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Mountain Life & Work vol. 32 no. 2 1956 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv32n20456 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 32 no. 2 1956 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1956 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. z5t 0 MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN VOL. XXXII ISO. 2 LI FE AND WORK --________ 1956_________ Published at the office of the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc., Se ale Building, Main Street, Berea, Kentucky. Entered as second cl: matter at Berea, Kentucky. ,STAFF MANAGING EDITOR--Billy Edd 117_eeler, College Station, Berea, Ky. DEPARTMENT EDITORS REl^REATION--Ruthie Carroll, College Station, Berea, Ky. EDUCATION--Grazia K. Combs, Viper, Ky. F1E.4LTH--Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Crossville, Tenn. RELIGION--Dr. Sam Vander Meer, Morris Fork, Ky. STAFF PHOTOGRAPHER -Ed DuPuy, Black Mountain, N. C. STAFF ARTIST--Mrs. Burton Rogers, Pine Mountain, Ky. Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. , Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. Perley F. Ayer, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station Berea, Kentucky. ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. Cover Picture. Estille Bowling Jr. of Lower Barcreek, in Clay County, Kent uck , is visited by P. F. Ayer. Estill~ later came to Berea and attended the Foundation School before entering _the armed service. This picture and others in this issue were taken by Alexander Marshach. Other picture credits are due Decm Roy Falters of the Berea Foundation School, Mr. Ed Uupuy, The Tennessee Conservationist. ,b) WAM, IU) OA GA U4 CLA t"M_ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of PATONS and BALDWINS Weaving wools from Scotland Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. PII04F's ya1UrPtf, 3nr. GOLDEN RULE PRODUCTS Dept. B, 115 Franklin Street, New York 13, N.Y. SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and wools-and samples of the weaving wools described above-all for ;1.00 postpaid, which will be refunded on first order of $10 or more. EVERYTHING FOR THE HANDWEAVER High Quality v Handweaving Yarns and Supplies PROMPT SHIPMENTS Write today for free catalog and current price list Send $1 for complete color cards. This $1 .00 can be applied to your next purchase of $10.00 Cottons . Wools . Linen . Metallics Chenilles . Nylkara . Novelty Yarns Looms, including the Leclerc Folding Loom. Warping frames . Bobbin racks and winders Table reels . Tension boxes Homespuns LILY MILLS CO. Dept. HWB Shelby, N. C. N. C. jj'7'0av 0i 000 &8_4 *4 7 & IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR HANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn scunples FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. AN IMPORTANT GAP IN HISTORY Part H (The following on Cumberland Gap is taken from a paper read by Robert L. Kincaid, of Middlesboro, Kentucky,before the Filson Club in 1940. It is reprinted here by permission of THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST.) WITH REBELLION SENTIMENT running strong in the Southern States, the majority of the people in the mountain belt in Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, remained loyal to the Union ideal. Cumberland Gap became an outlet for harried union men in East Tennessee after Governor Harris and pro-southern legislature embraced the cause of the confederacy. Zollicoffer, a former Congressman, was placed in charge of the Southern forges in East Tennessee, with instructions to put down "this rebellion against the rebellion", and he immediately fortified the Gap, more to prevent the wholesale flight northward of the mountain men than to repel any forward movement into the South, then threatened by the Northern forces. The first soldier to enter the age-old passway of the Gap, early in June, 1861, ahead of the regular soldiers, was.the chaplain of the 19th Tennessee C. S. A. , Rev. D. Sullins, who was later to be the founder of Sullins College, at Bristol, Tennessee. The Confederate flag was planted on the crest of the Pinnacle on the Virginia side, and early in August, a squad of Confederate cavalry captured T. A. R. Nelson, of Jonesboro, Tenn., and fifteen or twenty Union men, trying to slip across the mountain into Kentucky. Nelson was on his way to Washington, as Congressmanelect from the first district of Tennessee, and became the first prisoner of war of that section. Thus began the military action around Cumberland Gap, which was to become a strategic point of contest between contending armies. Zollicoffer entered Kentucky through the pass on 7 September 10, 1861, in response to the order of Jefferson Davis, thus violating the neutrality of the state, practically at the same time Grant was committing the same offense by crossing the Ohio river to seize Paducah. The story of President Lincoln's concern for the Unionists of Tennessee and the surrounding mountain territory, his anxiety to push armies to their relief from points in Kentucky, his recommendation that a military railroad be built to Cumberland Gap in order that the railroad life-line connecting the western Confederacy with Virginia might be cut in two, and the reluctance of Sherman, Thomas, and Buell to send their armies overland for so long and difficult a distance, has never been adequately treated. East Tennessee loyalists were left to their suffering, except for the partially successful expedition of General George W. Morgan, of the seventh Army Corps, who took Cumberland Gap on June 18, 1862, without firing a shot. But Morgan, deep in a territory where it was hard to get supplies, had to flee northward with his force of 8, 000 men in a 200-mile retreat north of the Ohio, while Bragg, Smith and Marshall were converging at Richmond, Lexington, and Frankfort, in an effort to hold the state for the Confederacy. Perryville became Kentucky's Gettysburg, and the disillusioned Confederate generals with their discouraged armies trailed back over the Wilderness Trail and through Cumberland Gap, in a retreat marked with hardship and suffering. Over ten thousand men were lost on this retreat, the men being forced to scatter and forage for themselves, and some time elapsed before Bragg and Smith could strengthen their shattered forces in preparation for the campaigns of 1863. Although the evacuation of Cumberland Gap by General George W. Morgan, when he "blew it up" on the historic night of September 17, 1862, was keenly felt by President Lincoln and the War Depart ment, it was not considered a major disaster for the Union cause. Morgan's thrust into the heart of the Union territory in the South, o maintained only for three months, because it had temporarily delayed the union of Bragg and Smith's armies, resulting in the indecisive but consequential battle of Perryville. For nearly a year the Confederates retained possession of Cumberland Gap, but when General Burnside was put in charge of the Army of the Ohio in the summer of 1863, one of his first objectives was to capture the gateway. General de Coursey led a 8 brigade directly to the north of the pass, while General Shakelford, who had taken his forces through Big Creek Gap to Knoxville, approached from the south side. Thus hemmed in by superior forces, General Frazer, on September 9, 1863, surrendered his 2,000 Confederate troops without testing the strength of the enemy in battle, and Cumberland Gap was once again flying the United States flag, much to the disappointment of Jefferson Davis, who ordered an investigation of the surrender. No further engagements were fought, but frequent skirmishes between foraging parties and small contingents kept the countryside in the throes of almost continual conflict. General Grant, himself, on a cold icy day early in January, 1864, spent a night at the pass, inspecting the fortifications and seeking to determine whether the Wilderness Road should be continued as a route of supply for the armies in East Tennessee. According to tradition, Grant declared upon viewing this Gibraltar, that with two brigades of the Army of the Cumberland he could hold the pass against the forces that Napoleon led to Moscow. After his inspection he continued his journey to Lexington, and then returned by rail to Nashville, by way of Louisville. Four times had the Gap been occupied, captured, or controlled, an important point in the struggle of a nation to maintain its unity. The Cumberland Gap area was left a desolate waste after the Civil War. Scarred by trenches, breastworks and embattlements, shorn of the timber which had mantled in verdant beauty the twin peaks between which the Saddle of the Gap was hung, the region dropped into virtual oblivion for two decades. The old road had been cut deep by army wagons 'and heavy guns. Long Tim, a giant "sixty-four" cannon which had been twice pitched off the face of Pinnacle mountain, lay for several years near the big spring which poured out of the mouth of the cave. The military bridge across the narrow saddle to transport guns and supplies from one peak to the other was converted into a store and saloon kept by old Samuel C. Jones. The grist and flour mill at the cave, burned during the war, was rebuilt; the old iron furnace which had been in operation for nearly a half century was again put into operation. The Pinnacle was often scaled by travellers., along the military road which had been built to its peak. The cave in the bowels of the mountain, which soldiers had explored during lulls between guard duty and foraging raids, became a mecca for visitors. 