You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Mountain Life & Work vol. 32 no. 3 1956 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv32n30756 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 32 no. 3 1956 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1956 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. LIFE & VVOR K MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN EVE LIFE AND WORK VOL.--XXXII--_ NO. 3 1956 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. INC. SEALE BUILDING. MAIN STREET. BEREA. KENTUCKY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT BEREA. KENTUCKY. MANAGING EDITOR -- Charles Drake, College Station, Berea,Ky. " Y GUEST EDITQR -- Maureen Faulkner, College Statiop,Berea, Ky. DEPARTMENT EDITORS RECREATION--- Ruthie Carroll, University of Tennessee, Knoxville EDUCATION-- Grazia K. Combs, Viper, Kentucky P R FIEALTH-- Dr. Robert Metcalfe, Crossville, Tennessee SHIP RELIGION-- Dr. Sam Vander Meer, Morris Fork, Kentucky STAFF PH07C)GRAPHER-- Ed DuPuy, Black Mountain, North Carolina STAFF ARTIST-- Mrs. Burton Rogers, Pine Mountain, Kentucky GUEST ARTIST-- Ruby C. Ball, College Station, Berea, Ky. Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC., Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. Perley F. Ayer, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the ~ - Council. This subscription price is included in the member ship fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF THE 37UTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station Berea, Kentucky ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. x SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS COVER: JIM WOLF. CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR AND PAGE 46: ED DUPUY ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢A ~A o PAGES zo AND zl COURTESY of KNOXVILLE NE%S SENTINEL -xId I can r EVERYTHING FOR THE HANDWEAVER High Qualify 0 Handweavin G g o-11 9 -84 Yarns and Supplies PROMPT SHIPMENTS Cottons . Wools . Linen . Metallics Chenilles . Nylkara Homespuns Looms, including the Leclerc Folding Loom. Novelty Yarns Warping frames . Bobbin racks and winders Table reels . Tension boxes W ''e today for free catalog and current price list ~_.id $1 for complete color cards. This $1 .00 can be applied to your next purchase of $10.00 LILY MILLS CO. Dept. HWB Shelby, N. C. %J wv~ryWoA ca u4 "Aiz~ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of ppTONS and BALDWINS Weaving wools from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious wools that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and wools-and samples of the weav ing wools described above-all for $1.00 postpaid, which will be refunded on first order of $10 or more. Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. ~ughro Nmurjett, .3tr, GOLDEN RULE PRODUCTS Ã¢â‚¬Å¾,~ _..Ã¢â‚¬Å¾,o.~ ~,,aÃ¢â‚¬Å¾. aj left ttEDE~ICIC J IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR IIANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples FREDERICK J. FAWCETT,) INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston il, Mass. 6 THE CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR 6 a ell #,,oe .e ~. ~1~'t~. July 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 1956 - Ashevi I le, N a-21c' 7-2 r pill p~, ~Q,r , .,, o ~,~(J~ '~ vN CHRISTMAS COUNTRY DANCE SCHOOL BEREA COLLEGE, BEREA, KENTUCKY December 26, 1956 - jannary 1, 1957 DANCE THESE OLD FAVORITES American Squares New England Contras English Country Dances Appalachian Dances Morris and Sword Danish Country Dances OTHER ACTIVITIES Recorders Puppetry Old English Mummers Play Appalachian and English Folk Songs Play Party Games Toll Tales Discussion Topics A COUNTRY DANCE PARTY EVERY NIGHT Write for full information Christmas Country Dance School Berea College, Box 1826 Berea, Kentucky 13 MISS WATTS AT HINDMAN On October 1, 1956, Elizabeth Watts will retire from her position as executive director of the Hindman Settlement School. Miss Watts is concluding fortyseven years of service to the school and the Southern Mountain area. It is with pleasure that the editors of Mountain Life & Work reprint this tribute written by Jane Bishop Nauss at the time of Hindman's fiftieth __, anniversary celebration. IN THE MONTH of August, 1909, a ticket from Bristol, Rhode Island, to Allen, Kentucky, was purchased by a nineteen year old girl-a girl starting on a lonely journey to a far place. For most girls of that age and of that time such a journey would have been preposterous and impossible, but for Elizabeth Watts it was the fulfillment of a complex urge that could neither be clearly de- . fined nor denied. Elizabeth Watts' new life began the moment she stepped from the train at Allen. The boy, "Shade," who was there to meet her, upon being told that she had never ridden horseback, answered shortly, "I reckon you'll make out. " And so she did, in a hotel where she was the only woman dining; on horseback, traveling side-saddle to Beaver Creek where she first forded water; in a strange mountain home where she and Shade were welcomed for the night; and upon returning to her side-saddle the next day, where, with her umbrella in her hand, she followed Shade over the mountain paths. This was the approach to the new job. At the settlement school she was welcomed by Katherine Pettit and Ann Cobb, and very soon she was meeting students by name-the first were Jethro and Woodrow Amburgey. And so this is, in part, the story of how Elizabeth Watts "made out. " Having given previous thought to the matter of teaching and deciding emphatically against it, Miss Watts was soon a little 14 surprised to find herself assisting the primary and intermediate teachers. And one month later she awakened to the fact that she was teaching three grades, with an enrollment of over one hundred, single-handed. She accepted the challenge with one simple guiding principle. She found that she could teach or keep order, but that it was quite impossible to do both. So she decided to take turns-she kept order for awhile, then taught for a while. This system worked. It did not take many weeks for Elizabeth Watts to discover that her new life was satisfying, that some of the youthful urge was being fulfilled, and that her classroom was the partial fulfillment. So it was that two important changes came about in her thinking during that first year: she found that she enjoyed being a teacher of young people, and she knew that she wanted to stay longer than one year in Hindman. Satisfaction in constructive and worthwhile activities brings about a joyous disregard for time, in terms of years, but past activities must be calculated in those terms. Until 1924 Miss Watts' activities were linked with the classroom world. It was then that she resigned her duties as principal of the grade school to become assistant to the director, Miss May Stone. She served in this capacity until Miss Stone's death in January, 1946, and soon thereafter she was appointed director of Hindman Settlement School. Words and dates have portrayed rather briefly the life of a woman. They have pictured her from the day she rode nervously into Hindman until the time when she became the director, the mother of the Settlement family. But dates and words cannot adequately complete the portrait. Hers has been the responsibility of making successful the ultimate purpose of the school. Through careful consideration she has annually "put together" a new family-students and faculty. A clear understanding of all phases of campus life and the ability to make decisions in every conceivable situation, these are hers. Through fires, floods, epidemics, the unstable first days of each year, the joyous Christmas season, the climactic days at Commencement time, she has guided Hindman for ten years. She expressed her calm optimism in a personal letter once when she said, "The opening days were much as usual. Perhaps we always say that we have an unusually fine group of students in the Settlement, but this time ! I'm sure we really do I" And later, when speaking of new and necessary changes which were taking place, she said, "There is always something to adjust, it seems, but we almost always come gut the better for it. " When asked to express herself about the higm spots in her life at Hindman, Miss Watts wrote: 15 "I surely don't know where to start to tell of happy experiences, but they are all summed up in a justifiable pride in the girls and boys who have gone out from the school and who are doing worth while things. The first day of school, Christmas, and Commence ment are always joyous high spots-they are the times which bring pleasure because of the tangible evidence of the accomplishments of the year and the knowledge that there are many intangible evi dences, to be seen in time or perhaps never actually seen. But at always, over and above everything else, is the