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Mountain Life & Work vol. 33 no. 4 1957 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv33n41057 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 33 no. 4 1957 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1957 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. L I FE & WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOL. XXXIII 1957 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. INC. SEALE BUILDING, MAIN STREET. BEREA, KENTUCKY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT BEREA. KENTUCKY. MANAGING EDITOR: Charles Drake, College Station, Berea,Ky. ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Katharine T. Ayer NO. 4 PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: STAFF PHOTOGRAPHERS: Ed STAFF ARTIST: Mrs. Burton Miss Florene Brooks, Chairman Dr. Robert Cornett Miss Maureen Faulkner bliss Mildred Hines Dr. Jess Ogden Dupuy, Roy Walters Rogers Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC., Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. Perley F. Aye r, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council and all members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF THE 37UTHERIV MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station Berea, Kentucky ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS Cover, pp. 14, 38, 39, C. Drake; pp. 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, Lotts Creek Community Center; p. 22, Frontier Nursing Service; p. 26, Red Bird Mission; pp 32 and 33, Berea Rubber Company ; p. 45, Bristol Newspapers Studio. Directior mats are Weavinc If you al this bulk Directions for making place mats are given in Lily's Practical Weaving Suggestions, Vol. 1-57. If you are not already receiving this bulletin, send 25Ã‚Â¢ for copy. EVERY WEAVER KNOWS ~i HANDWEAVING YARNS Are the highest in quality, the most beautiful in color and the richest in textures-yet cost no more. A complete stock, in a wide range of weights, and colors, ready for prompt shipment at all times. NEW ITEMS Lily Soft Twist Cotton-unmercerized. Art. 108. For drapery and upholstery fabrics in 18 fast colors. Lily Jute-Tone, Art. 47 for weaving, hooking, crocheting and braiding -in 16 decorator colors. New colors in linen yarns! Write for samples Oaderc ael your duÃ‚Â¢'r*ied ~raft . , . ... the Handweaver's Headquarters LILY MILLS COMPANY, Dept. HW B Shelby, N. C. avW000 0i jood4w --., viSU--*1"PAtW iSU--*1"PAtW !lBDBinCK J.lA~T IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR IIANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS '"~' '' PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE s tl 4 I Before you buy - see the new f; PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator c a s Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples d t: FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. P Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. J P a i c 5 ALICE SLONE: Mountain School Builder by VIRGINIA MATTHIAS Educational pioneers are still at work in remote areas. Here i s how a teacher helped a community build its own school. Its newest building is shown at right. r ~,,. LOTTS CREEK COMMUNITY SCHOOL in the hamlet of Cordia, Kentucky, is really what its name indicates: a school for the community. It draws children not only from its own thirteen-mile valley but also from tiny settlements on Clear Creek, Defeated, Cutshin, and other tributary streams. And it draws their fathers and mothers, too. The kitchen and dining room of the girls' dormitory welcome the whole neighborhood. Church and missionary groups meet here, and ladies' societies; there is talk of using the school for religious retreats and as a youth center. In January of 1957, thousands of hot meals were sent from the big coal stove in the kitchen all up and down the flooddevastated valley, even as far as Hazard, twelve miles away. Many community parties are held at the school, to which the mothers bring great bundles and pails of food. On Thanksgiving, people are here all day long, cooking food, holding religious services, playing games. The Christmas season is happy, too, for gifts have come from many states to be stored in Santa Claus House and later packed for the children of Lotts Creek and of Scuddy, Happy, Vest, and other one- or two-room schools of the neighborhood. Perhaps, indeed, the strongest feature of this school is its closeness to the community. s A remarkable thing, almost contradictory, about this community school is that in 1933 it was born out of a dissention, a feud, between the families of the creek; and that for many years it existed and even grew under threat of dismemberment by the two factions, the Upcreekers and the Downcreekers. Now in 1957, showing no signs of a feud, Lotts Creek School is a combination grade and high school of over 200 pupils, supported not by the county alone but partly by gifts from people outside the community who know that by helping Lotts Creek they are helping all of America. How did this little school happen to be here on the hillside? The story goes back nearly a lifetime. It goes back to the childhood of Alice Slone, the founder and present director, then a small girl living on Caney Creek in the mountains of eastern Kentucky. Even today it is hard to reach Caney Creek, though there is a road now winding up through the hills from Hindman-the last two miles leading suddenly into the hollows, then up over the ledges, and finally down over the rock to the Creek, to a small high school of split-stone, a tiny junior college of rough lumber, a country store, and a dozen unpainted houses behind the maples and spruce-pines. But when Alice Slone was a child there was no high school, no junior college, no store, not even a road. Anyone who went out into the world to Hindman - and where else would one go? - went on foot or on mule. This is not to say that the Slone family, in this mountain settlement, was ignorant or even uncultured. It was a reading family: the father and mother and eight children. If they couldfind nothing else to read, they could always find newspapers. Alice remembers walking eight miles to Hindman to buy newspapersof any date at all. With them the family papered the walls of their home, and the children stood by the walls and read every word. After the father's death, seventeen-year-old Commodore supported the family by teaching in a log schoolhouse with long benches for desks. Miss Slone sits by the fire in a cab-in built by men of the creek. happ She ; amok wisd grad her wo rl the way Mrs high care thin a cc with heir picl patl yea sch a si 193 twe Sue whc end of t age c re the mo in thi Bo yep for 7 When Alice had reached the fourth grade, a great event happened. A "foreigner," Mrs. Lloyd, arrived in the settlement. She started