You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Mountain Life & Work vol. 30 no. 1 Winter, 1954 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv30n10154 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 30 no. 1 Winter, 1954 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky Winter, 1954 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. 25, MOUNTAIN LIFEand WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN VOL. XXX, No. _1 LIFE and WORK __ WINTER, 1954 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS. LINCOLN HALL, BEREA COLLEGE. BEREA. KY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTEF AT BEREA. KY. STAFF: RECREATION--.Frank H. Smith, College Station, Berea, Ky. EDUCATION--Grazia K. Combs, Viper, Ky. HEALTH-Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Crossville, Tenn. RELIGION--Dr. Sam Yonder Meer, Morris Fork, Ky. STAFF PHOTOGRAPHFRS--Ed DuPuy, Black Mountain, N. C. Roy N. Walters, Berea, Ky. STAFF ARTIST--Mrs. Burton Rogers, Pine Mountain, Ky. MANAGING EDITOR--Charles Drake, College Station, Berea,Ky. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY--Perley F. Ayer, Berea, Ky. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKERS, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. ~/ Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WOP.KERS Box 2000, College Station Berea, Ky. ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILYTHE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENdORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS Cover, Ed Dodd; 4, Smith College News office; 10,11,13, Save the Children Federation from State-Wide School Studios, Reidsville, N. C.; 24, W. M. Horn,Louisville, Ky.; 29,30,31, Division of Publicity, Kentucky Department of Conservation; 33, Penland Photo; 41, Bard McAllister; LILY MERCERIZED PEARL COTTON AND FLOSS, ART. 114 Sizes 3, 5, 10 and 20, and Six Strand Floss 80 fast colors in 1-11b. cones, 2-oz. tubes LILY COTTON WARP YARN, ART. 314 1-I b. cones, 2-oz. tubes Handweavers, NOW you can order all your handweaving supplies from one source. A large and complete stock of the highest quality yarns is now available for prompt shipment in quantities to suit your needs. Choose from a wonderful assortment of sizes and colors in Cottons, Wools, Linens, non-tarnishing Metallics, Novelties and Nylkara (half nylon, half vicars) . . . Also Looms (including the folding Leclerc Loom), Warping Frames, Bobbin Racks and Winders, Table Reels and Tension Boxes. Write today for free price list or send $1 for complete color cards and illustrated catalog (this $1 can ' oplied to your next order for $10 or more of yarns). LILY RUG FILLER, ART. 614 4-oz. skeins The Handweaver's Headquarters LILY THREE STRAND, ART. 714 1-Ib. cones, 2-oz. tubes LILY MILLS C0. DEPT. HWB, SHELBY, N. C. ELIZABETH SPENCER. LEFT. AND MARIANNE GLASEL. RIGHT. CONGRATULATE JOAN STRONG. CENTER, WHO HAS JUST BEEN AWARDED THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKSHIP PROVIDED BY THE SMITH COLLEGE COMMUNITY. MISS SPENCER AND MISS GLASEL WERE SELECTED AS ALTERNATES FOR THE WORKSHIP. MISS STRONG BEGINS HER TRAINING THIS SUMMER. JOAN STRONG AWARDED WORKSHIP THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN WORKSHIP, a fellowship awarded annually to a member of the senior class at Smith College for recreation work and training in the South, has been made to Miss ',/ Joan Strong, of Seattle, Washington, it was announced today at the college in Northampton, Massachusetts. Named as alternates are Miss Elizabeth Spencer of New Canaan, Connecticut, and Miss Marianne Glasel, of Scarsdale, New York. Miss Strong is the tenth consecutive winner of the Southern Mountain Workship, which is the only institution of its kind under the joint sponsorship of a college and the Council of Southern Mountain Workers. The fellowship carries a $1, 000 stipend, provided entirely by the community of Smith College through the campus Service Fund, and board and lodging, provided by the communities served. Miss Strong, who is majoring in music at Smith, as are the two alternates, will spend nine months beginning next fall, in various parts of the Southern Appalachian region doing recreational work. The details of the terms under which her services are available and a report of the excellent work which has been done by Miss Sylvia Carstens, the current Smith College Workship girl, will appear in the May issue of Mountain Life and Work. Miss Joan Strong is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Dexter K. Strong, Lakeside School, Seattle, Washington, formerly of the Pomfret School, Promfret, Connecticut. i i G~u~''~ /~a~ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢. s K, WA; ~ C~! IwBDBIIICI( J ~A1~ IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR IIANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples I FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. Est. less SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and wools-and samples of the weaving wonls described above-all tot $1.00 postpaid, whit be refunded on first order of $10 or more. Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of ppTONS and BALOWINS Weaving wools from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious wools that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanfer "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. Rltghro Na1UrPtt, .'~Jrir. Folk Hymns for Singing... Wondrous Love FT- I What won-drous love is this, 0 my soul, 0 my soul! v What won-drous love is this, 0 my soul! What won-drous love is this that caused the lord of bliss Am - 40 to send such per-feet peace to my soul, to my soul! n To send such per-fect peace to my soul! Ye wing-ed seraphs fly, bear the news, bear the news! Ye wing-ed seraphs fly, bear the news! Ye wing-ed seraphs fly like comfits through the sky, fill vast eternity with the news, with the news! Fill vast eternity with the news! To God and to The Lamb I will sing, 1 will sing! I To God and to The Lamb I will sing! To God and to The Lamb, Jehovah Great I am, while millions join the theme I will sing, I will sing! ii While millions join the theme I will sing! i ((((This folk hymn is found in The Southern Harmony, published in Spartanburg, S. C., in 1834. It is also known by word-of-mouth to many of our mountain people. The verses given here were edited by Richard Chase from several sources, oral and printed. A good four-part arrangement for choral singing is given in Twelve Folk Hymns, edited by John Powell, Hilton Rufty and.Annabel Morris Buchanan, and published by J. Fischer and Brother, 119 W. 40th St., New York City.)))) esfivalsSOUVHERN HIGHLANDS MOUNTAIN FOLK FESTIVAL THE NINETEENTH ANNUAL Mountain Folk Festival will be held at Berea College, April 1-3, 1954. The first meeting will take place in Seabury Gymnasium on Thursday, April 1, at 7:30 p. m. The main purpose of the Festival is to encourage the preservation and use of folk material: songs, dances, tales, dance tunes. The events are all on a noncompetitive basis, and every group shares equally in all the activities. The leaders of participating groups find that the Festival is one of the highlights in the social and recreational experience of those who attend. These leaders are well trained in the activities, having attended the Christmas Country Dance School, or the Short Course at Brasstown, North Carolina. In some cases they have gone farther afield by spending a summer vacation at Pinewoods Camp near Plymouth, Massachusetts. This nationally famous camp is operated by the Country Dance Society of America, of which May Gadd is the National Director. Full information about the Festival may be obtained by writing to Frank H. Smith, Chairman, Mountain Folk Fe,tival Committee, Box 1826, Berea College, Berea, KentuckÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ . #### VIRGINIA HIGHLANDS, FESTIVAL THE SIXTH VIRGINIA HIGHLANDS FESTIVAL will be held at Abingdon, Va. , August 1-15 this year. The Festival will offer at least 14 different activities during the twoweeks period. An antique show will be held the first week, with exhibits, workshops, and lectures on antiques. Classes in arts and crafts, puppets and marionettes, photography, folk games and dances, and natural and human resources will be offered. A creative writing contest will be held, along with music concerts and lectures. The Barter Theatre will present plays nightly except Sunday. Credit courses in elementary science, school and community 9 relations, mental hygiene, adult education in the arts, and in different phases of music are being offered through Emory and Henry College and through the University of Virginia Extension. Printed information about the Festival is available and may be obtained by writing Virginia Highland Festival, Box 64, Abingdon, Va. KENTUCKY FOLK FESTIVAL The Kentucky Folk Festival will be held the second weekend in April at the Univ. of Ky., Lexington, Ky. A book of directions for the games to be used is available. For more information write: Miss Lovaine Lewis, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. VERY SPECIAL OFFER to readers of MOUNTAIN LIFE and WORK WICKED JOHN AND THE DEVIL -retold by Richard Chase ONLY $1. 00, including postage. (regularly $2. 