friendliness and _ cooperative spirit of the people of Hindman and of a far wider area. I feel too deeply to express myself in anything like an adequate way. " In October, 1951, Elizabeth Watts wrote, in her fall Letter: "In August we began the 50th year of the Hindman Settlement School. It seems a fitting time to see why Hindman has developed as it has and what more can be done before we reach the half cen tury mark. . . Perhaps continuity and cooperation are the key ,, notes of why Hindman is what it is. " he Elizabeth Watts is a tremendous part of that continuity and _ that spirit of cooperation. She has worked in Hindman because _ she has loved it; and because she has had faith in the people for whom she worked, she remains an example for many. ##### CHURCH FURNITURE By buying from Clear Creek Fur - niture Factory, you will be saving ,S . . . and serving a worthy cause. r $49.75 fob f' ~~ Only the finest and clearest red oak is used throughout. Pieces are carefully matched as to grain and coloring of wood. Owned and Operated by the at Clear Creek Mountain Preachers Bible School Pineville, Kentucky 16 THE COMING TO a PLEASANT HILL k . tv t The Rev. Mr. White, who is familiar EDWIN E. WHITE to our readers as the author of Religious Ideals in the Highlands, M L & W Nos. 4151 and 1/52, is f pastor of the Grace Presbyterian e Church, Kingsport, Tennessee. I FOR SOME REASON, or various reasons, a number of Northern c families moved to the Cumberland Plateau shortly after the end ~ l of the Civil War. In 1868, Mr. and Mrs. Amos Wightman and their ~ family of young children moved from Illinois to the neighborhood of t what is now Pleasant Hill, Tennessee. They found three log houses there, but numerous families were scattered throughout the sur rounding country. By 1883 Mr. Wightman, concerned about the meagre educational opportunities available for his own and other i children, began to seek missionary aid. He knew about the Ameri can Missionary Association, a home missionary agency of the Con- 1 gregational Churches, and started writing them for help. On a visit 1 to Boston Mrs. Wightman was able to appeal in person. The Association, familiarly known as the A. M. A. , sent its field superintendent, Dr. Joseph E. Roy, to look over the situation. He must have been impressed by the need, for the A. M. A, sent Miss Mary Santley to Pleasant Hill in the spring of 1884. She was an able woman, long in the Association's service. She taught a three months' school, and she so impressed on the Association her conviction that school work was not enough that they sent a minister. Benjamin Dodge and his party arrived in Pleasant Hill that fall. .i At the age when most men would be retiring from work, Benja min Dodge was setting out on a new and difficult venture in a part of the country far from his native region and even further from it in manner of life. But this "down East" Yankee had resources. 17 He had taught school and farmed and had some business experience, as well as holding a number of pastorates, and the A. M. A. soon knew that they were sending a live wire to this distant field; sometimes he proved almost too much alive for them. Almost immediately Mr. Dodge saw that there must be a better and larger school building than the tiny one-room affair the people had erected some years before. He got the promise of Dr. Roy that the A. M. A, would stand behind him in building such a house as circumstances called for. A former resident gave five acres of land and $50. Mr. Dodge added $50 and the work was under way. A neighbor who wanted his children to have an education quarried rr the stone and laid the foundation for $60. Men went into the woods, cut timber, and hauled it to the site, where each piece was hewed by hand to fit into its place. A day was set and invitations sent out for an old-fashioned "raising. " By wagon, by horse and mule back, and on foot a great crowd converged on the place that day-teen, women, children, and babies. It was a dangerous undertaking, for the building was to be large. Earnest prayer was offered before the work began. The school children sang a song written for the occasion by their teacher, Mrs. Lord. At noon there was, of course, a big "dinner on the grounds:" v . And by nightfall the framework of the building was all up, including the tower-a skeleton waiting to be clothed. But how clothe it? The A. M. A. had given its blessing, but no money. Mrs. Lord raised a little from friends. And Mr. Dodge wrote many letters to people "back home. " Money came in slowly, in small amounts. And Mr. Dodge had to hunt far and wide to find the necessary lumber. Seventeen miles away, down off the Plateau, he found a sawmill at Lost Creek and purchased $15 worth of lumber, the proprietor adding 1000 feet as a contribution. Mr. Dodge then found a courageous young man to haul the lumber up the rough mountainside. It took two days to bring a wagonload; the driver had to camp out overnight. Load after load he dragged up the terrible mountain road until he had it all at Pleasant Hill. An entry in Mr. Dodgers journal reveals a vivid picture of what things were like: "When the building was about half completed I came to the dead line. Money failed for three weeks. We sent the one carpenter home because we could not pay him. Some said it will take seven . years to build, others said, 'It is too large,' and as Job felt, so felt I, 'Miserable comforters are ye all,' The heavens were brass, the earth powder, and the stream of benevolence seemed dried up. But three weeks of thick darkness were enough. At the end of the third, I resolved to try one week myself and recalled the carpenter at $1 a day. Monday morning he came, and the eleven o'clock mail brought $6 from the church in Edgecomb, Maine. Saturday evening I paid the carpenter and told him to come another week. He came again and on that Monday too, the eleven o'clock mail the . second time brought $7 from the church in Orrington, Maine. rC"The third time I told him to come and again the third time the eleven o'clock mail brought deliverance with $25 from J. J. H. Gregory of Marblehead, Mass. Reproved for lack of faith, I resolved not to stop work again which I did not until the building was finished, furnished and paid for to the last dime. This was a work that made a strong demand on faith and muscle. The finished lumber must be purchased in Sparta and hauled seventeen miles. Three miles of the way was to climb the jagged side of the Plateau. From the foot to the top a good team must stop forty times in making the ascent with a load in order to 'get breath.' " Early in 1887, twenty-two months after the laying of the cornerstone, the building was occupied as a schoolhouse. It had two big schoolrooms, a cloakroom, and a big porch. With many additions and changes it remained in constant use for years and was known as "the Academy. " There was much disappointment on that dedication day in 1887 that no one had come from the A. M. A. office for the occasion, so Mr. Dodge dedicated the building himself, dedicating it for use as a church as well as a school. There were other needs that all were aware of. For instance, the lack of boarding accommodations was a serious handicap. The situation is described by Mr. Dodge in the following fashion: "After making a plan and starting the foundation I wrote to the New York office and told them what I had done. In a few days I received a scorching response of condemnation for attempting to do such a thing without authority from New York. . . It was even intimated that for such a rash and headlong act I might not be wanted in the service. I had given the land for the location, decided in my own mind that the dormitory hall by God's help would be built. I had no time to lose or fool away. , . '. After eighteen months of struggle and hard work and poverty, the building was occupied, but in view of the great need of it, we finished it with a debt of $500. I went to Boston, raised the $500. . . not a dollar of the expense of the building coming out of the treasury at New York. " Thus the young school had a three-story dormitory, 30 by 56 feet, containing 24 big rooms. It was occupied in the fall of 1889 and came later to be called Pioneer Hall. But before this it had become clear that a girls' dormitory was imperative. Again the A, M, A. recognized the need but had no funds. 19 The struggle to erect a girls' dormitory is succinctly summarized by Mr. Dodge: "Have finished the girls'hall. It cost $6690. 