a bigger and better school, enrolled several Slones among her first pupils, and directed the new institution with Boston 16Ã¢â‚¬Å¾s wisdom. At the age of fourteen, Alice had completed the seventh grade, but Caney Creek had no eighth grade. So Mrs. Lloyd'helped her to go to Cleveland, Ohio, where she could attend school while working for her board and room. Through high school and through the College of Education of Ohio State University, Alice earned her way. Then, returning for a visit with her family, she yielded to Mrs. Lloyd's urging that she teach at the school, which now included high school and junior college. In 1932 Alice began her teaching career. Not yet at Lotts Creek, however, but at Caney Creek, about thirty-five miles away. Her sister Bertha was teaching that year in a county grade school at Lotts Creek. There was no high school within walking distance nor any road for driving. So, 1932 and 1933 being depression years, adolescent boys engaged in desultory apple picking, dabbled in moonshine, and sat on their haunches by the footpaths and the creek bed. Some attended the eighth grade for three years just to keep themselves occupied. All the people wanted a school, but the Upcreekers and the Downcreekers could not agree on a single detail. Bertha Slone told Alice about the situation, and in 1933 Alice agreed to help Lotts Creek get a high school. That very autumn in a loft above the two-room grade school, twenty pupils started to study. The teachers were Alice Slone and Sue White-the latter a recent graduate from Center College-both of whom lived out among the people and served without pay. Before the end of the year Alice had got logs cut and placed-had even cut some of them herselffor a cabin which was to be the library and teacher - age. With WPA funds she hired three Upcreekers and three Down creekers (the feud, of course, necessitated this arithmetic) to finish the job. Then she wrote to her friends, asking for books. The school could not have continued without at least a little money for salaries. Knott County is one of the poorest in Kentucky; in 1933 it supported two high schools and was reluctant to take on a third. In 1934, however, it did supply one salary. Alice's brother Bob was the teacher while Alice administered relief. In the following year the county supplied two salaries, each of seventy-five dollars for seven months. Keller Whitaker, whom Bertha Slone had married, came from Letcher County to have one of them; but he shared it with Ernestine Stanford, a volunteer worker. Alice Slone had the 8 other, which she used to buy nails, building materials, food for the teachers, and--on the installment plan-a Sears-andRoebuck stove for seven dollars. Other workers gave their time or served for half salaries. Bob Slone came and went while he was working for a college degree, Keller Whitaker while he attended law school. In other respects than the actual teaching, the school has benefited from the good will of interested people. In these early days a friend gave $250 towards the science laboratory. The University of Kentucky Listening Center gave a radio just before its first short-wave broadcast from the mountains, a program of folklore and local color given at Lotts Creek School. The school's "mailing list" has increased from one in 1934 to over 3000 in 1957. As the Creek people became more sure of the school, they wanted to help, too. Some children had to walk eight miles to school; why not build a dormitory? One man gave some land, another some saplings. A few gave a day's labor and Alice hires others at a dollar a day, .. d paid from her own salary. In 1938 a log-house dorm itory was ready for twenty three girls; and since they Friends and neighbors gave the logs and could not pay board, Alice's built the big cabin. salary fed them. The largest addition came fifteen years later: a cementblock building for the high school and most of the grades. Creek people helped here, too, some giving their time though most of the workers were paid "day labor. " But without the help of H. T. McClure, a former Berean and retired contractor of New Albany, Indiana, the school could not have had this up-to-date building. He supervised the work of the Creek men, giving his wisdom and his time. Neighbors have given food, even canned it, for the school serves a free hot lunch to all pupils as well as three meals a day to dormitory students. And even now, teachers and other workers com to live here and have an important though unsalaried part in the pro-J gram. "Miss Betty," who came ten years ago, can see quite a difference in Creek manners in this last decade. When Alice was 9 considering a speaker for the commencement exercises of 1947, Miss Betty suggested a man outside the Creek area. "Oh, no," Miss Slone said. "It must be a mountain man. Outsiders get nervous when they're shot at." The exercises were held in the school yard and the speaker stood on the steps. From the wagon road above, men hostile to education would shoot in the general direction of the speaker. They did not intend to hit him; and being good shots, they never did. Still an outsider might be nervous. In the 1940's Alice Slone hesitated to hold a community gettogether. As one Creek woman said, "I know thar'll be drinkin', but I hope thar won't be no cuttin' and shootin'. " But now the neighbors can assemble without fear of each other. There are probably several reasons for this change: 1. Through the influence of the school and community the state has built a good road, so that people can more easily come out of the "hollers" to see what the outside world is like. 2. Pupils of the first generation are the parents of the present-day pupils. 3. Small gatherings, gradually increasing in size and scope, have lessened animosities. Now in the school year 1957-58, the grade school has over a hundred pupils and the high school 118. The county supplies four teachers; but much money must still be raised from private sources. A dormitory is needed for boys, though the girls are well-housed in a new one. The county bus -I which brings many chil dren to school does not go far enough into the ' mountains to get them all. To transport those living farthest away, Miss =~Ã‚Â°eÃ‚Â§1 .v'Ã‚Â°. e Slone bought a jeep truck Ã‚Â°a ` ' ivi and had it made into a bus. Every morning it starts at five-thirty, driven by Ã‚Â°f Ã‚Â°Ã‚Â°Ã‚Â° Woodrow, the neighbor who also grows vegeta l , .,~~' E bles in the school garden, guides "Ole Mule" up and ` -`Ã‚Â° 0Ã‚Â° down the rows, and super- The jeep bus brings high school studaits vises some of the school from the heads of for hollows. labor. The child whose home is the most distant-eight milesis ready at six. All the way back to school, children are waiting for Woodrow. He makes three trips each morning and three again each afternoon. One