00) The quandary of old John who was so mean the devil refused to have him makes a hilarious folk tale worthy of becoming an American classic. It delights children and adults. Wonderful for reading aloud or telling to any age group from about 8 years up. Order several for gifts. All copies autographed. SEND YOUR DOLLAR TO: Dorothy Nace Pine Mountain Settlement School Pine Mountain, Kentucky Other books by Richard Chase (order from above address) Jack and the Three Sillies - $2.00 - postage 8Ã‚Â¢ Hullabaloo and Other Singing Games - $2.00 - postage 8Ã‚Â¢ Grandfather Tales - $2.75 - postage 12Ã‚Â¢ Jack Tales - $3.00- postage 12Ã‚Â¢ (These two books for $5.50 - postage 16Ã‚Â¢) to PARENTS HELP BUILD A DENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM When parents of children attending a newly consolidated school in the Virginia Highlands discovered a serious health need among the students, they come Charles Jones ~ together from a wide area and solved it through parent-school cooperation. The project began with leaders from each community represented in the school meeting together(above). ALMOST ANY CROP can be planted, cultivated and harvested within a period of six months. More time is required to plant an idea in the minds of persons, cultivate it and bring forth a harvest. The reason, of course, is that the human beings have the wonderful capacity to reject ideas as well as to accept them. While this capacity is disconcerting to those who would work with them, be they "mountain workers" or "social workers," it is good that it is so. This is the story of an idea -- its planting, growth and the anticipated harvest. THE IDEA The idea took shape when the area consultant of the Save the Children Federation visited Patrick Central School, a new five hundred thousand dollar consolidated school in Patrick County, Virginia. The consultant approached this visit with the idea that since consolidation had replaced seven dilapidated one room schools with the large modern educational building, the help of his organization was no longer needed. The principal of the school, Mr. Percy Stone, had another idea. His idea came out of experience and the consultant's out of reflection. Stone's was better. He said, "We have a new building but the same children. Their teeth are in bad condition. Neither they nor their parents have ever had instruction in the care of teeth. Few of them have access to a dentist for there is but one in the county and income is low. Why not, with the help of the S. C. F. , try to get these folks themselves to work out the problem of dental health and the education of their children?" PLANTING THE IDEA So in October of 1952 the principal and the consultant visited the nearest dentist available for this work (some 32 miles away) to test the This was the first visit to the dentist for most of these youngsters and some are more pleased than others at the prospect. The program began with a thorough examination for each child in the school by Dr. M. 0. Johnson, shown below, with an assistant keeping a record for future reference. Mr. Percy Stone, principal of the school, looks on. 12 practicality of the idea. Dr. M. O. Johnson, of Martinsville, Virginia had practised dentistry long enough to discover lack of care and ignorance concerning dental healthwas doing permanent damage to teeth, gums and the general health of many of those who lived removed from the small towns and cities. He was willing to think about it and work on the problem with us. Then a talk with the president of the P. T. A. and some leaders in the school led to a P. T. A. meeting with the subject "Teeth - Their Importance and Their Care". A good educational movie was shown, followed with a discussion led by the doctor in whose mind and imagination the idea had already begun to fake root. Patrons of the school exhibited concern enough to appoint a special committee consisting of one person from each of the communities served by the school, with the principal and the area consultant of the S. C. F. as advisers. THE IDEA GROWS During the course of the next months the idea took root and grew as this committee met in two long deliberative sessions, with in-between visits to the doctor for consultation, until the following plan began to bud. The P. T. A. of the school should make an effort to buy a good secondhand dental chair which would be installed in a suitable room. An agreement with Dr. Johnson was proposed whereby he would spend one day a week working at the school. During the first year's operation the doctor would 1) examine and clean the teeth of every child in the school; 2) do all necessary extractions; 3) instruct each child in proper .~ methods of cleaning the teeth. Only emergency fillings would be attempted. A four year plan of operation was envisioned. The principal and some members of the faculty turned their minds toward the problems of education in dental health and care of the teeth. Plans for theme writing, posters, discussions in class rooms, chapel programs, etc. were discussed. This school serves the entire county and some families live as far as thirty-eight miles away. So the P. T. A. meetings did not reach into the majority of the homes. Each local community representative on the Committee made arrangements for a community meeting in his locality, held either in a church or the former one-room school. The day of the evening on which this locality meeting was scheduled the principal of the school, the area consultant of the S. C. F. and the local committee representative visited from a dozen to twenty homes to talk over the program and remind them of the evening meeting. During each of the local group meetings in the evenings an educational film "Why and How to Care for the Teeth" was shown. The local community representative introduced the principal of the school j and the S. C. F area consultant, who between them presented and led a discussion of the proposed dental health and educational program of the P. T. A. These visits were in August, 1953, thus giving the principal an opportunity to discuss the problems of the opening of the 13 new school term in September. The first P. T. A. meeting of the current school year was held the latter part of September and the special P. T. A. committee on dental health and education proudly announced the purchase of a secondhand dental chair which was due to be delivered before the next P. T. A. meeting in October. The doctor had set Wednesdays as his work day. Tooth brushes and supplies were ordered and by November the first the program was to begin. Between the planting of the idea and the beginning of the harvest there has been a full year's time. THE HARVEST It is obvious the most direct result of this project will be the examination, cleaning, extraction or filling of the bad teeth of every child in this school. But the by-products of the program may prove as valuable as the actual dental work and education. The inner satisfaction to the working committee, the P. T. A. and all who have cooperated in the project cannot be measured qualitatively. An incalculable amount of self-respect and human dignity has been preserved which will mean much to those of sensitive spirit. Many persons who would have otherwise been "charity" patients are now part of the solution of a problem instead of being the problem. The training and self-confidence that have come to those who used their imaginations and resources in setting up and carrying through the project may carry over in such a way as to enable the P. T. A. to undertake other projects in the future. ##### (((((The author is a minister in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. He worked with Save the Children Federation during a leave of absence from his pulpit last year.))))) A DENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM IS BEING CARRIED ON IN THE SCHOOL. HERE A STUDENT EXPLAINS A POSTER SHE MADE TO CHARLES JONES. AUTHOR OF THIS ARTICLE. 14 LEONARD ROBERTS SHARES WITH US ... lo A ta~e.4 lo r Eeff ray... This story contains a variety of folktale types. Among others it has Type 1137, Polyphemus, Type 1889, Miinchausen Tales, 1890, 1895, 1900, ~.J etc. These latter types may easily be accounted for in Eastern Kentucky since tall hunting and fishing tales have always been a favorite entertainment of our American frontiersmen and pioneers. But the one-eyed giant'in this story is almost unique in American folklore. He has come down to us from the Odyssey of Homer, the .4eneid of Virgil, the Arabian Nights, and more recently in More English Fairy Tales, no. 61 and Celtic Fairy Tales, no. 5. This story was told by Jim Couch, age 47, Putney, Harlan County, Kentucky. THE ONE-EYED GIANT BACK IN 1901 I was down in Mississippi, at Camp Shelby. I had me two companions down there and we took a notion we would go on a fishin trip down the Mississippi River. It was an awful wilderness down there where we went and time we got down to where we wanted to go we was lost. We looked away acrost the river and saw a little blue smoke boiling up out of a little shack. We got to callin and hollerin for help. Well, we called and called and after while they was an ole one-eyed giant--lived over there--after while he got his boat and come over and got us. He took us over to his shack or cave where he lived. Now on the trip down the river we three men had to climb trees to get away from the snakes of a night and other varmints, and I had skinned a place on my belly. Party bad sore. The old giant took us in to his cave and welcomed us. He started feedin and fattenin us up mighty good. I didn't know what it was for and they didn't neither. But it looked like he was fattenin us up like a farmer a-fattenin his hogs. He was goin to eat us. Well, it come a time, one of my buddies was good and fat. The old giant come and took him out. We never heard a thing of him again. And in a few days he come and took the other'n out and left me alone in his cave. Next time he come back I asked him, said, "Why, where's my buddies?" He laughed and said, "Hawr, hawr, hawr. You needn't mind your buddies." Said, "They make good steak," and said, "When that sore's cured on your belly you'll make good steak too!" Now he'd go out of a day and he'd herd his goats. He had an awful good herd a goats. And he'd come back in of a night and 15 herd his goats in the cave and then lay down out front and sleep. I knowed my time was short when I saw the sore on my belly healin up purty good. I had -a notion one day that I could ex-cape. But when he'd come in to the cave and get ready to sleep he'd set a big rock up in the cave door, after he'd herd his goats in. And they weren't no way for me to ex-cape out through it. He went to sleep one evenin in the front of the cave and I took my chance. They was a big bunch of am a-layin around there, like pokin sticks for his far. They was kindly sharp on one end. I took and chunked up the far and belt them arns in that far till they got good and red. You know, he was a oneeyed giant. His eye was right in the middle of his fore'ead. I het them arns good and hot and I slipped up to him and I rammed about four of them right down in that big eye. He raised from there a-buttin them walls and a-carryin on. He got right in the entrance of the cave and he roared out, "YOU WON'T GET AWAY WITH THIS I" I managed to stay out of his way till he hushed and then he moved the rock from over the cave door. And he set right in it. Well, he had one old goat there he called his pet. I picked that very old goat because he was the biggest and got right up between that goat's legs, right under the bottom of his belly and got a-hold of his wool. I tried to stampede that goat herd out of there, but he stopped 'em and let 'em out one at a time. 16 They kept a-goin out of the cave, and this very old particular goat that I was on--or under, I mean--when he come up to the old giant he stopped. That old giant rubbed him over. He said, "I knowed you'd never fail me." Said, "You're my pet and I love ye. " Was I scared! But it happened that he didn't find me, and the old goat passed on through. When all of them passed on through and got out he knowed that I'd somehow ex-taped. When I got out from there I made for the river, and he come out of there a -squallin. And when I looked around and down the river I saw seven other big giants a-comin. I made my getaway and got to the