9 Long delayed railroad lines were gradually converging from the north, and the southeast, toward the isolated territory. It was in the summer of 1865 that James Lane Allen, a young Lexington writer, made a horseback trip through the region. Praising the "incalculable mineral and timber resources of Eastern Kentucky", in an article published in Harper's in June, 1886, Allen closed his account of the trip with the matchless description of his impressions. Allen's story had hardly dried on the pages of Harper's when one summer afternoon in 1886, a handsome man of forty, with side-burns, remarkably resembling Chester Alan Arthur, came riding leisurely from Morristown, Tenn. , toward the foothills of the Cumberland range, with the Gap looming up on the horizon. He was Alexander A. Arthur, a Scotchman, a distant relative of the President, and a timber magnate in the mountains of North Carolina. He had been sent to investigate the reported mineral resources and to determine the feasibility of the railroad linking the coal region of Southeastern Kentucky with the Carolina markets. Arthur rested that night in the hospitable home of Dr. Jefferson i Monroe Harbison, two miles south of the Gap, before beginning his investigations. Two weeks sufficed to convince him that the region was replete with resources. Supplied with funds from a group of young Northern adventurers sojourning for their health in Asheville, N. C. , Arthur went to London, with sacks of sample coal and iron ore found in the area. English capitalists were attracted by the stories of the hidden wealth in the heart of the Cumberland wilderness, and in 1887 and 1888 more than a thousand acres of mountain land in the Gap region were purchased from the native mountaineers. A "New Birmingham of the South" was born, full-grown, in the old fields of Yellow Creek valley, four miles north of Cumberland Gap. Middlesboro, Kentucky, named for an industrial city of England, became in a few months a teeming city of 10, 000 souls, seeking fabulous fortunes. By 1890, twenty million dollars had been poured into the area, building railroads, digging tunnels, erecting furnaces and factories, and opening coal mines. Surburban towns were spawned in the magic developments. The industrial area was north of the mountain on the Kentucky side, and a playground suburb was landscaped and developed on the Tennessee side by the Cumberland Gap Park Company. A hotel of 700 rooms was constructed at Harrogate, Tennessee, called the "Four Seasons", and smaller hotels were built on neighboring to peaks. A sanitarium of 100 beds was placed on the Four Seasons property by investors from New York City, headed by Dr. Allan McLane Hamilton, grandson of Alexander Hamilton, and noted alienist who later figured prominently in the trial of Harry K. Thaw for the slaying of Stanford White. A space to rival the watering places of Europe was envisioned. The promoters of the various enterprises clustering around the Gap inauguarated a publicity campaign which made the area the subject of conversation of breakfast tables all over the world. An exhibition car of the region's products was sent to the largest cities. James Bryce, noted English writer, was among the throngs of leading men to visit the development. Governor Simon Bolivar Burkner, who remembered it from Civil War days looked the project over and signed the charter for the city in March, 1890. A party of noted English scientists and capitalists came over in 1890, headed by Sir Jacob Higson. A railroad was built from Knoxville to join the L & N line coming from Lexington, Kentucky. These railroads met in a tunnel seven-eighths of a mile long, penetrating the tips of three states. Engineers, scientists, capitalists, historians, writers, actors, men and women in all walks of life, seeking fame and fortune, turned toward Cumberland Gap. Even the Columbian Exposition was considered for the new national center, and one enthusiastic Congressman cast a vote urging that it be held at the historic pass. But Middlesboro, Kentucky, and the Four Seasons Hotel at Harrogate, Tennessee, built in one of the widest scale promotion efforts known in the history of the human race, suffered the inevitable reaction which came from the failure of the Baring Bank of London, and the general panic of 1893. The repercussions of the sudden stoppage of English and American capital were chaotic. The dreams of the capitalists were rudely shattered; the municipal giant on Yellow Creek became a ghost city of lost fortunes; the Four Seasons Hotel was razed and sold for salvage, thirty carloads of furniture were auctioned in Louisville; and half-built industrial plants were left as gaunt unfinished monuments to a shattered dream. The brave remnants of the promoters and natives who lingered on the ruins of the industrial enterprises, began to rebuild. The physical heritage of wide streets, railroad lines, and operating coal mines were utilized for the era of reconstruction. Although the city which Arthur had created went through dark shadows after the catastrophe, by the time of his death in 1912, it was well on 11 the way to a new destiny. The scars of the 'nineties were being healed; beautiful resi dential sections are being constructed; the pattern on the early city was being followed; the coal mines were shipping trainloads of coal daily; homes, schools, churches, and a substantial and prosperous citizenship was being followed. On the property of the Four Seasons Hotel a college was founded by General O. O. Howard and other philanthropic men, as a memorial to Abraham Lincoln. This institution, Lincoln Memo rial University, Harrogate, Tennessee, has grown into a college s of national prominence. Another abandoned hotel, the Harrogate Inn, was converted into an orphanage for homeless mountain girls. The Middlesboro Hotel was a tourist hostelry until a few years ago when fire reduced it to ashes. The street-car system was long ago junked, and the track down Cumberland Avenue replaced by a boulevard one hundred feet in width. Fern Lake, which is Little Yellow Creek impounded between Cumberland Mountain and a parallel spur, furnishes water sufficient for a quarter of a million people. A federal flood control project of a half million dollars has completed the abortive efforts of the town founders to control the waters of winding Yellow Creek, accustomed to wild rampages during heavy rains. A modern sewer system has at last done what Colonel George A. Waring failed to do fifty years ago, when the panic left the town with an idle pump house and miles of four-foot concrete conduits through which no sewage ever passed. And what of Boone's Cumberland Gap, through which wound the old war trail and migration path to the West? There it hangs, 1, 665 feet high, suspended between the Pinnacle and the Three States peak, rough, jagged, scarred and desecrated by the ruth less hand of man. The narrow notch has been scooped out for a modern highway. A ghastly scar from the rock quarry maims one side; burrow pits and sand quarries despoil the beauty of the other; dump heaps and piles of refuse line the highway; the ancient spring which long ago served the weary travellers has disappeared with the building of the tunnel and is. now piped two miles to furnish water for a tannery; the big rock, Indian ambush, where tradition says two pioneers are buried is splashed with lurid signs; a roadhouse is plying its trade on the site where the 1840 Whig convention was held; and in the saddle is a "blockhouse" filling station and a 12 temporary roadside stand where post cards and trinkets are peddled. Cudjo's Cave has been streamlined and electrified for the everincreasing army of tourists. A toll highway winds up the back of the Pinnacle to the crest, where the old fortifications are fast disappearing. The toll of erosion is obliterating the names of Civil War soldiers carved in the rugged rocks where the banners of the Stars and Bars and Stars and Stripes alternately floated. But there is still another episode in the history of this pass in the plans of a grateful people who are anxious to preserve the important landmarks of our nation. The area will soon be turned into a national park. Cumberland Goo, Pioneer Gateway to the West ,~NNOVMcms i Revised Edition of I WHERE TO GET WHAT The Notional Directory of Sources of Supply for all croftsinvaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy--in coin or stomps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina 13 WILLIAM H. DANFORTH J6 4~w VA y..& "THAT TOWER OF STRENGTH WHICH sTOOU FOURSQUARE 'I'O ALL WINDS THAT BLEW" The Council of the Southern Mountains is one of the many organizations dedicated to the common good which have had William H. Dan forth as an interested and active friend.. The Council has grown in scope and program, and its expanding service has been constantly reaching toward areas and projects which were--for the moment--beyond its means. In 1954, and again in 1955, Mr. Dan forth gave the assistance needed to enable work to proceed on projects already under way which could not have continued without his help. The Council accepts his challenge to ASPIRE NOBLY, ADVENTURE DARINGLY, SERVE HUMBLY. 