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Mountain Life & Work vol. 33 no. 3 1957 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv33n30757 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 33 no. 3 1957 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1957 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. LIFE AND WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK V-L.___XXXII-NO.-- 3 ----------- 1957 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. INC. SEALE BUILDING. MAIN STREET. BEREA. KENTUCKY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT BEREA. KENTUCKY. MANAGING EDITOR: Charles Drake, College Station, Berea, Ky. ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Dorothy Green PUBLICATI0YVS COMMITTEE: Miss Florene Brooks, Chairman Dr. Robert Cornett Miss Maureen Faulkner Miss Mildred Hines Dr. Jess Ogden STAFF PHOTOGRAPHERS: Ed Dupuy, Roy Walters STAFF ARTIST: Mrs. Burton Rogers Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC., Box 2000', College Station, Berea, Ky. Perley F. Ayer, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the _. Council. This subscription price is included in the member ship fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: Dir THE COUNCIL OF TffE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Ma Box 2000, College Station wf Berea, Kentucky If) thil ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address _1 in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT' NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS Cover, page 33, Asheville (N. C.) Chamber of Commerce; pp. 5,6,7,8, Forest Service, U.S.D.A.: pp. 11,14,44, Berea College CHIMES 1957, Berea, Kentucky; p. 13, Bob Conner, Berea, Ky.; p. 15, THE CITIZEN, Cookevill Tenn.;pp. 20,21, Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District, Winchester, .' p. 53, Chad Drake, Berea, Ky.; p.59, Lees McRae College Banner Elk,"ll/1 pp. 60,61, Uncle on's Studio, Logan, W.Va.; p. 63, Smith Golle e. C~~_24~v Directions for making place mats are given in Lily's Practical Weaving Suggestions, Vol. 1-57. If you are not already receiving this bulletin, send 25Ã‚Â¢ for copy. EVERY WEAVER KNOWS HANDWEAVING YARNS Are the highest in quality, the most beautiful in color and the richest in textures-yet cost no more. A complete stock, in a wide .range of weights, sizes, textures and colors, ready for prompt shipment at all times. NEW ITEMS Lily Soft Twist Cotton-unmercerized. Art. 108. For drapery and upholstery fabrics in 18 fast colors. Lily Jute-Tone, Art. 47 for weaving, hooking, crocheting and braiding -in 16 decorator colors. New colors in linen yarns! Write for samples yo" dccA#lled j~~ Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ . Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ... the Handweaver's Headquarters LILY MILLS COMPANY, Dept. HW B Shelby, N. C. ",qwocea - 4 Wisiffu~WE."X* Or WRKD=mcaca.swwc~Tr A IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR IIANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. Mountain Area Floods: A Growing Threat By NORRIS B. WOODIE The January floods that struck much of the Appalachian South triggered intensive studies of the situation by both the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Kentucky State Department of Economic Development. Here we present a summary of these two reports. WHILE NATURAL DISASTERS can occur where the laws of conservation have not been ignored, recent studies of the Kentucky-West Virginia-Virginia area conclude that the floods in January resulted at least in part from man-made causes. Among such causes, "Tri-State Floods, January 29-30, 1957: Disaster through Land Misuse" (Forest Service, Department of Agriculture), names: (1) poor logging practices, (2) fires, (3) strip mining, and (4) farming steep land and grazing livestock in the mountains. Paintsville ~t ~Aa Kermit O Prestonsburg Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ~,,, Holden Martin ~~iIlyamson ~.Y. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ - Ã¢â‚¬Â¢~ Iaeger Pikeville ~7~~ ~, .:: . Welch ;Grun'(1y O Charleston PRINCIPAL FLOODED AREAS 0 MAJOR DAMAGE CENTERS Ã‚Â® NATIONAL FORESTS (1) Timber sales in the area have usually specified 14-inch mini mum diameters, but wasteful re moval operations have actually des troyed most trees above six inches. In addition, logging roads, frequent ly running straight up and down steep slopes, contribute large volumes of run-off to flood streams; and other such roads, following stream chan nels, "destroy the natural efficiency" these waterways need to control run off and soil erosion. During the past ten years of increased cutting, an estimated 30 per cent of the forest area has thus had its hydrologic con dition "seriously affected by poor logging practices." (2) During the past five years forests in Eastern Kentucky have protection, and Ã‚Â° S Typical result ~~' of poorly "'~' anned -~ under ordinary circumstances, an - logging logging road. nual burn does not seriously affect hydrologic conditions. But in an extended dry spell (1951-53), 1. 