boat in the river and hopped in it. I felt awful anxious by the time I hit that water. And by the time they all got up there why I was two-thirds of the way acrost. Now there was some great big high mountains standin on that side of the river bank, clifts there that weighed tons. Well, they grabbed one of them clifts and throwed it at me. In the place of sinkin me they just shoved me on all the way acrost. WHEN I COME OUT OF THAT DANGER I had an old hog rifle-gun, but I just had one bullet. I took up the river bank and had to climb trees of a night from the snakes and wild varmints. One day about noon I was settin on the bank of the river, and of course I was lost. There come along a great big flock of wild geese and flew up in a water-birch right over where I was a-settin and lit on a limb. I managed and studied how I would get that flock with one bullet. Well, I finally thought of a way to get all them geese at one shot. I shot right up through the middle of that limb and split it and it clamped back and caught all them geese's toes. I clomb up the tree, took my old galluses and tied all them geese together and tied myself to them. I thought I'd jump off with 'em to the ground. But instid, them geese flew off with me. They flew on and on with me, and when. they got to goin further than I wanted to go I just ripped out my knife and cut the old strings that I had tied to 'em and myself. That dropped me, and the luck was I fell right down in an old holler snag. I felt something under my feet and rubbin against my britches legs. Felt awful soft but I couldn't find out for awhile what it 1 was. I soon found out it was some cub bears. I heard a racket all at once comin down the holler of that tree, just rip, rip, rip. I reached up with my hand--I couldn't see--and I just happened to clinch an old bear right by the tail. Well, I had 17 that old rusty Barlow knife with the blade about half broke off. I tuck that knife and I commenced jobbin that bear, and she tuck right back up that holler tree and carried me out the top. I clomb down and started on. I didn't have any bullets left in my old hog rifle-gun, but you know we always carried a wiperan-ram-rod. As I was goin along I loaded my old rifle with powder and with that wiper. Purty soon I come upon one of these old Russian wild boars and a bear a-fightin. I taken aim with that wiper and killed that bear. And then me and the boar had it around a few trees. I took around a little sugar maple, about six, eight inches at the stump, and that boar made a lunge at me and hit that tree. His tusk went plum through it and come out on the other side. I grabbed me up a rock and bradded that tusk on the other side and there I had that old boar too. Well, I went on for home for a horse to come and get my meat. When I started to go across an old field by the river I got tangled up in some old sawbriars and down I come. I fell on a whole flock of pateridges and killed 'em. Gathered up my pateridges and went on till I come to the river. I had to wade it and I was so dirty and ragged I just left on my huntin shirt. I waded that river and when I come out I'd caught a whole shirt-tail full of fish. I just rolled up my shirt like a poke and took 'em on. I moved on in home. Well, the old horse I had he was awful pore, and he had a puny sore back from a saddle scald. But I got that old horse ready and started back with him to get my bear and my boar. Got over in the woods purty close to where my wild meat was at and that old horse slidded up and fell and hurt hisself, and he wasn't able to carry no bear in. I just stripped him and turned him loose in the woods, live or die. You know, in about fifteen years after that I was back in that same place again a-huntin. I saw a tree a-shake, shake, shakin up toward the top of the mountain. I decided to investigate and see what it was. I went up there and saw what it was. A acorn had fallen in the horse's back and made a acorn tree. A big gang o'wild hogs was follerin that old horse around, bitin his heels, makin him kick up and shake them acorns off for 'em. (((((Leonard Roberts is head of the Department of English, Piedmont College, Demorest, Ga., and is a regular contributor to this magazine.)) 18 Here is an inexpensive game for every schoolyard, for the backyard of every home. It can be played by every agechildren, teachers, parents, grandparents. It is called... Tether Ball CUT A STRONG, SLENDER POLE about thirteen feet long. Set it firmly in the ground, to stand ten feet high. Indoors it need be only six to eight feet high and fastened to a solid base. Make a mark around the pole, four feet from the top, or lower for smaller players. Draw a circle three feet in radius on the ground or floor around the pole. Draw a line up to twenty feet long through this circle to divide the play area into two halves, one for each player. Punch a small hole through a sponge rubber ball, about the size of a tennis ball, LINE FOR and push the end of a cord through the hole TALL PLAYERS and tie a washer or some other small pliable object to the end to keep the cord from pulling out. The best cord to use is what Z` is called curtain cord. It is small, strong, L I NE F OR S H ORT and woven so that it will not unravel. It PLAYERS can be purchased inexpensively from any mail order house or hardware store. The cord should be tied to the top of the pole (easier to do before the pole is set into the 13 ` ground) at just the right length so the ball will clear the ground when swinging freely. Make two heavy, 5/8" plywood paddles, somewhat larger and stronger than ping gong paddles. 3/4" boards of light wood, ' ,': / : , ~ like soft pine or poplar, may be used instead of plywood if necessary. Tennis Earth racquets and tennis balls may be substi tuted if desired but do not make as fast a - ~ game and are not as durable. A tennis ball must not be pierced, but needs to be cradled ' in a tight net of knotted cord. The solid 20 Lay out your tether ball court in this way: paddles and firmer ball are better. This completes your equipment. The object of the game is to bat the ball so that it will wind the cord and ball around the pole above the mark, one player winding in one direction and the other in the opposite direction. The player winning the "toss" or "shake" has the choice of side and direction in which to wind the ball. The other player has first serve. The server begins the game by batting the ball in the direction opposite to that chosen by his opponent. To serve, he may stand anywhere he chooses in his own area. The other player bats it in the other direction. From now until the cord and ball wrap tightly around the pole above the mark, each player may hit the ball as often as he chooses and as many times as possible, provided, however, that he must keep outside the circle and on his own side of the dividing line. A player has a free serve, taken without unwinding the cord, whenever his opponent winds the ball up below the mark, touches the ball with his hands, or stops the play by accidentally winding the cord and ball around the hand or paddle. A player wins a game (1) when he succeeds in winding the cord and ball completely up around the pole above the mark, or (2) when his opponent steps over the bounds or strikes the pole or ground with his paddle. The winner then plays against a challenger from among the spectators.##### (((((Illustrated by Nelson B. Delavan,Jr., and diagrams drawn by Ersal Kindel, both on the faculty of Berea College, Berea, Ky. This is another in a series of articles showing how equipment can be built for the home, school, or community center playground.))))) (((((Have you ever wished you might have some new games to play in your family or in your community recreational program? If so, you will be interested in these... GAMES FROM OTHER LANDS by Frank Smith Lynn Rohrbough has enriched the possibilities of quiet, indoor recreation by collecting games from all parts of the world and giving them to us in the little volume, Ancient Games (Kit N), published by the Cooperative Recreation Service. Delaware, Ohio. Among the 29 games are Nine Men's Morris, Chinese Friends, Fox and Geese, Go Muko, Ruma, Wari and Yoot, to mention but a few. They represent every part of the world, from Yoot of Korea to Wari from Africa. One of the most popular games is Nine Men's Morris. About this game, Mr. Rohrbough says: NINE ANN'S MORRIS IS A GAME OF GREAT ANTIQUITY. IN FRANCE THE GAME IS KNOWN AS MARELLE. IN POLAND AS MYLL (OR FLIGHT). IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA IT IS CALLED MUHL. IN ICELAND IT GOES B1' THE NAME 'OF MYLLA. AND ON THE AMAZON IT IS CALLED TR IQUE, AND HELD TO BE OF INDIAN ORIGIN. SHAKESPEARE REFERS TO IT IN MIDSUMMER N1GliT'S'DREAM (ACT II, SCENE I): THE NINE MEN'S MORRIS IS FILLED UP WITH MUD: AND THE QUAINT MAZES IN THE WANTON GREEN. FOR LACK OF TREAD ARE INDISTINGUISHABLE. IT WAS FOUND ON AN- OLD ROMAN TILE. AND CUT UPON THE STEPS OF THE ACROPOLIS AT ATHENS. IT HAS BEEN DISCOVERED CUT IN THE CHOIR STALLS OF SEVERAL OF OUR ENGLISH CATHEDRALS. IN THE EARLY EIGHTIES IT WAS FOUND SCRATCHED UPON A STONE BUILT INTO A WALL (PROBABLY ABOUT THE YEAR IZOO). WE HAVE SEEN THE GAME PLAYED ON THE TURF, THE MEN ON ONE SIDE BE ING PEELED STICKS, AND ON THE OTHER, STICKS WITH THE BARK ON. EACH PLAYER PEGGING HIS MEN INTO THE GROUND. The directions given below for Nine Men's Morris and Chinese Friends are printed by permission of Mr. Rohrbough. Don't put off learning these games because you don't have goodlooking boards to play them on. Morris can be played on a piece of cardboard that has been marked with ink, and with one player using corn and the other beans. The same goes for Chinese Friends. To play it, cut out and color bits of cardboard, and play on a checker-board. It is a simple game, but there is much fun to it. Morris is a game for older children and adults. An interesting craft poject would be to make a board like the one in the diagram. Use maple, cherry or walnut lumber and it will look well on the 22 -GAAES FRctf O7TU living room table. The only extra tool required to make it is a countersink bit to drill the holes, and it can be purchased very cheaply at a hardware store or from a mail order house. Not only will parents find these games useful in family recreation, but rural teachers will want to add them to their game table for use on cold and rainy days when the children can't play outside. Copies of Ancient Games (Kit N) may be ordered for 250 from Cooperative Recreation Service, Delaware, Ohio. It contains directions for mating and playing 29 games from different lands. NINE MEN'S MORRIS EQUIPMQVT 1. A PLAYING SPACE OF THREE CONCENTRIC SQUARES, WITH.LINES CONNECTING THE MIDDLE OF THE SIDES, AND SPOTS MARKED AT THE 24 INTERSECTIONS. CORNERS NOT CONNECTED. 