14 rl' A RELATIVELY MODERN means of practical service to God and the Christian Church was started about twenty-six years ago in western North Carolina by the Rev. Dumont Clarke whose Lord's Acre movement has spread over the United States, into parts of Canada, and into a number of mission fields. Dr. Clarke is a Presbyterian minister who has spent much of the past quarter century promoting this plan which, in practice, is simply organized effort of church people to raise crops and livestock for progressive church purposes. The accompanying pictures tell the story. Dr. Clarke is a graduate of Princeton University and of McCormick Theological Seminary. He served for a time as a missionary in Madras, India, under the International Committee of the Y. M. C. A, Through the years he has been active in advancing the Scripture Prayer Movement. This is a plan, also of Biblical origin, for train, ing church people in the selective, prayerful use of Scripture from memory as a means of Practicing the Presence of God. He holds the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity awarded by l Tusculum College in 1943. He also has the honoray degree of Doctor of Philanthropy, awarded him by Princeton University in 1955. Since 1930, he has been director of the religious department of the Farmers Federation with headquarters in Asheville. In 1949 he was named "Man of the Year in Service to Southern Agriculture" by the PROGRESSIVE FARMER. 15 LORD'S ACRE `r _ P A PICTURE STORY BY EDWARD L. DUPUY Here is the Reverend Dumont Clarke He travels 6y modern means. i arts ~n ive ;or ary . C. A. rain )m He explains--a project t~o a rural congregation. by ~ )Ctor unkind has testified to devotion to God in countless ways down through Since recorded history. Burnt offerings, self-inflicted torture, vows of Ã‚Â°mers silence and meditation, tithing and proportional sharing of the fruits ;d of his labor, have at one time and another been used as expressions of man's homage to his Maker. He works with the people . He leads a group of young peopl in the dedication of a plot. He joins in intimate fellowship as workers eat together and rejoice in their common and united service to God. THANKS! If You Were Among The 50,000 Who Saw and Enjoyed Paul Green's Newest Hit W i L D E R N E S S ROAD " American drama reached for and found a new dimension .the touring American public ...will be moved by it ..... `Wilderness Road' is first rate... exciting to the eye and ear-the singing is rich and right... the dances make one wish for more. " New York Herald Tribune ANNOUNCING The Second Season PAUL GREEN Author SAM SELDEN Director Nightly except Sundays 9 56 Sixty Performances 1956 CAST OF 100 a...Ã¢â‚¬Å¾,,-t"'7 ' k- Indian Fort Theatre in the Berea College Forest YOUR CONFERENCE HOME IN THE SMOKY MOUNTAIN Mountain View I-Iotel GATLINBLiRG. TENN. ~Gatl inburg's FIRST and STILL Favorite MODERN RESORT HOTEL, OPEN ALL THE YEAR 19 THE 44TH (((By Perley Ayer))) I ANNUAL CONFERENCE: A FULL REPORT i Photos by LIFE photographer, Alexander Marshack~ and Ed DuPuy FOLLOWING A MEETING in Atlanta in 1912, and a call issued on February 5,1913, and another call issued on March fifth of that same year, a conference on southern mountain work was held in the North Avenue Presbyterian Church in Atlanta on April 24,1913. This conference was duly constituted an annual meeting to be known as the Southern Mountain Workers Conference. Thirty-five leaders in education, religion, health, philanthropy, and 20 I temperance were present, representing six major church denomin ations, public schools, private schools, normal, technical, theolog ical, and general institutions of learning, one state department of education, one rural health unit, the WCTU, and the Russell Sage Foundation. This was the beginning. In April, 1925, the first issue of Mountain Life & Work was published in Berea with the encouragement and backing of Berea College, one of the five colleges participating in the first meetings of the Southern Mountain Workers Conference in 1912 and 1913. This was another beginning. The 44th Annual Conference of this organization, now known as the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. , was held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, on February 8-11, 1956. This issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE & WORK, now edited and published by the Council, is Volume XXXII, No. 2. Thus for forty-four full years of the organization and going on thirty-two years of the publication dedicated individuals and the agencies through which they serve have worked together for the best interests of the Appalachian South and its people and their con tribution to life elsewhere. Where does the Council stand today and what of the future ? Eighty institutions and 520 individuals are members of the Council. In addition there are 575 other subscribers to MOUNTAIN LIFE & W WORK. Announcements of Council activities and of matters which have the interest and endorsement of the Council are mailed to nearly 5, 000 who share a common concern for the area and its 8,000,000 people. Visitors to the area come to the Council for information. Let ters of inquiry of every sort-from those seeking employment or retirement in the region, from those who are in search of the un usual staff member, from those interested in crafts, folklore, and scenic beauty, from those studying the area and its development come to the office at Berea. Among the current activities of the Council are sponsorship of regional conferences, participation and leadership in national conferences, publication of folk materials, health studies, and recreation leadership aids, distribution of health grants and scholarships, field work in community and institution recreation programming and leader training. The Board of Directors consists of twenty-one Council members and the Advisory Board includes eight more who are members or rep,` resentatives of institutions which are Council members. This group of twenty-nine represents nine states, seven major church denomin ations and the National Council of Churches, ten colleges and private schools, two folk schools, health interests, public schools, one state and one federal agency, and Sigma Phi Gamma International Sorority. Mr. Andrew Summers, a lecturer and singer of unusual technical ability and personal charm, performed at a general meeting of the Conference. Mr Summers is an authority on the music and folklore of this region and is an ardent spokesman for some of the eternal values of the music which ore being lost in the welter of modern radio and television offerings. # # # # 22 An indication of the scope of interest and activity for the future is to be found in the list of committees and committee chairmen which follows: Executive Committee. Chairman, The Rev. A. Rufus Morgan, Franklin, North Carolina Finance Committee. Chairman, Dr. W. B. Jones, Jr., Department of Sociology , University of Tennessee Nominating Committee. Chairman, The Rev. John Bischoff, Director, Red Bird Mission, Beverly, Kentucky Publications Committee. Chairman, Miss Florene Brooks, English Department, Foundation. School, Berea College Conference Committee. Chairman, Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Cumberland Clinic, Crossville, Tennessee Committee for Economic Development. Chairman, Mr. Myles Horton, Highlander Folk School, Monteagle, Tennessee Education Committee. Chairman, Mr. Wilson Lindsey, Guidance Counsellor, High School, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Health Committee. Chairman, Mr. W. A. Massie, United Mine Workers of America, Knoxville; Tennessee Committee for Recreation. Chairman, Mr. William R. Miller, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, North Carolina Committee for Spiritual Life. Chairman, Dr. D. M. Aldridge, President, Clear Creek Mountain Preachers Bible School, Pineville, Kentucky Committee for Youth. Chairman, The Rev. Douglas Wasson, Southern Union College, Wadley, Alabama CoChairman, Miss Ada Cox, 4-H Club member, Craigsville, West Virginia Perhaps it is well to remember that the Council was originally organized as an annual conference only. The number of years that it has lived and served, the diverse nature of its interests, the nature and number of its year-round activities, and its current program are adequate testimony to the basic need of fellowship and cooperative action which brought the original group together. This need unites it now in effective action today. The most frequent question raised by those who are invited to take part for the first time or who are asked to become a part of the present day program after a period of inactivity is "What does the Council do?" This question usually means "What tangible good comes out of one more conference in a world which is already practically dominated by the conference technique?" This is a reasonable question to which there are good answers. Careful study of the program of the 44th Annual Conference will give some understanding of the purpose of the Council of today and of the scope of its program. The Federal Extension Service, and six ire 23 state and county programs were represented. Eighteen colleges, fifteen private schools or community centers, fourteen local church centers, thirteen regional or national church bodies and denomina tions, ten health units (including the American Medical Association) Ã‚Â°"' libraries, craft enterprises, industries, and a host of agencies which share a common concern for the work in the area were represented. These agencies included the Save the Children Federation, the Amer ican Friends Service Committee, the Tennessee Council of Human Relations, the American Institute of Cooperation, organized labor, the U. S. Forest Service and Park Service, TVA, the Southern Re gional Council, the Rural Life Council, the Sigma Phi Gamma Inter national Sorority, and others. es But again, what did these people representing all these groups actually do? Part of the answer has to be observed to be understood. In the first place they became better acquainted personally. They worshipped together, sang together, played and worked and ate to Iine gether, sharing a feeling of mass dedication to the work of the Appa lachian South-work to which each person and each agency had impor er, tant contributions to make. Important as all this is, the answer is a still intangible, so to speak, and the question remains for some, "What was done?" Let us review a few excerpts from the reports submitted by the united sessions and by the interest groups, and then, finally, by the committees which met in executive session and made definite pro posals to the Board of Directors for the work of 1956. 