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Mountain Life & Work vol. 34 no. 1 1958 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv34n10158 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 34 no. 1 1958 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1958 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. LIFE & WORK MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS MOUNTAIN VOL. XXXIV N0. 1 LIFE & WORK ------------1958---------- PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE of THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. SEALE BUILDING. MAIN STREET. BEREA. KENTUCKY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT BEREA. KENTUCKY. 1.04 MANAGING EDITOR: Charles Drake, College Station, Berea, KY. Associate Editor: Katharine T. Ayer PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: Miss Florene Brooks, Chairman Mr. Richard Chase Dr. Robert Cornett Miss Maureen Faulkner Miss Mildred Hines Mrs. Helen Bullard Krechniak Dr. Jess Ogden Mrs. Jac Lyndon Tharpe Mr. Jess Wilson STAFF ARTIST: Mrs. Burton Rogers Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. Perley F. Ayer, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council. A11 members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN ICUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station Beiea, Kentucky ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS Cover and p 25, Chad Drake; pp 5 and 6, Penland; p 10, U.S.Forest Service; p 26, N.C. TRAVEL NEWS; pp 32 and 41, John Putnam; pp 36 and 38 TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST; p 57, Pi Beta Phi Settlement School. 3 Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ IN THIS ISSUE ..... PENLAND'S INTERNATIONAL PARTY Lucy C. Morgan 5 FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT IN APPALACHIA -M.J.Williamson 8 THE KING'S WELL a folk tale -Leonard Roberts 14 Recreation Material Available 19 "SHAKESPEARE IS LOSING" -Virginia Dober 21 GOD'S PRESENCE a poem -Mary Brewer 23 " . . .NEXT TO GODLINESS" -Chad Drake 25 SCHOLARSHIPS FOR STUDY IN HEALTH FIELDS -Willman Massie 27 THE ROMAN SOLDIERS a folk game -Richard Chase 29 MOUNTAIN READER DON'T SHOOT A FRIEND! 36 MOUNTAIN YOUTH THE EVERLASTING LIGHT an Easter drama -Billy Edd Wheeler 43 THE LILY a story -James Wayne Miller 54 THE WANDERER a Poem -Dwight Davenport 57 INDEX for 1957 58 COMING EVENTS 63 Fine Books, Free! RECENTLY a lady wrote to us: "God bless you for helping my boy." Write to: Good Samaritans for the 3 R's Admiral Ion Pursell, Director Frankfort, Kentucky jv#0VNC1#V6 Revised Edition of WD HERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all craftsinvaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, ~y vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina MIIIIIIIII 4er~.l EVERY WEAVER 0 KNOWS ~ HANDWEAVING YARNS Directions for making place mats are given in Lily's Practical Weaving Suggestions, Vol. 1-57. If you are not already receiving this bulletin, send 25Ã‚Â¢ for copy. Are the highest in quality, the most beautiful in color and the richest in textures-yet cost no more. A complete stock, in a wide range of weights, sizes, textures and colors, ready for prompt shipment at all times. NEW ITEMS Lily Soft Twist Cotton-unmercerized. Art. 108. For drapery and upholstery fabrics in 18 fast colors. Lily Jute-Tone, Art. 47 for weaving, hooking, crocheting and braiding -in 16 decorator colors. New colors in linen yarns! Write for samples OzdeT all yaws a,r0Alted #oac . . , .. the Handweaver's Headquarters LILY MILLS COMPANY, Dept. HW B Shelby, N. C. more. PENLAND'S INTERNATIONAL PARTY LUCY C. MORGAN FOR THE TWO WEEKS of the Christmas holidays, Penland School of Handicrafts had as guests sixty-six people from eighteen foreign countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Greece, Guatemala, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. Among them was Mr. Jacques Sabbah, Minister of Communi cations, Morocco. The others were all educators, most of them attending colleges and universities in this country, who came to us through various agencies in Washington. Washington officials have expressed appreciation for the warm _ spirit of friendliness which their participants enjoyed in Mitchell County, where they found things they can adapt to the work they plan to do in their own rural communities when they return to their respective countries. The Foreign Agricultural Service wrote about the project: "Object: To learn about home life in a section of America where handicrafts are an important industry. ' Opportunities will be provided for participants to discuss community life and programs with representatives of BrS schools, county government, medical profession, church N. C. and other community leaders. They will discuss with handicraft instructors the production of quality merchandise and how these products are marketed. On visits to farm homes they will learn of the way families produce and conserve their home food supply, theirsourc of income, their problems and how as a community they work on a solution of these problems. The celebration of a typical North American Christmas will be a part of this two weeks' program to be participated in by men and women from many countries." These guests were taken to homes where weaving is being done as a home industry, where they discussed with the weavers what such a home industry can mean economically, socially, and culturally in a rural community. Through the co operation of the county agent, Mr. George Con rad, they visited farms, orchards, and chicken ranches. They visited a hosiery mill, mica, kaolin, and feldspar mines, a wrought iron maker, a wood shop where chairs are made. Although there was no plan for giving in struction in crafts during these two weeks except to allow each person to Visitors from Pakistan and Jordan make a small gift, such learn about feldspar at the mine. as an enameled copper ashtray, we found, as usual, that crafts are contagious. In the two weeks, a very handsome carved leather handbag for a wife back home, some original and beautiful silk screen curtains by the Cambodians who spoke no English, and many pieces of enamel on copper were made. In fact, some of the guests worked on crafts morning, noon, and night. People throughout the county accepted this foreign ChristmasÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ family into their midst with a warm friendliness. The Rotarians of Spruce Pine met them at the train twenty-six miles away at 7:08 in the morning. Civic organizations and members of the various church congregations furnished transportation to the many points of interest, on to club meetings, to Christmas programs, to Mt. Mitchell, and ted. other scenic areas. When the president of the Rotary Club asked for a show of ;s hands of those who would furnish transportation for meeting the early train, there were enough volunteers to meet two hundred people, and we had only sixty-six. Many of the guests were not Christians, but they were all deeply religious, and they joined in with the Christmas activities as if they were used to it. There was a Christmas tree, and every one gave a gift, and everybody received a gift. Names were drawn and gifts not exceeding $2. 00 were exchanged. All guests had had an opportunity to do something in crafts, and many made their gifts ne for the tree. sch On Christmas Eve, carols were sung as lustily by Buddhists n and Moslems as by Christians. Then came Santa Claus with his pack. Santa, a well-rounded, jovial Filipino, made a touching little talk to all "us children" before opening his pack. "Dear children," he said, "you are indeed fortunate to be under the hospitable roof of the Penland School of Handicrafts this Christmas season. With the motherly love of Miss Lucy, every thing is made possible for you to feel at home and enjoy the celebra tion of the birth of the King of Kings who saved us from sin and taught us to love one another. The different nations represented tonight is a realization of that great ideology of 'Peace on Earth.' Be therefore cheerful and enjoy a better understanding with each other for a wonderful fellowship and brotherhood, irrespective of creed, color, or social standing. Then and only then, can we claim that we have 'Peace on Earth.' " It has been an inspiration and a great gratification to see how free, natural, and happy these people from eighteen nations were. One day at the table one indicated the person across from him and said, "Yesterday we were enemies. Today we are friends - at Penland. " The lady from Jordan said, "We have all left our pre . judices behind and are here to learn to help ourselves and to help our homeland - to observe America, the good life. " In order to facilitate the program for these guests a committee was formed composed of a representative from each nation, and a day by day schedule was made. The members of each nation pre sented entertainment typical of their particular country in three home talent evenings. There were folk dances, folk songs, and in many instances traditional costumes. As we sat there enjoying each other so much, we wished all ch the world could join us in this natural wholesome fun. Then, surely, '.t, differences would be forgotten, and there would be Good Will to Men. A TEN-POINT PROGRAM FOR... FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT ~ Many counties in Appalachia have 85% of their area covered by forest. The author, a pro fessional forester and leader APPALACHIA Ã‚Â°f the Forest Research Center, Berea, Kentucky, has pin-pointed 10 areas in which work needs to be done immediately to develop M. J. WILLIAMSON our forests for the benefit of all our people. THE FUTURE of the Appalachian South and its people is closely tied to its vast potential for growing high-quality timber and to its opportunities for manufacturing and marketing wood products. Over two-thirds of the land area is basically timberland. Maximum benefits to her people and communities will be attained through the protection and management of the forests not only by continuous crops of timber but in quality water, better soil protection, and more abundant wildlife. In view of the need this region has for raw materials to support an expanded forest industry, to provide more employment, larger community payrolls, and a more adequate tax base, it is important to develop the full potential of her forest resources. Some 200 years of mis-use and abuse of her once abundant high-quality forests has lowered the present productiveness to about one-third its potential capacity. The restoration of these forests can be brought about by the application of good protection and management. However, it is essential that the program be implemented on the basis of sound, well-planned, and steadily progressive action. The Kentucky Agricultural Council, realizing the importance of the forest resource, developed a forestry platform for making Kentucky's forest fully productive. This platform could be used as the basis for a sound forestry program in the entire Appalachian South. The platform, with a few revisions to make it apply to the J region, is listed below. 9 1. Continue and expand a program of education and inform atiop at all levels. Basically, there are three levels at which education and information activities must be aimed: A. General Public - Objective: To inform the people as to the im portance of the forest resource and benefits to be derived fromits protection and management as a renewable crop. Rapid progress in any phase of forest conservation can come about only with the full backing of an informed general pub lic and not merely segments thereof. Education of this type by necessity must be a continuous, powerful, and dynamic activity. But most important, the information must be presented in such a way as to show how forests contribute to the welfare of the individ ual regardless of his station in life. B. School Children - Objective: To inform our youth as to the im portance of the forest resource and benefits to be derived from its protection and management as a renewable crop. The objective can be achieved by expanding and intensifying all existing educational activities aimed at our youth in addition to requiring forest conservation training in all public schools. C. Woodland Owners and Forest Products Producers - Objective: To awaken woodland owners and forest products producers to the profits and advantages of good woodland management along with the _ management know-how. The information and educational activities now serving these people must be expanded and strengthened. The Extension Services of the state universities, the State Divisions of Forestry, and others responsible for information and educational activities must coordin ate their efforts. Strong and continuous lines of communication i. must be created and developed forthe maximum dissemination of information and education through press, radio, and other mass media. 