2. EACH PLAYER HAS NINE MEN OF CONTRASTING COLOR. OBJIrT TO CAPTURE 7 OF OPPONENT'S MEN. 1. Starting START WITH AN EMPTY BOARD. PLAYERS TAKE ONE AT A TIME. TO MAKE A ROW OF THREE IN A LINE. WHILE PREVENTING OPPONENT FROM DOING LIKEWISE. (NOT DIAGONALLY AT CORNERS. 2. "Pounding" IF EITHER PLAYER SUCCEEDS IN FORMING A ROW OF THREE HE MAY REMOVE FROM THE BOARD ANY OF THE OPPONENTS MEN. (CALLED "POUND ING. 3. Safe Row HOWEVER, A ROW OF THREE MAY NOT RE DISTURBED AS LONG AS THERE ARE OTHER MEN LEFT. THIS RULE DOES NOT PREVENT A PLAYER FROM OPENING HIS OWN ROW OF THREE (RULE 4. Placing THE PLACING CONTINUES TURNS IN PLACING THEIR MEN. UNTIL EACH MAN HAS ENTERED HIS NINE MEN ON THE BOARD. THIS ENDS THE FIRST PHASE OF THE GAME. THE SECOND PHASE IS '~MOVING.-THE THIRD IS "HOPPING." 5. Moving AFTER EACH PLAYER HAS PLACED HIS NINE MEN IN PLAY. PLAYERS TAKE TURN IN MOVING A MAN FROM POINT TO POINT ALONG OPEN LINES. STILL ATTEMPTING TO MAKE THREE IN A ROW. 6. Dervish Rule THE SAME MAN MAY NOT BE MOVED TWICE IN SUCCESSION. 23 -GAMES FROM OTHER LANDS 7. Open and Close ANY ROW OF THREE MAY BE OPENED AND CLOSED AS OFTEN AS DESIRED, PROVIDED RULE 6 IS OBSERVED. 8. Hopping WHEN EITHER PLAYER IS REDUCED TO THREE MEN, HE IS NO LONGER OBLIGED TO FOLLOW THE LINES, BUT CAN HOP TO ANY POINT ON THE BOARD. WHEN BOTH ARE REDUCED TO THREE MEN. BOTH CAN HOP. 9. End WHEN EITHER PLAYER IS REDUCED TO TWO MEN, HIS OPPONENT WINS THE GAME. Reversi or Chinese Friends I I1 I I I I EQUIPMENT 1. CHECKER BOARD. OR CARDBOARD MARKED INTO I 48 SQUARES. j0'!XI I I 2. 48 SQUARES OF CARDBOARD THAT HAVE BEEN I I NO, I I COLORED RED ON ONE SIDE AND BLUE ON THE OTHER. SOFT DRINK CAPS MAY ALSO BE USED. I I I I I I I R~ I I I I I I I 1. Starting I I ~ ( ( I I DIVIDE THE MEN EQUALLY. CHOOSE COLORS. START WITH FOUR MEN DIAGONALLY ON CENTER SQUARES, AS IN ILLUSTRATION ABOVE. 2. " Sandwich " X PLACES A MAN OPPOSITE O TO MAKE A SANDWICH (XOX). TURN THE MIDDLE MAN OVER SO YOUR COLOR IS UP, XXX. O THEN PLAYS TO SANDWICH ONE OR MORE X IN THE SAME WAY. 3. Reverse Any Number FROM ONE TO SIX MEN MAY BE SANDWICHED AND REVERSED IN A SINGLE PLAY; THE LINE MUST RE UNBROKEN AND ALL INTERVENING MEN MUST BE TURNED. PLAYS MAY BE MADE ACROSS, UP OR DIAGONALLY. 4. Single and Multiple Moves BEGINNERS SHOULD AGREE TO TURN IN ONLY ONE DIRECTION ON A SINGLE PLAY WHEN THERE IS A CHOICE. EXPERIENCED PLAYERS MAY AGREE TO MULTIPLE TURNS THAT IS. A MAN MAY BE PLACED TO MAKE A SANDWICH VERTICALLY. HORIZONTALLY. AND DIAGONALLY. THIS APPLIES ONLY TO SANDWICHES MADE BY THE NEW MAN PLACED ON THE BOARD. S. The Fnd IF YOU CAN'T PLAY~TO MAKE A SANDWICH. PASS YOUR TURN. YOU MUST PLAY WHEN POSSIBLE. THE GAME ENDS WHEN THE BOARD IS FULL OR NEITHER CAN PLAY. THE PLAYER WINS WHO HAS MORE THAN HALF THE MEN HIS COLOR, ###### CRAFT SUPPLIES Free Price List Sent on Request Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Prompt Mail Service TENNESSEE CRAFTSMEN lltt: Ronald Slayton 2006 Sutherland Ave. Knoxville, Tennessee DANIEL BOONE, SYMBOL OF THE PIONEERS WHO THREADED THEIR WAY INTO AND THROUGH THE MOUNTAINS OF THE SOUTH. THRUSTS FORWARD IN BRONZE-CLAD HASTE IN LOUISVILLE'S CHEROKEE PARK. Appalachia's People WHIT IS THE ROOT-STOCK from which the eight million people of Appalachia sprang? There is apparently great confusion about it in some minds. Perhaps the most jaundiced theory we have read recently came from the facile pen of William Alexander Percy, who calls himself a planter's son, and who wrote "Lanterns on the Levee." After saying that the poor whites of the south spring from debtors who were freed from prison in England if they would leave the country, he goes on to claim that they could not hold their own in the rich tidewater lands. Consequently, "they were pushed (west) by an unequal competition until they lodged in the mountains of North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky..If ever good, the virus of poverty, malnutrition and inter-breeding has done its degenerative work; the present breed is probably the most unprepossessing on... earth. " Knowing that such views exist, we present the following article, the first of a series about the people of Appalachia. This first one is about the Scotch-Irish, 6y all odds the largest group to settle in the Southern Mountains. 25 THE SCOTCH-IRISH ///// Dr. W. D. Weatherford///// TWO STREAMS OF SCOTCH people entered America and peopled the highlands. The first was what we call the Scotch-Irish. In 1610 all the northern third of Ireland escheated to the English crown and was opened up for immigration. Great groups of lowland Scots crossed the estuary (at its narrowest place only fifteen miles wide) and started a new Scottish colony. They made this move because they were under religious persecution as Presbyterians, the Church of England trying to force them into conformity. Economically, they were under the same kind of oppression which caused the American colonies to revolt. Twenty-five years later (1633) Archbishop Laud for the Church of England and Thomas Wentworth as Lord Deputy of Ireland began the same sort of oppression of these Scotchmen in Ireland, so there was nowhere else for them to go except to America. These Scotch-Irish landed in great numbers in Boston, fiftyfour boat loads of them coming there in one short period from 1714 to 1721. Still greater numbers landed in Delaware Bay and fanned out into Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Great numbers traveled across Pennsylvania, and crossing the Potomac near Harper's Ferry, moved down the Shenandoah into east Tennessee and on into Georgia and Kentucky. The other branch of Scotchmen was Highlanders. They had espoused the cause of the Stuart family and were defeated in the contest with the British crown, first in 1715 and then disastrously at the battle of Culloden in 1754. After this battle,, persecution was so drastic that almost the whole population from certain glens migrated to America, as many as twelve thousand a year. These Highlanders came for the most part to Wilmington, Charleston, and Port Royal on the South Carolina coast. They moved up the Neuse, .the Great Pee Dee, and the Cape Fear rivers into the interior, the hill country of North and South Carolina, and into the hills of Georgia. The first large settlement in North Carolina was at Cross Creek on the Cape Fear in 1729. Later this place was called Campbellton and finally Fayetteville in honor of Lafayette. Boston pushed her Scotch-Irish west to Worcester; Pennsylvania sent hers west to Pittsburgh; Virginia pushed hers west across the Blue Ridge; North Carolina urged her Highlanders to go into the interior. In all cases there was a desire to put 26 these hardy Scotchmen between the warlike Indians and the English settlements on the coast. The Scotchmen had for centuries been inured to hardships, and engaged almost constantly in fighting for their rights; so they were just the people to go into the deep fortresses of the Appalachian Mountains, subduing first the forest and then the Indians. As they marched into the vast wilderness, men, women and children slept on the ground with no roof over their heads except the blue sky and no pillow under their heads except a stone, or perhaps a saddle on which they rode during the day. As they went they took first their rifle for protection and for killing food to eat; second, they took the Bible as their consolation. For clothing most of them carried their all on their backs. They no sooner had their log houses built than they started to build a crude church, for they were an honest, libertyloving, God-fearing people. It is from these hardy breeds that the present Appalachian Mountain people are sprung, and they still maintain those qualities of the past with remarkable fidelity. It would be quite wonderful if one could determine just how much the mountains, with their isolating fastnesses and their deep silences, have done to mould the people of Appalachia. No one who knows the mountain people can for one moment doubt that the granite of the hills has ingrained itself into the blood of these wonderful people. The isolation has made them independent, and the struggle of life has made them as fearless as the eagles that nest in the mountain crags. The first settlement in the Shenandoah was in 1732 , and the first in the North Carolina mountains was in 1729. These two streams joined at Watauga in east Tennessee in 1768 under the leadership of John Sevier of Virginia and James Robertson of North Carolina. In 1748 Thomas Walker, James Patton, and others formed a hunting party and ranged up and down the Holston in Tennessee as far as Cumberland Gap. Later they hunted in lower Kentucky. Daniel Boone, whose father moved into the Yadkin of North Carolina, was hunting on the Holston in East Tennessee as early as 1760, for a tree has been found there with a marking which says "Dan Boon killa bar on this tree 1760." Later Daniel Boone, his brother Squire Boone, and two other men went on a long hunt in Kentucky. The other two men were killed, and Squire Boone went back to North Carolina to get more ammunition and to see his family. This left Daniel 27 several months alone in this vast wilderness, without human companionship, without house or dog, and without sugar or salt or bread, but he seemed never to be lonely nor to bemoan his hardships. W It would be fitting to try to evaluate the character of these Scottish people in the Appalachian Mountains. They have so often been misjudged and so much underrated that it is a great joy to set forth some of their most marked characteristics. The first of such characteristics I would name would be independence or self-reliance. The facts set forth in this paper of their willingness to brave the perils of migration to unknown lands--and in those lands to face hardship and danger all alone, as "pioneers of destiny"--would seem to be adequate proof of their independence and self-reliance. But I can come a bit nearer home for my illustration. My greatgrandmother, Peggy MacQueen, with her young husband came in one of those Scottish migrations to America, and like many others they drifted down those Appalachian valleys and cleared a farm near Waynesville, North Carolina. They had a daughter named Peggy II. In the course of the years the husband died, leaving the widow and the daughter to struggle with the little farm. My grandfather came along and hired himself to the widow MacQueen to work on the little farm. Soon he did the orthodox thing and married the daughter, and they moved over to the boundary line between Yancey County, North Carolina, and Unicoi County, Tennessee, on a branch of the Unicoi River, where my mother was born. My grandfather cleared a farm and seemed to be doing well, when someone moved into the community about three miles from him. He then told my grandmother the county was getting too crowded and he wanted more