5 HEALTH REPORT AVAILABLE .Y .t it A 1,000-word report came out of the three types of health meet re ings held: the panel discussion on "Equal Opportunities for Health in are the Southern Mountains," smaller interest groups of those who had particular interests in health, and the Council Health Committee ex ecutive sessions. This report referred to the Council Health Study which will be off the press this spring and recommended further use of the data in the appendices which are a part of this study. This he study will be available to those who have professional use for it and he to others who have any particular interest in the health situation in mes the region. The study was made possible by money provided to the ~` Council by the Sigma Phi Gamma International Sorority. It was com ''s- piled and written for the Council by Mr. Lewis Jones and Mrs. A. R. Shields of the Rural Life Council of Tuskegee Institute. ill The health group studied and tentatively suggested that the Coun of cil, through its health committee, give "technical and perhaps finan cial assistance to some town or county in the area that would desire 24 to undertake a moderately complete health survey" of its immediate community. Plans were made for workshops for physicians and health workers-both for those who are active in rural parts of the Appalachian South and for others from outside the region who are "or should be" interested in seeing that organized medicine requires initiative to bring more adequate health to isolated and needy mountain communities. This suggestion included plans for a workshop which would include lay people also. It proposed two such meetings, one in the region of Chattanooga and one at Berea. Plans were made for four meetings of the health committee during the year for which funds are already available. A sum of $800 was set aside for an experimental project in health education by means of trailer movies to be shown to the regular movie patrons in local theaters. $400 was set apart in another fund to be allocated on a local and state matching basis to a rural dental project in Tennessee. Steps were taken to continue the nursing scholarship plan. EDUCATION: EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES One of the outstanding results of the Conference was the statement which came out of the panel group on "Equal Opportunities for Education. " It was adopted by the Council in the annual business meeting, approved and made the official stand of the Council by the Board of Directors, and subsequently released to every newspaper in the region. The panel issued a summary of its findings which read as follows: "The many problems involved in attaining equality of educational opportunity in the Appalachian South cannot be solved within the framework of segregation. We recognize the validity of the United States Supreme Court's decision; we recognize segregation as incompatible with Christian ethics and teaching; that it causes an insurmountable economic barrier by placing the two races in competition for the educational dollar; that worse, it works a continuing hardship and harm on the minds and spirits of all children-both Negro and white. "We see the movement toward integration as aiding in the solution of several phases of educational inequality; we recognize that there must be an equalization between rural and urban schools in~ physical facilities, in teacher salaries, and in expenditures per pupil. "We urge that local people-of all groups-come together in equal dignity and full democracy to work toward the solutions of their problems within the framework of the Supreme Court decisions; that they support the administrators who stand for law and order as embodied in our Federal Consitution; and that we, the people of the ze r :or upil. goal ro 25 Mr., Ayer) s=_~_ Appalachian South, so conduct ourselves that we may serve as an example to the rest of the South and be a beacon of hope to the rest of the world. " To put the whole power of the Council behind the recommendations of this section of the Conference, the Board voted that "the Council of the Southern Mountains go on record as calling on communities and local school boards in the Southern Appalachian region to proceed with integration in the public schools in 1956:' ECONOMICS That chairmen were designated, personnel recruited, and plans for action for 1956 were made by all standing committees is worthy of particular comment. This is news especially in the area of economic development, a realm of concern which is at one and the same time the most complicated and the least understood and which is the recipient of the most diverse and often conflicting efforts. There was one united session devoted to economic matters, there were interest group efforts at outlining a practical policy and program, and there were definite plans made for continuing work in this general area. The Conference was reminded that the Appalachian South has a high investment in human resources, that in the rural portions of the region a large percentage of the gross income is net income, that there is great geographical variation in local situations and problems, and that our greatest hope for the future (the starting point in improvement) is in 26 the minds of the people. The Conference was reminded that not all change is for the good and that change must be carefully evaluated to insure that it will be beneficial if encouraged and brought about. It was stated that natural resources, research, and practical ex perience need to be carefully integrated. The government was de- vr1~~ scribed as willing to assist local initiative-even eager to provide the "yeast" to trigger the local action. There was a compelling plea made for the wise use of credit to expand and to make the most of natural resources in materials, power, and people. The part that responsible industry-capital-is playing in developing promising individuals among employees was described as a hopeful sign and something to expect and plan on in the future. Finally, the conference was told clearly that united community effort was essential and that the responsibility for developing this concept and this result was a responsibility of education. A suggestion has since been made that the Committee for Economic Development undertake a new survey on economic and social problems and conditions in the Southern Appalachians similar to one made by the USDA in 1935. (The Ginger Bread Man. This boy cut the sticks for his small stage just as Mr. Ayer arrived at his school.. The little play was given in honor of Mr._lfyer's visit.. This is one of countless pictures taken by LIFE photographer, Alexander Marshack.) Or ' F m., _ ...,s 27 RELIGION: CONFERENCE CHRISTIAN MOTIVATED I While it is difficult to identify "tangible" results of the spirit ual emphases of the Conference, it is clear to all who were present and to all others who glance through the printed program that there is an accepted understanding that the Christian religion is the basic I a motivating force underlying all efforts represented at the Conference. A Spiritual Life Committee was formed to carry on suggestions made by the interest group which discussed "Practical Cooperation between the Church and Public Service Agencies" and the other group which concerned itself with "Christian Motivation of College Students." This committee is, of course, interdenominational and ~d is headed by Dr. D. M. Aldridge, President of the Clear Creek Mountain Preachers Bible School. RECREATION * * YOUTH * * PUBLICATIONS I I e The recreation interests submitted a plan and a budget for con tinuing field work in recreation leadership training, outlined plans for additional publicity for regional recreational activities, made proposals for the recreation emphases for next year's Conference, recommended the republication of "Songs of All Time;" and appointed a committee to implement this project. The Youth Committee, with an adult chairman in Alabama and a youth chairman in West Virginia, recommended: a youth newslet ter of the region and youth representatives of the Appalachian South at national conferences. Under consideration by this group also is a plan for campus undergraduate chapters of the Council. The Itinerant Recreator of the Council is a member of the Board of Trustees of Rural Youth U S A and will represent the Council at the annual meeting of that organization. The Publications Committee has already spent days editing and proof-reading the Health Report with members of the Health Commit tee. One of its responsibilities will be to assist in the search for promising material for Mountain Life & Work. This committee voted to have a study made of the reading levels of the various Coun cil publications. Its recommendation was adopted that the editor of the magazine be employed on a half-time basis instead of being ex pected to edit it in his spare time and that a travel budget be made available for his work. 28 $$$ FINANCES $$$ The report of the treasurer, the auditor, and the Budget Committee were highlights and surprising highlights of the Council year and of the general business meetings at Gatlinburg. The Council raised $16, 472, 45 in 1955. The growth of the movement can be seen ~ yl1 in these figures by years: 1952 $ 4,618.69 1953 9,598.23 1954 11,475.19 1955 16,472.45 Based on the growth of the program during the past four years, and based especially on the work which needs to be done in the immediate future, the Finance Committee recommended, and the Board adopted, a budget for 1956 $ 26,664.00 This optimistic and courageous step forward was taken in order to enable the Council to employ more help, to make possible more travel, to initiate additional health projects, to ensure periodic interim committee and regional meetings, to provide recreation leadership to communities without the necessary resources to secure it for themselves, to increase regional coverage through Council publications, and to extend Council fellowship through membership ~, and subscription promotion. It should be noted that this $26, 664. 