52. I begged the money and built it in one year and it is paid for. It is a year's work, the year that I am 70 years old. " In 1892 the A. M. A. sent the Rev. Warren E. Wheeler to Pleasant Hill to be principal of the Academy. A secretary ofÃ¢â‚¬Â¢the A. M. A. let it be known years later that, in the words of Miss Emma Dodge, "The Association felt that in appointing Mr. Wheeler for principal they might help to put a restraint on Mr. Dodge and that Mr. Wheeler would be more conservative. The plan did not work out as they hoped. " It wasn't long before Mr. Wheeler and Mr. Dodge had their heads together on plans for an additional boys' dormitory; for Pioneer Hall was much too small. There was all the old business of securing money in driblets from distant friends. Students and fathers of students worked out expenses by helping to build. This time it was to be a brick structure, a temporary brickyard having been set up for the purpose. With $2500 in contributions from northern friends, the Academy dedicated in the spring of 1896 a brick dormitory, 40 by 80 feet and three stories high. It was fittingly named Dodge Hall. At Pleasant Hill for many years the A, M. A. maintained a secondary school of very high standing. No one could possibly calculate its influence through a slowly developing countryside. For a long time most of the teachers of the region received their training at Pleasant Hill Academy; from the unusually able and dedicated faculty, most of them received far more than formal training; inspiration and vision were shared with multitudes of pupils. And when at last the public school program of the region developed to a par with that of the rest of the state, the A. M. A, turned over the school work and a good deal of property to the public school authorities. A county high school and a consolidated grade school are now maintained where the Academy labored so long. But the long-continued work has worked out into many interesting developments. A community organization actively works for the good of the region, with committees of local residents carrying out many phases of community work. For years a credit union has helped residents finance many productive projects. The Academy farm is used for helpful demonstration purposes. A beautiful craft shop is the center for an active handicraft industry employing some people full-time, encouraging the development of handicrafts in the region. Here also the men of the community can use power tools 20 for making things for household or farm needs. The community church maintains beautiful worship and church activities for many groups and is actively interested in all phases of life for all the people. A little rural hospital, developed by Dr. May Wharton and ~~, friends, for years was a godsend to many sufferers and carried on a health program throughout a wide area. It was the cause of the the building of a splendid modern hospital in the county seat. Up lands then specialized in the patient and tender care of chronic and difficult cases. And it is now developing a big project of a home for retired persons and many cottages for the same purpose. A great new super-highway, cutting right through this little community, will bring many more visitors to its doors, perhaps draw many more of its young people away to distant places. "Father Dodge" would not recognize Pleasant Hill if he saw it now. But he surely started something. One reads with amazed wonder his simple recital of the struggle and privations he went through gladly to carry out his purposes. ##### Tom Brown commemorates the coming to Pleasant Hill of Father Dodge and his family in this striking wood sculpture. s 0 TOM BROWN EDWIN E. WHITE THE TENNESSEE highway department had graded and graveled its first cross-state highway right through the tiny community of Pleasant Hill on the Cumberland Plateau some time before I went there late in the fail of a year too long ago to be lightly mentioned. I was to be pastor of the Community Church. That winter the rain descended in torrents and, it seemed to me; almost continually. So it was good to have the highway to walk on, even Though the wet, crushed rock wore out shoes almost like an emery wheel. I was walking up the highway after morning church service on one of my early Sundays in Pleasant Hill. Uplands, our little rural hospital, had kindly offered to board me. Approaching the nearer of the two gates that opened from the spacious hospital grounds onto the highway, I became aware that Dr. May Wharton, Uplands' founder, superintendent, and physician, was rushing with agitation toward me. And then I made out what she was saying: "Mr. White, hurry. George Seegraves has had a terrible time with a drunken man. He's got him down now and is sitting on him. Come and help PI I dashed to the scene of excitement a little way up the road. Sure enough, in the midst of a circle of excited women and children there was the drunken man with George sitting on him. What was desired of me was that I should change seats with George! I did, though he was heavy and I was skinny. It didn't matter; the drunk was throughly subdued now. All I had to do was to sit until the sheriff arrived. When at last the official car drove up and the sheriff stepped out, I saw a great bulky man, with a huge western hat, big mus 22 aches, and a big star, and a big gun. He took the drunk off to jail in the county seat, ten or eleven miles away, and we went in to dinner. As I got acquainted with the region, I learned that the sheriff was generally supposed to be pretty well in agreement with the bootleggers and not at all zealous about enforcing the liquor laws. As I recall, he was re-elected when voting time came, but by the time another election came around, an aroused citizenry retired him in favor of a candidate named Brown. Sheriff Brown had the 1 finest kind of reputation, and he vowed that he would enforce the laws without fear or favor. He went about his duties in such fashion as to demonstrate that he meant this; soon conditions were , better. But a story went around-such stories get around in a rural county-that the former officer had threatened that if Sheriff Brown ever tried to take whisky out of his car, he would kill him. And 1 then one day someone reported that the ex-sheriff did have a lot of ; liquor in his car. Brown promptly drove to the place and searched the car. The former sheriff came out of the house, and true to his threat, shot him dead. The county was aroused. Yet people pessi mistically prophesied that the culprit would never be sentenced. 19 And certainly Tennessee "justice" was tenderhearted. The formed ~ ,,~ 1 sheriff was sentenced to only thirty years in the penitentiary for the y cold-blooded, pre-meditated murder of a very fine citizen and 1 officer. And in something like half his prison term he was back in town, even talking about running for office. c Some time after all this, a boy named Tom Brown entered Pleasant Hill Academy. He was a friendly and very likeable boy who did well in school. He was a gentleman in all his relations. The more I saw of Tom the more I respected hire, but I was slow to realize that he was the son of Pleasant Hill's martyred sheriff. At Pleasant Hill Academy, as at most of the church-sponsored secondary schools, the boarding students worked at many different occupations to help pay their way and to keep the institution operat ing. The art department, under Miss Margaret Campbell, had been developing handcrafts as a means of bringing in some income and offering work opportunities to students, as well as developing latent talents in the region. In particular, there was a special kind of wood carving of little figures of animals for which the Academy became known. Tom Brown was set to carving and soon became most adept at it. But before long he was carving something special of his own, little figures of Southern Mountain people engaged in their homey occupations. There was life in these carvings and 'en i .ent 23 understanding of the feelings and activities of the people. They were not caricatures, for they expressed appreciation of the life Tom Brown saw around him. At first the carvings were quite simple-a single figure like a woman churning, a mountain preacher preaching. Soon they became more elaborate and might consist of two or more figures in a group-a woman milking her cow, three or four people caught in the midst of a folk-dance figure. Tom's carvings became very popular and it was hard for him to keep up with the demand. When Tom Brown left Pleasant Hill, I hoped to keep in touch with him, but I didn't have any luck. I knew that Tom went off somewhere to study art. But I finally lost track of him completely. What a very pleasant surprise it was, then, to learn recently that the great new Rich's store in Knoxville was displaying a big and very detailed piece of Tom's work, depicting the coming of the Dodge family to Pleasant Hill and that Tom had been awarded a scholarship at the Ecole Nationale SSxperiore Des Beaux Arts, Paris. I have not seen the new carving, though I have seen two pictures of it. It seems a splendid consummation of Tom's early promise as a craftsman. The carving shows the Dodge family and some of their assorted belongings on the last and undoubtedly hardest stage of the long journey from their native New England, the seventeen rough miles from Sparta. The figures represent the Rev. Benjamin Dodge, his wife Phoebe, their daughter Emma, an old family friend and retainer, Fred Williams, and Mr. Amos Wightman, who had driven down to Sparta in his wagon to bring the Dodges to Pleasant Hill. It is a worthy memorial to "Father Dodge" and his family. FATHER DODGE came by oxcart into Pleasant Hill. For his school building he hauled lumber over the mountain road; it took the wagon two days to cover seventeen miles. The most recent news from Pleasant Hill, a letter from the Rev. Paul Reynolds, director of the Com munity Center; has this to say of the roads: , our 'mountmn' is being bisected by one of these new, modern, four-lane highways. We are not sure whether we are qoing to like it or nor, especially since it cuts our dairy tarm squarely in two. . we are very skeptical as to whether a night and day stream of modern traffic will make our cows more contented. 