7 million acres were destroyed by fires. Thus 30 per cent of the tected lands have had an extreme reduction in water-storing ability-a condition which remains unimproved. (3) Strip-mining also produces conditions the Forest Service views dimly: It "leaves a 300-foot strip of unstable soil perched high on a steep slope ready to move at the first disturbance. It also provides optimum conditions for collecting surface runoff needed to create that disturbance. " The result is streambank erosion and stream bed sediment deposits which reduce the capacity of the channel to handle future rainstorms. (River channels are also constricted by other man-produced obstacles, such as: filling in banks for road construction or building sites and dumpdebris into the streams.) (4) The Forest Service study also reports that about 30 per cent of the Tri-State area suffers the cumulative effects of farming steep land and grazing cattle in the mountains. The longer these 7 i_ practices are continued, "the more the soil is compacted and the greater the loss of soil moisture storage capacity. " This reduction in storage capacity is due primarily to the "loss of soil by erosion and... loss of organic material. " Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ Concerned with economic implications, an interim report of the Kentucky Department of Economic Development, "Eastern Ken tucky Flood Rehabilitation-Study," points out the obvious economic f results of January's 50 million dollar flood and reveals that seven new industrial site possibilities in Kentucky were at least tempo yÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ rarily eliminated. by high water. _ Among recommended action programs to improve the eco riomxc status of Eastern Kentucky, the interim report emphasizes 't the need for programs to minimize flood damage. It recommends: (1) protective structures, such as dams, reservoirs, local flood walls, dikes, and levees; (2) insurance programs for flood prone areas, with Federal and state subsidies; (3) guides for land and water use, including flood-plain zoning, channel capacity regula tions, and programs of reforestation, conservation, and stream purification; and (4) emergency warning and relief systems. Pro gress is reported in all these areas, but such programs need fur ther development. Strip-mining disturbs the soil and denudes it of vegetation; runoff is heavy and quantities d1.- of sediment are deposited in stream cnannets. A t, A -4r lilts Water samples taken February 7, 1957, after a short rainfall, from tributaries of the Pound and Clinch Rivers in Southwestern Virginia show the effects of several types of land use. Samples 1, 4, and 5 were taken from streams withwatersheds of IS to 20 square miles where the effects of the storm were not yet apparent. Sample 2 is from a small watershed that has no stripmining, whereas sample 3 is from a similar-sized area that has strip-mining in operation. Samples 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 are from small watersheds of 2 to 6 square miles; samples 11 and 12 are from watersheds principally in national forest ownership chat have been protected for the past 20 years; samples 6, 7, 8 are from comparable sized watersheds in the same general area but in private ownership. They show the effect of wildfire, heavy timber cutting, mountain farming, and strip-mining. Significantly enough, the Forest Service study noted that lands in the Tri-State area in public ownership "are generally in much better condition than those in private ownership. " This study concludes as follows: "Local people owning and living on the land hold the key to the problem's solution. Unless more of them can be convinced and aided in changing some of the present practices, the condition of the area will continue to get worse. Eventually the valley stream channels will not be able to store the sediment washed downstream with each rainstorm. " 4v HISTORIC SCENIC TRIP ASHEVILLE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE A NEW TRAIL has been opened in the Appalachian South: 73te Dogwood Trail in Asheville, North Cal''Olina. It is blazed with attractive metal signs, consecutively numbered to correspond with numbers on a free tour map, available at the Information Booth on Pack Square. The map folder traces the tour, with explanations of the major points of interest along the way, as well as others not included in the tour; and gives a few highlights of Asheville's history. While designed for mobilized touring, the trail folder is also of value to those on shank's mare. 9 COUNCIL REAFFIRMS ITS STAND ON INTEGRATION SEPTEMBER IS HERE again, and, with the children of the nation headed back to school, it seems an appropriate time to reaffirm the stand the Council of the Southern Mountains has taken in regard to segregation. The following statement was approved by the entire voting membership at the Forty fifth Annual Conference at Gatlinburg, Tennessee, February 20-23. 1957. WE REAFFIRM the considered judgement and hope expressed by a vote of this Council in session February, 1956, that communi ties and local school boards in the Southern Appalachian region pro ceed with integration in the public schools within the framework of es the Supreme Court decision. WE REJOICE that in many communities of the Appalachian South wise people of good will of both the white and Negro races have made great, though frequently unheralded, progress toward desegregation of our schools and general improvement in relations between the races, and by so doing, have strengthened the foundation and structure of our democracy. WE DEPLORE the violence and resistence to legally constituted procedures which have delayed desegregation of public schools in some communities in the Appalachian area. We believe the resultant strife and misunderstanding are a social catastrophe for these communities that extends far beyond the school problem. We commend the Federal judges, the religious, educational, civic, and other leaders of these communities and all who supportthose who have stood steadfastly against such methods and are dedicated to maintaining American democratic ideals. # # # # # IN THE NEWS. Berea College's student labor program "just might be one of America's most important cultural exports" according to Harry Hamilton writing in the June edition of MINUTES , published by Nationwide Insurance. From Libya to Korea, Ceylon to Denmark, and from north and south on our own continent, visitors have come to this Kentucky town to see, ask questions, and gather ideas to take home and apply in the schools of their own countries. " The fact is, this small mountain college probably is doing more for world education and the propagation of American ideals overseas than any other school in the country." The cover of the magazine features