can imagine the influence of this little school on the lives of its pupils as well as on the life of the community. Graduates have become foremen in factories, engineers, teachers; one woman studied law. Several teachers in the school are its own graduates; and one not only teaches agriculture and typing but acts as community and boys' leader. The valley is well on its way out of its feuds and its prejudice and its ignorance. # # # # # Mrs. Matthias, a long-time student of Appalachian cul writes of her visit to Lotts Creek Community Center. The old commend car takes "Merry Christmas- to little one roan schools. MOUNTAIN CALM The drouth had lasted for weeks. Crops had failed. Animals had languished. Nerves were ragged. Coming home from a trip to the county seat, we had given a ride to a neighbor woman from " across the creek." In a fretful tone I had asked, "Do you think it will ever rain?" "Hit most generally do, " she replied. --K T R 11 FOLK DANCING ,,,, the Old and the New Sarah Gertrude Knott Because of the emphasis of the Council upon the folk arts of the Appalachian South, we reprint from RECREATION, the magazine of the National Recreation Association, this timely article by the founder and director of the National Folk Festival. THERE HAS BEEN a challenging folk-song-and-dance activity in this country during the last two decades. We are now much more alive to the value of our rich and varied folk songs, music, and dances than we were when the National Folk Festival originated in 1934. There is general, current interest in the question, "What folk songs, dances, and legends can we, in the United States, claim as our own?" Each year, during the five years that the festival took place in Washington, D. C. , gay and colorful folk dancers and singers from some thirty states assembled in our nation's capital. Most were from rural communities. Prominent among the groups who originally took part were Indians, British, Irish, French, Germans, Spanish-Americans, and Negroes who had inherited their songs and dances from forefathers making their homes here in early days. Some had created New World songs and dances based upon the old patterns. From the beginning, the festival also featured worksongs and other lore of our cowboys, lumberjacks, sailors, miners, and canal builders, who sang as they blazed the trails, sailed the seas, or did other work necessary in a young and expanding nation. This rather clear-cut pattern grew more complicated, however, as it became evident that no longer could the programs include only older American groups. There would be value also in claiming, cherishing, and trying to preserve the cultural manifestations of the newer citizens coming to our shores. The last nine festivals, held in St. Louis, have included Jewish, Polish, Scandinavian, Greek, Lithuanian, Italian, and Filipino participants and their heritages. However, there has been continued emphasis, as far as possible, on those folk traditions which 12 have been longest rooted in America. Until the end of World War H, the development of folk festivals and the teaching of folk songs and dances for recreation purposes was gradual. Local and state festivals were on a modest scale; but when peace came and the long tension lifted, a widespread enth~,,~ siasm burst forth in unparalleled activity and in giant square and foT dance federations in a number of states, following the lead of California. For the past ten years or more each festival has been a law unto itself, each reflecting the special interests of the leaders. It has been difficult to keep the emphasis where it belongs, to make folk festivals reflect the history of our own country and the heart beat of our own people. It has been more difficult to avoid having them become a hodgepodge reflection of many nations, not genuinely express ive of our own. Standardization has been encouraged by certain groups. Musical recordings have pushed "live" musicians farther and farther into the background. So-called "hillbilly" music floods televisionand radio, confusing the picture and in many instances replacing genuine folk music, even in states where the traditional music abounds. Although the situation is somewhat discouraging to those who have special interest in genuine tradition, it is encouraging an ~ hopeful to those who can really appreciate the over-all picture. A`sr a./ long as there is hope, plans can be made to channel and help control the interest to hold and revive the roots of our folk culture. Those who look beneath the surface can see the influence of three kinds of present-day leaders interested in folklore. If they would join hands for the common good, our folklore could be preserved. The three kinds of leaders are: The Purist. He believes that traditional expressions should not be touched unless it is possible to present them in their original statewhat he considers the genuinely authentic form. The purist is, of course, highly important because he helps to set a goal at which to aim. While a festival seldom altogether measures up to his standard, it comes nearer because he exists. The For-Fun-Only Leader. He has no regard for folk expression except to meet immediate needs for recreation and fun. Often this kind of leader has no qualms about changing traditional forms, has no spec ial knowledge of the past or potential future value of any phase of J folklore. However, if this type of leader does no more than lighten the load and relieve the tension felt today, he is still serving a very real purpose. 13 The Middle-Ground Leader. He finds real satisfaction in following the traditional as closely as possible in form, substance, and spirit, allowing for the inevitable changes which unconsciously come about Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ to make folk creations better meet the needs of the present. This middle-ground viewpoint is the most logical one to fol low, since folk traditions have never remained static. Yet, unless folk songs, dances, legends, and other lore have certain character istics, they have no right to be classified as folklore. Unless they are genuine, they are not the reflection of the spirit or the cultural background of the race or nationality that created them; they are not basic cultures. Unless they measure up to the genuine form, they are not likely to last and will go the way of all fads. There are many more problems now than when the National Folk Festival was originated, yet there is more challenge-more definite knowledge of the value of folklore and of the festival move ment. Both are considered important now in most countries of the ' world. A resolution passed by the Eighth International Folk Music Council which met in Oslo, Norway, in July, 1955-with thirty-one nations represented, including the United States-was recently sent to