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Mountain Life & Work vol. 34 no. 2 1958 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv34n20458 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 34 no. 2 1958 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1958 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. MAGAZINE OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS LIFE & WORK MOUNTAIN VOL. XXXIV N0. 2 LIFE AND WORK ----------_ 195$---------- PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE OF THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS. SEALE BUILDING, MAIN STREET. BEREA. KENTUCKY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER AT BEREA. KENTUCKY. MANAGING EDITOR: Charles Drake, College Station, Berea, KY. Associate Editor: Katharine T. Ayer PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: Miss Florene Brooks, Chairman Mr. Richard Chase Mrs. Helen Bullard Krechniak Mrs. Septima Clark Mr. Earl Palmer Dr. Robert Cornett Mrs. Jac Lyndon Tharpe Miss Maureen Faulkner Mr. Willard Trepus Miss Mildred Hines Mr. Jess Wilson Mrs. Pauline Hord STAFF ARTIST: Mrs. Burton Rogers Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. Perley F. Ayer, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the membership fee of the Council. All members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station Berea, Kentucky ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS Cover and p 12, Earl Palmer; pp 5,37,38, 40, 41,42,43,44,51,Chad Drake; p 15, Hindman Settlement School: P 18, Holsinger Studio, Charlottesville, Va.; p 18, Berea CITIZEN; p 22, John C.Ccumpbell Folk School; p 29, Al vin Boggs; p 53, Douglas Wasson; p 57, Washington College Academy. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ IN THIS ISSUE ..... FOLK ARTS THRIVE IN W. VA. SCHOOLS SUMMER DRAMA IN THE APPALACHIANS THE WITCH DOCTOR a folk tale FOLK MUSIC AT HINDMAN GLADYS HARGRAVE THE MOUNTAINS LOSE TWO FRIENDS JESS OGDEN WILLIAM J. HUTCHINS WRITING WORKSHOP PLANNED AT N. C. REGIONAL MEETING FOLK SCHOOL ADDS A COURSE MOUNTAIN READER--STUMPAGE OR LOGS OLD FOX a story FULL-BLOWN HEARTS a poem SDUTHERN APPALACHIAN STUDIES "ALONG CAME JONES" ...PART OF THE NATION" the 46th Conference Report WASHINGTON, D. C., OFFERS MANY RESOURCES FOR STUDY OF THE FOLK ARTS Helen Bullard Krechniak ASSESSMENT OF RACE RELATIONS -1957 L. H. Foster BOOKS WORTH KNOWING THE FRONTIER MIND MOUNTAIN DOORYARDS Harry Ernst Leonard Roberts Raymond K. McLain from Sigma Phi Gamma magazine P. F. Ayer May B. Smith 18 19 21 22 from FOREST FARMER 23 Al vin Boggs 27 Grace Noll Crowell 30 W. D. Weatherford 31 P. F. Ayer 33 David Dustin NIPPY AND THE YANKEE DOODLE MOUNTAIN YOUTH SOUTHERN UNION ORGANIZES FIRST THE MOUNTAIN SUZANNE AND THE YOUNG 'UNS SINGERS ENTERTAIN CONFERENCE OVER MOUNTAIN TRAILS PRISCILLA BALDWIN CHURCH FURNITURE By buying from Clear Creek Furniture Factory, you will be saving . . . and serving a worthy cause. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ~~ etEQ2 ` Owned and Operated by the Chad Drake Douglas Wasson Loyal Jones Suzanne Camp Warren Lambert Standard Pulpit Chair CLEAR CREEK BAPTIST SCHOOL PINEVILLE, KENTUCKY OUR CHURCH FURNITURE is made from strong, native red oak, built with loving care by our students, and designed for long wear. 3 7 10 13 17 37 45 47 49 50 50 51 53 54 55 57 58 62 HANDWEAVING YARNS AND SUPPLIES LILY Yarns, developed especially for handweaving, are used by discriminating weavers everywhere. Always the highest in quality and the newest in textures and colors. Ready for prompt shipment in any quantity-Cottons, Wools, Chenilles, Homespuns, Linens, Metallics and Novelties. Also Looms, including the Leclerc folding loom, warping frames, bobbin racks and winders, table reels and tension boxes. Price list FREE. Send $1.00 for complete color cards and samples. (This $1.00 can be applied to your next order of $10.00.) Write To Dept. HWB. THE HANDWEAVER'S HEADQUARTERS LILY MILLS COMPANY Dept. HWB, Shelby, N. C. Mrs. Shelton (L) and Miss Pantalone discuss the use of folk tales in the classroom with folklorist Richard Chase. This article by Harry Ernst, reporter, appeared in the CtlRR1.ESTON GAZETTE. FOLK ARTS THRIVE IN W. VA. SCHOOLS TWO WEST VIRGINIA-BORN teachers, with an enthusiasm for their mountain heritage, have developed an extensive folk arts program in Logan County schools. Margaret Pantalone and Mrs. Mary Earnest Shelton, supervisors of music and art, respectively, in this West Virginia county's elementary schools, teamed up in 1951 to forge a missing link. "Logan County children are about two generations removed from the homes in which English-American folk songs, tales, and games were handed down by word-of-mouth for hundreds of years, "explained Mrs. Shelton. "Their rich folk heritage was disappearing under the impact of radio and television," she continued. "Unless the songs and games are taught to the children, they will be lost. So we're trying to reestablish this cultural tradition by providing a link between the