2. Establish adequately financed state-wide forest fire protection (including necessary legislation). r 5,~. Objective: To protect all forest lands in the states at a level adequate to meet the fire situation during driest years. For more than a century parts of this region have had one of the worst forest fire problems in America. Although great strides have been made in the past 20 years, a big job lies ahead. All of the states have some type of organized protection from fire which is adequate for normal seasons. It is not adequate for extreme situations, and at such times the losses are great. Furthermore, there are thousands of acres of private woodland that have sort of protection. State-wide forest fire protection should be auth ized by law and financed by direct legislative appropriation, Nationwide experience has demonstrated that only on this basis can adequate and efficient fire control be realized. 3. Develop and expand a program of improvement of existing forest stands and their management on a sound forestry basis. Objective: To make woodland of the states more productive by encouraging and assisting owners in applying sound forest management practices to their lands. In most private forests, the productivity is relatively low. It has been demonstrated that both growth rates and quality can be multiplied. Most of the ownerships are small. One survey shows that one and a half million individuals own a total of 76 million acres in tracts less than 500 acres in size. These small forests must pro- I vide a substantial portion of the raw materials our forest industries I need. To accomplish the objective without further delay, technical aid and guidance must be available to small woodland owners, sawmill operators, and other industries. For example, cooperative forest management programs currently require the services of additional full-time technical foresters to meet the request for assistance. 4. Expand the program of forestation. Objective: To expand the nursery and tree-planting program so that the areas in need of reforestation will be planted in 20 years. About ten million acres, an area equivalent to nine per cent of all the timberlands, need planting to become productive within a reasonable time or to make desirable readjustments in land use. At the present rate of nursery production and planting, it will take many years to reforest these lands. 5. Develop a program of forest pest control adequately supported by legislation and appropriations. Objective: To provide adequate facilities, supported by necessary legislation and financing, to reduce materially timber losses resulting from insects and diseases. Most of us can remember the blight which wiped out the im portant American chestnut tree in the nation. Today, our forests are threatened by such disease and insect pests as the oak wilt, southern pine beetle, pine tip moths, and others. As more land is om reforested artificially, the threat grows. The damage from forest pests could easily become heavier than present fire damage. her- Legislation and money are needed: legislation to enable foresters to take preventive and remedial action on lands of a pri vate individual; money to buy the chemicals, provide detection ser )n- vice, and employ entomologists and pathologists to supervise the work. 6. Strengthen and maintain forest product utilization and marketing activities. Objective: To provide woodland owners, timber processors, and others concerned with timber utilization and marketing with in formation and guidance in this field. Present methods of handling timber from stump to the fin ished product need to be improved. Producers of forest products should be advised of efficient utilization methods of mechanized equipment that can be used to remove much of the merchantable es material from woodlands at a profit. .o- Methods of selling stumpage and timber products have devel ,s oped haphazardly and are complicated by small ownerships and lack of interest on the part of the owners. Such things as log grades, l~~, lumber quality, value and prices of various products have received i- little attention. Woodland owners and producers need to be advised of existing markets and market conditions. 12 7. Promote the establishment and expansion of forest indus tries to utilize fully material from present forest stands. 1 Objective: To awaken timber-based manufacturers and in- O vestors within and outside the area to industrial opportunities in i forest management, utilization, and marketing. i The woodlands of the area now support a large volume of p timber suitable for the manufacture of wood products other than c those requiring high quality lumber. A considerable amount of this b timber should be removed annually to provide growing space for the t' thrifty young trees which will produce the next crop of high quality 1 timber. r Basic information is needed on the timber resource and op- 1 erating factors which must be dealt with. The timber resource in formation should include facts on location, volume, quality, avail s ability, utility value, procurement, and harvesting practices. The operating factors should include facts on labor, markets, water supply, transportation, power, industrial sites, and community 1 cooperation. These facts must be clearly stated and attractively p presented. If the above actions are to be continued on the expanding r scale necessary to restore the productivity of these forest lands ti within a reasonable time, additional facilities for technical forest A education, research, a favorable forest tax climate and continuity s of professional management must be provided. E 8. Expand the program of forest and forest indbstries research. Objective: To find new and better ways of managing and using the forest resource. Research is the key to progress. A dynamic forestry program for the area is impossible without it. Too little forest research has been or is being done. If we are to keep pace with the nation's progress, the U. S. Forest Service, the state universities, and other research institutions and organizations must expand and coordinate forest research activities to include work in the following: i A. Forest management B. Watershed management C. Wildlife habitat D. Forest genetics E. Recreation F. Forest protection . fire, insects, and disease G. Forest utilization-harvesting and processing forest products H. Forest survey I. Forest economics and marketing 9. Secure tax legislation to favor the growing timber crops. J Objective: To encourage the growing of continuous timber crops by enactment of laws that will defer taxes on forests until income is received from the crop. 13 The development of productive forest stands on the timber s' lands of the Appalachian South will require a number of years. Owners of such land indicate the increasing annual tax on the grow ing timber is a financial liability which detracts from the economic incentive for such an operation. Some states confronted by this problem have solved it by legislation authorizing a delayed tax, called a yield tax, on the growing timber with a nominal annual tax based on the land value only. The tax on the timber is paid at the e time of cutting, from the proceeds of the timber harvested. Simi lar legislation in more states would increase the incentive to restore timberlands to full production. 10. Recognize and give proper weight to the water, flood control, wildlife, and recreation aspects of manage ment of area's forests. Objective: To correlate in the management of our forest lands the requirements for optimum timber production, watershed protection, wildlife habitat, and recreation values. Good management of timberlands must consider all inter related resources. The welfare of the community and state requires that management of the timber resource make provision for: A. Maintaining a desirable wildlife habitat B. Providing clean streams C. Protecting soil D. Providing flood control benefits E. Making provision to develop and protect recreation values. am ,4 Breath of Spring for Your Letters Woods Pretties folded notes Five ink sketches by Mary Rogers on buff-colored bond paper with matching envelopes. Mushroom, (shown here) Dogwood, Hepatica, Oak, Snowdrop. Assorted designs unless you specify one only. 10 Sheets and envelopes. . . 50Ã‚Â¢ postpaid PENNYWISE PRESS Maynardville, Route 2, Tennessee WHOLESALE RATES TO SHOPS AND ORGANIZATIONS 14 LEONARD ROBERTS shares with us. o~~ tccled or teClirt THE KING'S WELL The first section of this tale is Type 577, a good version of which may be seen in Dasent, Tales from the Norse,called "Boots and His Brothers." It has not been collected in America before, to my knowledge, and may be derived from this printed source. The second portion, however, about the giant, which is deftly woven into the story, is in oral tradition. It is often an episode in "Jack the Giant Killer" and may also be seen in the first of the JACK TALES. It was told by Jane Muncy, age 17, of Hyden, Kentucky, who learned it from her grandmother. ONCE UPON A TIME there was three boys that lived with their mom and dad way out in the woods. Their names was Jack, Bill, and Merrywise. Merrywise was the youngest, and they claimed he was the foolishest of the bunch. So Jack and Bill started out one day to seek their fortune, and Merrywise, like he always done, put up a big fuss to go with them. So they finally agreed to take him along and said, "Merrywise, you will have to mind us and you can't stop along the road with your'foolishness." Said, "You have to stay right with us and act your age." Merrywise said, "Well, I will." So they fixed their dinner in a poke and started out to seek their fortune. They walked along for about three or four hours, and they set down to eat out of the poke. Merrywise heard something, and he raised up and said, "Hush, I hear something." They heard a chopping sound away off in the woods up in the mountains. He said, "I believe I'll go up and see what it is. " Theysaid, "Oh, no, Merrywise, we've got to harry. We got J no time to fool around with you. " He said, "Well, I want to know what that is. I have to go and see what it is." So he followed the noise and got away up in the woods, and he found an ax up there chopping away by itself. Chop, 15 chop, chopping all the trees down. Merrywise caught the ax and took the handle off and put the ax head in his pocket and come back down the hill. Jack and Bill said, "Well, what was it, Merrywise?" He said, "Oh nothing, nothing at all. " They said, "See, we told you we had to hurry, and now we've wasted time waiting for you to fool away time in the woods." Sg they walked on and on further and set down to rest. They heard a stream of water like a waterfalls, and it kept running and running. They walked up the hill a piece and found a clear stream of water and got them a drink. So Merrywise said, "I wonder where all this water is coming from?" "Never mind where it comes from," they said, "come on and le's go." Merrywise started up the hill again. They said, "Goon, but we can't wait long on you. " He went up into the hills following the stream until he come to a tiny little walnut. They was a hole in the walnut, and out of it was coming all this water. So he took some moss from the root of a tree and stopped up the hole in the walnut. And he stuck the walnut in his shirt pocket and come back to his brothers. They said, "Well, where did it come from?" He wouldn't tell them, said it come out of a rock up there. They said, "Now, Merrywise, we're not going to wait on you any more, we're going to seek our fortune." Merrywise said he wouldn't stop any more, and so they journeyed on and journeyed on for days and days, and finally they come to the King's territory. And here they saw a big sign, and it said, "Any man that can dig a well and find water for the King can have the hand of the Princess in marriage. Any man that tries and does not find water will have to lay down on the chopping block and have his ears chopped off." The three travelers hurried on and talked about entering the contest. Bill said he would go first because he was the oldest and strongest. Jack wanted to go first because he could stay at a job the longest. Merrywise said, "Well, I think I'll try." They said, "Merrywise, you can't do anything like this." When they got to the King's house, Bill went on up first to the King and said, "King, I want to enter this contest and try to win your daughter in marriage." i The King said, "All right, but you get your ears cut off if you don't find water. Our whole land is dry and we want a plentiful well dug. " So Bill took a mattock, and he dug and dug, and he never 16 could find no water. So they laid him down and cut his ears off. Next came Jack, and he said, "I've got a notion to try this. I can stay at a job longest and dig this well for you." The King said, "All right, but remember if you don't you get your ears chopped off. " So Jack dug and dug, and when he got tired he just dug right on. But he never did find a thing in the ground but pure old dirt. So they laid him down and cut off his ears. So Merrywise went up and said, "Well, King, I might as well have my ears cut off as the rest of them. I want to dig your well. " The King said all right, and he dug and dug. Purty soon he was out of sight, and he took this walnut out of his shirt pocket and took the moss out of it and laid it down. He told them to throw