all countries of the world. It emphasized the importance of folk traditions for social and artistic purposes, as a basis for artistic 41"' creations and as a medium through which we might achieve better international understanding-and peace. It warned of the danger of these basic cultural forms passing away before a new civilization and urged all education, recreation, and cultural organizations to collect and record them and to make use of them now. In the United States, it will undoubtedly take the conscious effort of the three types of leaders, as well as that of organizations which have the proper setup to reach down into the communities. They must work cooperatively toward developing a well-planned, continuous program designed to dignify and build pride in traditional forms and show the folks who have inherited them that they have not lost their usefulness for recreation and education purposes. It is 1 ~ highly important that such a program be developed and carried on in rural areas and small towns where the traditional forms are being most neglected by the people to whom they especially belong. Just now, in our country and in most others, it is the city dwellers who are much more interested and active in the utilization of folklore. 01 It is doubtful that many of the newly created songs and dances springing up at present, more city-made than countryborn, will ever build the kind of cultural foundation to influence the future. Teaching is one of the necessary ways to make folk traditions meet present-day needs. There is a quality and stylenot quickly, if ever, acquired-which new folk singers and dancers can get only from association and learning directly from the older persons who have inherited it. There are many dancers left who have special styles of square or folk dances typical of their own particular regions. There are singers who have a style of singing which belongs only to those who have known the songs long and sung them all their14) lives. There are Negro, Polish, Spanish, French, Jewish, Italian, German, and other groups, old and new Americans, whose renditions of their traditional lore reflect the inexplicable spirit of the race or nationality of the creators. They are being too widely overlooked by recreation leaders, schools, churches, farm organizations, and others who would profit from using the traditional along with newer or different kinds of recreation. Cannot the old and the new go hand in hand? # # # # # FOLK DANCING TODAY Appalachian dances are still a living reality in many communities of the region. If you are interested in learning how to dance them or how to teach them, you will find several institutions which are fostering organized courses or festivals. The John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, North Carolina, has regular short courses. Several Extension Services sponsor workshops and festivals like the ones at Oglebay Institute, West Virginia, and the University of Kentucky. The Christmas Country Dance School and the Spring Festival are events sponsored annually by Berea College and the Council in cooperation with the Country Dance Society of America. If you are interested in learning how to dance and how to lead the dances of the Appalachian South, write to the Council, explaining your particular interest and need, and we will be glad to send you whatever information we have. Plan now to have the fun of your life during the coming year by sharing in the rich heritage of dance from the Southern Mountains. # # # # # 15 F CHRISTMAS means Music n -4 a! for giving and keeping n, FOLK SONGS AND SINGING GAMES .0115 )r OLD SCYVGS AND SINGING GAMES, Richard Chase 1.00 by FOLK DANCES OF TENNESSEE, Flora McDowell, 1.00 THE SWAPPING SONG BOOK, Jean Ritchie, 21 songs, illus. 3. 50 CIRCLE LEFT, collected in Eastern Kentucky .50 r PROMENADE ALL, Helen and Larry Eisenberg 1.00 SVGS OF ALL TIME, revised and re-issued by the Council .25 SINGING FAMILY OF 7HE CUh18FRLANDS, Jean Ritchie, a unique biography of the Ritchies with words and music of 42 songs 4. 50 RECORDS Appalachian Hymns and Ballads, sung by the Berea College Chapel Choir 4.25 s Jean Ritchie: A Field Trip, a comparison of her family songs with variants she recorded during a trip through Scotland, Ireland,and England 5.00 `~Ã‚Â° Jean Ritchie, folk songs 5.00 Songs from Kentucky, Saturday Night and Sunday, Too 3. 50 Ritchie and Brand: Courting Songs 3.50 Ritchie, Brand, and Paley: Courtin's a Pleasure 5.00 Chase, Presnell, and Others Instrumental Music of the Southern Appalachians 5.00 UNUSUAL CRAFT ITEMS FROM THE MOUNTAINS WHIMMYDIDDLE, a toy with a mysteriously spinning propeller, handmade in and around Beech Creek North Carolina 1.00 POCKET KNIFE LETTER OPENER, a clasp knife, whittled from cedar wood. It opens for use and closes to carry or to keep on the desk 1.00 ~`b Mountain Life & Work , a subscription 1.00 COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Publishers ct MOUNTAIN LIFE G WORK COLLEGE BOX 2000 BEREA, KENTUCKY Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of PATONS and BALDWINS Weaving wools from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious wools that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 tents for samples and p~.___ All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. Rltg4rs Na111rett, ,'~Jnr. GOLDEN RULE PRODUCTS Est. 1888 Dept. B, 115 Franklin Street, New York 13, N.Y. SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and woofs-and samples of the weaving wools described above-all for $1.00 postpaid, which will be refunded on first order of $10 or more. s 17 LEONARD ROBER7'S shares with us. . . jolt 1ale-4 /or teCCiny ' The following story is a cunning medley of about four of the most widespread fairy stories of the world, containing large parts of Types 402, 480, and 510. 