past and the present." And their correlated folk arts program, which is only part of the art-music curriculum in the Logan County elementary schools, is catching on. "Both the children and teachers enjoy the folk songs, crafts, and dances that have enriched Appalachian mountain life for hundreds of years," Miss Pantalone said. "The children loved them, so the teachers wanted more." 6 Her interest in folk arts was aroused by a folk literature course which she took under Patrick Gainer at West Virginia University in the summer of 1951. Dr. Gainer, an English professor, has pioneered West Virginia's rediscovery of its folk heritage. Each summer he directs the State Folk Festival at Glenville. This summer's Festival will be held July 5 and 6. Miss Pantalone and Mrs. Shulton traced their program's suc cess to the enthusiasm of classroom teachers and support of their boss, Assistant Superintendent Ernest B. Craddock. "We just provide guidance and materials for the teachers, and they use what they want," Miss Pantalone said. "Many of the folk songs and singing games can be found in state-adopted music text books." What is the value of folk arts-the traditional songs, tales, and dances "preserved unreflectively by a group of kindred people" ? Let's listen to Richard Chase, nationally-known folklorist,who said in his address at a banquet at theconference of the Council: " A fuller knowledge of the folk arts of our people-traditions we all share without always being conscious of it-will stir oul TrAnds and spirits as nothing else can by bringing us closer to our Old World origins . . . . Great art has always come from these sources. But today we are being drenched with counterfeit, com mercial stuff. Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã¢â‚¬Å¾~ "How are we going to make their cultural heritage known to this and future generations? "In one way-by fixing the environment so they can understand and enjoy folk arts and won't be destroyed spiritually by this coun terfeit stuff." That's exactly what Miss Pantalone and Mrs. Shelton are doing in Logan County's elementary schools where Mr. Chase'Lr books are a definite part of the program. They're planning a county-wide Folk Arts Festival at Logan in the spring of 1959. And they hope to expand their program to the secondary schools. "We are all mountain people who share a common heritage," Mrs. Shelton explained. "Mountain people aren't just those who live in shacks and smoke corn-cob pipes," she added wryly. f~ ~r' 4r # # Our Cover GIVE A MOUNTAIN MAN A POCKET KNIFE AND HELL CARVE USEFUL AND ORNAMENTAL CREATIONS. BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAINEER. NEWT HYLTON, CARVES A MINIATURE WHEEL FOR A WATERMILL HE'S MAKING FOR ONE OF HIS GRANDCHILDREN. PICTURE BY EARL PALMER, CAMBRIA. VIRGINIA. 7 'f SUMMER DRAMA in the Appalachians GRANDDADDY of the summer theatre circuit is Kermit Hunter's great outdoor drama "Unto These Hills" at the Cherokee Indian Reservation on the edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. This drama relates the inspiring story of the Cherokee Indian nation in the days when the white settlers were pushing into the foot hills of the Blue Ridge and into the Great Smokies. It features the heartbreaking, forced march of the Cherokee band to Oklahoma. This route was indelibly marked with the blood of human suffering and was after remembered as the "Trail of Tears" by the red man. "Unto These Hill' is performed nightly except Mondays in the Mountainside Theatre at Cherokee, North Carolina. It will open for the 1958 summer season on June 24 and will run through August 31. Reservations may be made by writing the Information Hut on U. S. 441. Tickets are $1. 50 to $3. 00. Another famous outdoor drama "Horn in the West" was written by the sarrie author and is located at Boone, North Carolina, just off the Blue Ridge Parkway. This is the story of pioneer Daniel Boone, who carved history out of the wilderness when this nation was new. This is bringing to life of that newness and a young country's struggle to find itself through its heroic men, their loyalties, beliefs, and search for freedom. "Horn in the West" is performed nightly except Mondays in through July and August in the Daniel Boone Theatre. Tickets are $2. 00 and $3. 00 with a special price for children. Reservations may be made by writing: "Horn in the West," Reservations Office, Boone, North Carolina. s ,.,L st" The oldest equity summer stock theatre in Western North Carolina is the Vagabond Playhouse at Flat Rock near Hendersonville, North Carolina. The theatre was first established in 1537 8 in New York and moved into North Carolina in 1940. This was the state's first professional theatre. It has been a highly successful operation ever since. It is considered to be "one of the ten best summer theatres in the U. S. ," to quote the leading trade newspapers. With an eight- or nine-event season beginning about the, middle of June, the Vagabonds produce top-notch Broadway shows. Highly favorable reviews have continued to draw crowds from the entire region. Tickets range from 90~ to $1. 