00 is money to _be raised in 1956 and not money in hand. Neverthe less, that this sum could be optimistically budgeted and sought is a good indication of the state of the Council at the moment. # # # # # This report from the Executive Secretary is full of optimism and concern. Speaking as a resident of many years of the Appalachian South, Mr. Ayer gives us a look backward and forward--to the beginnings, the present, and the future of the Council. One of his trips into mountain territory in the interest of the Berea College and Foundation School admissions was recorded by LIFE photographer, Alexander Marshack..Mr. Ayer recently wrote: an " erroneous belief which strongly influences our private schools and colleges especially is that adequate education is now the normal expectation of all young people in the Appajachians..The fact still remains that as recently as September, 1955 ' we had as many as 80,000 children of school age NOT IN SCHOOL in one mountain state alone ...in one mountain county, which is fairly comparable to many others, of 4,523 pupils enrolled in the first grade in 1942 there were only 438 left in school in 1954 when they should have been seniors." r y i 30 (((Mrs. Florence Ridgway))) ~~ WOMEN'S INDUSTRIAL: - A STORY OF SHARING "Ain't it pretty out there?" The words brought my hurried steps to a pause beside the woman. Her care-lined face was illumined. My mind stumbled toward understanding. She was not asking me a question; her words were a declaration, an appraisal, a form of ejaculation with a soft hallelujah echo. My eyes followed her gaze out to the large room beyond-a room noticeably plain. At several long tables sat groups of women sewing. Around long frames sat other women tying gaily-colored quilts. Off at the sides, sewing machines hummed resolutely. A number of other women moved about intently or stood at tables absorbed in piles of clothing. All through the room flowed quiet, friendly talk. 31 The time was Friday morning. The scene is the same as any other Friday, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from October to April at the Community Room, Union Church, Berea, Kentucky. The sitting women are mostly mothers from neighborhoods round about. The standing women and those flying around are directors, teachers, helpers, mostly from Union Church. They work at mend ing and making over used garments, cutting out and sewing new ones, piecing and finishing quilts, making crocheted and braided rugs. The purpose is primarily to help needy folk provide clothing for their families and give to hard-working women an opportunity for social, mental, and spiritual enrichment. "Ain't it pretty out there ? " Now, I understood. The woman beside me saw the spirit of the place and out of her clear discern ment broke forth joyous gratitude in being privileged to have a part in these wonderful doings-the Women's Industrial, more simply called "The Sewing," but always spoken with the feeling of capitals. A remarkable feature of the Women's Industrial is its unbroken continuity for sixty-two years. Questions gather round: What keeps it going? Who started it? Where do the women come from? Are they all in need? Why do they keep coming year after year, gener ation following generation? L In 1890 the Berea Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed, working valiantly and with signal success to make the com munity free from the sale of intoxicants, carrying on a live and like able program of temperance education for the children and young people. Meanwhile, their concern for the families who were having hard times through sickness and poverty found expression in many individual acts of helpfulness. They were especially troubled about the children who could not go to day school nor to Sunday School be cause of lack of clothing. The WCTU worked with the conviction that "I am my brother's keeper," in helping struggling families of both races. Thus it came about that at their meeting in November, 1894, they listened with open minds to a plan two members had seen in operation in the town of Oberlin, Ohio. It bore the name "Industrial School" and was carried on by women from the various churches. The core of the plan was to provide a self-help way for needy folk to get clothing. Given the work of re-conditioning used garments, they y were paid in tickets with which the garments could be bought. The -'` plan was accepted and "Industrial" was launched the following month. So many women came, walking 5 - 7 - 10 miles, that the room, big enough for fifty persons, was soon filled to overflowing. To meet this problem, a three-month rotation plan was used. Soon it became evident that the women were as eager for the food provided for the mind and spirit by the opening devotions and talks as they were for 32 (A final class of the seven weeks course on Home Nursing.) clothing. Said one woman whose three months were aver, "There is so much that is religious and liftnin' I want to just come and stand in the corner and see you all once a week, even if I can't sew no more," A staff of over thirty volunteer women, working variously from C)) two to nine hours each week, is required to carry on Industrial ac tivities. These women form the General Committee for over-all planning. The Industrial women are grouped by classesusually about ten to a class-which make over garments, mend, make children's dresses, quilts, and rugs. Each class selects a chairman who, as occasion arises, meets with the General Committee chairman at lunch time and helps plan many of the activities. They also come before starting time each Friday to get work materials set up and then put them carefully away at the end of the day. Preparation for Friday's work must begin by Thursday morning when clothing is carefully examined and sorted into three main groups: mending, make-over, and good condition. The last named is marked with its price in work tickets, usually from one to four. Work tickets are reckoned at twenty-five cents. Each woman receives four tickets for her two hours work on Friday morning. Clothing is donated by interested friends of Industrial. A large amount is received, yet the supply sometimes runs troublesomely low. When a woman registers in Industrial a careful record is made. It is important to know about such matters as the number of children under twelve years, husband's employment, home owned or rented, means of support, church interest, and special problems. When possible, efforts are made to help with the problems, referring 33 some to the Red Cross and other agencies, as in the case of handicapped children. Over 100 women usually register each year. Attendance lags but little, save when sickness occurs or back roads are impassable. Few Fridays pass without two or three new registrations. Some of the women still walk considerable distances to Industrial; a good many catch rides; a few come together in a family car or pick-up truck, or even a coal truck, used for the husband's work. For nearly thirty years Industrial has given special attention to the health of the women and their children. Since 1927 home nursing classes have been conducted by a trained nurse for six or seven weeks with Red Cross certificates given for completion of the course. Special clinics have been held occasionally for pre-school children and their mothers. For the last fourteen years a woman physician from the Berea College Hospital staff has come to Industrial for an hour each Friday and has given her services to the women. The hard lives which most of these women have lived often make inroads upon their health. It means much to them to talk with the doctor, as this often dissolves their fears of polio shots or imaginary illnesses. Infectious diseases are speedily cared for. When a serious condition is found, the doctor takes the woman (and her children, if necessary) to the College Hospital clinic where she receives examination without charge. Should an operation be needed, surgery is done without charge. If the patient is unable to pay the bill for hospital care, her relatives usually manage to do so; if not, the Children's Memorial Fund helps meet the situation in the case of her children. Each Friday, as a piano note sounds the close of the two-hour work period, the women put away their sewing and move to the chairs in the front of the room. This is what one of the women calls "the pretty time." It is the time set aside for worship and for educational and inspirational talks. Informative and religious films are sometimes shown. Singing has an important place. For special days, a chorus of some of the women is often trained. For many of the women, this 'pretty time' is their only opportunity to reach beyond the everydayness of their lives. Recent talks are indicative of their interests: "Ways to Prevent Illness," "The Need for Keeping Children in School," and "Negro History Week" by a colored speaker. (Industrial