down a rope to him, and he come out of there with the water rising and filling up the well. The whole well was full of purty clear water coming out of that walnut. The King come running out and said, "Well, how did you do that, Merrywise?" He said, "I guess I just dug in the right place." The King kept him in the castle that night and never did name his daughter. Next morning Merrywise asked where she was. And the King said, "Now, Merrywise, you're a country boy and purty ~,,~ young to marry right now;" said, "how would you like to have them money of half my kingdom instead of my daughter?" He said, " I guess I'd just as soon have the money. " So he took the money and went on back home, and he helped his daddy and mom build a big fine house. But his brothers never had come back. He said, "I believe I'll go and see if I can find them. They had their ears cut off by the King. " They let him go, and he took his ax head in his pocket. When he got to the King's land again, he saw another sign, and it said, "Any man that can rid the forest of a giant that has been bothering the King shall have his daughter in marriage." So Merrywise decided he'd go and look into it. He went in and up to the King and said, "King, what is this contest that you have about getting rid of giants ?" The King said, "Well, this giant comes into my forests and cuts down trees and packs them off for lumber and firewood.. If I don't get shet of him all my timber will be gone, and I won't have any forest left in my country. " So Merrywise said, "I think I'll enter this contest." The King said, "Well, all right, but they's a penalty. This takes a brave man, and if he don't get shet of the giant he gets his head chopped off this time. 11 Merrywise said, "I'll risk it again, King." So he went up into the woods, and he heard a great thrashing and chopping, and he come upon an old giant cutting down trees and stacking them on his shoulder to carry out home. He said, "Hey, Mister giant!" The giant said, "Wal, what do you want?" He said, "I've heard that you are taking all the King's lum How many trees can you cut down in a day?" The giant said, "Oh, a few hundred. Why?" Merrywise said, "Why, I can cut down more trees than that The giant said, "Ho, ho, ho, you little old thing, I know that you can't. " He says, "Yes, I can." The giant says, "Well, le's have a contest, and we will find out if you can beat me. You start over there, and I'll start over i here." I Merrywise said all right, and he went over on the other side of the hill and put his ax together and started it chopping. It begin to cut down trees right and left, right and left, and when he looked over on the other side the giant was still chopping on one tree. Party soon the giant got tired and said he believed he'd go over and see how the little midget was getting along. He went over there, and there laid half of the forest, and Merrywise was standing there 01 wiping the sweat off of him. The giant said, "Wal, how did you do that?" Said, "You've won 'cause I've not got ten cut down. " Merrywise said, "Oh, it's easy. I'm just strong and know how to chop.' The giant said, "Wal, you're a good feller. Come home with me and we'll eat supper. " Merrywise agreed to go with him, and all the time the giant was thinking how such a little creature could do all that chopping. "I'll have to take him home with me and see how I can do away wito\ him." So he said, "Come on home with me. ~" The giant put a big steel band around a bunch of trees and started to load them up on his shoulder. Merrywise said, "Here, let me help you carry that little load of trees. " The giant said, "Wal, O K." He got under the front end, and Merrywise got in the branches and grunted with his end. As the old giant started out he clim up and set down on a limb and rode out of the forest until they come to this big castle. Throwed them down and Merrywise said, "Boy, that was a purty good load for me to lift. " The giant said, "Wal, it shore was. I'm tired." They put the trees away and wenton into the house. Merrywise said, "After that I sure could stand something to eat, couldn't you?" The giant said, "Yeah, I think I'll fix me about a hundred chickens and a big tub full of cottage cheese and a tub full of milk and have me a bit of supper. Merrywise said, "Well, that sounds like to me. I can eat more than that. " The giant said, "Come on then, and we'll see who can eat the most." He set the tubs on the table. Merrywise was sitting beside a winder and the giant on the other side. The giant thought he would let Merrywise about founder himself and go to sleep so he could cut his head off. But Merrywise eat what he wanted, and then he started pitching the food over his shoulder out the winder. The giant said, "Boy, you shore can eat a lot to be such a little man." Merrywise said, "Yeah, I know it, but I'm getting sleepy. " The giant put him in one room, and he took the one joining it. Merrywise said to himself, "I know what he's up to so I'll just get under the bed and wrap up my piller and put it in my bed. " He put the piller in his bed and got under it. In the night the giant come in the room with a big club with some big nails sticking out of it and just beat and beat on that piller. Merrywise was laying under the bed just a-laughing away. The giant said, "Wal, that fixed him," and went back to his room to sleep. Next morning Merrywise got up and come into the giant's room stretching and yawning and said, "You sure have a lot of flies in your house, old feller. Last night they lit on me and just about worried me to death. I couldn't hardly sleep. " a purty puny suppe6 9 The giant said, "Wal," and didn't know what else to say. It Directly he said, "Merrywise, you are too big a feller for me. I'm going to another part of the world where they hain't nobody like you." Said, "I can't stay around here 'cause this place hain't it~ ~ big enough for both of us." So the giant picked up a pack and laid it on his back and left. So Merrywise went back to the King, and he said, "King,, ter I've ridded the forest of the giant and showed you what I could do. I'm not a poor country boy any more, and I already own as much as half your kingdom. I am a rich man, and I want your daughter's hand in marriage." The King said, "I know you are and I'm proud of you, Merrywise. You shall have my daughter and the rest of my kingdom." So the King moved over and took the old giant's castle, and Merrywise married the daughter and become the new king. RECREATION MATERIALS AVAILABLE The staff of the Department of Physical Education and Recreation of the University of Tennessee has available publications useful to recreation leaders, athletic coaches, youth leaders, scout leaders, camp and church workers, teachers, etc. Pamphlets are available without charge to residents of Tennessee. A charge of 10~ per item is made to cover the cost of handling to all outside the state. Write to: The Publications Service Bureau, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Game Board Games and Puzzles (24 pages) Physical Fitness for Our Tennessee Children (16 pages) Suggestions for the Organization of a Conference, Clinic, or other Meeting (14 pages) 4. Responsibilities and Duties of Athletic Managers (14 pages) 5. Recreational Handbook for Group Leaders (32 pages) 6. Suggested Organization of an Intramural Sports Program (8 pages) 7. A Brief Analysis of Athletic Coaching Failures (8 pages) 8. Active Games and Relays for Boys and Girls (24 pages) 9. Rope jumping (1 page) 10. Fitness Through Home Exercise (1 page) 11. Southern Socializer (24 pages) 12. Manual of Adult Recreational Games and Sports for School, Home, and Community (36 pages) (Editor's Note: To those other than Tennesseans: we suggest you write your own state university for their suggestions of recreation materials. ) SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens cottons and woofs-and samples of the weaving woofs described above-all for $1.00 postpaid, which will be refunded on first order of $10 or more. %) Wd~rj'WOA GA U4 GAf~rZ~ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of PATONS and BALDWINS Weaving woofs from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious woofs that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanfer "Worsted" made in the U.S.A, All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: inc~uding "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. 17LI Naihaft, 3nr. GOLDEN RULE PRODUCTS Dept. B, 115 Franklin Street. New York 13, N.Y. 21 "SHAKESPEARE IS LOSING" Miss Dbber is a librarian at i Radford College, Radford, Virginia, This article comes from research for her thesis for the M.S.L. degree from the University of VIRGINIA DOBER North Carolina in 1957. THE MOUNTAIN REGION has been subject to great changes during the first half of the twentieth century. Writers of adult materials often have given only narrow glimpses of the total picture, and no serious study has hitherto been made to evaluate the conditions presented in children's books on the mountain area. In order to determine if children's books with backgrounds in the Southern Appalachians for the period 1330-1956 were presenting current conditions, a survey was made of one of the most representative mountain counties in each of the states of Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. Their averages were considered typical,and these criteria were then used to discover how true a picture of mountain life was being presented to the young reader. Due to the "modernization" of the area, many of the old folkways had died or were near extinction. Particularly since the TVA program, much interest has been shown by folklore societies, individuals, teachers, and professors in recording the last vestiges of of a fast-fading way of life. What was once their common tradition and culture is usually now a curiosity. Dulcimers have been replaced by steel guitars, the "Grand Ole Opery" takes precedence over singing on the front porch, and Tin Pan Alley "hillbilly" songs blaat louder than "The Brown Girl." However, even with this in mind the lore of the people: supersititions, customs, remedies, cures, beliefs, and music are being given adequate treatment, as are the flora and fauna, in children's books. Economic and material conditions, however, are representing the more backward and least typical situations. Emphasis is placed upon the unusual, and the authors often fail to be realistic in their presentation of situations. Mountain Laurel by Anne Emery is a notable exception, for it gives a true presentation with a good balance between the traditional and the new. Books for the youngest readers seemed to be the worst offenders in presenting the old stereotyped picture. This might be 22 explained by the necessity for keeping the plot simple. Here are some suggestions of ways in which children's books about the Appalachian South might be made more.realistic in the future: There is need of books with settings in Georgia, Virginia, and West Virginia. The other states, especially Kentucky and Tennessee, seem to have adequate representation. Rural non-farm and small town life needs more emphasis in the plots as forty-seven per cent of the population in the mountains live in these areas. The existence and condition of roads should be improved as sixty per cent of the farms were located on hard surface or gravel roads. Current educational conditions should be presented. The one-room school (not even considering the log school) is fast becoming extinct, and less than one per cent of the total population has never attended school, while ninety-five per cent of those seven years of age through thirteen were enrolled in school in 1950, and eighty-seven per cent of those children fourteen to sixteen were in school. Adult male characters should supplement the farm income by working off the farms, for over half of the farmers have outside employment. More mechanization and modernization is needed on the farms as well as in the homes. Log cabins area minute min- ~'; ority, and three-fourths of all homes now have electricity. Automobiles, trucks, washing machines, and stoves are all commonplace features in present day Appalachia, although conspicuously absent in children's literature. Larger families should be portrayed. Sixty-five per cent of the families pictured in the books considered were too small. This might be explained in that the authors wanted to keep the plots unencumbered by a multitude of brothers and sisters. Shakespearean mores and twentieth century America are jostling each other in the hollows. Shakespeare is losing. Good roads, electricity, mail-order catalogs have taken "the last horseback region of America" and the stronghold of the purest AngloSaxons" into tow, but not so in the books that present the Southern Appalachians to the child reader. # # # # # Mary Brewer, author of the poem,"God's Presence, " is a housewife in Wooten, Leslie County, Kentucky. A story of hers was published in the # 4/56 issue of this magazine. The artist, Elizabeth White, is a native South Carolinian who has often depicted the Appalachian 0~ region in her watercolors, prints, and drawings. She is now living near Tryon, North