80 for matinees and to $2.40 for night performances. Shows are scheduled Tuesday through Saturday, with Wednesday and Saturday matinees. Reservations may be made by writing The Vagabond Playhouse, Flat Rock, N. C. Hendersonville will also be the summer home of the American production of the original German "Oberammergau Passion Play. " This portrayal of the last seven dramatic days of the life of Christ will feature a professional cast of 35 and 75 extras. Highly favorable news articles have followed the "Oberammergad' company on their winter tour throughout the country. The play will run every night except Mondays with matinees on Wednes days and Sundays. Tickets are $1. 50 to $3. 00 with a half price for children. Reservations may be made by writing the Chamber of Commerce, Hendersonville, North Carolina. North Carolina playwright, Paul Green, has come to Kentucky to ask the nation a question that is 100 years old. "On whose side is the Lord?" he asks via his cast of 100 actors and singers in "Wilderness Road," his recent outdoor drama that won a new award for the Pulitzer Prize-winning author. It is a question asked by a war-weary North and South, each believing itself in the right, each praying to the same God. "Wilderness Road," sponsored by Berea College, has become one of Kentucky's newest leading attractions, as 134, 000 people have paid to see it during three seasons. Three stages, mountain dances, singing, battle scenes, quiet cabins under the open sky at Indian Fort Theater in Berea provide "you are there" realism. Performances are nightly June 28 through August 30 except Sundays J Tickets are from $1. 75 to $3. 00. There are special rates for groups of 30 or more. For reservations write to Wilderness Road, Berea, Kentucky. # # # 4 4 /-~a~ ~. seaj es~ Blucu J :ww~c~rrr Ali IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR IIANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. LEONARD ROBERTS shares with us... ItItlej /0r telling THE WITCH DOCTOR This is one of many short doings of witches still to be heard in the Kentucky mountains. Rather often they tell how one becomes a witch 6y denying God and accepting the Devil. Many that I have t e1.1 how a cat's paw has been cut off and a woman's hand is found missing. Three such short incidents are in my book SOUTH FROM HEU-FERSARTIN. This version was told 6y Basil Mills in 1957, who had it from B.P. Morgan, age 74, Leslie County, Kentucky. ONCE THERE WAS A MAN that had a boy, and the boy got sick and laid in bed for a year. He couldn't get well, and he couldn't die. The father didn't know what could be the matter with his son, but he had a strong feeling that the boy was witched. He sent far off for a witch doctor. The witch doctor come along one day, and the boy's father talked with him and told him all the troubles they had had and how long the boy had been down. He promised the witch doctor anything if he could cure his boy. The witch doctor said, "I'll only charge you a little expense money." Then he told the man that there were three witches lived down the road and across the river. He said, "Don't you lend them anything; they'll be here by dark to borrow, and they'll come as cats." He said that they would run around the boy's bed for a while, but when he give the word, for him to holler, "Scat there! He says, "Now, I'll set here with a walking stick and bust them as they go out." Said, "When I get them I'll throw them out the window." Well, along about dark the three old women come along the way and up to the house, and one of them come on up to the door and knocked. The man of the house went to the door and said, "What do ye want?" She said, "I want to borrey about a quart of meal; we didn't know we was plumb out till it was too late to go to the store. " He said, "I guess we're in the same fix. They hain't a dust of meal on the place." They didn't like it, but all they could do was turn and hobble away. And in just a few minutes here come three old cats: one was yeller, one was spotted, and one was coal black. They done just as the witch doctor had said. They come in a-meawing and begin to go around the sick boy's bed. About that time the man of the house heard the word from the witch doctor, and he yelled, "Scat there!" They made a dive for the door, and the witch doctor was ready. The first one, the old tattered yeller cat, he busted across the nose. The next one was the spotted one, and he broke its shoulder. And the last old black cat he hit and broke her back. He tossed them all out the winder. The boy begin to improve in the next few hours, and he was back on his feet by the next morning. That morning the witch doctor said, "I guess I'll go over and see how the folks are across the river." He goes over there and walks up and knocks on the door. A voice on the inside said, "Come in, just push the door. " He went in, and there they was all three in the bed. He says, "How's all of you getting along?" 