room, so he sold out and moved down to the MoccasinBend of the Tennessee River right under the shadow of Lookout Mountain. Here he cleared one of the first farms in that part of Tennessee where Indians were still prevalent. In a period of four or five years, again someone moved within a mile or two of him and he again sold out and moved to Texas. There my mother met my father whose parents i had the same restless independence and had moved from the East Tennessee Smoky Mountains near Bristol to Texas. Here my parents were married and I was privileged to be born in the wide expanses of what was then the empire cattle state--now the empire oil state. I sincerely trust I have inherited at least a i little bit of that independence and self-reliance. My grand- i 28 parents were typical of thousands of Scotch-Irish. The second characteristic of these mountain people is reticence. They are certainly not a communicative people. Their words are few and measured. Not that they cannot say plenty when they are really aroused. Many years ago I went into the North Fork of the Swannanoa Valley for a summer vacation. J. L. M. Curry, the first Commissioner of Education of the United States, had married a mountain woman who owned land in this valley. He built a nice summer place and installed a hydraulic ram to carry water to his attic so he could have running water in his house. After his death the house stood idle several years before my friend O. E. Brown and I rented it for a summer vacation. The hydraulic ram had rusted badly and would not pump water. Dr. Brown and I struggled with it several days and then someone said thatJesseFate Burnett, who lived three miles down the valley, was a good tinkerer and could fix it for us. We went to see him but missed him. We left word, however, with his wife to send him up. The next morning Dr. Brown and I were out tinkering with the old ram when a mountain man walked up and said,. "Hi." We said, "Hi" and kept on tinkering, not knowing who he was. He stood there a few minutes and then walked off. That afternoon Dr. Brown and I walked down three miles again to Jesse Fate's house, and what was our surprise to find that he was the same man who had come to our place and said, "Hi. " I asked him why he did not tell us who he was and what his mission was. His simple explanation was "Well, I thought you knowed." The third characteristic I would mention is persistence. I have watched a mountaineer try so many times to make a small piece of machinery work that I myself almost lost patience. But he will try and try again. Usually he finally wins out. There is a legend that one of Andrew Jackson's pals down in the Waxhaws of North Carolina used to say he could throw Andy every time, but he just wouldn't stay "throwed." It is a ScotchIrish characteristic. Another characteristic is that they have a hard exterior, but inwardly they are as tender as a girl. I have been in mountain homes where the father looked more like a bear than a man, but let one of the children get hurt and he would hover over it with w, all the tenderness of a mother. I have known mountain men who would not flinch under the most terrible suffering but who would not for love nor money inflict death on bird or beast. Lastly, I would name courage as a most dominant characteristic of these people. Most of them seem to have no sense of fear. It is not callousness, but a quiet facing of danger which seems to be almost beyond understanding. I would give two illustrations. Once in a meeting of Indians with representatives of the Holston settlement to arrange for ceding of land to the whites, James Robertson was the spokesman for the whites. All was arranged amicably and both sides were celebrating the amicable settlement by foot races between young Indians and young whites. Suddenly there rang out a shot and one of the young Indian contestants fell dead in his tracks. No one knew who did it, but it later proved to be a white man from near Abingdon, Virginia, who was thus avenging the death of a brother at the hands of Indians. The Indians quickly gathered up their .effects and stole silently into the woods to plot revenge. The white settlement at Watauga was small, and to protect themselves appeared to be impossible, and to retreat 100 miles to the nearest other settlements seemed suicide. Something had to be done and that quickly. James Robertson agreed to go alone into the forest to try to I I 30 find the Cherokee chief and placate him. Robertson rode 150 miles through a dense forest, where possible death lurked behind every tree, before he finally found the chief and made satisfactory explanations. To face death on the battlefield requires courage, but there one has companions at his side-but to ride five days and nights into a perfect wilderness inhabited by savages who are plotting your death, and to do it alone, takes super-human courage. My second illustration is this. Some years ago there was on the statue books of Tennessee a law which forbade the selling of whiskey within two miles of a school house. There was in the mountains of eastern Tennessee a community in which a saloc:z was wrecking the lives of young boys. A young mountaineer of that community decided he would get rid of the saloon, so he persuaded some of his friends to help him build a little one-room school house and get a teacher. Of course the saloon elements were infuriated and even threatened the life of this young reformer, who had recently married. Some of the young mountaineer's friends pleaded with him to abandon his plan both for his own safety and the safety of his young bride. Looking sadly but quietly around at his young wife he simply said, "I reckon I'll see it through. " l/ ..~r ,~~.~._ Henry Jones Ford, a professor of politics at Princeton University, published in 1910 a book called "The Scotch-Irish in America." In one of the appendices of this book he gives his characterization of the Scotch-Irish in these words: "He has," says Ford, "an economy and even parsimony of words which does not always betoken a poverty of ideas; an inseparable dislike to wear his heart on his sleeve, or make a display of the deeper and more tender feelings of his nature; a quiet and undemonstrative deportment which may have great firmness and determination behind it; a dour exterior which may cover a really genial disposition and kindly heart; much caution, wariness and reserve, but a decision, energy of character and tenacity of purpose, which as in the case of Enoch Arden, 'hold his will and bear it through'; a very decided practical faculty which has an eye on the main chance, but which may co-exist with a deep fund of sentiment; a capacity for hard work and close application to business, which with thrift and patient persistence is apt to bear fruit in considerable success; in short a reserve of strength, self-reliance, courage and endurance which when an emergency demands, may surprise the world. " (Quoted from Ford's Scotch-Irish in America, Appendix C, Page 575). #### (((((The author is vice president of the board of trustees of Berea College, Berea, Ky. Jill pictures in this article, unless otherwise identified, were taken at the state park at Harrodsburg, Ky., which is a recreation of the pioneer village that once stood at the end of the Wilderness Road. ))))) 32 Folk Arts In School Cynthia E. Bowling Recreational programs have a value if carried on for only a short while, but the worth is increased by a development that takes place over a long period of time. Such a development has grown in the Lothair School in Eastern Kentucky. Cynthia E. Bowling, a teacher at the school, has previously told about the folk arts program there in an article, Big Fun in a Little School, in this magazine. "TELL US A TALE, Tell us a tale," was the chorus in Frank Smith's ears as he came from behind his puppet stage in the Lothair School. He had just finished showing his delighted audience a Punch and Judy show, but the boys and girls were not willing to let him go without one of his "tales. " Mr. Smith's visit to the Lothair School this fall found us carrying along in full swing the work he loves. Some nine years ago Miss Roberta Stidham had begun this work after having attended Berea College's annual Christmas Folk Dance School. When Miss Stidham left us this year to teach in Fayette County, she left behind her a well established program in the folk arts. Our very cooperative principal, Mrs. G. L. Surber, also resigned to teach in a Jefferson County school. In spite of the great turnoever in our teaching personnel, our work has not been interrupted. This non-interruption is due largely to the interest of our new principal, Mr. Luther Ritchie, of Knott County, in fostering the folk arts program. Much credit also goes to our new seventh-grade teacher, Mrs. Paul Wilson, who helps instruct the folk dancing classes. In the past we have done some outstanding work with puppetry and folk dancing. Our 4-H Club gave an original puppet play based on the story "The Three Wishes" incorporating folk singing and dancing in the Memorial Coliseum in Lexington, Kentucky, during 4-H Club Junior Week, June 1952. We have given many benefit puppet shows, danced for many civic organizations and other audiences. Last spring in a county wide talent show our children won honors in folk dancing and a puppet play entitled "A Modern Version of Little Red Riding Hood. " At Christmas time last year we gave an original play including some of the beautiful old ballads and several folk dances. 33 The folk arts offer a great field for serf expression and good wholesome fun for our children. We see them profit from these experiences. Mr. Smith's visits with us are always "extra-special" events --just like Thanksgiving and Christmas--and we're always sorry to see him go, but we'll be "walking on air," until he comes again. ##### ABOVE: MARIA HALVA. A CRAFT STUDENT A7 PENLAND. DISCUSSES DESIGN WITH HER INSTRUCTOR, MRS. HARVEY CHASE. Penland Anniversary THE PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS, Penland, North Carolina,is celebrating its 25th year of training craftsmen from all over the world. Spring courses begin May 17, and other courses of three weeks each open on the following dates: June 7, June 28, July 19 and August 9. i Two courses in photography are being offered this year. The first will be held during the rhododendron blooming season, June 14-26. The other is scheduled during the height of the fall coloring, October 11-23. Teachers, home demonstration agents, community workers and others desiring specialized training for working in the Southern Mountains should write for information about training suited to their needs. Miss Lucy Morgan is director of the School. 2. Any unlicensed dog not ac companied Page 20, by its owner that ae Whitesburg Hospital Design ' tional Award Folklore Conference To Begin Tomorrow 11.