an imaginative interpretation of the college campus as seen through the eyes of Joseph F. Cantieni, formerly a member of the College art department staff. CHRISTMAS COUNTRY DANCE SCHOOL BEREA COLLEGE, BEREA, KENTUCKY December 26, 1957 - January 1, 1958 DANCE THESE OLD FAVORITES American Squares New England Contras English Country Dances Appalachian Dances Morris and Sword Danish Country Dances OTHER ACTIVITIES Recorders Puppetry Old English Mummers Play Appalachian and English Folk Songs Play Party Games Toll Tales Discussion Topics A COUNTRY DANCE PARTY EVERY NIGHT Write for full information Frank H. Smith, Director after December 10, 1957 Rainbow Ridge Elizabeth Watts Swannanoa, N. C. 42 Jackson St. Berea, Ky. Frank Smith Retires By ELIZABETH WATTS Now when Frank and Leila Smith are retiring, it is interesting to look back and see how they became FRANK SMITH SO much a part of the Folk Arts Movement. IT WOULD BE INTERESTING to hear the responses that come to the words "Frank Smith," if the hundreds of people in the Appalachian South who know Mr. Smith were to be given an association of ideas test. These might be folk dancing... Folk Festival... Christmas School. . . Jack tales. . . Mr. Punch... Morris Jig... craftsman... Uncle Eph. . . or, to those who know him well, loyal friend. So many things have worked together to make this true that it is interesting now, when Frank and Leila'are retiring, to look back and see just why it is that they are so much a part of the Folk Arts Movement. Frank was born in Lancashire, England, in June, 1892. As a boy he was enthusiastic about competitive sports and had no interest in the dancing that later meant so much to him. He was always interested in the drama, however, and it was through directing and acting in a play, in which she also had a part, that he met Leila. After their marriage, Frank studied at Fircroft College for Adults, a school in England modeled partly after the Danish Folk Schools and partly after the Adult Education Residential College of England. When Peter Mannicne of Denmark wrote Dr. Will Harvey, President of Fircroft, asking him to suggest an Englishman to be a student-teacher at International People's College, Helsingor Denmark, Frank Smith was recommended. This was just after the first World War, and Peter Manniche was concerned about peace. He wanted to get people of all nations to live and learn together as a contribution to international understanding. The Smiths went to People's College in 1921 and were in Denmark two important years. Contacts made then influenced their whole future: Mr. and Mrs. Soren Mathiasen, who brought them to America, and Mrs. John C. Campbell, who was responsible for their coming to the mountains. It was during these years, too, that their interest in folk dancing began. 12 In the fall of 1923 , the Smiths came to America to teach for two years at Pocono People's College, Pennsylvania, a folk school founded on Danish lines by the Mathiasens. During that time their interest in folk dancing grew, and play production was an important part of their work. From there-having been urged by Mrs. Campbell to come to the mountains to work-they went to Burnsville, North Carolina, where they taught for a year at the Stanley McCormick School. It was during that year that their daughter, Ruth, was born. From Burnsville, In August, 1926, they went to Berea. For seven years Frank taught in the foundation School. He not only carried a full teaching schedule, but was in charge of play production for the Foundation School, produced the Christmas play for the college, staged two or more major productions a year, and completed his work for a degree from Berea College. Toward the end of that time he started the folk dancing program in Berea and from then on, folk dancing became more and more important to him. During those years, his interest was aroused in various other things that became important parts of his program. A Berea staff member asked him to entertain a group using a set of Punch and Judy puppets inherited from her grandfather. The resulting show was so successful that, while on a visit to England, Frank got his own dolls. Now Mr. Punch, Judy, and the baby are well known throughout the mountains. His skills in carving and other crafts were developed through frequent visits to the John C. Campbell Folk School. His story telling began after hearing Blanche Nicola, of the Foundation School, tell stories at Union Church, Berea. While he was telling tales in the Berea Opportunity Schools, the idea came to Frank that an itinerant recreation director would fill a real need in the mountain area. Helen Dingman, then Executive Secretary of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers (now the Council of the Southern Mountains), was most receptive to the idea, as was President William J. Hutchins of Berea College. So much so, in fact, that President Hutchins secured a grant that enabled the Council to engage Mr. Smith to initiate the program. Much credit is due these two people for their understanding of the possibilities of such a program and for making the service available to centers throughout the mountains. After carrying on this program for two years, Frank Smith joined the John C. Campbell Folk School, where, for two years, he was in charge of extension work. By this time Frank had his 01 FRANK SMITH AS UNCLE EPH CUMMINS OF WILDERNESS ROAD,1955-1956 Master's degree from the University of Chicago and, at the end of the two years at Brasstown, he went back to Berea to work part time for the Council's extension program in recreation, and part time for Berea College, teaching courses in recreation leadership. Another of Mr. Smith's ideas that has meant much to the whole area, and to many outside the area as well, was developed just after he came back to Berea. It was the plan for having a Christmas Country Dance School. The thought came after he attended the summer session of the Country