12 The oldest woman says, "Law, mighty bad." Says, "One of the women got up last night in her sleep and busted her nose all to pieces on the door facing." Said, "The other one jumped up to help her, and well, she broke her shoulder. And when she done that, I jumped up to help her and fell and broke my back. " Says, "We are all in a mighty badshape." The witch doctor turned to leave, said, "I guess accidents happen in the best of families." But they knowed who he was, and that family was never bothered any more. # # # # # 13 FOLK MUSIC AT HINDMAN Mr. McLain, well known leader in the folk arts, is Director of /// the Hindman Settlement School, RAYKOND K. MCLAIN where he ably carries on its /// long tradition of folk music. AS FAR AS ANY RECORDS show, it was at Hindman that the value of the old English folk songs and ballads that are still a living tradition in the Southern Mountains was first recognized. As early as 1900 when May Stone and Katherine Pettit had their first summer camp, two years before they founded the Settlement School, their diaries refer to the ballads that were being sung by both old and young, ballads they recognized as significant and worth preserving. "Barbara Allen" was most popular, and there were many others, sung sometimes to the accompaniment of a banjo or guitar, sometimes a dulcimer, but usually unaccompanied. Through encouraging the singing of these songs and through their expressed appreciation of them, Miss Stone and Miss Pettit tried to overcome the religious opposition there was at that time to such "wicked words. " That they succeeded is plainly shown by the significant influence Hindman has had in keeping alive these valuable traditions and in developing and maintaining such an atmosphere as has encouraged the love of folk music. This inspiration has been apparent, and has been instrumental in leading a succession of collectors to penetrate Knott County's important folk song resources. Perhpas the earliest striking evidence of their influence resulted from the encouragement given an advanced student, Josiah Combs. They led him to a new appreciation of the songs he had grown up with to the extent that, as he went on to Transylvania College, he was one of the first anywhere whose research called to the attention of scholars the very existence in the Southern Mountains of ballads and songs of British ancestry. Later at the Sorbonne in France, he was the first Kentuckian to receive an advanced degree. His subject again was the songs and ballads he had learned Jethro Amburgey, graduate of Hindman Settlement School and its teacher of manual training, is a dulcimer maker whose superior instruments have gone to all parts of the country. 14 from hearing them as he was growing up. His active concern for folklore has remained vital and his achievements recognized. Although these songs and ballads were apt to lighten the most ordinary of chores at Hindman, an early letter of Lucy Furman's describes the nightly singing gathering meaningfully. She ,wrote: "It is pleasant to go up into the library at six o'clock after supper is over, sit down before the great fire with its blazing backlog and forestick, and see what happens. The first person to enter, usually, is Miss Pettit. (Nothing is permitted to prevent her spending this evening hour with the children.) She is followed fast by six little girls. They gather their chairs _. about the fire. Miss Pettit suggests that 'song-ballads' are in order, and they lift their voices in 'Barbara Allen, ' 'Turkish Lady, ' 'The Brown Girl, ' or some other old song that has been 'Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ forgotten by the rest of the world for two or three hundred years. As they sing, the older children drop in by twos or threes--the girls from the dishwashing, the boys from the shop--and all lend their voices to swell the singing. Fitzhugh takes down the banjo and picks an accompaniment; Enoch lines out the words if necessary; the teachers gather in,too, and the hour is all too short for everybody. The bell for study-hall and prayers rings before one knows it. " It was at such a gathering in 1907 that Mrs. John C. Campbell heard her first mountain tune, an old ballad of English ancestry. J) Mrs. Campbell's words describing the inspiration of this experience will well point out the value of the material which the founders of the Hindman Settlement School had been so eager to foster from the beginning. "Fixed fast in my being--where it seemed to belong and stir strange, half-remembered vibrations--it led me deeper into an understanding of much that had been before dark to me. One does not need to be a specialist to pass through this door any more than he has to be a trained musician to learn to recognize and enjoy folk melodies--even capture now and then, some exquisite melody carrying with it an intangible essence of the past. The dim trails which lead from the often corrupt words into countries far in time and space are not closed to anyone who cares to explore them. "Folk songs have lived so long, shoped by the folk over centuries, that they may fairly be said to have come out of the people. They express the people, and for that reason would seem to have lasting values of satisfaction for the people." Mrs. Campbell's deep love of this personal kind of music stemming from her experience at Hindman became a shaping force not only in her own life, but in the future collection of folk songs and ballads in the United States. 