Carolina. She has exhibited in museums both in this country and abroad. The sketch is of Hog Back Mountain, Tryon. It 4 rm ven he God's Presence God walks upon the hills I know, For I have seen Him there; Each little leaf, each blade of grass Speaks of His tender care. I've heard His counsel in the flight Of wild birds on the wing, In wizened foxes of the night, In every growing thing. God walks the valleys too, I know, Where stately shadows lie; I've seen His footprints, heard him sing, When meadow larks were nigh. I've heard His sigh upon the wind, I've seen His face afar Reflected in the waters calm Beside the evening star. -Mary Brewer IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR HANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. J Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. ". . . next to God I i ness" RHODODENDRON grows in banks above the cool stream that splashes down moss-covered rocks. Violets bloom in sunny spots where the wild cherries let the sunshine through. In the deeper shade, ferns luxuriate in the moist earth. In the middle of this bit of Eden is a spot of color-a pile of empty oil cans. They lie serene in the filtered spring sunlight-tranquil, rusty, hideous. The tattered remnant of the cardboard box that once housed them now covers the wild plants, smothering them with its soggy pulp. 26 This is the discouraging sight at which we have cringed on too many roads in the Appalachian South. By such careless use of a few tons of tin cans, old bed springs, and assorted junk, we have managed to create an impression of squalor and filth that all the advertizing and publicity in the world cannot eradicate. Several states now spend huge amounts of money to draw tourists into our region. Those of us who live here can drive them shuddering away by continuing to dump trash along the roadways, paths, and streams, where beauty should abound. Nothing chills the enthusiasm of a tourist or the silent appreciation of the true mountaineer like a beauty spot despoiled. A half-way approach is not enough. We know a public school, for example, which pushed a cleanup campaign in its community. It was a huge success. Students collected several truck loads of trash. . . which then were dumped over the edge of the most beautiful lookout point in the area, spoiling it for a good many years to come. On the other hand, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, a small rural community on the Cumberland plateau, found that trash disposal on an individual family basis was becoming a real problem. When the matter was brought up for discussion in a community meeting, the director of a local institution pointed out that trash was needed to fill up a king-size gully on its land. The solution was immediate and final. The greatest single step we could take at the moment to improve the looks of our mountain communities would be the eradication of dumps along our roads and streams. Youth groups in many communities could be stimulated to take immediate steps to clean up our roadsides and to keep them clean. Local businessmen should be alerted to what trash dumps are doing to the tourist trade. Almost every community has a gully not too far from the road and effectively screened from view which could be used as a dumping place. A line of trees planted around i4 as a community project could actually improve the looks of the spot. There may be a few who enjoy a junk heap, we don't know. But we do know that most of us would like to keep our mountains unspoiled. # # # # # -CHAD DRAKE KEEP NORTH CAROLINA GREEN AND CLEAN North Carolina attacks the problem in this manner. 27 $ SCHOLARSHIPS e $ FOR STUDY $ $ IN HEALTH FIELDS $ by WILLMAN MASSIE TRAINED AUXILIARY personnel is a vital part of the medical care picture. Unfortunately there is an acute shortage of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, X-ray and laboratory technicians, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and dental technicians. The Council Health Committee wants to assist in overcoming this shortage. This can be done by providing financial help to deserving young people who have an interest and aptitude for training in one of the fields previously mentioned. Present funds are limited, but every effort is being made to seek other sources of revenue to finance additional scholarships. In former years, the money has been used only for nursing education. Now the scholarship program has been expanded to include education for any of the auxiliary health fields. The 1957 recipient was Miss Patricia Roy of Oneida, Tennessee, who is studying nursing at Baroness Erlanger School of Nursing in Chattanooga. In 1958, the Health Committee plans to award at least two new scholarships. Council members are encouraged to call these scholarships to the attention of young people who will profit by further education and who can make a contribution to the health of people of the Appalachian South. Applicants should nave at least average grades or better and a well-defined interest in training in a particular field. An indication of this interest is knowledge of the work involved, acquired through careful reading and interviews with those already working in health occupations. Facts about the Scholarship 1. Applications can be obtained from the office of the Council of the Southern Mountains, College Box 2000, Berea, Kentucky, and should be filled out and returned no later than July 1, 1958. Letters of reference should be sent directly to the Council office by the person who is giving the reference. 2. A sum of money, not to exceed $500. 00 , will be made available to each recipient of a scholarship. I 28 3. Actual award of any money will be based on acceptance by an accredited school. 4. If the course is not completed, the recipient is expected to refund to the Council, within six months, any money received. 5. Those who complete the course of study are expected to spend at least two years of service in a rural county of the Appalachian South immediately following graduation. Any further questions concerning the scholarships should be directed to the Council office. # # # # # LIVING FOLK GAMES. THE ROMAN SOLDIERS Use usually think of folk games as requiring partners. THE ROMAN SOLDIERS , however, is for boys only. It is an active, stimulating game that delights a group of boys who are seeking a creative outlet for energy. This version of the game is reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin, Co, Boston, from the book HULLABALOO, compiled by Richard Chase and illustrated by Joshua Tolford. The book is unfortunately out of print, but the game is very much alive, as you will see from the pictures printed with the directions. The photographs were taken by John Putnam at one of the festival sessions last summer at Boone, North Carolina. Richard Chase has chosen this as a game that "always works" with boys. Take the time to learn it yourself, and you will have little trouble teaching it to boys. # # # # # -E3~~ ~ 13E READY FOR CHRISTMAS ! START NOW! HAND-KNIT CHRISTMAS STOCKINGS: A "Night Before Christmas" gift for your favorite children, in bright red, white, and green; with trees, trains, dancing children, knit right in, as well as first name and birth year. More than a decoration, this is ample to hold Santa's offerings. Top to toe length, 26 inches. Circumfer ence, 12". State first name and birth year if wanted 3.50 PENNYWISE PRESS Dorothy Nace Tharpe Ma4nardville, Route 2, Tennessee 29 THE ROMAN SOLDIERS FORMATION Two parallel lines facing each other and about sixteen feet apart. One way to divide up into two armies is for each boy to join with another, taking both hands, and these pairs to line up. Then all let go hands and the two lines back away from each other. STEP A defiant deliberate march. Each line sweeps up toward the other, in turn, all bringing feet together on beats 78 and 15-16. 1.(Romans)Have you an- y bread and wine? For we are the Ro - mans! 2. ( English ) Yes, we have some bread and wine. For we are the Eng - lish! ( Romans ) Have you an- y bread and wine? For we are the Ro-man sol-diers ! ( English) Yes, we have some bread and wine. For we are the Eng fish sol-Biers! 3. Then we will have one cup full . . . 4. No, you shan't have one cup full . . . etc. 5. We will tell the King on you . . . 6. We don't care for the King or you... 8. We don't care for your dogs or you... 9. We will send our cats to scratch . 10. We don't care for your cats or you... 7. We will send our dogs to bite 11. Are you ready for a fight? . . . 12. Yes, we're ready for a fight . . . 13. Now we only have one eye. For we are the wounded! Now we only have one eye. For we are the wounded soldiers! 14. Now we only have one ear. For we are the wounded! . . . etc. 15. Now we only have one arm. For we are the wounded! . . . etc. 16. Now we only have one leg. For we are the wounded! . . . etc. etc. 17. So we'll have peace and fight no more. For we are u-nited ! We'll have peace and fight no more. For we're the United Nations! 30 ACTION Flip a coin, or draw straws, to determine which side is which. 1. The Romans advance 8 beats and retire 8 beats. C) Is Have you any bread and wine? For we are the Romans! Forward. . R L R L R L R ft Have you any bread and wine? For we are the Roman soldiers! Back.. . R L R L R L R ft 2. The English advance and retire. 8 beats forward and 8 beats back. 3. Through 12. Same action. Each side gets madder and madder. On verse 7 the Romans growl out "Ro-o-omans!" and on 9. they make scratching gestures. A Jir At 11, and 12. they roll up their sleeves, shake their fists, draw their swords. After 12. they rush for each other and after a brief and noisy skirmish, using swords, spears, bows and arrows, blunderbusses, etc . . . . "At 'em, men!" "Bang!" "Pow!" "Z-z-z-z-BOOM !" D-d-d-d-d-d !" . . . both sides fall on the field of battle and the two armies are mutually and totally exterminated. There are no survivors. (It is often wise to caution the participants in this game that they may chop off heads, use machine guns, or descend on the enemy with dive-bombers, but that they do not touch each other.) Both armies now rise up, and circle left toward the edges of the field until they are all in one loose ring, holding . . . 14. an ear, 15. an arm, and 16. a leg. 1\1 1- 1\ '\ ~% 33 17. Now they all join in their ring and circle left, skipping. This verse is often sung over and over. and sometimes one boy breaks the ring and leads a snake dance. This is an old English battle ritual, just like a regular American Indian war dance. Lady Gomme says that another war cry (See "Three Dukes.") used in this game was "METHERIE! I! METHORIE!" There is a verse in another version that mentions the Pope. And what with all the "bread and wine" business and "The King" and "The Pope," it may be that this game was played, and added to, when Henry VIII was King and was having some troubles with the Pope about bread and wine in the Church. Then there are "the Romans," and it's possible to make another folklore guess that this game might have been played back in the times when our ancestors had to put up with a lot of bossy fellows from a far-away place called "Roma." 34 Current Material Available ACTION PROGRAMS FOR EASTERN KENTUCKY. Eastern Kentucky Flood Rehabilitation Study, by Department of Economic Development, George W. I Hubley, Jr., Commissioner. Frankfort, Kentucky. ~,~ ,. Framework for Action: 1. Flood Damage Prevention Program 2. Prerequisites to Economic Development 3. Economic Development Programs 4. Regional Planning Program Under the above titles this thorougb study of Eastern Ken ' tucky very completely covers the situation in this state. Using the flood of 1957 as a point of beginning, the study points up the general situation in Eastern Kentucky and ends with recommendations toward the remedying of specific conditions and general comment on the whole economic front. The study could well be used as a model for a similar study of other states in our Appalachian South. Amply supported with maps and tabulations of resources, the Action Program deserves the most careful study and detailed analysis of anyone concerned with economic conditions in the area. The thread running throughout the report is that the primary need of the region is MORE JOBS and that these jobs are to be found in many different places and fields of endeavor. Individual cases are quoted to support this. The newest field mentioned is the greatly increased "tourism" that is appearing in all parts of the state. The time required to read the report in detail is a good in vestment. -Herbert H. Akers Mr. Akers is a member of the Economic Development Committee of the Council. The study is available through the Council Office. PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOUTHEASTERN KENTUCKY. A study by Roy N. Walters, Dean, Berea Foundation School, 1957. How old is the term "high" school? What have private schools contributed to our national system of education? What do critics say about non-public schools? These and other questions are discussed in a four-chapter study which was completed last . summer by Roy N. Walters, Dean of Berea College Foundation