-More than are con lege the IN THE NEWS... cosoe ON des the I me e A Resume of, Current Articles and Books Dealing Pith Our Urea and Its People The design for the proposed WY ~on a top award in a national ~al, one of 10 to be built in a program Workers, was winner in the health cted by Progressive Architecture, na signers' provisions not only for custoalso for making the unit an efficient _ ier hospitals proposed by the U.M.W. School" has been especially pre- in Kentuc , irginia and West Virginia. pared to assist high-school and The design, one of 600 submitted in the contest, was developed grade-school teachers in making by the architectural firm of Sherlock, Smith, and Adams, Montgomery, use of folklore in teaching. Ala. TheRiehmond Times-Dispatch, Thurs., Jan. 14, 1954, carried a column by Ross Valentine about Richard Chase, collector and teller of lack Tales. Mr. Valentine writes: I AM A FIRM BELIEVER in white magic, having been lucky enough to see and listen to a great deal of it in my wanderings in out-of-the-way places. Of course, I don't mean sleight-of-hand, cutting a lady in half; that sort of hocus-pocus. I mean the genuine article. Sometimes we see it on stage, or on the screen-=a quality of make-believe so subtle, so genuine that it transports children into a mood of wonderment and delight, and most wonderful of all, turns grumpy grayheads into children once again. Richard Chase, of Beech Creek, North Carolina is that kind of magician. -In his preface to "Grandfather Tales" he says: "Filling up blank sheets of paper is, indeed, not the same as the sound of your voice shaping a tale as it wells up .out of your memory and as your own fancy plays with all its twists and turns. And the best part of it is that finally, by some mysterious process, you find that you are listening to the tale yourself as much as the listeners around you. " I was fortunate enough last Sunday evening to listen to a demonstration of this kind of sorcery, with Chase himself in the role of magician, in a setting similar to that illustrated by Berkeley Williams, Jr. , on the end pages of "Grandfather Tales:' 35 Half a dozen young 'uns and their parents were grouped around, and enchanted by, this teller of tales from the hills. A single candle on the piano shed its glow over the attentive faces of the audience, as Chase, in the vernacular of Appalachian North Carolina, Virginia and Kentucky, wove his spell. Now, the telling of tales is a great art. It is so because of its artlessness. One touch of sophistication, of clever urbanity, one single play on words, would break the spell. It is also, I regret to say, becoming a lost art, like the singing of old Anglo-Saxon folk songs and the dancing of old country dances. A few undaunted "restoration pioneers" like Chase and John Powell, are blazing a trail back toward a racial consciousness (in the noncontroversial, unbiased meaning of the much-maligned adjective). Theirs is a courageous but unequal battle against the electronic, daily deluge of "hillbilly" or the arty fakery of would-be magicians. In a letter to the editor of the Watauga (N. C.) Democrat last Fall, Chase quotes a mountain neighbor, old Granny London, as saying: "Son, this generation don't know the old ways. But if they only had a chance to know these tales and songs--and these old-time play party games we been running over--Law, wouldn't it delight 'em!" Well, Sunday night's feast of excerpts from "Grandfather Tales" and "The Jack Tales" demonstrated how magical is the appeal to ancestral memories. They survived in the Southern Highlands because they were, until recently, isolated and insulated from the heat of the urban melting pot (now electronically supplied 24 hours a day). Memories that go back to the Battle of Hastings, and beyond that to the Germanic forbears of Saxon England. These are something to be restored, cherished and perpetuated in this quicksand age, as the Jewish people have perpetuated their folk tales and rituals (despite a thousand years of persecu tion), such as the Feast of Esther, which I once witnessed in a i synagogue, and at which little children were every bit as spellbound, though the older ones had seen and heard those amateur theatricals many times. The restoration of the Anglo-Saxon folkways, wrote Chase in that letter-to-the-editor I spoke of, "would last much longer than all the brick and plaster at Williamsburg-and it would not cost any forty million dollars. 36 This was not said in a deprecatory way, but truthfully. For, while the architectural beauty of colonial days should be preserved, it can never be more than a stage, a backdrop for the preservation of the Sassenach heritage that lives on in us." ##### "STAY ON, STRANGER" THE READER'S DIGEST carried a condensation of the book with the above title, by William S. Dutton, in the January issue. Dutton tells the story of Alice Lloyd and her struggle to build a school in an isolated area of the Kentucky Mountains. Starting a small school on Caney Creek, Mrs. Lloyd rebuilt her own life as she built the school. The institution is now known as Caney Junior College, at Pippapass, Kentucky, and Mrs. Lloyd, at 77, is still helping build. One of the things of great importance that the school has done is to impress on its graduates the neces sity of remaining within the mountain area to spend their lives in productive endeavor for their own people. Out of this school and many others in the area have come people who are making signi ficant changes for the better in the whole mountain country. Since this 14-page condensation is so easily available to every one it will be widely read, not only throughout the area, but all over the country as well. It is important, therefore, to suggest s a few precautions to the uninitiated as well as to those who share Mrs. Lloyd's dedication to the area. There will probably be some who will object that the book pre sents too grim a picture of conditions in the mountains. The story is distorted, of course, if the reader assumes that all of eastern ~i Kentucky is exactly like the Caney region. Like all America, the highland region presents tremendous contrasts. Start on New York's Fifth Avenue at the Metropolitan Museum, follow it north for thirty blocks and see what happens if you wish to get an idea of how easily a picture in sharp and narrow focus often does injustice to the whole. This book can serve as a reminder, however, that much re mains to be done in the mountains. A study within the last two months in only eight counties in this region disclosed that 10,695 I boys and girls of high school age are not in school. Obviously there is a need for every educational institution in the area, and ',, ', more besides, if these schools are able and willing to meet the needs of mountain young folks. Fortunately not only Caney but also schools like Hindman, Pine Mountain, Annville, Oneida, Buckhorn, Stuart-Robinson, Berea, Hazel Green, and many other private and public institutions are 37 continuing to work at the problem of bringing a fuller life to the people of the mountains. "Stay On, Stranger" is published by Farrar, Straus and Young, Inc. , 101 Fifth Ave. , New York 3, N. Y. , at $1.75 per copy. v CRAFT DIRECTORY ISSUED BY TENNESSEE THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION OF THE Tennessee Department of Conservation has just issued a 16-page book entitled "The Story of Tennessee Mountain Crafts." Written by Helen Krechniak, who lives on the Cumberland Plateau at Ozone, the book traces the growth of all the different crafts that go to make up the movement in Tennessee. Lavishly illustrated with pictures and drawings, the book is intended to give visitors to the Volunteer state a briefing on what to look for and where to look for it when they start searching for crafts. Individual craftsmen and craft centers in the highland area are surveyed, along with some background about the individual crafts themselves. The book includes a complete directory of Tennessee craftsmen and crafts centers that are now producing authentic handicrafts. Another listing gives all the names and addresses of Tennessee members of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. If widely distributed, as it undoubtedly will be, this booklet will do a great deal to acquaint many new people with the craft movement, and might well be duplicated by other states of the highland area for their own craftsmen. Copies may be obtained by writing the Division of Information, Department of Conservation, 115 State Office Building, Nashville 3, Tennessee. ANNOVOcm6 Revised Edition of WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all craftsinvaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina 38 There are approximately 60,000 Rural School and two room schools in our country. Some are modern units well suited to the job of educating the next generation. Others are Improvement dilapidated shacks that are a disgrace to our nation and a sin against our children. In this article, Charles Kincer ///// tells how any, classroom may be CHARLES KINCER improved. Mr. Kincer is a super ///// vising teacher in the Rural School Improvement Project being carried on by Berea College. ' '~EVEN THE MOST REMOTE rural schoolroom can become a center of learning if the teacher is willing to plan and equip a child-centered classroom with the help of her students. The most modern classroom can become a deadly center of inactivity if this element is lacking. A child-centered classroom reflects a true learning situation for growing children, for in it they have the constructive experiences through which they learn. Students who help plan the work that goes on in a classroom will want to carry out that work. It is vitally important for them to see their plans materialize. A classroom built around the needs and experiences of the students always reflects the part they had in planning it. For example, every normal child needs to learn how to use hand tools. In one corner will stand a school workshop, equipped with tools from students' homes. If the students are to carry on any sort of building program in their classes, this bench will be a center of learning activity. This plan gives an idea of what might be included in a room ,'~ -~ ~z,",3,7 ~p,o~,~E `_` to make it more attractive as Sp~P IFV6uCI 3.M ~~^" "^~T5 well as useful as a center of learning. While each teacher, with the help of her students, will want to work out her own p,*t45 ~ arrangement of equipment in ALA ry~~ her room, this plan was the ~gRRR~ one devised by a teacher and her students in a one-room rural school. With no funds available for the purchase of expensive ready-made equipment, the teacher used the workshop 39 corner to turn out tables made from rough lumber and covered with linoleum. By replacing individual desks with these tables, group work and projects could be carried on. An easel was constructed from orange crates, and at the time I visited it contained a pioneer scene created by the children. On the wall in one corner were wall charts made by these same students. i 7om In another corner of the room was the library shelf, made inviting by the sign, "COME, LET US READ. " )iy N Up\ Just a little distance from the corner were chairs, made from orange crates, in a neatly arranged seating circle especially for reading. The "Beauty Corner" was an attractively arranged section, screened from the rest of the room with bright cretonne. Just a glance into the mirror seemed to help most of the youngsters want to improve their appearance. 