has always been interracial. ) "I am Thankful for Bean Soup" was the Thanksgiving talk by a young rural minister whose salary is often slow as well as low. Indian American pictures were shown by a college student, from her work camp experiences, on the World Day of Prayer. A series of pre-Christmas talks by a woman minister created a new awareness of the meaning of Christmas. A film about the spreading of the Scriptures around the world 34 was shown on the day when Bibles were presented, provided at sy half-price by the American Bible Society, to those without Bibles sn with good print in their homes. The women are intensely loyal, as was seen when two young du women slipped out to smoke. Some of the members quietly told ~~y `J tip the director. A personal talk to the girls and then to the whole nE group resulted. The idea presented in the talk was that "No one who has money for cigarettes has a right in Industrial." Response tl was hearty as the group applauded. (They rarely give applause.) fl In quiet ways most of the women express appreciation of Industrial: 1` "the good talks I heard. . . helped me raise my children and keep them in school." ". . .learned how to do things the nice way." I1 -"the prettiest Christmas tree I ever saw. . . " The women of Industrial are not recipients only. They like to give. World Community Day one year found them ready with two warm quilts of their own making and clothing they had bought with their own work tickets. At their World Day of Prayer service, an offering is made. A local family burned out of home and all their possesions was given many armsful of home-canned food. During the war, the women sent clothing to children overseas. Christmas is a beautiful time at Industrial. Said a leading church woman of the town-a favorite speaker with the women at their Christmas service, "I never quite get the Christmas spirit in full measure until I come to your Christmas program. " Recently the Industrial women gave new expression to their giving by adopting a "Share-Our-Blessings Day" one Friday each month. On that day the program will present a great need in another land or in our own country or locality. For the first such Day, a Korean student told of conditions in his war-stricken land and especially of the many war orphans. This struck a responsive chord as over half the women had sons or other dose relatives who I had served in Korea. The offering went toward the support of a little Korean orphan boy. Shortly before noon each Friday, enticing whiffs come from the Community Room kitchen. After their worship and program, the women gather at the serving window for the hot soup and crackers prepared for them. A charge of five cents a serving partially covers the cost. Along with the nourishing soup comes a lot of friendship ping as the women sit around the tables., A rotating crew of volunteers puts the kitchen in order, and the sales period begins. By a carefully devised alphabetical rotation plan, each woman has a fair chance at selection when she enters I the sales room. She is limited in the munber of dresses she may take at one time in fairness to all. Dresses, children's clothing and household articles are in great demand. Women needing quilts 35 sign for them at the beginning of the year. In addition to tickets a es small money charge is made for them which partly pays for the new materials used in their making. (About twenty-five quilts are made lg during the year.) Women who do not need to spend all their work 3 ~l~ ~ tickets are encouraged to put them into an Industrial fund for special needs, such as a burned-out family. Year after year, generation after generation. It is not a strange rise thing. Do they all need the clothing? Not everyone in these days of fuller employment and old-age assistance. But for the spirit there vial: is desire without ceasing. ep The Berea Women's Industrial is more than a way of helpfulness. It is a superb witness to the blessedness of sharing. # # # # CRAFT WORKSHOP. June 11-July 14. Pi Beta Phi School and the University of Tennessee offers credit or non-credit work under outstanding teacher-craftsman in jewelry, weaving, textile design, enameling, pottery, and problems in Art related to the home. Write: Pi Beta Phi School, Gatlinburg, Tennessee. in ther ho ;he rers CHURCH FURNITURE By buying from Clear Creek Furniture Factory, you will be saving . . . and serving a worthy cause. Owned and Operated by the Only the finest and clearest red oak is used throughout. Pieces are carefully matched as to grain and coloring of wood. Clear Creek Mountain Preachers Bible School Pineville, Kentucky 36 INTRODUCING your next SMITH COLLEGE VA70RKSHIP INTERNE JANE KUSHNER WILL begin her year as the Recreation Interne with the Council on June 5, when she will begin her training as a student at the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, N. C. After attending the Recreation Course followed by the Handicraft Course and the Little Folk School until about the middle of July, she will be available for scheduling anywhere in the area. She will work in close cooperation with the Itinerant Recreator, Jim Wolf, and the Council Recreation Committee under the chairmanship of William Miller of Brasstown. Jane attended the Sid well Friends High School in Washington, D. C. and comes to us direct from graduation from Smith College where she was a theater major. She has studied at the University of Washington. She took part in the Experiment in International Living in Scotland in 1954. She has traveled in New England as a Youth Hosteler, has served as secretary at the rne Biological Laboratory off as the coast of New Hampshire . C, and has had experience as a camp counselor. she other helpful experi - or ence includes story telling, ~ _ s~~m , _z __ __ _._. the~) ~W informal dramatics and i some personal interest and skill in music. The Council office has received a clipping describing Jane's success as director of a one-act fantasy for children, "Six Who Pass While the Lentils Boil. " To those who have not known about the Smith College Workship in Recreation it should be said that the plan is one which is of mutual benefit. Jane's time and services are a donation of the student body of Smith College to the Appalachian South. It is expected that the year will be one of new experiences and friendships for Jane and that she will gain as she would from a year of graduate study. Institutions and agencies requesting h^r services are expected Ã‚Â°i to provide board and room and any necessary travel during her stay with them and to make a small donation toward a travel fund with which the Council sends her about through the region. The office of the Council of the Southern Mountains at Berea, Kentucky, will be her headquarters and correspondence about her services should be directed there. # # # # ANNUAL CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR. July 16-20. Southern Highland Handicraft Guild holds its annual fair in the City Auditorium at Asheville, North Carolina. Mountain singing, dancing, tale telling, crafts exhibits and craftsmen at work in the best Southern Highland tradition are featured. 38 HYMN of PRAISE UN Isont G 14d y s V. J0.meSOf1 A-t 4M ~JA-4)j *4 __ ._ . - .. _ . ~ . _ __ W j OE i. aLtk4L AtA- 'k$c .~ ~,E.v. ~ru.~ 'Cu.bl4. ~utt~.tG ~u& itb P Y '~' ~ -s-.' ;~-- -Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ . The HYMN OF PRAISE above was brought to Miss Gladys V. Jameson by one of her students many years ago. It was in a book of hymns called " Christian Psalmist" published in Louisville in 1850. Only the melody was indicates' and that by numbers on two lines. Miss Jameson has arranged this melody and written cm accomponient which makes this beautiful appreciation of God's world singable in our time. Miss Jameson last year published " wake and Sing," folk songs which she has collected over many years while teaching in the Music Department of Berea College. 39 _ NEIGHBOR-STATE - FOLKLORISTS - ERASMUS FOSTER DARBY It would be o good thing to say (if we could) that for every section of our long-wide America a proportionate number of tale collectors existed--people who appointed themselves as yarn historians to seek out and write down the oral traditions of a forgotten type of entertainment. _ That is, almost forgotten. Actually, it might surprise any interested person to learn of the hundreds and thousands of stories that have been recorded, either by con - scions collectors or by musicians and writers who have employed the material incidentally, or accidentally, in their compositions. _ It seems fairly safe to say, however, that there are tales yet which have not found their way into print. Any day a collector may find a new tale, either by asking for a variation. of a known one, or just by taking time to sit and listen. No doubt, the old gander has been hit several times without even the proverbial shot at the goose. Undoubtedly, too, by the efforts of tale collectors, song recorders, dance collectors, historians, etc., our present lives are enriched, hDUNTAIN LIFE & WORK is glad to introduce a person who has collected over 100 tales in his area --the Buckeye State. DAVE WEBB, known by readers as Erasmus Foster Darby, is the city auditor of Chillicothe, Ohio. Though his job demands an expected large number of daylight hours, he somehow finds a way to carry on his chief hobby-tale collecting. His "tramping ground" is mainly southern Ohio, but he often gets to `,, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky in his search for tales. At present Mr. Webb is secretary of the quite active Ross County Historical Society of which he has been a trustee for seven years. This organization has