1 have four or five versions all different, coming from the scone source, 1drs. George Williams of Bell County, Kentucky. Three of her daughters, now in their seventies, still tell the t6le in Knox County. One version appeared in Kentucky Folklore Record, Vol. 1, pp. 101-103. This text was secured by Gerald Syme from Georgia Williams, Trosper, Kentucky. a RUSHIECOAT AND THE KING'S SON ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN and she had a daughter who was the ugliest woman in the world. Rushiecoat was her stepdaughter, and she was the purtiest woman in the world. There was a dance coming off in the land, and the old woman and her ugly daughter begin to get ready to go to it. Rushiecoat said, "Let me go with you." ~lr The woman said, "You're a purty thing to go!" She poured a pint of rice in a peck of ashes and said, "You have that rice picked out of them ashes and dinner setting on the table in order when we get back!" And they left. After her and her daughter left, Rushiecoat started picking the rice out of the ashes, and her mother appeared to her and dressed her in the finest clothes and said, "You go ahead to the dance and be back at eleven o'clock, and I'll have the rice picked out and dinner on the table in order when you come back." Rushiecoat went on in her fine clothes, and when she got there, the king's son was dancing. She was so purty everybody was looking at her, and the king's son danced with her. Her stepmother and stepsister didn't know her, she was so purty. And when it got eleven o'clock, she quit dancing and went home, got back in her old ragged clothes, and looked and found the dinner on the table in order. Her stepmother and stepsister come in a-talking and said, "Oh, Rushiecoat, you should have been there today; the king's son danced with the most beautiful girl in the world!" Rushiecoat didn't let on, said, "Well, I tried to get you to let me go, and you wouldn't let me go. " 1 18 Next day they begin to get ready to go to the dance again. Rushiecoat asked them to let her go, and her stepmother said, "No, you're too ragged and dirty to go." Then she poured a pint of rice in another peck of ashes and told her to pick the rice out of the ashes and have dinner on the table in order when they got back. Rushiecoat's mother appeared to her again and said, "You go ahead to the dance, and I'll fix dinner and have it on the table in order. Comeback at eleven o'clock." Rushiecoat went, and they still didn't know who she was. The king's son danced with her and danced, and she waited almost too late to start back. She hurried to get back in time and lost one of her glass slippers. The king's son found it. He went around to everybody to see who the shoe fit. He went to the ugly girl's house to see if it would fit any of them. Anybody the shoe fit he was going to marry her. The ugly girl cut off her toes and heels, trying to get the shoe on, and when Rushiecoat appeared and wanted to try, they pushed her back in a room and wouldn't let her try. Before the king's son could find her, the women worked on a plan to get shet of her any way they could. The stepmother said, "I'll send her to the end of the world to get a bottle of water." She baked her up some old skins and some old burnt bread crusts and started her out. Rushiecoat went on and went on 'til dinner time, and she set down to eat. Here come an old man alongwith a stick in his hand. He said, "Howdy do, my granddaughter." She said, "Howdy do, Grandpa." Said, "Won't you come and eat some dinner with me?" He set down and eat with her. He give her the stick and told her she was going to meet a gang of wild hogs, and for her to peck the stick against the ground three times, and they would not bother her. She met the hogs and pecked the stick against the ground, and they went the other way. She set down to eat again and the old man come along. 19 "Howdy do, Granddaughter." "Howdy do, Grandpa. Won't you come and eat with me?" He eat with her and told her she was going to meet a gang of wild bears. She went on and met the bears and pecked the stick against the ground three times. They went away and didn't bother her. She stopped to eat again. The old man come up. "Howdy do, Granddaughter." "Howdy do, Grandpa. Won't you come and eat with me?" He eat with her and told her she was coming to the gate at the end of the world. He said, "When you come to that gate you say, 'Open, gate, open wide for this fair lady to pass through to get her a bottle of water. ' It will open wide and you may go through. " She thanked him and went on till she come to the gate. She done what he said, and the gate opened wide enough for her to go on through. When she got to the water at the end of the world and letdown her bottle, up jumped three bloody heads. They said, "Wash me and dry me and lay me down easy. " She washed them and dried them and laid them down easy. Got her water and started back. The biggest bloody head said, "What do you wish on that fair lady as she goes back home ?" He said, "I wish she smells so good every door and winder will open to smell her. " Said to the other, "What do you wish on that fair lady as she goes back?" "I wish she will be ten times purtier going back than she was coming." Said, "And what do you wish on the fair lady?" The least one said, "I wish every time she combs her hair she will comb a peck of gold off of one side and a peck of silver off of the other side." When Rushiecoat got home from her long journey, she was tired and dirty. Her stepmother was cross when she give her the bottle full of water. Rushiecoat said, "Will you comb my hair?" The stepmother said, "Go away from here; I'm not going to comb your old lousy head. " She said she would comb it herself. She begin combing it and the silver and gold begin to fall in her lap. Her stepmother said, "Come along, my daughter, I will comb your hair. " She said, "I'll just comb it myself. " The stepmother wanted some silver and gold, so she told her ugly daughter she would send her to the end of the world to get a bottle of water. 20 She baked her up some fine cakes for her lunch and started her out. When dinner time come, she set down to eat. Along come and old man with a stick. He said, "Howdy do, Granddaughter." She said, "You're not my grandpa." He went away and she went on. She met a gang of horses and they run over her and liked to killed her. Supper time come along and up come that old man. "Howdy do, Granddaughter." "You're not my grandpa. " Went on and here come a gang of wild hogs. Just about eat her up. Went on till breakfast time. Along come the old man. "Howdy do, Granddaughter." "You're not my grandpa." He went away. She met a gang of bears, and they just about destroyed her. She went on until she come to the gate. She pulled at it and opened it a little bit. When she started to go through, it come together and like to pinched her to death. She got through and went on to the water at the end of the world. Got hex a bottle of water and up jumped three bloody heads. They said, "Wash me and dry me and lay me down easy. " She said, "Get away from here. I'm not going to wash your old bloody heads. " She started on back, and the biggest bloody head said, "I wish when she gets back she will stink so bad every door and winder will be closed to her. " The middle-sized one said, "I wish when she gets back she will be ten times uglier going than she was coming. " The least one said, "I wish when she gets back home she will comb a peck of lice off of each side of her head." She went on back home, and when she got there, her mother said, "Come along, my daughter, and let me comb your head. " When the mother started combing it, she combed a peck of lice off of both sides. 