24 Uplands Dr. May C. Wharton, about whose - Nursing Home new dream Miss Galbreath tells us here, was honored in April by the Tennessee Medical Associ ation when she was named Out Plans standing General Practioner of I the year. HELEV E. GALBREATH ONE DAY IN JULY of this year, earth was broken on a wooded knoll at Uplands in Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, for one of the most modern nursing homes in the state. It will take a year to complete the beautiful, fire-proof structure, but when it is opened in 1957, it will mark the fulfillment of another dream of Dr. May Wharton, the "Doctor Woman of the Cumberlands. " It was in 1917 that she first came to Pleasant Hill with her husband ` who was principal of the Pleasant Hill Academy, a mission school ~ for mountain boys and girls. From that time on she gave herself without stint to care for the medical needs of the people of the Cumberland Plateau. It was through her efforts and the co-operation of the community and friends in many states that she first opened Uplands Cumberland General Hospital, then Van Dyck Hospital for tuberculous patients, and in 1950 the fifty-bed modern hospital in Crossville. Although she retired from medical practice several years ago, her vision of human needs has never dimmed. In line with Ã‚Â° ~. Ã‚Â° ~._ Ã‚Â° ``~'`~ 25 the thinking of many church and civic groups, she began to realize that the increasing number of men and women over 65 presented a problem that must be solved. Many were still active and wanted to continue lives of useful and interesting occupations. Others wished ~Ã¢â‚¬Å¾. to lay aside the responsibilities of a home and live in a place where they might have good fellowship, lighter activities, and nursing care when needed. - ~ So Dr. Wharton began to dream of a new service that Up lands might offer. She planned an up-to-date nursing home on the high ground that,overlooks the lake. The rooms were to be light and airy, with shelves beneath the windows for the books and other treasures to which older people cling. There was to be a recrea tional hall and stage for friendly gatherings and vesper services; a library of current books; a covered terrace overlooking the lake and the hills; space for gardens; medical and nursing quarters; a large central dining hall. It would be near the craft shop and com a munity church, and in the center of a friendly community. Yet it is would be a place of quiet, with the clean, fresh air of the mountains and the beauty of the changing seasons. For those who wanted an occasional trip to the city, there would be buses or friends with d cars going to Knoxville, Nashville, or Chattanooga, only two hours' rol 1W ~ ~ drive away. The climate was ideal, with pleasant summers and if moderate winters. ;um- Uplands had 500 acres of rolling wooded land, and a part of n this would be divided into lots and give free to those who wished to 'd build retirement cottages close to the nursing home. Lots on the for hospital grounds would be leased to the occupants for life, but would n revert to the hospital at their death. But the acres owned by Up lands outside the hospital grounds would be laid off in lots that 's would be deed outright to friends who wanted to build their homes th there. They would then have the right to sell or otherwise dispose 0 ~~~e :. ~_~ 26 of the property after their death. What a wonderful vision this was ! The only drawback was the fact that there were no funds even for drawing plans. But Dr. Wharton and the little band of friends who believed in her dream began to pray that a way would be found. Today, through state and federal aid and a special grant from the Ford Foundation, over $211, 000 has been made available for the purpose; the plans are drawn, and work has been started. In addition to the nursing home, the first retirement cottage has been built-a two-bedroom, electrically heated dwelling near Dr. Wharton's home-and others are planned. Every mail brings letters of inquiry about either the nursing home or the retirement cottages. Scarcely a week passes that friends do not drop in to look at the lots, and many have been taken. Pleasant Hill is a busy place this summer. Cumberland General Hospital is being used as a guest house for those who wish to live here while they are building. Friends interested are asked to write in advance, for accommodations are limited. Letters should be addressed to Supt. J. F. Meisamer, Sr. , Uplands Sanatorium, Pleasant Hill, Tenn. ANNOVNciH6 Revised Edition of WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all croftsinvaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina 27 . Tabor Family Noted as Stout Chair Makers Over 150 Years By HELEN BULLARD KRECHNIAK Reprinted from THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST. JULY. 1956 CUMBERLAND COUNTY, Tennessee, which this year is ob serving its centennial, boasts within its boundaries a sesquicentennial of a rare sort. The Tabor family, which in 1806 settled near Black Drowning Creek north of Crossville, is rounding out "e 150 years of woodcrafting, principally chair making. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢- Eli and William ( "Sizzlebum Bill" ) Tabor, who drove their sloping-bed wagons and oxcarts over from Tabor City, North Carolina, came of a family of woodcrafters. They chose their land in the newly-opened Plateau because of the fine stands of hickory, maple, and chestnut which grew on it. These were the woods best Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.,y suited for the chairs, looms, wagons and other implements for farm and home which they produced. Early settlers in the area needed these things, and so did some of the throngs of pioneers who for the next fifty years moved across the Plateau to the new lands to the west. Through good times and bad, the Tabors turned out their wood products and when. cash money was scarce they would hitch up and do some peddling. Usually the young Tabors helped in the shop, and even when they grew up and set up for themselves they were likely to choose a job in the timber, or blacksmithing, or some such thing which was only a step away from the woodcrafting. Uncle Demus, the last of the wagon makers of the family, made his last wagon about 1918, but the chair business on which the Tabors have since specialized, remains as brisk as ever. The present chairmaker of the family is Frank Tabor, known far beyond the Plateau for his handmade chairs. He deserves to be, for he is a craftsman who for some 50 years has made a good chair ` ~ in preference to getting rich. The old mountain settin' chair which he sells by the dozen over a wide area is now as it has always been a nailless, screwless, glueless creation. He still makes it in the same design his great grandfather followed. His great greatgrandfather, "Sizzlebum Bill," 28 who is listed in the census of 1860 as a chairmaker, probably used the same design. Hickory rounds, maple posts and oak splits-cut, turned, treated, and put together in the old-timey way-produce a chair so comfortable, so light in weight, and so inexpensive that its popularity goes on and on. It isn't a complex undertaking to make a chair, but to make, one quickly, cheaply, and so well that it will give good service for 25 years-and some have been known to have been in use for over 70 years-takes an expert craftsman. In the old feuding days they. used to say, "Always club your antagonist with a Tabor chair 'cause it won't shatter when you flail him." Frank Tabor, noted chair maker of the Cumberlands When I went out to see what Frank Tabor had to say about this "Tabors chairs in Cumberland County" Sesquicentennial, I noticed several six-foot logs of cherry, walnut, hickory, and maple lying behind his crowded little shop. Nearby was an old Model A engine hooked up to a saw. "I saw them up myself," he told me. "That way I can watch the grain. The grain's the