40 While these improvements were going on inside the school, a new swing was constructed outside. A strong pole was secured between two trees in the yard, and worn out tires were swung from it by a length of chain. The children never tired of swinging on this easily built equipment. ##### New Guild Members FOURTEEN CRAFTSMEN were elected to membership in the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild at its fall meeting in Norris, Tennessee. They include: Mildred Lee Ball, 226 S. Church St., Winston-Salem, N. C. --Jewelry Sam J. Davis, Box 324 Dillsboro, N. C. --Violin maker maker Mrs. G. G. Hodges, H.2, Box 65, Boone, N. C. --Knotter and broom maker Elmer C. Kear, R.1, Gatlinburg, Tenn. --Broom maker Benton R. MacLellan, R.2, Tullahoma, Tenn. --Lapidary Rainey Brown, 115 W. Cleveland, Crossville, Tenn. --Woodworker Amanda Crowe, Box 161, Cherokee, N. C. --Sculptor Mrs. Marian Edens, R.B, Greenville, Tenn. --Carder and spinner Marshall Gravatt, 83 Fenner Ave., Asheville, N. C. --Jewelry maker Mrs. Louisa Norris, R.2, Box 183, Boon e, N. C. --Knotter Dr. Charles Lloyd, Arden, N. C. --Enameler Nell Pickens, Box 325, Weaverville, N. C. --Doll maker Rrval J. Woody, R.1, Spruce Pine, N.C. --Woodworker Mrs. Ellen Sutherland, R.8, Greenville, Tenn. --Rugbraider ##### Field Day Fun for All BARD McALLISTER, DIRECTOR OF EDUCATION AND RECREATION, THE CARROLL SERVICE COUNCIL, CARROLLTON. GEORGIA. Our Balance Sheet Reads R million laughs and cheers Fifteen-hundred happy children The enthusiastic cooperation of every school teacher and school bus driver in the county system Sixty-eight dollars and forty-seven cents WE HAD A COUNTY-WIDE field day. The idea grew out of idle conversation between several of the high school coaches and the writer. At first the talk was in terms of a track meet for the high schools. When the idea was presented at the county principals' meeting it really caught fire. Eleven of the seventeen principals didn't want to be left out. It was soon decided that every child from the fourth grade through high school should be given an opportunity to participate. Some of the smaller schools desired to have literary events included in the day's activity. This made it obvious that it would take all day for the program. The county superintendent was amiable to the idea and secured permission for a school day to be used for the event. Each school sent two representatives to a planning meeting that was called a week later. The first and major decision was that competition should be on an individual basis after the manner of the Olympic Games. Two factors prompted this decision. In the first place it would put the emphasis on every child participating and thus reduce the tendency to push exceptional students into every event. And, second, the fact was recognized that, after all, it is the individual or team, and not the school, that competes. One can readily see that such a plan facilitates scheduling events for such a large number of participants. 42 The following events were selected: GENERAL: Spelling, typing, arithmetic, albegra, ready writing, musical numbers, dancing and stunts or skits. ATHLETIC: Potato race, three-legged race, basketball straddle relay, Wheelbarrow race, sack race, basketball throw, tug-of-war, horseshoes, running high jump for boys and girls, running broad jump for boys and girls, plus 50, 75, 100 and 220 yard dashes for, boys and girls. The contests were divided on a basis of grade, or division (elementary, junior high, senior high) to encourage wide participation and to make it as fair to all as possible. A committee of three or more teachers (and since it was a school day all teachers were required to be present!) was assigned to each event. The committee selected the materials to be used and the judges, started the event on time and reported results to the 'clerk of the day.' Information about all the activities which showed rules, eligibility, time the event would be held, place where it would be held, and the committee responsible for the event, was mimeographed and distributed to each teacher several weeks prior to the appointed day. (Copies of the schedule may be had by writing to the Carroll Service Council, Carrollton, Ga. ) In this way every school and every contestant knew just what to expect on the big day. The county superintendent gained the cooperation of every school bus driver and plans were worked out so that every bus arrived at the field within a fifteen minute time span. Students and teachers had ample time to get oriented before the scheduled starting time, but not enough time to get listless and unruly. The site selected for the field day was the campus of West Georgia College, one of the junior colleges of the University System. This college operates on a philosophy of serving all the citizens of the area. The readiness with which the colleges shifted the location of classes is typical of their cooperation with all agencies in the area. At five minutes of the scheduled hour the announcer, using a public address system, called all contestants to their appointed'~ places. The first events started promptly on time. This procedure was followed with each and every event throughout the day. At noon a recess was called for lunch. A few of the schools 43 brought their own picnic lunch. Most of the students, however, ate at the concession stand where 150 pounds of hot dogs were dispensed by the Kiwanis Club, sponsor of the day's activities. The lunch stand, used to defray the operating expenses of the day, was made an educational experience, with candy and carbonated beverages being replaced by fruit, fruit juices, and milk products. Just as fast as the results of an event were determined the chairman made his report to the "clerk of the day" who completed the appropriate certificate of merit. At the end of the day the principal of each school picked up the certificates for his students. These were then presented the winners in a school assembly program. The success of the day was pretty well summed up by the expression on the face of the grossly overweight girl, who for the first time in her life received the acclaim of her classmates, as before a thousand spectators she (and her team) won the tug-of-war! With careful planning your balance sheet can also read: A million laughs and cheers, 1500 happy children, etc. ##### GUILD MEETS IN MARCH The spring meeting of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild will be held at the Greystone Hotel in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, the last weekend in March. Members and interested friends are invited to attend. For further details and rates, write Louise Pittman, 8-1/2 Wall Street, Asheville, North Carolina. BOOKLORE "Doctor Woman of the Cumberlands," the autobiography of Dr. May C. Wharton that was reviewed in the last issue of this magazine, is available from Uplands Hospital, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee. The price is $3. 00 rather than the price quoted in the review. Because of her outstanding service to the Plateau area, Dr. Wharton has been nominated by the Business and Professional Women's Club of Tennessee as their candidate for the "Woman of the Year" award presented annually by the national organization. THE BALLAD TREE by Evelyn K. Wells, quoted in the article i about Cecil Sharp in the last issue, is obtainable from the Ronald Press Co. , 15 E. 26th Street, New York 10, at $5. 00 per copy. This is an invaluable source of information about balladry through the ages and is well illustrated. il 44 Because of the author's wide experience and his deep understanding of people, we believe that his message in this article will 6e of great value to every person who works with community activities of any sort. POINT FOUR AIDS US /////Arthur F. Raper ///// Some of America's best insights in human problems are developing in concerns for world-wide social regeneration. For example, while poor migrant labor on large farms is increasingly placing our own small independent farmers to disadvantage, our nation is laboring overseas to help the small farmer and farm community to achieve independence and well-being. Some of the wisdom gained abroad is needed here at borne. Dr. Raper's.comments center around the attitudes of the community worker. In the older countries we have more clearly in view some reyzsirements which are less perceptible but none the less present in America. For example, true humility is all too rare among those who would aid the community, whether professional or not, and few qualities are more essential. Does one's ego depend on the status that comes from helping others? Are we equally willing to do the work we are helping others to do? Is it the long advance or immediate results we are concerned to achieve? Do we fully appreciate and respect the work and contribution of unrenowned community members and communities? Such "cultural and psychological factors" as Dr. Raper calls them, are egective only as the outgrowth of an apprenticeship in life whereby sound attitudes grow out of experience and practice. How can one have appreciation and community of feeling for others without community of experience? How can one deal with people as equals if he has not been in a relationship of equality? How can one be willing to do the slow unpublicized labor of life without having actually done it to the point of having creative enjoyment in it? Such is the character of some of the most important qualifications for service in the community, in education or in the professions. He who would serve without having so qualified himself is a hazard to the community and is sensed to be to some degree untrustworthy or an imposter. Education and the professions too readily give lip-service to such criteria of sound service, without realizing the necessary conditions for their true development. If we would be effective in helping the peoples of Asia and of other lands to a better level- of living, we ourselves must learn to work with the people. Self-help must be a two-way road. We of the West need to realize the many contributions which the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America have given us already. 