existed for over fifty years, placing great emphasis upon a folk museum where interesting documents, paintings, instruments, collections of early American tools, and 40 other relics are on exhibition to the public for a small fee. In 1954 visitors from 35 states were often greeted and shown about by Mr. Webb. In addition, Mr. Webb is a member of the Ohio Folklore Soci ety and was recently asked to become an officer. Eugene D. Rigney, Director of the museum and also a member of the Ohio Folklore Society, wrote of that organization's expanding interests: "This then is the challenge-the desperate need for a penetrating restatement of the American heritage of dependence upon God's providence, individual strength and responsibility. The real test of our own merit is whether we are superficial purveyors of antiquarian entertainment or able administrators of an unequalled trust: the American heritage. Decisions cannot be made for this or future generations, but we can provide the lessons of history to light the way." David Webb was born in Bellefontaine, Ohio. He went to high school at West Mansfield where, in 1919, the vexed principal made a portentous announcement: "From now on it is absolutely forbidden to carry anything bigger than a .22 rifle to school." Of course this made the kids unhappy, said Dave. Now the father of eight children, Mr. Webb is happy to be settled down as city auditor of Chillicothe. Looking back, he remembers working in a roller-bearing plant, in a bank, a high school, running a book store, editing a little magazine, and working on various newspapers. He has been city auditor for nine years. David Webb has a sense of humor that is about the driest, the most different, the editor has ever seen. By his facial expressions you might think he is about to say something, when really he hasn't given it a thought. Then you might think he is scared, until you realize that the eyes are laughing (in their own Erasmus Foster Darby way-kind of a scared, crying laugh.) Erasmus is utterly quiet. And that is the way he tells the tales-with deceptively dull eyes and an ultra calm manner, even if the material is emotional or exciting in narrative. Every thing is calm and dead serious. Dave writes this note about the following tale: "The story of the wild cherry brandy spring of Brimstone Hollow is just another old tale in many ways, and is a long way from being an original yarn. I have heard it told in a great many versions and in many regions. In some versions it is a peach brandy spring; sometimes it is a spring of wild grape wine or simply applejack. Certainly, regardless of its possible entertaining qualities, it should be preserved because it is so typical of the folk tales told by our great-great-grandfathers to amuse themselves while amusing the listenertales based on fact or on some tale they had heard from someone older than themselves." Erasmus Foster Darby Blackamore Mountain Ridge Overlooking Palmer Hollow en /OA tu& /0'. EeflircY ... The Legend of BRIMSTONE HOLLOW by Erasmus Foster Darby THE TRUTH can sometimes be so strange that it is difficult to believe. Along about the year 1820 Old Bill Atwater moved into Ohio and purchased 1700 acres of Ross County's most rugged hill land. Old Bill was a bachelor, and once he had settled on his land he did very little to make himself sociable or to get acquainted with his fellow men. However, he did bring in four orphan nephews from the East and set them working on his land. Old Bill, with his nephews' help, soon built a house and barn near the mouth of Brimstone Hollow. The hollow lay entirely on Old Bill's land, and the site he chose for his home was a beautiful spot. The Atwater buildings were scarcely completed when it became noticeable that the Atwaters were all acting in a peculiar manner. 42 Old Man Atwater and his nephews were seldom seen anywhere any more. They never went to town any more, nor did they visit he their neighbors or friends. When an Atwater was seen in the near- He by forests he nearly always appeared drunk. Actually "stewed to ci the gills," as many remarked. ba Several times the Atwaters were questioned in this drunken the condition. Each time they babbled that they had been drinking from of the "wild cherry brandy spring. " On even rarer occasions they were he questioned when sober and were asked point-blank about the "wild cherry brandy spring" they babbled about when intoxicated. On each th of these sober occasions they emphatically denied any knowledge of a "wild cherry brandy spring. " ch~ It was not long before the neighbors decided for sure that the th Atwaters were not only incurable drunks but "crazy as loons" too. at, Now, along about the time of this decision folks began to notice many strange things about Brimstone Hollow-so strange indeed, fo that very few dared go near it and never did anyone actually venture be into the Hollow itself. wl The crows and buzzards and other birds of the air were often CE noticed detouring the area on their flights; soon not a bird of any kind would fly over the hollow. ~) ~ li Somehow, it soon became known that Brimstone Hollow was full is of raccoons-thousands of them. All during the summer families of raccoons could be seen by day or by night madly traveling towards b Brimstone Hollow. Reliable persons reported that raccoons came r from as far away as the Atlantic and Gulf coasts as well as from the s Great Lakes region and from the West as far away as the Ozarks. t Certainly within a year or so all the able-bodied raccoons in America had migrated to Brimstone Hollow. A few of the braver coon-hunters at times ventured to the edge of i Brimstone Hollow or to the top of some nearby ridge and sent their coon-hounds into the hollow. But for some strange reason even the very best coon-hounds in America would not chase a raccoon in the hollow. The hounds would simply slink back to the hunters with chattering teeth, knocking knees, and with their tails between their legs. Most of the hounds, after one venture into the valley, pined away or had to be shot. But there were no raccoons in America any more to speak of, except in Brimstone Hollow, so who would need a coon-hound, anyway? If it were not true, what had actually happened in Brimstone Hollow would be hard to believe. But like most mysteries, the Brimstone Hollow mystery is simple enough. 43 re ~ After Old Bill Atwater had finished building his house and barns, he decided he needed a spring that would always be fresh and cool. ,r-~ ~ He explored around the hollow for the most likely location and de I tided on a spot at the head of the hollow just at the bottom of a steep bank whereon grew a giant wild cherry tree(probably the largest in the state) and four giant sugar maples. At this spot a few trickles 'm of pure clear water already seeped out of the bank to create the vere headwaters of Brimstone Run. In digging the spring the old man had to cut through several of ach the largest roots of the wild cherry tree and of the sugar maples. ef What followed then was natural enough. The sap from the wild cherry and sugar maple roots blended with the sparkling waters of the spring and immediately started fermentation. Thus was cre ated one of the most potent drinks ever known. 'e A few local historians are still inclined to condemn the Atwaters for drinking from the spring. That seems rather harsh criticism, re because it is unlikely they could realize the water was intoxicating when they first started to drink it. Once under the influence they'd certainly always be thirsty. As for the raccoons, it is well to remember that they are intel ligent animals. Intelligent men sometimes drink, so why blame an .11 intelligent animal? 'f And they are curious animals. Their curiosity knows no bounds. Most likely, when Old Man Atwater started the spring a few local raccoons started drinking from it that very night. They liked this e strange drink, and during the three long years the spring lasted, this was their only food and water. They probably informed their ca relatives and friends, who came and liked the water, too. Eventu ally every raccoon in the country had heard of the spring and had Ã‚Â°f come to live and join in the drunken brawl of Brimstone Hollow. What a sightl More than half a million drunken raccoons sprawled e around the mouth of the spring and along the banks of Brimstone Runl Just what the Atwaters thought of the raccoon invasion we will never know for certain, but since they were drunk themselves near ' ly all the time, it seems quite likely they gave the matter little thought. Of course, it is no longer a mystery that the birds of the y ~ air would not fly over the valley. The alcoholic fumes probably rose in the sky for a mile or so. A few readers, after studying these recorded facts, will want to know what happened to Brimstone Valley. Simply this: lightning struck the giant wild cherry tree one evening during a terrible thun derstorm. The ground around the spring blew up with an awful crash. This explosion was heard for 50 miles away. The flash that I 44 lit the sky that night was seen as far away as Nagara Falls and P Louisville. "That blast would have sobered Old Nick, Himself," the natives said. For days the smell of brimstone remained in the valley air. After the spring disappeared the raccoons left the place as fast ~~ as they could go. They were sober now. But ever since, raccoons F have been known to love their liquor, beer, wine, and rum. And even to this day, not one man with Atwater blood in his veins will eat of the flesh of the raccoon nor drink as much as a drop of wild cherry brandy. That is the truth, too. # # # # COMING EVENTS PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS. June 4-August 25, main summer session. This session is arranged in terms of three weeks each as follows: June 4-23, June 25-July 14, July 16August 4, August 6-25. Registration may be for any one or all of these terms. Main courses are Hand Weaving, Carding, Spinning, and Dyeing, Metalcrafts, Ceramics. Also offered are related crafts from silk screen techniques to the making of shepherd's pipes. Ample opportunities for recreation and relaxation are offered. Fall and Spring Sessions are offered 1 August 27-December 15 and March 18-May. These are more informal sessions where "one can come at any time and stay as long as he likes." Instruction is entirely individual. Write: Miss Lucy C.Morgan, Director, Penlarid, North Carolina. RECREATION COURSE. June 5-16. John C. Campbell Folk School. The course will include American, English and Danish Country Dances, folk singing, carving, puppetry, recorder playing, and discussion periods. A Handicraft Course follows, June 18-30. Write: Georg Bidstrup, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, North Carolina. SEMINAR IN INTERGROUP RELATIONS. June 12-29. University of Kentucky. For adults interested in developing better understanding and techniques of intergroup cooperation. Study and discussion of principles with emphasis on interfaith cooperation, rural-urban relations, and desegregation. Write: Willis A. Sutton, Jr. , Dept. of Sociology, University of Kentucky. 