main thing when you aim to make a good stout chair. And never drill your rung holes parallel with the grain-they will bust. "~ A chair is only as good as its joints, and the secret for making perfect joints lies in the careful fitting of the seasoned hickory rounds into the green maple posts. When the green posts shrink over the already dry rounds, the joint will hold till the cows come 29 home. There's a trick, too, to the handling of the posts. They have to be boiled in water to remove the sap. After boiling, the backs are bent in a "weave brace." This is nothing but three slender, tough sticks. Favorite materials for seats are hickory and white oak splits and hand-twisted and woven cornshucks. A walnut or cherry ladderback chair with a shuck seat is as handsome a piece of seating as you could ask for. Specialities like this, and rockers, children's chairs and rockers, doll chairs and stools are made to order in various woods. I tried to get Frank Tabor to make a guess as to how many thousands of chairs he had made and sold, but he wouldn't even try. "The only figure I can recall," he said, "is the stock Bilbrey's (the furniture store in Crossville which for many years handled Tabor chairs) had back about 1932. I kept making chairs and they kept buying 'emtill one day I asked them how many chairs they had on hand. They said 1, 500. But they told me to keep right on bringing them in because some day folks were sure to have money and they'd begin buying chairs again. But I went on home andfigured that next time I had me a load of chairs I'd hit out for Rockwood or Cookeville and peddle 'em or trade 'em for meat and flour. And I did. "My grandpap hauled chairs as far as McMinnville in his wagon and traded 'em for salt and sugar and coffee. YesBilbrey's sold the 1, 500 and it wasn't but a couple years afterward that they had sold them all out and started giving me rush orders again. " The oldest Tabor chair still in the possession of the family was made about 75 years ago by W. S. S. Tabor, Frank's father. It belongs to Mrs. Ethel Tabor Cox, sister of Crossville's postmaster, Laverne Tabor. Will the Tabor family ever round out 200 years of chairmaking in Cumberland County? They may, even in this fastmoving, everchanging world of ours, for Frank's son, Lloyd, who is now in the Navy, is a fine chairmaker and has been talking about taking over the family business when his father gets ready to retire. If he takes over, he can be on hand for the bi-centennial. ##### Mrs. Marie G. Noss of Berea College has compiled a bibliography concerned with religion of the Southern Mountain region which covers references between 1947-1955. Mrs. Noss intends to bring the work up to date; however the list in its present form would be of value to one doing research in that period. Anyone interested may have a copy 6y sending 10Ã‚Â¢ to the Council office to cover the cost of handling. 30 LECIVARD ROBERTS SHARES WITH US . lo It ta~e.4 A r This is a tall hunting tale of the kind popular in the frontier. It has no exact parallels in oral tradition, but the fabulous bird and its appetite can be likened to other animals and dragons that man has contended with in building nations. This version of a hunt was collected 6y Sabra Holbrook, Letcher County, Kentucky. IT SEEMS one cold November day that Big Jim stretched himself and decided that it was the day just suited to rabbit hunt. You know, it had been raining the day before and now all the silly little rabbits would be just ripe for picking out of the bresh since their holes were all filled with water. He called Old Blue and picked up his rifle and went off to the woods. He just stopped once. That was when he stopped at the old chip yard and told his other hounds that it wouldn't be worthwhile to take the whole pack with him. He would take them on a nice long run in the hills some night after one of those onery foxes that had been a-raidin' his hen house for the past two weeks. Well sir, Big Jim hunted all day long. Long about noon Old Blue kinda got disgusted with the way that big man was shootin' at the game. You see, Big Jim would shoot himself silly at all them -W-) little rabbits, but they either stopped just before the bullet got there or their little tails kinda got sprayed with weed seed as the bullet nipped the grass behind them. Well, Old Blue kinda drapped his tail atween his legs and went a-lopin' home. O'course he had gone a long ways, and it took him a long time to cover all the ground he had tramped over that day. t a h b f a g Y 1 at fe 0 a 31 tail atween his legs and went a-lopin' home. O' course he had gone a long ways, and it took him a long time to cover all the ground he had tramped over that day. He walked along and cussed his luck right out loud for it just being one of those no account days and himself for being such a fool as to try to hunt anything that day. Along about sundown just . afore he came to the last hill between him and his home, he saw a great big old bird a-sittin' on a big rock right on the skyline. Now ier. you all know what a perfect shot that was, and Big Jim thought at rd at least he could brag what a good shot he was if he killed the big bird and perhaps get some nice long feathers for Matilda to use in her feather duster that hung over the mantelpiece. He raised his gun kinda easy to his shoulder and pulled the trigger. Lord, that powder smelled sweet, but that doggoned bird just flapped his wings and brushed down a few stray feathers and acted as though nothing happened. Big Jim wiped his nose with his coat sleeve, slipped another shot into the barrel of his gun. "You danged old buzzard, P11 drill a hole through you big enough for King dom Come right between your shoulders and head," he said. The second bullet sure hit the mark, but that fool bird just flapped his Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ ,. , wings, stretched his neck, and down he set on the rock. Well, r Big Jim sure was mad by this time. He took his last shell from his pocket, eased it into the chamber of his gun, and said, "Blast you I'll drill you right through your danged old gizzard this time, and that will drop you for sure. " He squinted down along that barrel im- and took careful aim."Bang!" That gun sure had a kick to it. That ~t. old bird just raised his wings and flapped them, stretched his neck,, y and down he set. There he still was on that old rock. Then the darnedest thing happened. That old bird turned Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,ked eyes of fire on Big Jim and croaked, "Now there you've been Tom 3t philliping me; it is my turn to Tom Phillip you." Now Big Jim was scairt, but he warn't going to show it to the bird, and, besides, he e had a brain working like greased lightning. Big Jim said, "Hold on ie there, Mr. Bird, I've got three dogs, and you can Tom Phillip me if you can Tom Phillip them first." Well sir, that old bird nodded his head, and Big Jim began calling his dog, It Runwell, here, Runwell, come here, Runwell, here, boy, and pick up those feet, my boy." His voice was so con e 1.~ - ~ , fident, and he didn't have long to wait, for old Runwell com baying ire over the hill like all kinds of fire balls were at his tail. Now that old bird and Runwell lit into each other and fit and fit, and they just fit, and they fit. In the end you know that old bird jest et that dog, ie clicked his beak, croaked, and said, "Tasty tidbit for a dog." 32 Then Big Jim gulped on his cud of terbaccer and called old Holdfast. He didn't have quite as much confidence now, but he knew old Holdfast would do what old Runwell never could do. "Here, Holdfast, here Holdfast, come here, boy. Do come right now, come here quick. " Here come old Holdfast a-lopin' over the hill, not as fast as Runwell. His tongue lolled out. Well sir, that old bird and Holdfast lit into each other, and they fit and fit, and they fit, and they fit. It was an awful thing to see, but you know that old bird just took one big gulp, and old Holdfast had joined his brother Runwell. Now Big Jim was so scairt that it was jest all he could do to call for that one last dog. He managed to holler loud enough for old Heavyhead to hear him, and here he come. You could hear him a-comin' before you could any of the other dogs cause he had a big bell which jingled every step he run. Whew! How Big Jim was asweatin'. "Oh, Heavyhead, cone here quick. Please do." His voice shook so no one would have thought that he was a big strong man. Well, that thar bird and dog lit into each other, and they fit, and they fit, and they fit. It was the worst fight them thar hills had ever seen afore or since. Rocks rolled and feathers flew. O1 fi bbl b in g H a 33 Old Heavyhead clawed and juggled with that bird and bell, but finally that bird started to swallow old Heavyhead. He started to gulp him down, but, you know, that bird got choked on that dad (~ blasted