Dance Society at Long Pond, Massachusetts. Again Helen Dingman and President Hutchins were interested, and the first Christmas School was held at Berea in 1938, with May Gadd, the Director of the Country Dance Society of America, as one of its directors. While doing Council extension work at Homeplace, in Perry County, Kentucky, Frank came to the attention of Dean Cooper of the University of Kentucky, who became so much interested that a joint program was worked out by Berea College and the University. For nine years Frank Smith carried on extension wor work in recreation for the University half the year, and a program for Berea College the other half. President Francis S. Hutchins of Berea, always keenly interested in and appreciative of Mr. Smith's work, saw to it that, at the end of the joint work, Frank was employed full time by Berea College. A part of his program that Mr. Smith has particularly enjoyed has been the Berea Country Dancers. A group of Berea students carefully chosen for their folkdancing ability, they meet each week during the school year, and every year give a limited number of public performances for colleges, universities, and various other organizations all over the ccxzntrv. MR. AND MRS. FRANK SMITH One year, Mr. Smith was granted a leave of absence to initiate a recreation program in Montana as part of a larger experimental program. His work was received there with enthusiasm and they wanted very much to have him continue it, but his heart was in the Southern Mountains, and the Smiths returned to this area at the end of the year. Through his knowledge of so many area centers, he was able to link the groups together, in regional festivals, and in the big Mountain Festival held at Berea each spring, unifying the groups. Mr. Punch, Uncle Eph of WILDERNESS ROAD, Jack of 15 the many tales he tells, the artist who carves and paints, the graceful folk dancer and lover of folk music, and through them all, the loyal friend: that is Frank Smith to the many people who have known him. Beside him at all times is Leila, ready always to further the cause with her help, her encouragement, and her active participation. May both of them be happy in their new home in North Carolina, and may they have many more years in which to share wIth the Appalachian area those gifts which have won them their place in our hearts and in the Folk Arts Movement. DR. UPPERMAN HAS RETIRED by John Mott DR. HARRY LEE UPPERMAN, president of Baxter Seminary, Baxter, Tennessee, for thirty-four years, retired as head of the Methodist Church school in June. He was succeded by the Rev. Paul Barker, clergyman and educator, who previously served as pastor of Trinity Methodist Church in Bristol, Virginia. The school has had a record growth during the administration of Dr. Upperman. The one building, existing in 1923, when he came to Baxter, has now grown to eight class -..-_-_.~ buildings and eight smaller buildings. Dr. Upperman This growth is a tribute to his ener getic efforts, and was accomplished despite the depression, destructive fires, and the like. When Dr. Upperman's efforts are evaluated, his devotion to his students should not be overlooked. He has always been looked upon by each student as a "special friend. " Always busy in his work to make Baxter Seminary bigger and better, Dr. Upperman never became too occupied to have a friendly word for students and ~`~ to make their problems his own. Dr. Upperman, who will remain at the seminary as president emeritus, will serve in an advisory capacity to Mr. Barker. # # # 7his article first appeared in THE CITIZEN of Cookeville, Tennessee. SEND FO I 40-page catalog containing of linens, cottons and woo ing wools described abov which will be refunded on DO-IT-YOURSELF WITH A DULCIMER THE PLUCKED DULCIMER By JOHN F. PUTNAM COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. INC. BEREA, KENTUCKY, 1957, 16 PP , 500 THE PLUCKED DULCIMER Of The Southern Mountains by John F. Putnam is a most helpful booklet for those people who wish to know how to tune and play the three-string dulcimer. It is amply illustrated by drawings that show the positions of the notes, how to hold the fretting stick, and how to hold the pick. Besides being admirably done, the book holds the distinc tion of being the first one written on the three-stringed mountain dulcimer. -Edna Ritchie AMONG THE YOUNGSTERS. BROTHERHOOD IN ACTION THE SWIMMING POOL BY ALICE CORE, FRIENDSHIP PRESS. NEW YORK, 1957,127 PP.,$2.50 A HEART-WARMING STGRY of what can happen to people when neighbors join together to overcome common problems is told by Alice Cobb in THE SWIMMING POOL. It all begins when Benjy and his pal Preston are refused admission to the swimming pool in the neighboring town because of Preston's brown skin. Preston accepts this situation as one of those funny things people do, but Benjy feels that something should be done about it. Thus starts a chain of events affecting families throughout the community. The boys form a club to raise money for their own swimming pool in their own neighborhood. How their efforts come to affect the entire community-residents of all nationalities, classes, religions, races, and occupations-makes a fast moving and gripping story. Miss Cobb writes simply and directly, in a manner which appeals at the same time to children of the upper grades and to adults. Her tale of a developing friendly, neighborly spirit and of community improvement grips the emotions and leaves the reader reevaluating his own attitudes towards other individuals. -John F. Pvtnam /Ott Jorc j lor jingingr... Mary Hamilton Last night thane were-four Ma - rys, This nightthere'll be 6utthree;TheretvenzMa-ryBaatonand Ma-ry Saa-ton And Ma FROM SONGS OF 2. O often have / dressed my Queen And put gold upon her hair, But now I've gotten for my reward The gallows to be my share. 