45 Most of the people in the Near East and Southeast Asia still assume it is virtually impossible to increase food production. It will help if we will remember how new our own understanding is in this matter . . . . Their greatest fear is that things, will get worse, and to them "change" often suggests just that possibility. Therefore, thorough consideration must be given to cultural and psychological factors. 1. Find a community of feeling [as in food, worship, cultural contributions] . . . . 2. Start where the people are. 3. Try to understand why people do things the way they do . . . . Many present practices are akin to those of our own great-grandparents who lived as pioneers in this country or, still a little earlier, in Europe. For us to function effectively at this point, we will often have to use our imaginations . . . . It is also important to understand the outlook of the village dweller. The village dweller is not primarily an individual, but rather a member of a group. 4. Carry on activities in which the people themselves are interested. It is our impression that we need to spend more time finding out what the people want for themselves, and less time deciding among ourselves what we think they need. If this basic principle is adhered to, there is little likelihood that we will fail in our desires, for our technical selfhelp services will be wanted by them. 5. Help the people believe they can improve their- situation. There will be little incentive on the part of village people to apply themselves to their problems unless they come to believe they can improve their situation. That is why the initial performance had best be centered upon very elemental human situations. Once there is the belief that improvement can be madeand even the most likely areas will not be easy-then the way is open for further development. 6. Be content with small beginnings. The promoters of self-help activities must be prepared for a tardy response from villagers. Small changes should be cherished. The first innovation is the most difficult. Quite naturally, villagers who have lived at the same place and in the same way for a long time have developed a close-knit culture, which is generally intolerant of change. 7. Use the villagers' own organizations. We will need to give careful attention to doing things in ways that fit into local organizational framework. It takes much less energy to use existing organizations than to set up new ones. Furthermore, when we use what exists, the leaders of cooperating groups serve as sponsors of activities we are promoting and so assure local participation. The very genius of self-help lies in utilizing existing physical 46 and social resources which include established group relationships no less than soil fertility. 8. Watch the villagers' pace and keep in step with them. We need to remember how different our backgrounds and experiences are from those of the people with whom we are working. We will need to allow time for questions to be formulated. The villager will take little for granted. Rather he will want to see every step of each activity. 9. Place responsibility on the people as soon as they can take it. The self help plan operates best when the person being helped knows he will be given full recognition for any progress he makes. This approach is most important; otherwise the villagers will sense the program is not designed primarily for them. If the villagers are given all the responsibility they can take, the persons who initiated the project are free to move elsewhere and start anew. 10. Deal with the people as equals. Dealing with the villager as an equal is perhaps the most basic point yet made. It is doubtful whether anything can be done effectively on any other basis. The equalitarian approach, basic in all education, is especially needed when dealing with the villager, for he often looks with suspicion upon the outsider. 11. Expect growing pains. The villagers themselves, as they begin to have hope, will want to have their own way. We may expect at times to find them somewhat demanding, wanting to assume more responsibility than they are able to carry. These evidences of growing pains should be greatly welcomed, for they, more than anything else, demonstrate that the villagers are beginning to want to do things for themselves. The person who is not prepared to adjust himself to these growing desires of villagers to help themselves should not have responsibility in promoting self-help programs. The truth is, a self-help project is a failure if there are no evidences of growing pains. 12. Don't expect thanks from the people being helped. In the very nature of the situation the recipients of assistance are seldom in a position to offer open appreciation. Rather, they are usually aware that they are making headway belatedly and, therefore, will often be somewhat on the defensive. We should keep this point squarely in mind, lest we feel we have failed because the villagers do not seem to appreciate what we are doing. In the long run the villagers will be thankful, but only after the self-help demonstrations have proved their initial effectiveness. (((((Dr. Raper is a social scientist in the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U.S.D.1f. This is article is reprinted from Community Service News. ))))) 47 Staff Needs ((((((((((((The Council of Southern Mountain Workers gives assistance in discovering, far institutions and programs, trained workers who have a genuine desire to serve' where they are most needed. The Council also endeavors to provide the names and brief data about people who are seeking such opportunities. Such an exchange of information about program needs and available personnel will be publicized in this magazine whenever possible, free of charge. While the Council endeavors to use discretion in this publicity, it cannot imply more than the bare facts herein stated. Investigation of individual qualifications and evaluation of recommendations must be considered the responsibility of those who find this service of help in their search. Some of these positions may have been filled by the time you read this, but at press time the following places were open or people were available: STAFF MEMBERS AVAILABLE WANTED: POSITION IN SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS OR SOUTH AS AN ADMINISTRATOR. EXTENSION OR RESEARCH WORKER, OR COLLEGE TEACHER. QUALIFIED IN FIELDS OF FORESTRY. SOIL CONSERVATION, AND AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS. WITH THREE YEARS CHRISTIAN EDUCATION WORK WITH COLLEGE STUDENTS IN MID-WEST. FOUR YEARS WITH THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE IN LOUISIANA; FIVE YEARS A FOREST MANAGER IN THE CUMBER LANDS MOUNTAINS, TENNESSEE. INTERESTED IN PROBLEMS OF LOW-INCOME FARM PEOPLE AND INTER-GROUP RELATIONS. MEMBER SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS AND ALPHA KAPPA DELTA, SOCIOLOGICAL FRATERNITY. REFERENCES. WRITE BOX C, MOUNTAIN LIFE He WORK, BEREA COLLEGE STATION, BEREA. KY. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ A YOUNG FAMILY DESIRES AN OPPORTUNITY TO WORK WITH PERSONS DEVELOPING CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY AND CHRISTIAN LIVING. HUSBAND HAS BA AND BD. WIFE HAS BA H 6 S No MA, Two c IL REN FAMILY HAS FIVE YEARS EXPERIENCE IN TH:. RURAL MINISTRY AND COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP. WANTS TO REMAIN IN SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. WRITE FLORENCE AND GEORGE STRONG, FOOTHILLS PARISH, DULUTH. KENTUCKY. STAFF MEMBERS NEEDED Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ NEEDED: 1) UNMARRIED GIRL AS FULL-TIME BOOKKEEPER. EXPERIENCE DESIRABLE BUT NOT REQUIRED. 2) HOME ECONOMICS TEACHER WHO IS ELIGIBLE FOR CERTIFICATION. ANNVILLE INSTITUTE, ANNVILLE. KENTUCKY. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ WEAVING TEACHER NEEDED FOR THE STEWART HOME SCHOOL OUTSIDE FRANKFORT. KENTUCKY. WRITE JOHN D. STEWART. FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY. 1SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. INCLUDING SOCIAL WORKERS FOR THE CHILDREN'S SERVICES PROGRAM. ARE NEEDED IN VARIOUS COUNTIES THROUGHOUT KENTUCKY. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. APPLY TO THE MERIT SYSTEM SUPERVISOR. ROOM 321, NEW CAPITOL ANNEX BUILDING. FRANKFORT, KY., OR TO THE DIVISION OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE. DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC SECURITY, FRANKFORT, KY. * LIBRARIAN, CLASSROOM TEACHER AND OFFICE MANAGER. OR COMBINATION. AT LOTTS CREEK SCHOOL. CORD IA. KY. ALSO NEEDED A MATURE, CAPABLE WOMAN TO SUPERVISE GIRLS AND GIRLS WORK. TEACHING EXPERIENCE PREFERRED BUT NOT NECESSARY. WRITE MISS ALICE H. SLOANE. CRAFT WORKER FOR EVANGELICAL UNITED BRETHREN COMMUNITY CENTER AT BARNETT CREEK. COLUMBIA. KY. WRITE DR. U. P. HOVERMALE, 1426 U. B. BLDG., DAYTON 2, OHIO. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below, and send with $1.00 to the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. NAME ADDRESS Active individual membership $ 3.00 to 4.00 _ Supporting membership 5.08 to 24.00 Sustaining membership 25.00 or more Institutional membership 5.00 or more --Subscription to M.L.and W. included in all memberships I do not wish to join or subscribe at the moment, but I do wish to be kept informed about the program of the Council Additional questions and comments (Please detach and mail to Box 2000, Berea College, Berea, Ky.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE COUNCIL OF SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN AORKF,RS works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian Region with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help solve some of the peculiar educational, social, spiritual and cultural needs of this mountain territory. It works through' and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and by means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. --Participation is invited on the above bases For Members! 6 2Ã‚Â°d issLe rs6According to our 1953 `Iro' 'Ã‚Â° records, your membership e -49S'12 ssue ~~Ã‚Â°rf and/or subscription 'Ã‚Â°V appears to have expired `SÃ‚Â°bscr Ã‚Â°'~ _, as indicated. We are ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ -io e' continuing to send you 2nd Px ,9f .r~, d current issues in the issue 3ra erred belief that you do not 1953 jssp ~, wish us to drop you from P g .~. ~Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ N our membership. We would is ~~ ~~`~ ~~ N~ ~ appreciate your reaffiliat ~ ~9 ~e Ã‚Â° ion upon whatever basis 12 you wish. r' Y" s ss ./ '~~~y. ~s se, x IF THIS CORNER IS NOT TURNED UP, YOUR AFFILIATION IS UP TO DATE