School. Giving a brief history of secondary schools, the author states that "three distinct institutions mark the development of the secondary school in America. " The early Latin Grammar School existed primarily to prepare future ministers. The Academy, which was begun in 1749 by Benjamin Franklin, departed from the 35 classical curriculum and "provided a wider range of opportunities and reached a larger number of people. " The word "high" first used in 1824, implied that students received secondary education at public expense. In the early 1800's, Kentucky goveinors urged lawmakers to consider public schools, but the belief among political leaders seemed to be that education was a private matter. Dean Waters lists thirteen non-public schools which responded to the needs then neglected by the state. Tables give the year founded, name of founder, church relationaship, and the purpose of each of these schools, as well as a comparison of their beginnings and present enrollments. That the enrollment of Pine Mountain Settlement has gone from six students to two hundred and that of Red Bird has risen from four to 526 are two indications that communities have responded to the vision of the founders. These are two of eight schools founded as private institutions that have some kind of county affiliation now. With the pressing need for 10,200 new classrooms in Ken tucky alone, Mr. Waiters concludes that the future of the "free functioning schools will depend upon the foresight and planning of those who are responsible for these organizations. . . Each non public secondary school should keep its program under constant review with willingness to shift the emphasis of its offerings in accordance with the special needs of the times. To remain static Le. is to wither away. " - Ed Harrill /( limited number of copies of this study are available free to those professionally interested. Request copies from Dean Roy N. Waiters, Foundation School, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. "NEWCOMERS FROM THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN REGION--an analytical tabulation of propositions and their implications" by Roscoe Giffin. Roscoe Giffin of Berea College has added another useful item to his written interpretations of the adjustment problems of mountain migrants to industrial cities. Last October he spoke to two groups of "helping agents"; social workers in Chicago and school people in Cincinnati. As part of his presentation he of fered a new "analytical tabulation" of ten propositions about the migrants' background situation. i From each of these he listed derivative propositions; then I their manifestations in the city and the city's interacting effects; I and finally, suggestions as to what helping agencies and persons I might do to aid sound adjustments. I Despite some sociological terms, the six-page result is I full of meat and insight. The Mayor's Friendly Relations Com mittee of Cincinnati has reprinted the tabulation. Any reader may I get a copy free. Write to: MFRC, 105 City Hall, Cincinnati,0. I I N h h. m to b (p q o rr b o q 5 c o c h h d, h O' ~ h q ^a w h a ~. 5 b m N t~ n o '.,~ ~O a O 0 ID h. HÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ "n b C ~ O 5 q q n w ~ .* q h q rr N t~ h .* r* m s h m a m n 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ o o b o ~n o 0 n ~, 5 'n a h a ~. m ~ a q o m y- H, y q ~ c b q a ~ tr q N ~ N (D a ~. 5 5 N N ^n O N to vo c h ~ U s ~R F.- ID IQ !D ~b q a i-- H. 'D h h a, m ~. n h o .* a ~ b ~. m n a rD ~o h m s a !- !p r5 q CO O q o- n c r-. ~n ~.Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ m.* o-. a m o n ~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ~, a, q n h q n O c q R U 5 ,* Co ~- a m .* a a m c a tn n q n N a. H. cD c o 0 N. m o r* c B n h to ~, 0 5 BROADWlIYGELI HOW THESE BIRDS LOOK WHEN SEEN FROM THE GROUNDr 37 Adapted from THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST ~Son't ~Jcaot a ~~~ene(I HUNTERS should think twice before shooting hawks and owls. Killing hawks and owls may upset the balance of Nature and harm us all. Some hunters kill hawks and owls because they believe this helps the farmer and protects small game birds and animals. But in most cases such hunters harm many friends to get rid of a few enemies. Hawks and owls are meat eating birds and as such will take a meal where it is most easily found. Thus, even Lth~e "good" hawks will sometimes kill chickens, game birds, ,,tend animals. Nearly all hawks and owls are protected by law unless they kill chickens or otherwise do harm. Hawks and owls also kill insects and rats and mice. The farmer is quick to miss a pullet. He does not miss rats and mice. So he calls all hawks "chicken hawks." He seldom thinks of the hawk as a "rat catcher." Here is a story to show why hawks are worth more than you think. A few years ago a man tried to set up a model quail refuge. Ideal food and cover conditions were set up. All known hawks were taken out of the area. But the quail did not do well. Then they found a great many rats. These rats were feasting on the quail eggs. The ' L,awks were allowed to come back and make war on the rats. 'boon the quail were doing well. Only a few were killed by the hawks. Studies by the U. S. Department of Agriculture of the stomachs of 5,185 hawks showed some big surprises. 38 Hawks really were not eating as many chickens as had been thought. The Cooper's hawk, the real chicken hawk, had eaten the most, but only one-tenth of the food found its stomach was poultry. Here are the percentages they found: Cooper's hawk (chicken hawk) small birds rats and mice game birds chickens other 55 17 12 10 6 Sharp-shinned hawk (small blue darter) small birds rats and mice other Marsh or mouse hawk small birds rats and mice 96. 4 2. 6 1 41 33 rabbits and squirrels 9 game birds other 7. 2 9.8 Broad wined or snake hawk insects 39 . 7 frogs and snakes 30.9 rats and mice 23 others 6. 4 Cooper's Hawk One of the "enemies Rough-legged or winter mouse hawk rats and mice 72 rabbits and squirrels8. 6 insects 6. 5 small birds 4.3 game birds 4. 3 other 4. 3 39 Red-tailed or hen hawk rats and mice 55 insects 10. 5 rabbits and squirrels 9. 3 small birds 9. 2 chickens 6.3 other 9. 7 Red-shouldered or singing hawk insects 32 rats and mice 28 frogs and snakes 25 other 15 Sparrow or grasshopper hawk insects 63.5 rats and mice 20. 3 small birds 8. 4 frogs and snakes 7. 8 Hunters may know the different hawks by their habits. The hawks noted for soaring in circles in slow flight are: the broad-winged hawk, the red-shouldered hawk, the red-tailed hawk, and the rough-legged hawk. These are large and tame and have wide wings and short broad tails. In most states they are all protected by law. The sparrow hawk is also protected. This hawk has a rapid flight with deep strikes of long pointed wings. The marsh hawk has a low sailing flight and long wings and tail and a high wing angle. Two unprotected hawks, Cooper's hawk and the sharp-shinned hawk, have a flap-and-glide flight. They are smaller with long tails and short blunt wings. A Tennessee man who studies Nature gives this advice to hunters: "The hawk that can be shot easily isn't the hawk to shoot. If light coloring can be seen, it is likely a 'good' hawk." # # # # # I YOUR CONFERENCE HOME IN THE SMOKY MOUNTAINS Mountain View 1-Iotel GATLINBLIRG. TENN. Gatl inburg's FIRST 3 and STILL Favorite MODERN RESORT HOTEL, OPEN ALL THE YEAR MOUNTAIN YOUTH Ã‚Â°e_ "''~ n'Ã‚Â° ~` f `Ã‚Â°=a ~:.Ã‚Â°;~.~aÃ‚Â°. Ã‚Â°._ b.~a~_~. n.~,. i; 42 MOUNTAIN This is the third MOUNTAIN YOUTH YOUTH section of our magazine. How do you like it? It is yours. What will you do for it? The contributors to this issue are: Billy Edd Wheeler whose Easter drama, THE EVERLASTING LIGHT, was written while he was a senior at Berea College. The drama was performed at the dedication of the Indian Fort Theater at the Easter Sunrise Service in 1955. Permission to produce this play must be secured from the author. i Dwight Davenport, who gives us the poem, "The Wanderer," a junior at Pi Beta Phi School in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. James Wayne Miller, author of the short story, "'The Lily," comes from Leicester, North Carolina. The cover picture is of Leslie Skeens, Chairman of the Council Youth Committee, as he tells stories to children at the Folk Festivals which were held every Saturday last summer at Boone, North Carolina. (See Coming Events.) TO: All young people in the Appalachian South. The pages of MOUNTAIN YOUTH are open to you right now. We will publish short stories, articles, news features, or poetry. Photographs are always welcome and needed. Folk material of all kinds is solicited. The field is wide open. It is up to you to make this part of our magazine a real expression of your way of life. Send us your material soon. Don't fail to take advantage of the Youth Membership. Your $1. 50 brings you the magazine as well as making you a member of the Council of the Southern Mountains. Send to: I COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. INC. Publishers ef MOUNTAIN LIFE G WORK COLLEGE BOX 2000 BEREA, KENTUCKY 43 THE EVERLASTING LIGHT A DRAMA FOR EASTER by BILLY EDD WHEELER a VOICE CHOIR 0 Sun, Smiling Sun, Sun of the ages, easy-toiling Sun, Rise from your eastern grave--we come. Show us your fiery face--we wait. We stand, 0 Sun, on the morning of Time, Searching your form, as men have searched Since the world began, and the yarn-ball of life Started rolling out its length. Sun of the world, first star of the heavens, We hear countless names men have called you in past, Mighty Ra, Falcon Face, Lion Form--all of these. We see how the eyes of the Earth have looked up, And we look, and we call--we wait. Sun, like a waterfall of the East, Come, sprinkle us now with currents of gold. Call forth your rainbow dancers from sleep To freshen our dark-staled eyes. Come with your inexhaustible tides And let us see clearly this Easter day. 0 Sun that shone on Jesus, Shine on us! MUSIC leading into NARRATION Long, long ago, in the time of Augustus, the Jews were troubled and feared the name of Caesar. The Jews believed, from the time Moses led them out of bondage, that their God, Jehovah, would send them a Deliverer who would come and triumph over their enemies. . The Jews suffered greatly under Augustus Caesar. And during this time, could we have visited them, we would have found the Jews reading and discussing the words of the early prophets. They read Elijah and the strange, mysterious book of Daniel. In 44 SCENE I 1st Man: Hey, look here, now! If there aren't some queer things in this little book, my name isn't Simon Janarius, the son of an honest Jew. i 2nd Man: (Playfully) Son of a Jew all right, but I don't know ho~ honest. 1st Man: Why, I'll knock you down. 2nd Man: Here, save your strength. A mighty blow from you might kill me. Then we should have mourning. (Seriously) Ali, God knows we've got enough trouble without bringing it upon ourselves. I cannot even dream unless some filthy Roman comes tramping across my mind and shouts, "Here, now) I am a Roman. You will dream Roman dreams." 1st: Yes, that's how it is. 2nd: But what does the book say? I have heard of it. Surely it is the same which all Jews are reading. 1st: It is about great Daniel's dreams. 2nd: And can you read it? 1st: I have had it read to me. See this word: B. . E. . A. . S. . T. Daniel had a dream of four great beasts rising up from the sea. One beast looked like a beautiful lion with large eagle wings. One was like a very hungry bear. Still another waV like a leopard with four heads and four mighty wings. Can you imagine? But the most terrible of all was the fourth beast who had iron teeth and nails of brass and ten horns upon its head. In these horns were eyes and mouths that could speak. And those mouths said some very terrible things. 2nd: Ah, how Daniel dreamed) 1st: In another dream Daniel saw a ram coming from the river. The ram had two horns, two high horns, powerful and long, which he swung to the west and to the north and to the south, and no beast dared oppose him. Then a he-goat appeared in the west with only one horn between his eyes. And he attacked the ram and trampled him under his feet. 2nd: Truly these are wonderful dreams. But, I must confess, I do not understand them. 1st: Oh, Daniel didn't understand, either. 2nd: Then how did he interpret them? 1st: An angel came to him. "The time is coming," the angel said "when the Son of Man, from the house of David, will come to establish the kingdom of Heaven on Earth and bring happiness and peace to the world." 2nd: Glory be 1 And it'll be watch-out-Romans when he comes. And, when will he come? 45 1st: Don't know. An angel said the Messiah would come after "A time, and times, and half a time. " But don't look so puzzled. Our prophet Elijah has spoken of this thing, too. The angel goes on to say, "There shall be a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation." You see? That's now. A time of trouble. 