21 The wedding day had been set and the king's son come to take the ugly girl to the church to marry her. They hid Rushiecoat out behind the shed, and the ugly girl trimmed her feet again and put on the glass slippers. She got on a horse beside the king's son to ride to church. There was a little bird flew up in the king's son's face. It said, 'Purty foot, speckled foot Behind the shed hide; Ugly foot, speckled foot By the king's son ride." The prince said, "Listen, what did that little bird say?" The ugly girl said, "You needn't pay any mind to its lies." The bird said that again. The king's son said, "I'm going to see if it is telling a lie. " He went behind the shed and found Rushiecoat hid. He brought her out and jerked the slippers off of the ugly girl and saw what a shape her feet were in. When he tried them on Rushiecoat, they just fit. Then Rushiecoat was back in her purty clothes again. She got up behind the king's son, and they rode off to the church and got married. As they was coming back home that night, they had to stop at an inn to stay all night. While the prince and Rushiecoat slept, the ugly girl and her mother planned a way to get rid of her. They got a magic pin from a witch in the inn. Next morning the prince brought out his horse and waited for Rushiecoat to jump up behind him and start off. The ugly girl stuck that pin in Rushiecoat's dress tail, and she turned into a rabbit and hopped off into the field and was gone. Ã‚Â°d The king's son begin to hunt everywhere for her and spent ii months and months searching through the fields and wood and never could find her. There was an old man went back in the woods to hunt one day. He found a little rabbit house. He went in it. There laid a young baby on a little rabbit bed. The other side of the but was full of gold and silver. He laid down behind the sacks to see what come in to that baby. In come a rabbit and jerked off its hide. There stood Rushie coat. She went back and laid down with the baby and called it "King's Son." After awhile she was asleep. The man slipped out and went to find the king's son. He found him at the old woman's house and called him out. The ugly 22 girl and her mother didn't want him to go and see what the old man wanted; said the old man was wanting to tell him some lies. The king's son went out anyway, and the old man told him what all he had seen in the woods. ,~ The king's son gathered him two or three men, and they went!% to the woods and found where this rabbit house was at. Rushiecoat was gone, and they hid till she come in. When she come in, she pulled off her rabbit skin and the king's son saw it was Rushiecoat. She went and laid down with the baby and called it "King's Son. 11 When she went to sleep, the men slipped and helt her while the king's son burnt that hide. That broke the spell on Rushiecoat and she was the beautifulest woman in the world again. Then the prince took her and the baby to the old woman's house. They run the ugly girl off. Him and Rushiecoat and King's Son lived happy ever after. # # # # # # OUR COVER... CHRISTMAS IS AN EXCITING TIME FOR YOUNGSTERS IN THE APPALACHIAN SOUTH. THERE ARE HOLLY AND MISTLETOE TO GATHER. CORN TO POP. AND HICKORY NUTS TO CRACK. AND. OF COURSE. THERE IS ALWAYS THE "WISH BOOK." A MAIL ORDER CATALOG. TO BE EAGERLY PORED OVER IN MAKING UP A CHRISTMAS LIST FOR SANTA. THE YOUNG LADY WITH THE WISH BOOK ON OUR COVER IS ONE OF THE CHILDREN IN AN EIGHTYMEMBER FAMILY AT THE PRESBYTERIAN CHILD WELFARE CENTER IN KENTUCKY THIS IS ONLY ONE OF THE MANY INSTITUTIONS THROUGHOUT THE REGION WHICH ARE DEDICATED TO HELPING DESERVING MOUNTAIN YOUNGSTERS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE A LIST OF CHILD WELFARE INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL AND WHICH COULD USE YOUR HELP ALL THE YEAR. WRITE TO US. WE WILL BE GLAD TO SEND ONE. BELOW WE HAVE REPRODUCED THE CHRISTMAS APPEAL CARD OF ONE OF THE FINEST OF OUR MOUNTAIN INSTITUTIONS. FIVE THOUSAND CHILDREN---LET'S GIVE THEM A MERRY CHRISTMAS the very first bIe55ix~qtlaat Mary d,tt was the ble,-,--in_gr of One = . ~I -1 r -r-r a y y i s ~otllinkherlittleson,Jetus,wazGods7ternal aoe%;wct, God:s .,carnal son,~h,EmrlanLLel ink o y,Fnfha,5onand the 1Holy Ghost 1hrouAh all aernit'y. The very next blessing that Mary had, It was the blessing of two, To think her little son, Jesus, Could read the scriptures through, Could read the scriptures through, Oh Emmanuel in glory, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost Through all eternity. 3. . . could make the blind to see. . . 4. . . could turn the rich to poor. . . 5. . . could raise the dead alive. . . 6. . . could bear the crucifix. . . 7. . . could open the gates of Heaven. This lovely old English carol is adapted from a Christmas card published by pine Mountain Settlement School. The tune was collected by Richard Chase. YOUR CONFERENCE HOME IN THE SMOKY MOUNTAINS Mountain'~iew I-Iotel GATLINBLiRG. TENN. Gati inburg's FIRST and STILL Favorite MODERN RESORT HOTEL, OPEN ALL THE YEAR 25 Annual Conference Call ~ ~,r FEBRUARY 12-15, 1958 THE 46TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE of the Council of the -.za-. Southern Mountains is for everyone who has more than a ~,e've passing concern for life in the Appalachian South and the contribu tion it makes to life everywhere else. The theme: EDUCATION FOR LIVING, offers challenge and opportunity to every institution, secular as well as religious, and to every individual, young and old. The program which is being developed under the direction of the conference chairman, the Rev. Gene Holdredge of Ferrum I College in Virginia, with the help of the chairmen of all standing committees-and anyone else who has constructive suggestions to make-will have pertinence for laymen and professional leaders, public and private school teachers and administrators, TO NAME BUT A FEW college and extension service `. personnel, campus undergraduates and church youth. Featured leaders will include nationally known educators, ' economists, representatives of Health interests, technicians in recreation leadership training, top-flight inspirational men in re ligion, and young people who are planning life in the Appalachian South as a career. Again, our hosts will be the Mountain View Hotel in Gatlin- a burg, Tennessee. 