bell. He couldn't swallow him down and couldn't spit him back up. Now Big Jim saw his chance. He whipped out his hunting knife and slit that bird from one end to the other and back a . gain. Out rolled all of his dogs-Runwell, Holdfast, and Heavyhead. He took them dogs home, fed them well, and never did go hunting again. ##### THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS will hold its fifth annual luncheon meeting for educators in Dallas, Texas, on December 5,1956, as a part of the annual meeting of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. This is an open meeting for the purpose of studying certain aspects of education which pose problems common to the mountain counties of the Appalachian South. Invitations will be issued early in the fall, but anyone interested should write this into his calendar now and contact the Council office for further details. ~r THE SASKATCHEWAN ARTS BOARD REQUESTS APPLICATIONS FROM CRAFTSMEN 're, Appointment teaching basic crafts, such as weaving, pottery, metal work, woodwork, etc. Time for pri vate work to be arranged. ASSIGMNDVTS 7 I Extension work in the province II Working towards establishing a provincial cen tre for training craftsmen Year round living-quarters and good workshops provided in pleasant town in Qu'Appelle Valley m near Regina. Ideal for married team. g Application should be sent at once giving full particulars and names of references. State salary expected; enclose portrait and work photos. WRITE: The Executive Secretary, Saskatchewan Arts Board, 1100 Broad Street, Regina, Canada. 34 AFTER TWO N( cc YEARS4, nc wl to' N eT of _ re the In issue No.1,1955, Dr. Menefee reported his findings as a traveling representative of the Southern Regional Council. ROBERT G. MENEFEE Since that time Dr. Menefee has kept cm unofficial eye on the situation. This article- brings his report up to date. I IT IS TWO YEARS since the Supreme Court outlawed racial ~~ segregation in the public schools, one year since the final decrees. Reactions in the South range from positive compliance 00 to hardening resistance. As it faces the readjustment which that decision demands, Southern Appalachia is not all of a piece. There are endless diversities and variations. Major cities have each a special situation; mining areas differ from manufacturing centers; every town and county has its historical uniqueness. This article to is an attempt to make a few tentative generalizations about the pre- de dominantly rural Appalachia, about the people on the farms and in se the non-industrial towns, ti( On the whole these sections of Southern Appalachia are less Ã¢â‚¬Å¾a troubled and fearful than most of the South. In part this is simply ar a matter of numbers. Negroes are few in most mountain areas, ph and desegregation means great economies for the school system. In part it is a matter of attitudes-there is rarely a heritage of bitterness. In part also it is a reflection of the educational ambi tion demonstrated by their children. These are people who can `~' "'~e at be accepted with little stress or strain by the small farmers who m are their neighbors. Nt Yet some of these same factors which make desegregation rel- th atively painless when it comes to a mountain county or town tend sc 35 also to make it slow in coming. Being few and scattered, the Negroes are seldom well organized. Rarely can thy support the colored business and professional people who are most likely to ~ provide leadership in pressing for a change. The Negro who is `b'not an independent farmer is likely to be totally dependent upon whites for his economic well-being. For all these reasons, action toward desegregation is not often initiated in the mountains by the Negroes. And the whites with local power and influence are generally indifferent to desegregation, even when not actively opposed. In rural or small-town Appalachia, then, there is often less resistance but at the same time less initiative on desegregation than in urban centers or in other parts of the South. To the ex ire tent that this is so, state policy tends to become the strategic and determining factor. With a positive state program calling for desegregation at all levels, West Virginia already nears the completion of its task. Southern School News reported June 1956 that "all of West Virginia's 55 counties are taking steps in that direction" and that where delay continues, the chief reason is the lack of physical facilities. At the opposite extreme, the highlands of Alabama and Georgia, although sparsely populated by Negroes, would be hard put to de Y;egregate even if they so chose. Possibilities also seem limited at the moment in Virginia, where state policy is increasingly committed to maintaining the status quo. The same may be true in North Carolina, for the state approach apparently aims to provide the school district with legal means of circumvention; yet it could so develop that the district or county desiring to change can. 36 Of all Southern Appalachia the most fluid situation exists in the mountain areas of Tennessee and Kentucky. These states have what might be called a "permissive" policy, although in Kentucky the State Board of Education is apparently willing to give some encouragement. In Tennessee the Oak Ridge schools have desegregated, but there is evidently little progress in rural areas. Kentucky ended the 1955-56 school year with some actual desegre', ~1 ' gation in 40 of the 224 school districts. (In 40 others there are n~~' 14 Negro pupils.) This fall desegregation will begin in many more, including, in Eastern Kentucky, Barren County, Pineville, Perry County, Hazard, Somerset, and Richmond. This general picture carries certain implications for the individual or group concerned to bring prompt and constructive desegregation in Southern Appalachia. In Virginia, Georgia, and Alabama, state policy is perhaps the first order of business, and participation in forming that policy is vital. Purely local activity might realistically be aimed at building good community relations and especially at developing organized contact and communication between whites and Negroes. For West Virginians, on the other hand, the job is largely one of moving on from desegregation toward integration. It is in the mountain areas of Kentucky and Tennessee that there is the most crying need for local action regarding schools specifically, Here it is generally "time for a change," and progress awaits only a push. ##### Dr. Menefee, a Kentuckian by birth, has studied at Tulane and the University of Wisconsin.. He is a member of the staff of the Department of Economics and Business of Berea College. C. VANN WOODWARD, ,Oxford University Press, New York, 1955 The reviewer of THE STRANGE CAREER OF JIM CROW is Dr. Roscoe Giffin, Chairman of the Department of Sociology of Berea College. 37 THE STRANGE CAREER OF AIM CROW" NO ONE WITH THE EYES to see or ears to hear can be un aware that there is much discussion and action aimed at bring =n- ing about important changes in the status of Negro citizens. It is an obvious fact that there are extremely strong forces organized to prevent these changes. Since the present always has its childhood in the past, it is important to consider all contemporary issues in re, historical perspective. To help meet this need Dr. Woodward was At ~~' asked to deliver the lectures contained in this volume as the James e, W; Richard Lectures of 1954, at the University of Virginia. rY The fundamental thesis of this little volume is that that vast and formidable body of customs and laws of the American South which defines the patterns of racial segregation and thereby controls in detail the daily life of millions of Negro and Caucasian citizens id was developed particularly in the years from about 1890 to 1908. id Thus legal segregation and discrimination as basic to the "Southern ~tY way of life" are historical myths. ward aee tool s gress 38 Although Woodward admits that historians have not yet given us ec a full report on the history of the South since the Civil War, he pre- is sents what appears to be convincing evidence to support his thesis. be As example, he writes: "Up to 1900 the only law of this type (Jim ~ al Crow) adopted by the majority of Southern states was that applying t~rJ ~ of passengers aboard trains. And South Carolina did not adopt that un- til til 1898, North Carolina in 1899, and Virginia, the last, in 1900. YE Only three states had required or authorized the Jim Crow waiting fr room in railway stations before 1899 , but in the next decade nearly 1~ all of the other Southern states fell in line. " (pp. 81-82) He then pt goes on to describe something of the mushroom growth of such laws C that were applied to all aspects of life: travel, employment and working conditions, recreation and amusement, institutional care, it places of residence; Atlanta even placed Jim Crow Bibles in its