2nd: Glory bel Wait till I tell my blessed mother. The Messiahl She will cry with joy. Glory bel The Messiah is coming! His day is near! Blessed be the name of the Lord, God, Jehovahl NARRATION And so, in the synagogues, in the market places, and in homes all over the land, the coming of the Messiah was discussed. The learned as well as the lowly, the old as well as the young, everybody, discussed the coming of the Messiah. Some called him the Anointed One. Some called him Son of Man. Some called him Son of David. And some spoke of him in whispers as the Son of God. In those days the true ruler was Augustus Caesar. But Judea also had a king of its own. This king was a grave man. VOICE CHOIR King Herod the Great sat on his throne Of studded silver and polished stone. ion He heard of the wise men, traveled far, Led by the radiant purple star, Come to the baby, born in straw, Come to the baby, King of all. Voice of Herod: King of all? But "No!" Herod said I am King! And I shall be king forever. Those foolish wise men have not reported back. They have slipped through my net and fled the city. We shall see then. King of all, eh? I shall destroy him. If I cannot learn which baby is he, I will des troy all babies. I will kill all babies up to the age of two years. We shall see l Ha l Ha l I shall be king forever! NARRATION So Carpenter Joseph, Mary, and little Jesus fled to Egypt. And soon, when Herod died, they came back to Nazareth. Nazareth was called "The White City" because all the houses were made of white stone carried from a nearby quarry. d Here Jesus grew up, working with His father in his carpen ter shop. Often He lingered by the synagogues. He heard 'Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 46 old stories and listened to the Law. Often in the evenings He sat by whispering palms, looking out across the dark rims of the desert. He asked many questions and dreamed many dreams; and in the White City Jesus grew to be a man. MUSIC NARRATION Then came the days when John the Baptist said: "There s comes one mightier than I after me, whose shoes I am not worthy to untie." And John said to Jesus: "I have need to be baptized by you, and you come to me 1" Jesus went into the forest for forty days. And when He came out, He had thought many thoughts that were not conventional or easy to live by. He had contemplated the meaning of a true faith-a faith that would not call on God to perform mir acles. Jesus would not tempt God, nor would He condone false leadership. He would accept no compromise. He would not flatter the Jews, but called them to become worthy of the religion of Israel, a religion not for the Jews alone, but for all men, of peace and justice and brotherhood of all. From this time forward Jesus' fame started to grow. And His enemies began to plot and mumble and to look upon Him with hardened eyes. Three years later Jesus appeared i ~r'n Jerusalem. "Hosannal" they cried to Him. "Blessed is He that cometh.in the name of the Lord l" The city was feasting and joyous. Jesus' disciples, especially, were rejoicing. "For surely," they thought, "our Master will announce Him self the Messiah before the feast is over." Cries of joy rose heavenward. But Jesus held calm and went with a heavy heart . . . . Meanwhile, not far from Jerusalem, a carpen ter and his wife sat alone and silent, mourning the recent death of their only son. SCENE II - Setting,a carpenter's house. Man: Ah, Sarah, this night should be a happy one. All the people in Jerusalem rejoice. And Jesus is there, Jesus of Nazareth. Our son spoke of Him often. You know, it is really amazing how Jesus could have affected young Raham so much. Once I went with him to hear Jesus teach by the north village creE And, coming home, all he talked about was Jesus this and Jesus that. Wife: You know how easy it is to stir up the feelings of boys, un til really they think they can live on ideas, or just plain air. f 47 Man: But Raham was a young man, Sarah, and Jesus was an arresting person. I remember he spoke many parables. And when he spoke, I wanted to believe Him, though nearly all he said was a contradiction to the teachings of the priests. In Jerusalem I heard them whispering that He is the Messiah, the Son of God. Wife: But one can hear many whisperings in Jerusalem. And Is should not hear if I were there, for my ears are haunted with strange voices. Since the death of my son every noise I hear seems to say, "He is dead. He is dead. Your son is dead. " Man: Yes, I have heard the same. Look there at his plane and the hammer he used. Ah, could they move once more at the force of his hand. Could I just stand beside him there and tell him again. . . "Hold the blade just so. . . Not too much angle against the grain. . . Now, smoothly forward. " Wife: You had better hide those tools. Articles of the dead are but a mocking to our lives, that draw us into despairthat tell us. . ."You. . . You who are living. . . You, too, shall die and leave these things behind." Man: But revenge is sweet balm to an agitated breast. Wife: What? Man: If there is satisfaction in another man's toil and affliction. . Wife: What are you talking about? Man; Barabbas 1 Wife: That name 1 That treacherous cur who beguiled my son into revolt l Tomorrow he will die, and I joy in his condemnation -but his death does not restore the life he brought to darkness. I hate the name, Barabbas, I hate it. Why do you even mention it? Man: Because I have labored that his last hours might bring vengeance for my son. Wife: How have you done this thing? Man: In Jerusalem. Today. Wife: But you told me you were there on business, to see about your wood. Man: Ah, yes, it was wood that I saw about. Wood for the cross of Barabbas. Wife: You have kept this from me? Man: That and more. There was no time for talk. I sold our silver coffer to buy wine, -and I took my son's woven garment, the one you wrought, and with these things I went to the Roman soldiers. The gifts pleased them, and they were merry. They allowed me to make the crosses of the two thieves and Barabbas. Wife: You sold the robe I made my only son? Man: Only that our son might have more perfect vengeance. By using his own possessions I was able to heap added suffering upon the man who caused his death. Wife: How did you do that? Man: I fashioned the thieves' crosses according to ordinary pattern. But the cross of Barrabas I made extra heavy-I used wet cedar and wrought it all so thick. It shall be no common toil for him to carry it to Golgotha. Wife: That seems a mild revenge, and yet it brings some pleasure. It is no easy walk from the court to Golgotha. No, the path is winding and steep in places. And the rocks are sharp, like the blade of your plane there. Oh, I want Barabbas to suffer! You have done a wonderful thing. Man: Yes. Come to the window. Do you see the fires of Jerusalem? There is feasting there at the source of that glimmer. My son would not sleep tonight, were he alive. And there Barabbas lies, breathing his last beside his heavy cross. Look, how the light swells and recedes, like the illuminated pulse of some dying animal, now bright, now dimmer, now strong, and now weaker. The night is heavy. Come, prepare our beds. I have had a strenuous day. NARRATION MUSIC And the night passed away. The new day came. And that afternoon the sun was very hot as the carpenter sat by his door talking to his wife. Man: Truly it has been a quiet day. Even the dogs seem to have taken a leave from habitual prowling and barking. Wife: Yes, I had noticed. They must have followed the people to Jerusalem. Man: That's it, I suppose. So many men have gone to see the three executed. Wife: And I have noticed your eyes, too, my husband. Why don't you go there, if you want to see it? Man: No, I hadn't thought of it. Wife: Go on, I know you wish to go. Go on! You can tell me all about it when you return. I shall have a good meal prepared. Man: I will go, then, Sarah. Bring my sandals. (Exit wife.) I be lieve I will go by the hill path. There are no travelers on `~ the dusty road today. But, say, I think I do see a man walking along. Yes, it is someone. (Calls to her) A man is coming this way. (She comes back with sandals.) Do you see? Wife: Yes, he seems very tired. 49 Man: Do I know him? I seem to recognize something about him. Wife: Would it be Simon? ig Man: He never comes on Fridays. His market keeps him busy. Yet it does look like his walk. Wife: I do believe it is Simon. But look, he is not stopping here. Man: He doesn't even look this way-as though he walked in a daze. (Calls out) Simon! Oh, Simonl ' Wife: He doesn't hear. Man: (Calling) Simonl Simon of Cyrene 1 There he heard me. e. He's coming. s Wife: I'll bring water to quench his thirst. (Simon comes on stage) Man: Simon, come here. Sit down. How goes the market? Simon: I don't know. I left it unattended. 'm? Man: Why, Simon, you never did that before. And you look quite beside yourself. (Wife comes) Here drink this water. - Simon: Thank you, the road is dry and hot. k, Man: What brings you here this time of day? Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ Simon: I felt the need to leave the city for awhile. Today I had a 91 strange experience. Nobody knows how strange. Man: Then tell us what it was. Simon: My strongest words, I am afraid, will not convey it to you as it happened. Man: But come, Simon, what was it? Simon: Today as I went to Jerusalem, I was called to by Roman soldiers who were coming away. They pointed to one of their prisoners who stumbled along beneath a cross, and I under stood that they wanted me to help him. He was in agony and wore a ring of thorns about his head. Man: Was it one of the thieves ? Simon: They called Him by many names, but He was none of them. 'e He was a good man. His eyes were the most profound. Once I had looked into His eyes, I could not forget, nor could I explain the feelings that churned within my heart. Man: What had He done to be executed? Simon: They say He spoke against Rome. But the charge was superficial. . . a legal trick. I helped Him lift up His cross. And d. even when I had all its weight, He could not straighten His back `, it was so heavy. But He lifted it. My soul, I don't see how He carried it, but He did-all the way to Golgotha. - Man: But what of Barabbas, Simon, and his cross? Simon: You mean you have not heard? Man: Heard what? Simon: That Barabbas was set free. 50 S Man: What! Barabbas free? How? Wife: No l My son's murderer? Simon: This man of whom I spoke was tried, and the mob cried, "Crucify Himl" And when Pontius Pilate asked them, "Who shall I pardon?" They cried, "Barabbas !" Barabbas was s, free, and Jesus was made to carry his cross. Man: Jesus? Jesus of Nazareth? Simon: Yes. Man: Jesus carried the cross of Barrabas? Simon: Yes. (The carpenter turns away stunned) Man: No. My son would be ashamed. He was a strong believer in I Jesus of Nazareth. And now. . . 1 Wife: (Comforting him) But you did not know. Man: Simon, do you know what I have done? I made the cross Jesus carried. Simon: You? But. Man: I made it for Barabbas to avenge my son, and now. . . Did Jesus suffer greatly? Simon: Yes, yes he did. And as He walked along the mob jeered and spat at Him. But His eyes never changed. I heard Him say, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do." And when they hung Him on the cross, they mocked Him. T put an inscription above His head which read, "Jesus, King of the Jews." And they yelled at Him, "If you are the King, save yourself! Come down from the Cross." But He looked on them with pity. I watched until I could stand no more. Man: Oh, Simon, is it all true that I have heard of Jesus-that He walked on the waves, that he turned water to wine, and healed the blind and raised the dead? Simon: I do not know, but I have heard these things. Man: Simon, do you think He was the Christ? King of the Jews? Simon: I think He was a King. Man: My mind is so confused. As I made the cross for Barabbas, I felt more than just revenge. I felt as if God were also pun ishing Barabbas through me. I have read it often in the writings of the prophets. God punishes men through men. I was punishing for God l Yes. But the cross I made. went to Jesus. Would God punish His own Son'? Simonl Would God punish His own?. Simon: I don't know what God would do. Man: And with my own cross. Would He let Him die on my cross? (Looks at Simon pleadingly) Would He? Simon: I cannot say. Man: (Becoming excited) Why? Why did He have to die? 51 Simon: I don't know. But I will say this. As I came from the cross today, a man who stood near the crowd's edge stopped me. Tears were in his eyes and he spoke of Jesus as the Master. "Is the Master still breathing?" he asked. "Yes, " I said, "but it will not be long. In a short time death and hate shall have won another victory." But he said, "No. Perhaps this time love is the victor. At our last supper together, the Master said to us, 'A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another, as I have loved you.' And you see, Jesus' love of mankind led Him even to the cross. " Man: Jesus died for love? Simon: That is what I believe. For love and only for love. Man: If I am to believe Jesus, I have to love my neighbor as myself? is Simon: Did Jesus not say to his enemies, "Father forgive them" ? Man: His enemies? Simon: Yes. Man: And I have to love my enemies? (He looks at Simon who does not answer but shrugs his shoulders as if to say " It would seem so," or " that's up to you. ") Even. . . Barabbas? Simon: I think that's what He means. Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ Man: But that's so hard. Love Barabbas ? He killed my boy. Simon, I'm so confused. *(Two voices off in the forest) Voice: Jesus is dead! ' Echo: Jesus is dead. Man: Simon, do you hear? Do you hear? On my cross. No. He is not dead on my cross. (Yells back at voices) No. He is not dead, do you hear? He is not dead) Voice: Jesus is deadl Echo: Jesus is dead l Man: Stop them, Simon. Must they keep saying it? Simon: No, I can't stop them. Nobody can. Perhaps they will say it forever. ' Voices: (softer and farther away) Jesus is deadl (Echo) Jesus is dead! MUSIC to suggest the tragedy of the hour--the trembling earth, the light ning and thunder, the dark skies over Jesus. Music subsides. VOICE CHOIR Oh, Golgotha, place of the skull, Mound of rock, forever frowning stone; What blood is this that gives your grain ? Of servile wood its crimson stain? What shameless elements stand up proud Beneath these skies, so like a shroud Above limp-hanging Jesus? Oh, bold earth I' 52 That danced and trembled at Christ's birth, A What dark immortal liquid falls Into your deep and secret, tiny halls? MUSIC VOICE CHOIR i Oh, Golgotha, did you rumble? Did your shoulders shake and crumble? Did you feel when Jesus died, By ~' loving "men thus crucified? Did you choke with living breath When that strong head fell limp in death? Oh, damned location, fatal spot, Unclaimed and foul and beaten bloody, Terrible in death, forsaken, ugly, Did you sound as some shrill horn When men took life from Christ, earth-born? Golgotha, long shall your name i, Be "place of the skull, "monument to shame. MUSIC NARRATION On the first day of the week, very early in the morning, Jesus arose and walked from the tomb. The women and disciples were amazed. And after Jesus had shown them His hands and feet, He ate bread and fish with them. He spoke with them, and said, "Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. " And as He talked with them and blessed them, the heavens parted, and Jesus ascended and sat at the right hand of God. VOICE CHOIR No spirit rose from the powdery tomb, No iron man of unconquerable power, No freak of death of inhuman dimensions, But faith, the greater self of Hope, The small eternal growth of light That burns down deep in my being. Fai th. Faith that 1 cannot all explain; Faith that out of the night comes the sun, That out of mud come the leaves of white, That out of despair comes a powerful hope, That out of death came Jesus, the Christ. Yes, Jesus is risen. He lives! He lives! In the always-today He is risen indeed! 53 AUDIENCE joins with VOICE CHOIR in closing Oh, Christ, Eternal Christ, Ancient Light, Everlasting Love, In this Easter may we see Across thick time to JerusalemSee smooth temples, death, and life. And may we look in the age-old fire To the new Jerusalem--dream, still of dreams-Where the wolf lies down by the timid lamb, Where the bear, the heifer, the leopard, and ram All sleep by the raw-eyed raven. Rise, 0 Christ, over men downward falling; Rise over men who would see a great light While pondering an ever-present Golgotha. Rise in the morning, bright King of Day--Yet linger at night As a sweet light in darkness. Rise, Christ, as the Sun of each day, And show us your Love in a single place-In the courteous show of a trembling earth, Or deep in our brother's eyes. AMEN. T~ 7~1 CHURCH FURNITURE By buying from Clear Creek Furniture Factory, you will be saving . . . and serving a worthy cause. F ~~s 'a $49.75 fob - Only the finest and clearest red oak is _ _= used throughout. Pieces are carefully matched as to grain and coloring of Owned and, Operated by the wood. CLEAR CREEK BAPTIST SCHOOL PINEVILLE, KENTUCKY 54 THE LILY JAMES WAYNE MILLER THE WOMEN in white walked up the hill in the iron ing sun. Their backs were straight. They held thei: heads high and walked gracefully, for they were accustomed to carrying jars of water on their heads. The taller was young; her skin was smooth and olive. She carried a bundle and several small earthern bottles in a wicker rack. "Our lady felt much better this morning," she said to the older woman. "I noticed it, also," said her companion. "She talked a lot, and she is not one to talk." Under the white cloth draped loosely over her head, her hair appeared stiff and brittle. It did not glisten in the sunlight, as did the hair of the younger woman. She carried a large brown jar by the handle. "She even smiled this morning. I am sure you know of the lily at the corner of the house which she has watered and tended so long. " "Yes, I have seen it. " "This morning, before we left," said the young woman, " came in the front door smiling. She led me out again and showed me the lily. It had bloomed." "I remember hearing the two of youtalking about it now. I was in the back filling the jar." "Permit me to carry your jar a distance," said the young woman. "You can carry the linen and the bottles of salve." "It is not for you to carry this heavy jar," the other replied. "The handle will make callouses on your hands." "I want to share the load with you. " "No, I must refuse to allow you to do it. Ah, if you could see your eyes. They are red and swollen with weeping. One would think you had been chopping leeks. You have great beauty, my child, and you must try to keep it as long as you can." "I consider my beauty as less than the dust beneath my sandals. " "You are young and know little of the world, and you have beauty. When you are as old as I am and your beauty is gone, y(.. will think differently, I believe. You will know more of the world and the greater your sorrows, the less you will weep. 11 It 55 " I will have no greater sorrow than I have already had," said the young woman. "There will be other sorrows, and you cannot say now which will be the greatest. " "I loved him," she said softly. The other shifted the earthern jar to her left hand. "I know you loved him. But he did not understand your love. " r "He understood so many things, and yet he could not under stand that I loved him. " "As long as I have lived," said the older woman, "I have not seen one such as he. " The young woman sighed. "I never weep anymore," said the older woman. "I have not wept for years. Sometimes-it is in times of weakness, I think Iwant toweep. But I never do. When you are as old as I am, I do not think you will weep, either." "My lady wept, and she is as old as you. I think her sorrow is greater than mine." "She is a good woman and it is true, as you say, that she weeps. In her heart she is still a maiden. AM It is too much for such a tender woman to bear." "I pitied her greatly when we brought her home, afterward. The storm was still raging, you remember, when we got home." "Yes, I remember," answered the older woman. "We thought we felt the earth tremble, and later reports came down from the hills that rocks had been cleft in two. " "The sky was dark and the rain beat down in sheets. We had been inside only a short moment when, in the midst of her weeping, 3, she asked about the lily. 'The storm will destroy it,' she said. I went to the door. It was almost too dark to see, but I could make it out at the corner of the house in the circle of rich earth she had placed around it. It stood stiffly against the wind. It was not d harmed. " "And this morning it had bloomed?" "Yes. . . I find the air very fresh and sweet this morning," said the young woman. "It is always so after a storm." "If you will not allow me to carry the jar, we can at least top a moment. I want to look down on the city. " "We have not time to loiter here this morning. We may be seen as it is," the older woman said, turning to her companion. A thousand wrinkles in her face ran in all directions, unpatterned, like the tracks of lizards in the dust along the path. 56 "We are almost. . . there," the young woman whispered. "You must not weep. " They were now walking among gray boulders taller than themselves. The young woman stopped. "The air is so wonder-4 fully fresh and sweet here on the hill. If only. . . " "It seems so to me, also," said the older woman. She set the jar down a moment. Then they continued a few steps and stopped in front of the spot in the side of the hill. "Behold!" whispered the young woman, "The stone is rolled away. " She rushed inside the tomb. "Oh, it is empty. He is gone l This is something wondrous!" The older woman set down the jar again and kneeled beside it. "It is good to weep," she said # # # # # SPRING -John A. Spelman III Reprinted from Mountain Life & Work SPRING 1940 't The Wanderer e I walk this winding, upward path j That few human feet have trod, lied Wonderous beauty all around, Created by the hand of God. .e I And as, alone, I walk along I think of things I've left behind And how the Lord looks down on me By giving me this peace of mind. Across the way the sun now shines, Across the glen a bird now sings; Through the tall green hickory trees A frisky little squirrel swings. The day grows older with each passing hour, The sun climbs higher, so do I; To the top of the towering peak I climb, To the top of the tower, into the sky. From this point I look about And wonder more upon the sight; Far out across the tree-clad hills A great bald eagle makes his flight; To the west and north is a man-scarred land With cities, factories, smoke, and noise; To the south and east lies God's great land, Wild with freedon, love, and joys. I may wander far and near But when my heart to beat doth cease, 'Tis here I want my body laid To rest in quiet, solemn peace. - DWIGHT DAVENPORT 58 c INDEX Mountain Life & Work VOLUME XXXIII 19 5 7 I A.E.A.: Organization or Idea? Robert Blakely. XXXIII:4 'S7 pp 41-43 AFSC Work Camp, Mary Jane Simpson. il XXXIII:3' S7 pp 26-30 Alice Slone: Mountain School Builder, Virginia Matthias. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 5-10 Anonymous, Today's Religious Leadership in One County. XXXIII:2 '57 pp 11-14 Associate Editor Begins Work. il XXXIII: 1' 57 pp 40, 41 Ayer, P. F. , A Conference Report. XXXIII:2 ' 57 p 32 The Council, also, is an idea. XXXIII:4 ' S? p 40 What About the Vast Minority? il XXXIII:3 '57 pp44-46 Beauty from the Forest, Chad Drake. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 51-55 Bibles and Bookmobiles, G. Bruce Cameron. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 22-24 BIOGRAPHICAL GLIMPSES Dorothy Green. Associate Editor Begins Work. il XXXIII:1'57 pp 40,41 Lula Hale. Homeplace Founder Honored, il XXXIII:1 '57 p 20 Frank Smith Retires, Elizabeth Watts. il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp 11-15 Laura Smith, Jane Kushner. il XXXIII: 2 '57 p 31 Dr. Upperman Has Retired, John Mott. il XXXIII:3 '57 p 15 Blakely, Robert, The A.E.A.:Organization or Idea? XXXIII:4'57 pp 41-43 BOOKMOBILES " Caned Vitamins" on Red Bird, Esther Elmer. il XXXIII:4' 57 pp 26, 27 Bibles and Bookmobiles, G. Bruce Cameron. il XXXIII: 1' 57 pp 22-24 BOOK REVIEWS Cobb, Alice Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ THE SWIMMING POOL. Reviewed by John F. Putnam. XXXIII: 3'57 p 17 Goodhope, Nanna, CHRISTEN KOLD. Reviewed by Fred Brownlee. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 p 46 Martin, Ira J. 3rd, THE FAITH OF JESUS. Reviewed by Robert A. Cornett. XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 29, 30 Massie, Willman A., MEDICAL SERVICES FOR RURAL AREAS. Reviewed by-'* Robert Metcalfe. XXXIII:4 ' 57 pp 47,48 Putnam, John F., THE PLUCKED DULCIMER. Reviewed by Edna Ritchie. XXXIII: 3 ' 57 p 17 Branam, Harold, The Pennywinkle. Story. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 57-62 i i 59 Cameron, G. Bruce, Bibles and Bookmobiles. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 22-24 " Canned Vitamins" on Red Bird, Esther Elmer. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 26, 27 Caudill, Ivallean, The Maul and the Billy Goat. Story. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 34,35 Community Development Brings Industry, Don Fessler. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 29, 30 OMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Community Development Brings Industry, Don Fessler. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 29, 30 s Design for Rural Progress, A, E. J. Nesius. XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp 56-58 Local Conferences Point Way Toward Community Progress, Myles Horton. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 38, 39 Mountain Know-how and Do-How, Chad Drake. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 30-34 Virginia Uses Contests to Arouse Individual Action in Community Improvement Clubs, Donald R. Fessler. il XXXIII: 2' 57 pp21-24 Conference Report, A, P. F.Ayer. XXXIII: 2 ' 57 p 32 CONFERENCE, ANNUAL A Conference Report, P. F.Ayer. XXXIII:2'57 p 32 Council Reaffirms Its Stand on Integration. A Resolution. XXXIII: 3'57 p 9 "Little Benny," Dale Medearis. il XXXIII:2 '57 pp 33-43 Constructive Help Inspires Community Effort in Schools, Ralph White. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 7-10 Council,also, is an idea, The, P.F.Ayer. XXXIII:4'57 p 40 Council Reaffirms Its Stand on Integration. A Resolution. XXXIII:3'57 p P ^7rawford, Joan, 4-H Training plus Council Conference equals National _ Honors. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 51,52 Design for Rural Progress,A. An interview with E. J. Nesius. XXXIII:3 ' 57 pp 56-58 '1 Drake, Chad, Beauty from the Forest. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 51-55 Faith and Work Build a Chapel. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 11, 12 Mountain Know-how and Do-how. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 30-34 Whimmydiddle Sets Nation. Awhirl. il XXXIII: 2 ' 57 pp 16-19 EDITORIALS And Johnny's Father. XXXIII:4 '57 p 36 27 Floods Must Be Controlled. il XXXIII:1 '57 pp 35,36 From This Side of the Mountain. XXXIII:4 ' 57 pp 44,45 Educating for a Bet ter Fu ture in the Mountains, R. R. Vance. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 13-20 EDUCATION Alice Slone: Mountain School Builder, Virginia Matthias. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 5-10 Educating for a Better Future in the Mountains, R.R.Vance. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 13-20 WElmer, Esther, "Canned Vi tanins" on Red Bird. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 26, 27 Faith and Work Build a Chapel, Chad Drake. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 11, 12 Fessler, Donald R., Community Development Brings Industry, XXXIII:4'57 pp 29, 30 Fessler, Donald R., Virginia Uses Contests to Arouse Individual Action in Community Improvement Clubs. il XXXIII:2 ' 57 pp 21-24 Folk Dancing:the Old and the New, Sarah Gertrude Knott. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 11-14. Reprint from RECREATION Folk Dancing Today. il XXXIII:4 '57 p 14 FOLK SONGS Mary Hamilton. Words and music. il XXXIII:3 '57 p 18 May Day Carol. Words and music. XXXIII:1 '57 p 4 The Seven Joys of Mary. Words and music. il XXXIII:4 '57 p 23 FOLK TALES Hanted House, The. Collected by Elizabeth Dye, retold by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 47-49 Jack and the Bean Stalk. Collected by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII:1 '57 pp 31-34 Rushiecoat and the King's Son. Collected by Gerald Syme, retold by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII:4 '57 pp 17-22 Sow and Her Three Pigs, The. Collected by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII: 2 ' 57 pp 25-28 Frank Smith Retires, Elizabeth Watts. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 11-15 Goodale, Dora Reed, Mast in the Woods. Poem. XXXIII:4 '57 p 35 Honted House, The. Folk Tale. Collected by Elizabeth Dye, retold by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 47-49 Heingartner, Gretchen, Homespun Valley. il XXXIII:2 '57 pp 5-10 from THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST Hepner, Bryan A., Nuts-.for Cash and Conservation, il XXXIII:3 '57 PP19-22 Homeplace Founder Honored. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 p 20 Homespun Valley, Gretchen Heingartner. il XXXIII: 2 ' 57 pp 5-10 from THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST Horton, Myles, Local Conferences Point Way Toward Community Progress. XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 38, 39 How Soil is Made. il XXXIII:4 '57 pp 37,38. Reprint from TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST " I Ain't Been No Place Yet! " Jim Wolf. il XXXIII:3 ' 57 pp 59-62 Jack and the Bean Stalk. Folk Tale. Collected by Leonard Robert s. il XXXIII: 1 ' S7 pp 31-34 James McClure Leaves Rich Conservation Legacy, D. Hiden Ramsey. il XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 25-28 Knott, Sarah Gertrude, Folk Dancing: the Old and the New. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 11-14 Reprint from RECREATION Kushner, Jane, Laura Smith. il XXXIII:2 '57 p 31 Last Chance, Leslie Skeens. Story. XXXIII:4 157 pp 53,54 " Little Benny, " Dale Medearis. Conference Report. il XXXIII:2 '57 pp33-43 Local Conferences Point Way Toward Community Progress, Myles Horton. XXXIII: 1 ' 57 pp 38, 39 61 on Mary Hamilton. Folk Song. Words and music. il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 p 18 Mast in the Woods, Dora Reed Goodale. Poem. XXXIII:4 '57 p 35 Matthias, Virginia, Alice Slone: Mountain School Builder. il XXXIII:4 ' 57 pp 5-10 Maul and the Billy Goat, The, Ivallean Caudill. Story. il XXXIII:3'S7 pp 34, 35 May Day Carol. Folk Song. Words and music. XXXIII: 1 ' 57 p 4 Medearis, Dale, "Little Benny." Conference report. il XXXIII:2'S7spp33-43 Mott, John, Dr. Upperman Has Retired. il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 p 15 Mountain Area Floods: A Growing Threat, Norris B. Wbodie. il XXXIII:3 ' 57 PP 5-8 Mountain Know-how and Do-how, Chad Drake. il XXXIII:4 '57 pp 30-34 ~:1 MOUNTAIN READER How Soil is Made. il XXXIII:4 '5? pp 37,38. Reprint from by TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST MOUNTAIN YOUTH Area Girl Wins State Title. Janie Brock, "Miss Kentucky." il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 p 42 AFSC Work Camp, Mary Jane Simpson. il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp 26-30 4-H Training plus Council Conference equals National Honors, Joan Crawford. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 51, 52 Last Chance, Leslie Skeens. Story. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 53, 54 Maul and the Billy Goat, The, Ivallean Caudill. Story. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 34,35 Pennywinkle,The, Harold Branam. Story. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 57-62 %W ~w Our Wildlife Resource--Its Value and Wise Use, David G. Thomas. 19-22 Contest essay. XXXIII: 3 ' S7 PP 37-41 Tarheel Scrapbook Makers. il XXXIII:3 '57 p41 Teen-Age Craftsmen at the Fair. Picture story. XXXIII:3'57 pp 31-33 "The More We Know, The More We Understand, " Laurie Smith. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 55, 56 Two-College Work Camp at Big Laurel, Paul Smith. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 25, 26 Nesius, E.J., A Design for Rural Progress. An interview. XXXIII:3 '57 pp 56-58 Nuts--for Cash and Conservation, Bryan A. Hepner. il XXXIII:3'57 pp 19-22 Our Wildlife Resource--Its Value and Wise Use, David G. Thomas. Contest essay. XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp 37-41 Pennywinkle,The, Harold Branam. Story. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 57-62 POETRY Mast in the Woods, Dora Reed Goodale. XXXIII:4 '57 p 35 Ramsey, D. Hiden, James McClure Leaves Rich Conservation Legacy. il XXXIII:1 '57 pp 25-28 From FARMERS FEDERATION NEWS 3-43 RECREATION Folk Dancing: the Old and the New, Sarah Gertrude Knott. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 11-14 Reprint from RECREATION Folk Dancing Today. il XXXIII:4 '57 p 14 62 i " I Ain't Been No Place Yet! " Jim Wolf. il XXXIII:3 ' 57 pp 59-62 RELIGION Faith and Work Build a Chapel, Chad Drake. il XXXIII: 1' 57 pp 11, 12 Today's Religious Leadership in One County, Anonymous. XXXIII:2 ' 57 pp 11-14 RE( Roberts, Leonard, The Hanted House. Folk Tale. XXXIII:3 '57 pp 47-49 ' Jack and the Bean Stalk. Folk Tale. XXXIII:1'57 pp25-28 Rushiecoat and the King's Son. Folk Tale. XXXIII:4 ' 57 pp 17-22 The Sow and Her Three Pigs. Folk Tale. XXXIII: 2 ' 57 pp 25- 28 P E Rushiecoat and the King's Son. Folk Tale. Collected by Gerald Syme, re told by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII:4 '57 pp 17-22 jl Seven Joys of Mary, The. Folk Song. Words and music. il XXXIII:4 '57 p 23 NA Simpson, Mary Jane, AFSC Work Camp. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 26-30 Skeens, Leslie, Last Chance. Story. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 53,54 Smith, Laurie, " The More We Know, The More We Understand. " XXXIII:4 ' 57 pp 55, 56 Smith, Paul, Two-College Work Camp at Big Laurel. il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp25, 26 AP Sow and Her Three Pigs, The. Collected by Leonard Roberts. il XXXIII:2 ' S7 pp 25-28 Mt STORIES Last Chance, Leslie Skeens. XXXIII:4 '57 pp 53,54 Pennywinkle, The, Harold Branam. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 57-62 Teen-Age Craftsmen at the Fair. Picture Story. XXXIII:3 '57 pp 31-33 T( TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST ,/ Homespun Valley, Gretchen Heingartner. il XXXIII:2 '57 pp 5-10 How Soil is Made. il XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 37, 38 'The More We Know, The More We Understand, "Laurie Smith. XXXIII: 4 ' 57 pp 55, 56 Thomas, David G., Our Wildlife Resource--Its Value and Wise Use. Contest C essay. XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp 37-41 Today's Religious Leadership in One County. Anonymous. XXXIII:2'57 ppll-14 Two-College Work Camp at Big Laurel, Paul Smith. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 25,26 W1 Vance, R. R., Educating for a Better Future in the Mountains. il XXXIII:1 '57 pp 13-20 Virginia Uses Contests to Arouse Individual Action in Community Improve ment Clubs, Donald R. Fessler. il XXXIII: 2 ' 57 pp 21-24 F Watts, Elizabeth, Frank Smith Retires. il XXXIII:3 ' 57 pp 11-15 What About the Vast Minority? P.F.Ayer. il XXXIII:3 '57 pp 44-46 . Whimmydiddle Sets Nation Awhirl, Chad Drake. il XXXIII: 2 ' 57 pp 16-19 White, Ralph, Constructive Help Inspires Community Effort in Schools. il V XXXI I I : 1 ' 57 pp 7-10 Wolf, Jim, " I Ain't Been No Place Yet!" il XXXIII: 3 ' 57 pp 59-62 r Woodie, Norris B., Mountain Area Floods: A Growing Threat. il XXXIII:3 ''01 ' 57 pp 5-8 YG~ Our Cover RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OFTEN CONTRIBUTES TO THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS. OUR COVER PICTURE OF A RAILROAD MAN FISHING BELOW THE MODERN RESERVOIR DAM NEAR C0RB IN, KENTUCKY. SHOWS HOW SAVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES AND HAVING FUN GO HAND IN HAND, 63 COMING EVENTS REGIONAL COUNCIL MEETINGS are set for Eastern Kentucky, Berea, March 15, Registration at 10:00 CDT Western North Carolina Boone April 12. Luncheon meeting at the Methodist Church. 12:00 EST Virginia, Abingdon, during the Virginia Highlands Festival y August 1-15, exact date to be announced. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS, Penland, North Carolina, Spring Session begins March 17, for particulars, write Miss Lucy Morgan. NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION'S Southern District Conference meets at Cumberland Falls State Park, April 14, 15, 16. Kentucky is to be host to Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. 6 APPALACHIAN FUND AFFILIATES meet in Berea April 17 and 18. MOUNTAIN FOLK FESTIVAL, 23rd Annual, will be held at Berea College April 17-19. Write Miss Elizabeth Watts, 42 Jackson Street, Berea, Kentucky. TOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL, Brasstown, North Carolina, holds special courses in: HANDICRAFTS April 1426, June 2-14, and July 28 to August 16; RECREATION June 23 to July 4; LITTLE FOLK SCHOOL, for local children, June 9-21. Write, Georg Bidstrup, Director. CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild is set for July 14-18 in the Civic Auditorium, Asheville, North Carolina. .4 WORKSHOP IN LIVING FOLK TRADITIONS, 3rd Annual, will be offered by Appalachian State Teachers College, Boone, North Carolina, July 21 to August 22. Credit given. Write, Director, Summer Session. FOLK FESTIVALS will be held every Saturday afternoon during July and August at the Festival Platform in Boone, North Carolina. VIRGINIA HIGHLANDS FESTIVAL, 10th Annual, Abingdon, Virginia, August 1-14. AMERICAN SQUARES SCHOOL,Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, Tenn., June 29 to July 5. Write Charley Thomas, 500 East Red Bank Ave., Woodbury, New Jersey. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below and send with :-'1.00 to the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHEM mCXINTAINS, INC. , works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian South with the a, rest of the nation. It also seeks to help meet some of the social, educational, spiritual,and cultural needs peculiar to this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and by means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. --Participation is invited on these bases Student membership $ 1.50 Active individual membership $ 3.00 to 4.00 Supporting membership 5.00 to 24.o0 Sustaining membership 25.00 or more Institutional membership 5.00 or more --Subscriptions to 1JOUNTAIN LIFE & WORK included in all memberships-I NAMEÃ¢â‚¬Å¾ _ ADDRESS (Please detach and mail to Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky.) ~le~b ershi p ------------------------------------------------------------------- 2W is Sue ~'ra . corm For Members: is A Sbs CP T9S~~~ / Ã‚Â°`~' According to our records, pal // your membership and/or / Q subscription appears to ~nÃ‚Â°r Ã‚Â° Y. have expired as indicated. jse . ~, 'td . ~,`~u~ n We are continuing to send is fa ^o ~ ~Ã‚Â°~ you current issues in the belief that you do not wish us to drop you from I f this ~.~~o ~. ~, ,H-1 our membership. May we NOT corner turned r. ,.j N ~' hear from you? UP, YOU are .- r_ up to date. C'm ,u'y.~