3. Last night I dressed Qveen Mary And put on her brow silk gown; And all the thanks I've got this nigh1 Is to be hanged in Edinboro Town. 4. They'll tie a kerchief round my eyes, They'll no let me see to dee; And they'll never tell my father and mother But that I'm away o'er the sea. 5. 1 charge ye all, ye sailors, When ye sail o'er the foam, Let neither my father nor mother know But what I'm coming home. 6. O little did my mother think, The day she cradled me, The lands 1 was to travel in Or the death 1 was to dee. 7. Last night there were four Marys, This night there'll be but three; There were Mary Beacon and Mary Seaton And Mary Carmichael and me. ALL TIME. REVISED EDITION, 1957. Mary, Queen of Scots, had four companions, all of whom were named "Mary". One was convicted of a crime and condemned to hang. The words of this song, a small part of a long ballad, are her reflections on the morning of her execution. N U T S--For Cash And Conservation By BRYAN A. HEPNER The trees that hold your soil in place can also provide a cash crop. The Chairman for Education, Lord Fairfax Conservation District, Maurertown, Virginia, tells how chestnut and walnut trees are making o comeback in his district. AH, THE MOUTH-WATERING AROMA of roasting chest nuts! The spicy goodness of walnut halves 1 Things of the past you say? Not a bit of it 1 They are of the present and future here in Virginia and could be for your area, too. Blight-resistant Chinese chestnuts and improved varieties of our native black walnut are becoming a productive part of the farm economy in many of the 5, 000 farms and homesites of the Lord Fairfax Soil Conservation District. For two and a half years we have been working on this project through the schools in our district, which includes Frederick, Clarke, Warren, and Shenandoah counties. With most of the 50 high and elementary schools of the district participating, we have planted 5, 000 chestnut seeds and set out 2, 000 young trees, plus 20, 000 walnut seeds and 176 grafted walnut trees of the better horticultural varieties. The need for this replanting seems evident; here we have a chance to restore to our countryside two trees which either have disappeared or are disappearing. These trees are a part of our heritage that we must not lose. Practically every wild walnut Facts About Forests ~Gj`h4~llT i5 AAIERIGS WORM STOGK WOW -A 175 ABILITY TD ' WW, ND SNOCKAND SfRAW IN AMA% OF WÃ‚Â£A1HER IS 0~T5TANDIN6. 114 tree of any size has been cut for tim- ~\~~1'r~ 1 ~~ nIRVANe IU, \UDRL9 WAR 1, ber. Yet walnut meats are in demand; "~~-"`NÃ‚Â°E C~F wA~T ice cream manufacturers, among others, order them in car lots. One old fellow says his family kept up payments on the farm by cracking walnuts during long winter evenings. The chestnut was an important factor in the farmer's economy as well as Mother Nature's before the spreading blight killed off our native trees. The nuts were abundant and remained good through the winter under a layer of fallen leaves. Hogs were fattened by merely turning them into the woodlot. 20 Squirrels, wild turkeys, bears, and deer depended to a great extent upon the chestnut crop for winter food. With the loss of their natural food supply, many animals turned to the cultivated fields for subsistence. The commercial demand for chestnuts results in our importing 20 million pounds of them every year. There is also a growing need in Europe for seed and trees of the Chinese chestnut as the blight makes inroads into the native European varieties. There are thousands of desirable planting sites for these excellent trees on the farms and recreational areas of the Appalachian South that have been and are being taken over by trees of little or no value to the farm. One can drive along almost any road and see bare or weed-grown fence rows where millions of superior trees could well be growing for a two-story agriculture. In 1955 we finally found the improved, thin-shelled, largekernel Eastern black walnuts, which are fast growing and early bearing. We decided to include the project in our District School Conservation Participation program. The schools were expecting something new, and off it went-the easiest thing we ever tried. Sixth grade class of Browntown School planting walnuts. Their 3-room school, seen in back, is at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Warren County, Virginia. J ,o 21 1 Agriculture students planting a nursery row of Chinese chestnuts on their school grounds at James Wood High School, Frederick County, Winchester, Virginia. We teach the youngsters what conservation means, and then we give them a job to do. We are planting as many walnut, seeds, from grafted trees, as possible, and now we have the equivalent of a 10 acre walnut planting of grafted trees. We find that grasses, clovers, and raspberries associate well with walnut trees and that walnut and other hardwoods do well together. Fruit trees and blackberries, however, do not do well with walnuts. We plant the seed where the trees are to grow, along fence rows, around rock out-croppings, and in odd areas around school yards, recreation areas, and farms. Last year we started the Chinese chestnut, a blight resistant tree which produces a large, sweet nut, besides being valuable for timber. Since little grafting is now being done with chestnuts, we are planting chestnut seed in nursery rows as well as setting out two-year-old trees. Our Isaac Walton leagues of Winchester and Front Royal, Boy Scout, Girl Scout, 4-H and F. F. A. Groups plan to extend the planting of these excellent varieties on their ca.4ip sites and their home grounds. Most helpful have been the Home Demonstration Club members, planting trees and a nursery row of chestnut seeds in their gardens. 