15 Heretofore, the bulk of scholarly interest in this country in had been only with the words of the songs. She was so stirred with the lovely modal melodies that, in her travels through the mountains afterwards, although an untrained musician, she recorded a remarkable and accurate, and at the same time unique, collection of texts with melodies. When she learned later that Cecil Sharp, the English scholar who had been doing so much to emphasize the beauty of the music in his work with folk songs in England, was coming to the United States, she took what she considered her humble collection to him in Massachusetts. She so "~`.*, astonished him with the wealth of material that it represented, material that few even knew the existence of, that although he was E in ill health, he made several extensive and very difficult trips i through our inaccessible Southern Mountains from 1916 to 1918. His thorough research set a new standard which applies today. 3 Elizabeth Watts recalls: ' "Cecil Sharp's visit to Hindman was a memorable incident in the history of the school. The night he came, he told us he was doubtful of finding anything worthwhile in a school that had been established as long as Hindman and that was located in a county seat, but he told us most interestingly of his ballad collecting in England--about getting parts of a song from one singer and parts from another and about the different versions. His scepticism was an added incentive to us to have as many people sing for him as possible. Sometimes the singers came to the Settlement, and sometimes he went to their homes. His remarkable ability to get even the most timid ones started brought to light a wealth of material that even the Settlement staff hadn't heard. " One morning I had the pleasure of taking Mr. Sharp and his secretary, Maud Karpeles, to a home in the community where, we had been told, the mother of the family knew many ballads if we could get her to sing. This time I was the one who was skeptical, for I knew how timid she was and had never heard of her singing to anyone. Mr. Sharp greeted her and sat down to chat. After a bit he said he understood that she knew some ballads. She said she used to 16 sing a few when she was young but didn't know whether she remem bered any or not. 'Do you remember this one?' said Mr. Sharp, and began to sing. When he had finished she said, 'Yes, I remember that one, only I sang it this way. That started them, and they sang back and forth all the morning with Mr. Sharp taking down the music and Miss Karpeles the words. " At night the children in the Settlement sang for him. All Ã‚Â° those sang who we knew could sing, and so did many others. The first night, much to his delight, he found our girls and boys sing ing complete versions of two ballads--ones he had always hoped to find complete, but hadn't until now. "His whole visit was a fascinating experience. His scepti cism vanished the first day, and one night he said he had recorded more ballads that day than on any other single day since he had been collecting. In five days he found sixty-two songs." Other collectors had made the Hindman Settlement School their headquarters before Mr. Sharp came to the Southern Moun tains. The first of these was Josephine McGill who, at the sug gestion of May Stone, spent the autumn of 1914 collecting in Knott and Letcher counties where she found many good versions. Twenty of them were published, though not until 1917 after "Lonesome Tunes, "Loranine Wyman and Howard Brockway's collection had been printed. In the preface to their book, Miss Wyman and Mr. Brockway paid tribute to the help given them by the children of the Hindman and Pine Mountain Settlement Schools, and to others, many of whom lived in Hindman. Much later, Mary Wheeler, music teacher at the Hindman Settlement School in 1926-1927, made an interesting collection published in 1937. Through the years, other collectors have come, and still do come, to hear our children sing, or to get Jethro Amburgey, a graduate and our manual train ing teacher, to play one of the dulcimers he has made. Two of the Settlement girls who sang for Mr. Sharp were Una Ritchie, one of the "Singing Family of the Cumberlands," and her cousin, Sabrina, daughter of the Uncle Jason that Jean Ritchie talks of in her book. Most of the members of the "Singing Family" went either to the Hindman or Pine Mountain Settlement School, where they played an active part in keeping ballad--singing a living tradition, sharing their versions and learning new ones. At Hindman the Settlement children's enjoyment of gathering to sing