lc courts. ti. As though this were not enough to disturb the most of us who are not well versed in Southern history, Dr. Woodward relates e' reports by creditable observers which showed that as of about 1880 w "the tolerance and acceptance of the Negro in the South on trains p' and street cars, at the polls, in the courts and legislatures, in the police force and militia. . . " was marked by Jim Crowism and was to be judged even better than conditions prevailing in New Eng land. As late as 1885 a Negro, T. M. Stewart, traveled from Boston to his native South Carolina and on to Florida by rail and steamboat. Observing and writing as a trained newspaper corres pondent he reported being treated without any discrimination or segregation on transport facilities, in dining rooms, saloons, etc. He wrote: "May she (South Carolina) go on advancing in liberal practices and prospering throughout her borders, and may she be like leaven to the South: like a star unto 'The Land of Flowers' leading our blessed section on and on into the way of liberty, justice, equality, truth and righteousness." (pp. 21-22) There is not space in a review of this refreshing investigation of the Southern past to set forth Woodward's explanation of what u: forces plunged the South so deeply into Jim Crowism. But in brief g, he contends that it was a result primarily of a "relaxation of the ai opposition" which came as a result of the removal of northern and F' national restraints upon race extremists and the crumbling of the K resistance of the Southern conservatives. The Compromise of 1977, a series of unfavorable U. S. Supreme Court decisions, and it' imperialistic adventures of 1898 in which "America shouldered the b3 White Man's Burden" marked the lifting of Northern pressure. In bl the South it appears that the rising tide of radical-populist-agrarian Bi strength so threatened the hold of the conservatives on the region's 39 s economic and political system that they joined forces with the rac ists. To reunite the upper and lower classes of the South the Negro became the scapegoat. And it was not long until the Populists had abandoned their efforts to join hands with the Negroes and had piled on the bandwagon of white supremacy. And thus came the c apitula n_ tion to racism, sometimes called disenfranchisement, during the years of approximately 1890 to 1908. As a measure of this disen franchisement Negro voting registration in Louisiana fell from 130,344 in 1896 to 5320 in 1900. And then to further solidify their position the racist-dominated legislative bodies enacted the Jim ,s Crow statutes in almost endless variety and quantity. Against this background of history those who today are involved in the struggle to eliminate discriminatory laws and customs can look ahead with courage and hope. Since it is obvious that through the means of law the races of mankind can be divided into compart ments of unequal status and be filled with hostile prejudices for each other, it is also apparent that if the laws are removed, we 0 will have taken the most important step towards the elimination of prejudice and discrimination. ##### MOUNTAIN FOLK FESTIVAL Adult section ce, i Those of college age and over and who are interested in the use and preservation of folk material, such as dances, songs, f games, and stories, and in the fun of non-competitive recreation are invited to take part in the adult section of the Mountain Folk Festival to be held this year at Levi Jackson State Park, London, ` Kentucky, September 28, 29, and 30. Informality will be in order. - Cabins are furnished with cots and mattresses and pillows, dorm s story style. Bed linen and towels and warm blankets are brought by Festival members. For further information and application blanks write to Miss Charity Comingore, Box 2012, Berea College, .an Berea, Kentucky. 40 BIRDS OF A FEATHER He is my friend, This Mountain-man, By civil need acquired, in preference kept, Though I am friend to him beyond his needing. If viking forebears slew his kin on Irish coasts, If Boston birth, New England breeding, My journeys and my esoteric wanderings offend, I am forgiven. Abbot-like within his cloistered Carolina hills He would dismiss all that I am beyond his ken As innocence; The untaxed living of the unborn. How lives my friend? By carving little, working less; Enough for music, books, and loneliness: And more consistent than biennial Thoreau would guess, For this man built . . . . . . , and still endures his cabin, w, ~rr~ Untraveled friend ? He who knows this sprawling valley Branch for branch, by sawdust pile And chimney-pile now lush with briars, By logging road and postroad, mile on mile, And boundaries bartered by the squires Kin to him, as kin of theirs before them Cleared the land of panther and the Cherokee. He knows who married whom, or should have, Where bad blood festered into violence, or strangers married in; How children's children live in peace Upon their feuding families' long diluted pride and property. Scandals at the county seat Are trivia in his book, as chapterwise he tells How genesis began with Sam and Sara When they climbed up through the gap To homestead in this high-hung hammock Tied to mountain tops whose backs are turned Against the circling haze which shroudlike rests On history's irrelevant periphery. As wants my friend, he listens courteously But cannot hear the ocean begging for the shore, Nor tingle with the treble squeal of inexorable wind, Blasting deck-doors out of hand, Spitting salt spume, Riding me down astride the ship; Nor can he roll the unperturbed rhythm of the obsidian sea Whose wrinkled face outwaits the storm. Could he know how a man shrinks in upon himself As old stars stare through a flat sky fitted to the ocean bowl-rim, As the centripetal seas converge to press him into one place and time Whola again, and so full of single peace 7 The bell-ringer leaning in the tower, Caught against the setting sun atop Uppsala' s hill. Waits without significance. And songs of Danish summers, From close-hovering winter snatched in swift caress, Are gypsy songs to him, more or less. But he is my friend: And when we see a jay-bird feather Twirling down from summer skies, He studies it . . . . . , and sighs, " 'Twould be a fine day for a trip somewhere together. ------Henry W. Jensen Dr. Jensen, who contributed "Millie, 'Sister of Jesus" to our #4 'SS issue, returns with a sensitive portrait of his friend. 42 a. of Office of the Council of the Southern - ~ sc Mountains, Berea, Kentucky m In lieu of a Newsletter: uE Newsletters come and Newsletters go-and, sometines, they to do not come and go simply because the work to be done exceeds the or current output capacity of our workers. Yet there is much news al of Council activity. For example: C1 HEALTH The Health Committee met in Berea on July 18 and 19 , taking part C' in a regional medical meeting, a joint project of Berea College of and Hospital, the Appalachian Fund, and the Council, on the 18th. The 99 people who sat down to dinner at Boone Tavern that night v' included doctors from fourteen eastern Kentucky counties and else where, staff members and administrators of Berea College and the Hospital, a Director of the Appalachian Fund, Council Health Com- C mittee members, wives, and other guests. Dr. William F. Lamb, P Deputy Commissioner of Health for Kentucky, gave an address on "j ~' ef( the "Danger of Complacency in Public Health." '~' On July 19, the committee met in executive session under it the chairmanship of Willman A. Massie, Administrative Assistant f of the United Mine Workers Welfare and Retirement Fund, Knox- c' ville, Tennessee. A scholarship was granted to Thelma Norris, Crossville, who will attend the Erlanger School of Nursing at the University of Chattanooga and will then serve in a rural county in the Appalachian South upon the completion of her training. Reports 01 of the dental health project in Sneedville, Tennessee, were studied a' showing a total of 93 children served between May 2 and June 27. S There were 261 operations, including x-rays, extractions, fillings, s' and other treatments, on these eight Wednesdays. The children 6 came from 16 rural communities in Hancock County. Money made it available by the Council from funds entrusted to its care by Sigma v Phi Gamma Sorority, a matching amount from Save-the-Children B Federation, this total matched by the State of Tennessee plus local N support ensures that this clinic will continue for a full year. ti A request for cooperative sponsorship of a new experiment ins' a payment-according- to ability- to-pay dental project being started F in two eastern Kentucky mountain counties by the Division of Dental s Health of the Kentucky State Department of Health was approved and a grant of $450 was made toward its cost with plans discussed to R 43 assist in the search for the balance needed to set this project