22 The planting materials are made available by the banks, business firms, and other organizations having a part in the District School Conservation Participation program. The Northern Nutgrowers Association, of which our district is a member, has cooperated in procuring planting materials and has offered us a great deal of encouragement. The Association tells us that our program is progressive and unique. If the schools are to have a program going in the fall, they have to plan ahead for planting materials. We try to get requests for material before the schools close in the spring. That gives us some idea of the demand. Then we add about 30% to that for our order. We have a large backlog of requests for fall, 1957. In a few years, with abundant seed and scions for grafting available locally and with the help of squirrels and other nutburying animals, we should have a good coverage of trees on our 5,000 farms. The past two years have been responsive ones, and we feel we are on a good conservation theme: to use all the land, as we save the soil by which we live. # # # # # T: 17- F! r i.U0:I MF FORESTRY- v.s.A. DID YOU KNOWTNAT YOU OWN A SLICEoFVALUABLE FOREST LAND? YOU D0- YOUR SHARE OF THE NATIONAL FORESTS K SLIGHTLY MORE THAN ONE ACRE ABOUT THE SIZE OF A FOOTBALL FIELD YOUR ACRE, ALONG WITH THOSE OFYOUR FELLOW AMEWNS,NIAKEUPaFUBLIG FOREST RESOURCE, PROVIDING MANY PROD" AND SERVICES. TRULY; EVERYMANS EMPIRE." MOUNTAIN youTH . 24 MOUNTAIN YOUTH is a section of Mountain Life & Work magazine which is for, of, and by the young people of the Appalachian South. This means YOU if you live in the mountain counties of Maryland, Virginia,. West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, or Alabama. FOR YOU - It is published by the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. , Berea, Kentucky, to represent its youth members, including all students of undergraduate college age and younger. The dues for youth membership are $1. 50 a year, which includes a subscription to Mountain Life & Work. OF YOU - MOUNTAIN YOUTH should reflect YOUR interests, YOUR problems, and YOUR activities, so it's YOUR job to let us know about these things. If you don't find what you're looking for in these pages, tell us about it. If you like something let us know, and if you don't like it, tell us why. BY YOU - We need articles on many subjects, photographs and drawings, and some short stories and poems. It would be best to write us telling briefly what you have in mind before sending in your material. We are particularly glad to have this first issue of MOUNTAIN YOUTH graced by the contributions of two talented young people who are no strangers to the pages of Mountain Life & Work Ivallean Caudill and Jerry Perry who collaborated on The Maul and the Billy Goat on page 12. Ivallean will be remembered from Healing on Hollybush, ML and W # 3, 1954, the story of her midwifery clinic in her home community of Pippa Passes, Kentucky. Now a special student in Berea College, Kentucky, Ivallean shows that a lively sense of humor has been hiding behind that nurse's uniform. Jerry, who illustrated Miss Caudill's short story, is a young man of varied talents who hails from Chattanooga, Tennessee. He's an accomplished writer as well as an artist, and was president of the Twenty Writers group at Berea College before his graduation in June of this year. His short story, The Bully, appeared in #4, 1955. # # # # # # PICTURE CREDITS Cover, Paul Smith, Berea College, Berea Ky.; pp. 27 28,29, Mary Jane Simpson, Friends Work Camp, Morris Fork, Ky., p.31, top, Roy Wal ters,4. Berea, Ky.; p.31 bottom, 32, Edward L. DuPuy, Black Mountain, North Carolina; 11.33, Asheville (N.C.) Chamber of Commerce; p. 41, Asheville (N.C.) CITIZF.IV-TIMES; p.42, Joe Reister, Louisville (Ky.) (XXIRIER JOURNAL, Lexington Bureau. TWO-COLLEGE WORK CAMP AT BIG LAUREL By PAUL SMITH 25 There were several work camps in the Appalachian South this summer. Here are reports on two of them that were held in eastern Kentucky. Our first reporter is a Junior at Berea College, Kentucky. A GROUP OF STUDENTS from Berea and garlham colleges experienced the meaning of "self help" with the small community of Big Laurel in Harlan County, Kentucky. It all started with a small group of people in the community which was concerned over the extensive damage resulting from the floods earlier this year. Working with a local minister, they decided to ask for a work camp group. There were ten of us, guys and gals, with Allan Walker, a professor of Community Dynamics at Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, and his family as our guides and fellow workers. We moved into a long closed community center which was to be our home for the next six weeks. The close quarters exercised everyone's diplomacy. Many people think it odd that young people will pay good cash to do heavy labor in a strange community, and the reasons we did it are as varied as we ourselves. Several of us are studying community dynamics in school, and the camp served as a field laboratory where we could try out our ability to work with people and to stimulate a community to organize and help itself. One boy was dissatisfied with his present major study and, interested in going into social science, was trying it on for size. Others are studying related fields or simply have a desire to provide help where it is needed. All of us felt a sense of adventure, but the main camp motivation was to get the community launched on the way to self help. We would work on any project the people felt was important and hoped they would continue their cooperation for the common improvement. From the very first we found the people friendly and cooperative, and this spirit grew daily. For example, they supplied us with a refrigerator, stove, dishes, and a great portion of our vegetables. Our individual camp fees covered our other living expenses. ~ ~ ~ Our first job was to build a 1, 5000 cu. ft. flood wall. With stones from Big Laurel Creek and help and cement from the community, the wall was soon up. Then we painted two churches and 26 restored two playgrounds. We still had time to help build another flood wall as big as the first one. We worked hard together, and we played together, too. Every night there