0 Luncheon on Wednesday noon, February 12, will be a Youth Rally, since this day has been designated as Youth Day. Council committees will also meet at this time to hold pre-conference strategy discussions. The dinner meeting that night will be a united ses sion for all, with the keynote address uniting youth and adults in a ", common approach to a study of the many facets of the theme. From then until the closing luncheon on Saturday one is assured of a busy, stimulating time of inspiration, discussion, recreation, and fellowship. # # # # # # m I I 26 "CANNED VITAMINS" ON RED BIRD by ESTHER ELMER R typical scene on check-out day at one o f the 23 schools served. Miss Elm er is standing by the bookmobile. IT WAS BACK in 1907 that the first library on wheels was used to overcome barriers of rural isolation and to open up a new world to those who had known little about the riches of reading which could be made available to them. Miss Mary Titcomb, an energetic young lady from New England, pioneered the f i r s t horse-drawn book wagon in Hagerstown, Maryland, and in this venture gradually won many who had at first objected to this innovation of a "foreigner" who was bringing "upstart" ideas to their community. At present there are probably between 600 and 800 motorized bookmobiles in the United States. Some climb mountains; others ford creeks or travel paved or graveled roads. Red Bird Bookmobile does all of these, and since the beginning of the 1956-57 school year has checked out approximately 8100 books of which nearly half the number represent those checked out to schools. Currently, books in use number about 900. Christian novels, Bible story books, horse and dog stories, biographies, historical and Biblical fiction, mysteries, and science books make up those most popularly called '~ for. Other types used frequently, but in smaller numbers, are dictionaries and other reference books, cookbooks, sports novels, 27 poetry, Bible study and devotional books, and conservation stories. Some of the simpler classics are becoming more popular. Aside from the actual direct service in lending books and giving out magazines and tracts, plus extra materials to schools, the frequent appointments at mealtime in various homes along any of the seven major routes give many openings for conversation over problems and prayer with those who have serious spiritual needs. There is a natural desire to speak of the things of the spirit; hunger to know the Lord is in evidence everywhere. On those days when weather conditions give little promise that the bookmobile will really come, comments and reactions are indicative of the response to this work. One little lady, advanced in age, imprisoned by ice and snow with her two equally lonely friends, spoke upon the return of the bookmobile, "I just prayed you'd camel" Seldom blessed with any visitors at all, naturally she would welcome some one from the outside world with plenty of good books to read. "I'd reckoned you'd plumb forgot us!" exclaimed another friend when after the tides the bookmobile came six, instead of the usual three, weeks after the previous visit. The response of its reading family to the bookmobile's services is just as enthusiastic as was their reception of it in the beginning. Gradually more are hearing of reading opportunities open, and the number of friends in several areas is increasing slowly. T. V. Smith once said, "Let us offer to men's lacks the canned vitamins-which books are-for every variety of anemia from which man suffers." It is my prayer that of these "canned vitamins" we may always keep the Bible in its central place, encouraging every "anemic" to draw from its medicinal resources the healing which makes the soul complete in God. # # # # # 11 4AhV01JNC1NC' Revised Edition of WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all craftsinvaluable to crofts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina R~" Tell us a story. . . " ~'2~ f ~,~ r, 1011 This request has, through generations of fireside gatherings, been the pass word ~I "into that wonderful lard of fantasy where Jack outwits the giants or the witch, and Rushiecoat weds the king's son in spite of her jealous step sister. "Like the old songs and balZads...and the old hymns... the old tales, too, are a part of our heritage of the English language. Such lore can, if passed on to coming generations, make our lives richer in experiences that enliven the mind and spirit. As Granny London put it, I This generation don't know the old ways of havin' a good time. But if they only had a chance to know...Law, how it would delight 'em!"' So I writes Richard Chase, author, lecturer, and folklorist. ,i ... if they only had a chance to know " Here is YOUR chance to know some of the tales, riddles, and songs that make up the living heri tage of the Appalachian South. SOUTH FROM HELL-FER-SARTIN - Kentucky Mountain Folk Tales collected by Leonard Roberts $ 3.75 JACK TALES - the adventures of Jack, collected and j and retold by Richard Chase 3.75 i GRANDFATHER TALES -- more stories by Richard Chase 3.75 I `c I BOUGHT ME A DOG - folk tales for telling, collected by Leonard Roberts .50 ~ ~ ~I JACK AND THE THREE SILLIES - one illustrated tale, by Richard Chase 2.50 WICKED JOHN AND THE DEVIL - one tale, Chase 1.00 LEGENDS OF THE ANCIENT CHEROKEE THAT' S WHY THEY CALL IT...- The Names and Lore of the Great Smokies by Paul.M. Fink AM ERICAN FOLK TALES AND SONGS - a Signet book, Chase .50 AMERICAN FOLK TALES AND SONGS - a phonograph record, companion piece to the book, with Richard Chase telling tales & Paul Clayton and Jean Ritchie singing some of the songs 4.98 ALL PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE While not a regular sales agency, the Council of the Southern Mountains considers that its duty lies in making available material which preserves folk tradition, and which leads to a better under standing of the people of the Appalachian South. Write for a complete \" list of recreational material, folk songs, dances, and books. COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Pub6shew I MOUNTAIN LIFE U WORK COLLEGE BOX 2000 BEREA, KENTUCKY 29 Community Development Brings Industry by DON FESSLER LAST MAY the Committee for Economic Development of,the Council met in Berea to map out a study of community development in the Southern Appalachian area. At that meeting reports were given on the manner in which Berea, Kentucky, and Newbern, Virginia, had met community needs through cooperative action. After hearing these two stories the committee members agreed that perhaps the most valuable contribution the committee could make to the area would be the compilation of similar stories from other communities. In such a compilation a pattern would be indicated which communities throughout the area could use to guide j them in coping with their own needs. It was decided that the most efficient means of picking up the stories was by the use of a tape recorder. The purchase of a recorder was authorized by the committee out of the funds set aside for the committee's use, and one of the members volunteered to begin the interviews this fall. As one of the most pressing community needs in the areahas been the bringing in of industry, the interviews have begun in communities which have already worked in this direction, such communities, for example, as Berea and Burnside, Kentucky, where cooperative action on the part of community leaders