in operation. A regional medical meeting was tentatively planned for the south-central Appalachian region early in 1957, with a subcom k,;~mittee given the responsibility. Another sub-committee to continue work on mass health education through trailer movies was tentatively set for September. Two other sub-committees-one on revision of nurses' scholarship application forms and one on allocation of nurses' scholarships-were named. Plans were made for the health emphases of the Annual Conference at Gatlinburg, February 20-23, 1957. Of general concern as well as of major interest to the Health Committee was the announcement that the long-awaited health study of the Appalachian South will be off the press in September and will be available for distribution to every individual and agency with an interest in the overall health situation and needs in the area. SPIRITUAL LIFE Chairman D. M. Aldridge, President of Clear Creek Mountain Preachers Bible School, has called a meeting of the Committee for Spiritual Life at the Bible School for October 20. The agenda ~Ã¢â‚¬Å¾pwill include a review of the interdenominational conference held in Berea in June. Spiritual life emphases for the magazine and for the Annual Conference will be planned. Specific proposals for cooperation with the American Bible Society will be considered. RECREATION The Council has seldom had a more encouraging report on the work ;s of the Committee for Recreation. The word from the committee i and personal reports all agree that the latest in a long line of Smith College Workship girls, Jane Kushner, is a wonderful person and is doing a wonderful job. She arrived in the area on June 6 and immediately became a full-fledged participant in the activities of the John C. Campbell Folk School program. She has since worked in Sunset Gap, Tennessee, under the Presbyterian Mission Board, at the Council table at the Craftsman's Fair in Asheville, 1 North Carolina, at Hindman Settlement School in Kentucky, with the state 4-H Club groups at Jackson's Mills, West Virginia, and ~ ,.,,vith a group at Highlander Folk School, Monteagle, Tennessee. ,d Four states and seven groups in three months seems to be a good ;al start. She goes to the Pi Beta Phi School in Gatlinburg, October 1. id No less inspiring is the work of Jim Wolf, Senior Itinerant Recreator,who is entering his second year under Council sponsor 9 44 i ship. He returned from his spring assignment at Southern Union College with a recreation manual which he and his twenty-five students developed during three credit courses in recreation leadership. These manuals are available at nominal cost for others y to adapt and use. Jim has been active in Alabama, North Carolina, Kentucky, and Virginia. During August, he taught a course in community recreation as a part of the Virginia Highlands Festival in Abingdon, Virginia. A sub-committee of the Committee for Recreation has completed the revision of "Songs of All Time"' which will be available from the Council office, from the recreation workers, and from several of the institutions of the Council having recreation programs of their own. The committee reports that "Recreation is more than fun" will be the topic of a panel being organized as a part of the program of the next Annual Conference, February 20-23, 1957. OTHER ACTIVITIES Nine other groups from the Board of Directors to sub-committees are actively at work implementing the concept "council. " Youth group activities include representation at regional and national "~`j - youth assemblies. Inter-agency cooperation is being promoted through Council participation in school, church, extension service, private and public programs. A constantly increasing selection of authentic folk-lore material and factual data about the mountain region is available. Memberships, subscriptions, and donations continue to come to the Council in support of the work . Students of the region, tourists to the area, those who wish to find employment and opportunities to live and to serve in the mountains, others who are seeking staff members and other workers: all these and many others are using the Council office as the central point of information and cooperation. All this is a good sign, because a council is effective only as it is used and is useful. ###### Gat e, YOUR CONFERENCE HOME IN of THE SMOKY MOUNTAIN, .e Aountain View Rotel GA'I'LINBLiRG. TENN. ny .ais Gati inburg's FIRST and STILL Favorite MODERN RESORT HOTEL, OPEN ALL THE YEAR 46 WHIMMYDIDDLER Under the aegis of Richard Chase, teller of tales, an ancient pioneer toy, locally re-named "Gee-haw Whimmydiddle", has grown into an active and wage-earning home industry on Cove, Laurel, Buckeye, and Beech Creeks, North Carolina. Several families, "of an evening" when the outside work is done, are scraping off bark, whittling, sandpapering, notching, and burnishing sticks of laurel and beech "bresh" into a fascinating and tricky toy. Ã¢â‚¬Å¾r% The Gee-haw Whimmydiddle will "gee" or "haw" at the will of the operator. (And the trick is quite imperceptible. ) Its origin remains a mystery, but it is said it is "as old as the hills." Many old-timers know it and say they have often made one-"and it sure delights the young 'uns. 11 ##### Now", 47 THE FALL AÃ‚Â£ETING of the Council Executive Committee will be held Friday night, October 19, at Clear Creek Bible School in Pineville, Kentucky, under the chairmanship of the Rev. Rufus A. Morgan, President. Those with ideas which they wish to have considered should contact Ibfr. "`=^ Morgan or the Council office. THE SOUTHEASTERN RFXJICXVAL MEETING of the Council will be held at Red Bird Mission, Beverly, Kentucky, on October 20. This is an open meeting to which not only affiliates of the Council, but all who are interested in the region and the possibilities of working together are cordially invited. Mr. Perle Estridge, Principal of Red Bird School, is president of this regional group and should be notified of your intention to attend. THE RURAL SECTIONS of the 1956 Annual Conference of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. will be held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, November 10-12. A committee of six, backed by a group of sixteen others, is working with the Executive Secretary of the Council to develop the program and the participation in these rural meetings. The Council is taking this active part because of the continuing need for practical and effective adult education programs for the rural people of the Appalachian South. Those interested in the work or in this conference should contact the Council office. CHRISTMAS COUNTRY DANCE SCHOOL is December26,1956-Jcnuaryl, 1957. THE FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL CQVFERENCE of the Council of the Southern Mountains will be held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, again. The dates are February 20-23, 1957. The program is being developed by the Program Committee which is made up of the chairmen of all the standing committees. Dr. Robert Metcalfe of Cumberland Clinic, Crossville, Tennessee, is chairman. The conference is open to all who are interested in life in the Appalachian South. Adult and youth representation of organizations and institutions and individual participation are invited. Council membership is not a requirement for attendance. s If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below and send with $1. 00 to the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. NAME 44 !, Active individual membership Supporting membership Sustaining membership Institutional membership $ 3.00 to 4.00 5.00 to 24.00 25.00 or more 5.00 or more - --Subscriptions to M.L. and W. included in all memberships I do not wish to join or subscribe at the moment, but I do wish to be kept informed about the program of the Council Additional questions arid comments (Please detach and mail to Box 2700, College Station, Berea, Ky. THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian South with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help meet some of the social, educational, spiritual, and cultural needs peculiar to this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers, and other institutions, and by means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. -Participation is invited on these bases i.-._ ~ lgs.s`sy ~M ~ . 6 Y S~6sr "a r 2 4th 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ortod .` o. Y' Issue ,9f N 1955 l ds a 6' c ss f ~ ~o .. ~9.fs P Y `pv If this`` a' n corner is ~ ~.-3 ~, a.Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ not turned ups ~~ rt v`Ã‚Â°. y! you are up to date. ~' ~~ n. `Ã‚Â° For Members: According to our records, your membership and/or subscriptioq appears to have expired as indicated. we are continuing to send you current issues in the belief that you do not wish us to drop you from our membership. May we hear from you?