was some kind of ball game, with campers and local people, from youngest to oldest, participating. We had long bull sessions probing and evaluating our own ideas and ideals. At the close of the camp we were all proud of our accomplishments. We hope and have reason to believe that their value was much greater than so many flood walls built, churches painted, playgrounds repaired. It was rather in a new spirit engendered, a spirit of people concerned with each other's well being, a spirit of cooperation to help one another find the best in life. We students of Berea and Earlham colleges, will never be the same after this experience with our friends in Harlan County. We too have learned this new spirit of concern and respect for others. # # # # A S F C Work Camp By MARY JANE SIMPSON Girls' Counselor, Morris Fork Work Camp ON THE AFTERNOON of June 29th a caravan of several cars and two trucks moved over the hills and through the narrow valleys to Morris Fork in Breathitt County, Kentucky. Looking out at the fields of tobacco and corn and at mountain homes were eighteen young people of high school age who were keenly anticipating seven weeks of an American Friends Service Committee work camp. In the following weeks campers developed firmer muscles and an enviable suntan, learned certain work skills, survived a bout with what was diagnosed as "Asiatic flu," and tried to dodge bees and poison ivy. Whether it was in picking blackberries along the road or riding a mule for the first time, all of the group (predominately from large cities) enjoyed country life to the full. Some had never seen a hummingbird before, and most saw tobacco growing for the first time. "This country is just like my conception of paradise," one said. Others thought the scenery beautiful but the mountains too isolated from all the advantages of modern life. Work campers came to Kentucky from various sections of the United States. Three were from Los Angeles, one from Wisconsin,. five from in and around New York City, two from near Chicago, four from Philadelphia, one from New Hampshire, and one from Cincinnati, Ohio. 27 A girl from Berlin, Germany, finished off a year of study in an American high school with the work camp experience. The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a committee organized by members of the Rgligious Society of Friends, or Quakers, with headquarters in Philadelphia. Through its youth service projects, such as work camps, it seeks to give young men and women, of high school age or older, the opportunity to serve constructively in areas where there are social, economic, or educational needs and to learn first hand some Picking blackberries on the of the problems which obstruct the may to visit the neighbors. creation of a peaceful world. Project participants and leaders come from various religious and racial backgrounds. The work campers gave up vacations with parents or friends and opportunities to spend the summer at a job in which they could earn money for college. Actually they paid $135 and their travel expenses for the privilege of working in Morris Fork. (Some schol arship aid is available for those who are not able to pay the full - amount. ) een Why would teenagers pay to work? Some wanted a chance to do i physical labor in a new atmosphere with other young people. Others felt a concern for people who do not have all the material advan tages which other people in this country enjoy. "I know this, but what have I done about it?"commented one camper. Some felt that they should not always take from community life but should also learn to give. Others came seeking an experience which could help 1- them formulate ideas about a future vacation. Re-reading that letter from home. There were various reasons given, but one reason stood out above all others: the work campers came to Morris Fork because they "like people. " They wanted to meet the people who live in the Appalachian South, to learn of their interests and how they live, and they wanted to meet other high school people of varying backgrounds from different parts of the United States. Many were especially appreciative of the opportunity to live and work in a small group. One camper summed it up. "I knew I would have an experience this summer in a work camp that I could get in no other way. " Host to the camp was Samuel Vander Meer, pastor of the Morris Fork Presbyterian Church. The buildings on the grounds of the Community Center were the campers' new homes for seven weeks. Boys were housed in a cabin, the girls in a barn. Campers took turns cooking all of their own meals and doing the camp laundry. The life of the K. P. 's was complicated by the necessity for carrying all water used for cooking and washing the dishes. A staff dietitian planned the menus and did the food shopping in Jackson, twenty-five miles away. The first work projects included the cleaning of wells near the Community Center and the Morris Fork school and beautifying the grounds. Then as muscles-hardened, the campers began work on trenches behind the church and school to carrywater away from the buildings, dug out a pit for a septic tank and installed the tank and pipes, and dug a privy pit and constructed a privy for the Morris Fork school. Other campers did some painting on the outside of the community church and painted three rooms in the school. As the campers got settled into their new way of life and work, the community people responded. With real delight these young people from the cities greeted a neighbor who came riding up to the kitchen on his mule, "Kate," loaded with two bags of string beans as a contribution to work camp dinners. Other Morris Forkers brought corn, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, sauerkraut, honey, and apple butter. One day three campers walked down the road to pick up a gift of three live chickens. Several young people from the community joined the campers in work projects when they could spare time away from work on their own farms. One Saturday late in July the AFSC group and the ; people of Morris Fork participated in a joint community working An old privy near the school was torn down, painting was done, Hanging out the camp laundry. 