45 PUBLIC RELATIONS OF THE SCHOOL. June 13-July 21. Virginia Polytechnic Institute. A course for educational leaders in planning and executing public relations programs. Write: H. W. Sanders, Head, Dept. of Vocational Education, VPI, Blacksburg. ist ins FARMERS SCHOOL. June 17-23. Highlander Folk School. Family type farmers and rural community leaders will discuss rural 1 leadership, rural services available, farming methods, etc. Write: Highlander Folk School, Monteagle, Tennessee. HUCKLEBERRY MOUNTAIN WORKSHOP CAMP near Henderson ville, N. C. , will be open from July 1 until August 11. There will be three two-week sessions. Workshops will be conducted in crafts, painting, photography, prose writing, --'e and poetry. Also there will be a new literacy workshop with - projects in the art of writing simple reading material for the new literate adult, as well as the techniques of teaching adults lg, to read and write. For brochure, write: Bertha Wilcox Smith, Director, Huckleberry Mountain Workshop Camp, Henderson ville, North Carolina, after June 15. PUBLIC SCHOOL INTEGRATION WORKSHOP. July 15-21. High ' lander Folk School. For men and women in positions to provide '' community leadership in areas of intergroup and human rela te: tions. Analysis of state plans for dealing with integration and patterns of human relations in the South today, developing plans of social action for back-home application. Write: Highlander ,l. Folk School, Monteagle, Tennessee, 1d ), THE VIRGINIA HIGHLANDS FESTIVAL OF THE ARTS is held annually, August 1-15, in Abingdon, Virginia. I MOUNTAIN DANCE & FOLK FESTIVAL is announced by the Ashe ville, North Carolina, Chamber of Commerce, scheduled for August 6-7-8 at the City Auditorium. The performers come "with the same songs that were sung centuries ago in the Brit ish Isles, with the touch of Chaucer not yet eradicated from their speech," writes Margaret Fisler, former News Bureau Director. This is the festival's 26th annual meeting. 46 TALENT MART SEC ((((((((((((The Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. gives assistance in discovering for institutions and programs trained workers who have a genuine desire to serve where they are most needed. The Council also endeavors to provide the names and brief data about people who are ~ ~ ~,~,r seeking such opportunities. While the Council endeavors to use discretion in this publicity, it cannot imply more them the bare facts herein stated. Investigation of individual qualifications and evaluation of recommendations must 6e considered the responsibility of those who find this service of help in their search. Some of these positions may have been filled by the time you read this, but at press time the following places were open or people were M available PINE MOUNTAIN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL needs:l. Nurse for year round service in 18-bed rural hospital. 2. Nurse for part of summer. 3. Two teachers for elementary grades who qualify E for Kentucky certification. 4. Woman to lead school and leisure time projects in sewing, cooking, playground activities, music, folk dancing, simple crafts, etc. Write: Burton Rogers, Director, Pine Mountain, Kentucky. FRIENDSVILLE ACADEMY, FRIENDSVILLE, TENNESSEE, needs an aggressive, qualified and interested man, or man and wife, ~l J RE to live in their new farm house to do a combination of jobs, or rather, be work-manager using boys who come on work schol arships. He and/or his wife would do some teaching of classes. 1VL Interview requested. HINDMAN SETTLEMENT SCHOOL, HINDMAN, KENTUCKY,will provide room, board, laundry, and other maintenance for a woman "volunteer" worker to act as substitute librarian, sub stitute housemother while regular department heads have week ly day off. Woman may be 65 or older. Position offers a con siderable amount of rest and free time. Write Hindman at once. F SNEAD JUNIOR COLLEGE, BOAZ, ALABAMA, anticipates open ings in English, chemistry, and mathematics, beginning the , fall quarter, 1956. MORRISTOWN COLLEGE, MORRISTOWN, TENNESSEE, may be in line (next year) for an English teacher with a minimum qualifi cation of Master's degree. I CAMP CHEROKEE FOR BOYS needs an instructor in Arts and Crafts for seven weeks this summer, June 22-August 10. Campers are between six and fourteen years old. Write: Jane McConnell, Director, Camp Cherokee for Boys, Ciarkesville, Georgia. 47 SECRETARY WANTED. Mr. Ayer, Executive Secretary of the Council of the Southern Mountains, writes: "We must find, as soon as possible, a competent, dedicated person to serve as o full-time, year-round office secretary. Last year we adver tised for such a worker in the CHRISTIAN CENTURY. We re ceived one reply, but the magnitude of the job discouraged it ~ that applicant. What we really need is a person of adequate training and considerable experience, one who really wants an opportunity to render a significant service in this region. The Board has voted a very adequate budget for such a worker, and I can pay a fair salary according to qualifications." MUSIC TEACHER, Mrs. ~ William Denton Young(now widowed) seeks position in a mountain settlement school for the coming year. r- -She holds a B. S. in music education and holds an Ohio certi ficate. to teach music (public school) or elementary school. EXPERIENCED TEACHER of industrial arts and science, camp ire counselor in nature study, ten years as teacher of the blind, operator of craft shop for crippled children, Boy Scout master, desires opportunity to serve and will accept modest salary. He is farm reared, a lay member of the Methodist Church, does not use tobacco or licntor. Write:. Council Office. RETIRED CONGREGATIONAL MINISTER, born in Berea, reared in Berea and graduated from Berea College, is interested in - serving again in the Appalachian South. MASON COLLEGE OF MUSIC- AND FINE ARTS, INC. 1308 Quarrier Street, Charleston, West Virginia, needs one full-time and one part-time teacher of piano with Master's degree if possible. Salary is sixty percent of earnings from teaching. Starting salary may be less than $200 per month, with opportunity for - advancement through merit . Moat teaching is with prepar atory pupils. Grace Martin Taylor, President. e' FRENCHBURG SCHOOL, FRENCHBURG, KENTUKCY, needs for this fall: teachers for seventh grade, eighth grade, science and biology, high school math, high school English, house- - mother for dormitory, and registered nurses for the hospital. Write: Arthur Gathman, Supt. PITTMAN COMMUNITY CENTER, SEVIERVILLE `/ Tennessee, needs a registered nurse to work with the doctor in the Center's medical work. Write: R. F. Thomas, M. D. , Superintendent. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below, and send with $1.00 to the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. Box 2000 , College Station, Berea, Kentucky. NAME ADDRESS Active individual membership $ 3.00 to 4.00 _ Supporting membership 5.00 to 24.00 Sustaining membership 25.00 or more Institutional membership 5.00 or more --Subscription to M.L.& W. included in all memberships I do not wish to join or subscribe at the moment, but I do wish to be kept informed about the program of the Council- - Additional questions and comments (Please detach and mail to Box 2000, Berea College, Berea, Ky.) COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC., works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian Region with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help solve some of the peculiar educational, social, spiritual and cultural needs of this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and by ineons of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. --Participation is invited on the above bases 3rd For Members! d isSy,a ersb According to our 1955 465 ~o records, your membership lys.jss~e fA,~f and/or subscription PV appears to have expired S~bscr 'ls1 41 _ as indicated. We are l`ot1a~ ,t~, '~~~ continuing to send you 'd P.t '~s ~`p current issues in the Ue r gch Aired 6' P belief that you do not S ss~~, wish us to drop you from l9s,eF;- .r .~, N N our membership. We would js ~~ ~el ~`~ `9,r 0 appreciate your reaffiliat ~e o' ~ ion upon whatever basis 6' ~. you wish. ls, S `~~9J'6 OP d IF THIS CORNER IS NOT TURNED UP, YOUR AFFILIATION IS UP TO DATE!