readily feels at home with the people and realizes that he is in goodly company. Shrewd wit and homely philosophy abound; one sees quaint customs and hears rich dialect; he looks upon toil and hardship, upon quiet joys and ancient sorrows; and ever around him move fine souled folk who have learned the mastery of suffering, the art of courageous living. In fllmetta, the orphaned child, is embodied the charm of mountain girlhood, untutored but of innate fineness. Thru her sorrows the beautiful big heartedness of the mountain folk has expression. Under Orlena's friendly roof she finds a real home and in Orlena one sees the mountain mother at her best. The sweetly simple faith of her people is voiced when the child, recounting her hard experiences, says "Orleny, I never have lacked for a shelter. Mam allers told us that they was a heap o' trouble, but ef we'd be honest an' peaceable they'd allers be a comin'; out place and they alters has." (To be Continued) SPEAKING OF THE CONFERENCE (Continued from page two) one afternoon may be reserved for group meetings. This can be easily managed if we meet, as seems probable, in the new Young Women's Christian Association building in Knoxville where there are a number of small rooms available. By way of criticism, the Conference meet Life, and Worn July, 1926 ings offered too little opportunity for the delegates to become acquainted with each other and to talk over matters of common interest. More singing of old and new songs would have been of inspirational. and practical help. It is exceedingly unfortunate that more of the church and school boards cannot meet at least part of the expenses of their workers, as some do now. New faces mean new friends every year but only a small fraction of those who should and would like to come can do so. In closing, we feel like expressing a word of appreciation to Berea which through Mountain Life and Work is making the Conference influence more widely felt. Let us rally to the support of this publication with our contributions of subscriptions and notes of interest. It can be of mutual benefit to us all in our work and an interpreter of the Mountains to our friends all over the country. -Olive D. Campbell "Relief, if it is to he helpful, must strengthen not weaken character; it must have for its object the good and not the comfort of individuals. There are those on the moral borderland, whose noble strivings for self dependence can be weakened or killed by careless doles, and the degradation of obtaining them. There are charitable people who give and by their gifts increase greed."-Canon Barnett. "It is well to be chastened in spirit but is a thousand times better to. be invigorated in spirit."-George -Russell, Irish Statesman. WORKERS EDUCATIONAL CREED "We believe that the purpose of education for young and for old is the understanding and enjoyment of life and that the uneducated man is not he who cannot read or write or spell or count but he who walks unseeing and unhearing, unaccompanied and unhappy, through the busy thoroughfares and glorious open spaces of life's pilgrimage. "WoeÃ‚Â°ld's Association for Adult Education, 13 John St. Ad~elphia, London W. C. 2. July, 1926 Southern Mountain Life and Work Page 47 Music Section Contributed Down In The Valley. As sunk by Miss Lula Hale, Quicksands, Kentucky. -6Down in the val - ley, the val - ley so low, Hang your head o - ver, Hear the winds blow; . Hear the winds blow, dear, Hear the winds blow, Hang your head o - ver, Hearthe winds blow. Down in the valley, the valley so low, Hang your head over, Hear the winds blow. Hear the winds blow, dear, Hear the winds blow, Hang your head over, Hear the winds blow. Violets love sunshine, roses love dew Angels in Heaven, knows I love you Knows I love you dear, knows I love you Angels in Heaven knows I love you. If you don't love me, love whom you please, Throw your arms around me, give my heart ease Give my heart ease dear, give my heart ease, Throw your arms around me, give my heart ease. Throw your arms around me, before it's too late Throw your arms around me, feel my heart break Feel my heart break, dear, feel my heart break, Throw your arms around me, feel my heart break. Go write me a letter, write it today, Stamp it to-morrow, send it away Send it away dear, serd it away, Stamp it tomorrow, send it away. Write in this letter, containing three lines, Answer my question, will you be mine? Will you be mine, dear? Will you be mine? Answer my question, will you be mine? Go build a castle, a hundred feet high So I can see him as he goes by, As he goes by dear, as he goes by, So I can see him, as he goes by. Violets love surshine, roses love dew Angels in Heaven, knows I love you Knows I love you, dear, knows I love you Angels in Heaven knows I love you. The Music Section of Mountain Life and Work is like a song breathed into the air: we hope to find it again in the hearts of many friends. The Privilege of "singing" is open to everyone who delights in music, who desires to promote interest in it, and who can communicate beauty through publishing choice songs or pieces not usually found in print. It would be fine if we could infect the world with a contagion of song! The ballad published this month is the new song Miss Stocki.n sang at the Knoxville Conference. It was written as nearly as possible as it was sung by Miss Lula Hale of Quicksand, Kentucky, and she sang it just as the people in Knott County sing it today and have sung it for many years. Other ballads will be published in each edition. "A nation can exhibit no greater political wisdom in the mass than it generates in its units. It is the pregnant idealism of the multitude which gives power to the makers of great nations, otherwise the prophets of civilization are helpless as preachers in the desert and solitary places. So I have always preached self help above all other kinds of help, knowing that if we strove passionately after this righteousness, all other kinds of help would be at our service. "Georye Russell, Irish Statesman. Page 48 F Southern Mountain Life and Work July, 1926 A LIST OF VICTOR RECORDS FOR USE IN SCHOOLS Christmas Hymns and Carols-No. 35 712 $1.25 These beautiful carols are sung by the Trinity choir of New York. This record will be inspirational in chorus singing, it will furnish a topic for a story about old Trinity Church and early New York, and will be fine for the children and grown-ups alike to sing with. Swing Low Sweet Chariot ) -17890 ,75 These Negro Spirituals are sung by the Tuskegee Institute Singers. They are the truest American folkmusic, sung with fine expressiveness and rich harmony, yet simply enough so they may be caught by ear, these songs will be an invaluable addition to the song life of a school. Stars and Stripes Forever-Sousa-35389 Every school ought to have a good march and use it until rhythm is a part of every child's life. This record does not grow stale as some of the more catchy tunes do, but will always give a thrill to the march, exercises or program for which it is used. Birds of the Forest ) 16835 Spring Voices ) These are whistling records by the best artist in that line--Gialdini. Some boys may not like to sing but Steal Away .75 every boy may learn to whistle without injuring his dignity, and these records will be a source of pleasure and inspiration to them. The bird calls will open an avenue of nature study that will prove delightful to the whole community. Mid-summer Night's Dream This overture by Mendelssohn may be had in a red seal record or a black; the red seal may be a little more expensive but will be worth the extra money. It is played by an orchestra, (which will open a way for explaining different orchestral instruments and training ears to listen for their "voices"); it has a literary connection that will correlate with English and composition; .it is delightful music written by a man whom children should know as they know the poets, and it will never grow tiresome. The Swan (cello solo by Kindler)-45096 $1.00 A selection of great musical beauty and charm, a rippling accompaniment with a graceful flowing melody like the motion of a swan. This music is the very essence of poetry and imagery and will grow better with repeated hearings. Any person who wishes books or lists on this subject may write to Miss Margaret Streeter, c',o Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, New Jersey, telling of the musical situation in his school and his needs. Miss Streeter will be glad to give helpful suggestions and list of new recordings. The records listed here may be procured from any Victor store or directly from Camden.