was an important, if not an absolutely essential, step in attracting industrial plants. Not only are the successes of these communities indicated in the interviews, but their failures as well. And in all cases it is evident that success was achieved only after the expenditure of much effort and determination. It is not for those communities that expect an easy handout. Because of geographical and other factors many communities in the southern mountains have, of course, completely inadequate natural resources to support industrial development. Their only resource is labor which is generally unskilled and uneducated. For ! such communities the solution of their problems may lie in importing skills as is brought out in the story of Milton, West Virginia, where the Blenko Glass Company has for a quarter of a century been training local workers in the highly technical operations of the art of glass blowing which was imported from England. The Committee for Economic Development hopes to include 'I in its study a wide variety of stories which spell out how many .I I 30 communities throughout the Appalachian South went about meeting their various needs through cooperative action. Suggestions of communities which should be included in the study will be welcomed by the committee. These suggestions may be directed to the chairman of the committee: Dr. Donald R. Fessler, Extension Sociologist VPI, Blacksburg, Virginia. # # # # # I ONE OF THE MANY small industries that have successfully developed in the mountain region is the Berea Rubber Company, Berea, Kentucky. Below is a story about i Mountain Know-how and Do-how by CHAD DRAKE i WORKERS AT THE Berea Rubber Company don't see spots before their eyes-they see rings. In fact they examine mil l lions each month, for the Berea factory is one of the largest pro- ,~ , ducers of O-rings in the nation. An O-ring is a solid rubber gasket that looks like a miniature inner tube. It is the unseen life-belt that is rapidly becoming indispensible in a mechanical civilization. Engineers have always struggled with the problem of making a liquid-proof connection between two pieces of metal. The dripping water faucet is a monument to their failure. Flat gaskets of cork, leather, rubber, or other natural substances have been the traditional answer to the problem. As pressures inside modern pump, valve, transmission, and motor systems have increased, however, more efficient sealers have had to be found. The O-ring that can be fitted into a groove has proved to be the best gasket yet devised. Although the O-ring came into general use only since the Second World War, it is difficult for the average citizen to go through a day without usingone, according to Earl Hobein, manager of the modern Berea plant. "If you use an automatic transmission or power steering or '~ braking in your car, an unseen system of O-rings takes the gaff in keeping the fluids where they belong. Or, if you wear a water-proof wrist watch, a tiny O-ring around the stem may well be used to keep the water out," Hobein explains. 31 The Berea factory, now in its sixth year, is a subsidiary of the Parker Appliance Company of Cleveland, Ohio. Parker is 3 a long-time manufacturer of valves, couplings, nozzles, and other essential parts for systems that move liquids, including air, from one place to another. During the last war they had a part in developing the hy draulic systems in both conventional and jet planes, and it oas during this time that the O-ring began to come into its own. Unable to secure the quality and quantity of O-rings neces sary for its own equipment, Parker decided to build its own plant in Berea in 1951. Now employing between 230 and 300 people, the Berea plant has proved to be a 24-carat surprise to almost everybody. "Although 95 per cent of our workers have had no previous industrial experience, they have adapted themselves to plant condi tions with remarkable ease," says Hobein, a graduate chemist and native of Cleveland. The company started with a policy of using local workers throughout the plant, and it has paid off handsomely. Only three people in the entire plant are from outside the Berea area. - Plant officials delight in telling of the many production bottlenecks in the plant that have been broken by local workers, many of whom had never been in a manufacturing plant before they began working in the rubber company. "We have nothing but praise for the versatility and ingenu ity of our workers," says Clint Hensley, plant superintendent, a native Berean. g "Let me give you some examples," he says. "Since we work in millions of units, sorting and counting is one of the big jobs 13 i- in our plant. Counting rings by hand would seem to be inefficient, l so an engineer brought in an electronic counter. After three days j d 'the machine that doesn't make mistakes' was given up. The girls ran circles around it, both in numbers counted and in accuracy. " Despite this example of hand vs. machine, the plant is filled with the latest type equipment, and the workers are constantly sug gesting improvements in the mechanical setup of the factory. Hobein i ,h proudly points out machines that have grown out of workers' ideas: a cutter that was contrived from an old printing press, a "squirrel i cage" drying machine, an improved-type packager. Half the workers are women, and many of them bring skills acquired in the kitchen and on the sewing machine right into the plant f with them. "When we started," says Hensley, "a manual told us we could expect our best workers to paint identification dots on 20, 000 Hands and eyes trained in the sewing corner and in the kitchen are valuable assets in the Berea Rubber Company factory. rings a day. By letting the girls work out their own methods, we now have a system by which our slowest workers can paint at least 100,000 a day." Hensley is also proud of the production record in the plant. "Because we can always depend on our people for an honest day's work, we have been able to take full advantage of technological improvements which have resulted in steadily increased production," he says. Workers are encouraged to think for themselves in the plant and to devise new methods that will make their jobs easier. "Let me show you what can happen," said Hobein, as he guided me to a work area where a girl was trimming ten Orings at a time on a buffing wheel. "We used to trim one ring at a time before one of the girls decided to try two. This worked, so she tried three, and in a short while the girls were asking for larger wheels. It is now standard practice to trim six to twelve rings at a time. It is this type of effort that makes us proud of our employees in this plant." Hobein thinks the labor relationship at Berea is excellent. The only major labor turnover comes when wives leave to become mothers.