29 school desks were sanded, concrete was put around the base of the school pump, and tock was hauled for the foun dation of an addition to the community center. The "working" was followed by a luncheon prepared and shared by community people and work _ _ _ - campers. Painting on the Morris Fork But life at a work camp Presbyterian Church is not all work. The campers crowded into their schedÃ‚Â»ln as many opportunities as possible for discussion and recreation. Some evenings were given over to discussions on the various religious beliefs represented in the camp, to the causes of religious and racial prejudice, to the bases of wars and ways to a peaceful world, and to the protection of civil liberties in the United States. The evening discussions often were continued over the pick and shovel the next morning. Recreation was an important part of the program and provided opportunities for getting to know the Morris Fork young people. Every afternoon after work a group of campers took off for a swim in the Middle Fork of the Kentucky River about seven miles away. Morris Fork boys and girls sometimes went along. On Friday evenings the work campers were the guests of the Youth Fellowship of the Presbyterian Church :gyp .. for the weekly singing games, p=_Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ , ~,,led by the minister, "Uncle Sam" Vander Meer. Some campers joined Wednesday night choir practice and sang "" in the church choir on Sunday. 't When Morris Fork playea ;Ã‚Â° neighboring communities on the softball diamond on Saturday afternoons, Morris ~- '' Forkers and work campers Sam Vander Meer helping boys install played ball and cheered septic tank at Morris Fork Community as one team. Center. The work campers par ticularly liked the warmth and friendliness of the mountain people, who invited them into their homes for dinners and friendly visits. 30 They liked their independence and humor. In some places they saw real poverty, but other homes were just like farm homes in any part of the United States. For some campers the most moving single experience in contacts with the people of Morris Fork was their attendance at a simple funeral service for a young woman in a home in the community where there was still no electricity. Three camp ers helped to dig the grave in the hillside cemetery. Whenever possible work campers learned about conditions in their temporary home. The County Agricultural Extension Agent was invited to speak and told about crop possibilities and why tobacco is the only cash crop. The experience of sickness in the camp brought, home as nothing else could do the need for doctors in the mountain area. When on a trip one day seeing the victim of a serious mine accident demonstrated with a harsh vividness that hazards still exist in the coal mining occupation. Talks with their neighbors brought out the discouragement that sometimes is felt because the educated young people must leave the area in order to find work to do. Campers planned to write to Senators and Congressmen concerning area redevelopment bills. A visit was made to the miners' hospital at Hazard and to the Frontier Nursing Service. Both in their relationships with one another and in contacts with the local people, the work campers had an opportunity to try to live out their ideals of brotherhood. They learned to know the people of another corner of their own country, not in tourist-fashion, but by living among them and working with them. As the work camp neared its close, some were wishing that it could be extended "just one more week." And though that was not possible, the campers will carry with them always the wonderful memories of their mountain neighbors and of Morris Fork. In addition to the work camp at Morris Fork the AFSC conducted other youth service projects this summer which included community service units in Mexico and El Salvador, institutional service units, internes in industry, and internes in community service, inernational seminars, and other work camps in the United States and overseas. Project applications for high school students and those of college age and older can be sent to the American Friends Service Committee, 20 Sough Twelfth Street, Philadelphia 7, Pennsylvania. TEEN-AGE CRAFTSMEN AT THE FAIR A LOT OF PEOPLE seem to think of a craftsman as the grandfather who does a little whittling or an old woman who quilts, but it was quite plain at this year's Craf Craftsman's Fair that there's quite a number of young people among the handicrafters 6f the Appalachian South. A group of young woos sculptors from the Cherokee Indian School worked under the direction of Amanda Crowe, drawing a great deal of attention from all the Fair visitors. Baxter Presnell, who came to the Fair with his guildsman father, is a talented carver in his own right. Some of his work was displayed in the Berea Student Industries exhibit. Everything in the Berea exhibit was made by high school and college students. np Baxter Presnell carving a mule. Amanda Crowe (center) and her students of wood sculpture. 32 The young lady obviously likes the bear made at Cherokee Indian Friday was Children's Day School. at the Fair, with a special pro gram of story telling and puppets in the afternoon. A large group covered the floor of the Ashe ville City Auditorium listening intently as Frank Smith told of Jack's adventures, then they went downstairs to see the real craftsmen working. There was quite a rush at the Do-It-Your self section as various ones tried their hands at the crafts they liked best. Some of these children may be tomorrow's craftsmen. Another Do-It-Yourself enthusiast tries his skill at the potters ~- G.B. Chiltoskie and admirer. wheel.