ballads and songs has not lessened since the early years. To this day the Ballad Group remains a strong organization, enjoy ing the regular meetings fully as much as the times of participation at a May Day or other celebration. It has been one of the qualities of the Ballad Group that to belong was to share, a version of a song h or ballad perhaps, learned at home, continuing the natural process 17 by which this very material has been passed on from its rich beginnings in England, hundreds of years ago. The appearance of a group from Hindman at any of the folk festivals has always meant, and rightly, that the group would be able and expected to sing well. This is possible as singing is a real and valuable, in fact, a favorite form of recreation. This active, unbroken tradition, this living appreciation of a rich heritage has remained one of the appealing features of the program of the Hindman Settlement School. # # # # # Gladys Hargrave 7KtA.catlucal Paeade4t of SIGMA PHI GAMMA SORORITY writes to the members in the current issue of the sorority magazine: "Attendance at the Conference of the Council of the Southern Mountains is an experience every Sigma Phi should have. " I repeated these words to Vi innumerable times during our stay at Gatlinburg and to myself many times sincel. . . you will never know until you experience it personally, the warm friendliness of the people attending that meeting!. Here you find businessmen, doctors, dentists, ministers, public health workers, nurses, industrialists, educators, and private citizens of all races and creeds working toward a common goal: "The improvement of all phases of life for the people of the Appalachian South." Each, of course, is interested principally in his own field, but each realizes that economic, education, health, and spiritual needs are interdependent and that, though the level of one phase may be raised, the higher levels can only be maintained by raising the over-all standard of living. They fully realize, and are attempting to solve, the difficulties confronting the people from their area as they migrate to other sections of the country. They realize,too, the problems facing the communities to which these people move. They invited interested citizens of those areas to meet and discuss these troubles with them-to the end that there can be mutual understanding and co-ordinated efforts on all sides toward the solution of both problems. I know that, as Americans, we all believe that all men are created equal. Here you see that principle at work-you know that all men are equal, that God is in every man, and you come away with the feeling that you and I can really do something to spread this feeling to everyone, to the final end that all will receive equal opportunity to achieve true equality. 18 The Mountains Lose Two Friends JESS OGDEN ONE OF THE DOMINANT personalities at the annual conference of the Council was Jess Ogden. From his extensive studies of community development, his wide experience with community leaders and their successful projects, and his deep and intimate understanding of people and what makes them "tick", he gave valuable help to the entire conference and the Council program, especially through his work with the Publications Committee. His death shortly after his return to his home in Charlottesville, Virginia, is a personal and professional loss to all of us with whom he has worked and to a great host of people who were never privileged to know him but whose lives were enriched as a result of his achievements. We rejoice in his life as we mourn his death. # # # # # P. F. Ayer writes from personal friendship and professional associ ation with Mr. Ogden which date back over twenty years, from bases in several states, and from a variety of occupational contacts and cooperative relationships. WILLIAM J. HUTCHINS FOLLOWING THE RECENT death of William J. Hutchins, many people are remembering. They are glad for memory, j glad for the rich store to feed it that comes from their association with this man. These memories will be individual; doubtless they will differ according to the periods of Dr. Hutchins' life, the different positions he held in which people knew him. There are his years as teacher at Oberlin College, later years in connection with the Danforth Foundation. These words are written from acquaintance with his work as president of Berea College. It is likely that the memory most treasured by those who studied and taught at Berea under Dr. Hutchins is something rarely gained from a president so much concerned with, so successful in achieving visible, measurable gains; it is what he did for us individually and personally. We remember his knowledge of our individual affairs, his knowledge and appreciation of what we tried to do, his understanding help in a difficult time. We are deeply grateful. # # # # # Miss May B. Smith, for many years teacher in the English.Depart ment of Berea College - now retired - pays our tribute to one who was always a champion of the Southern Mountains. THE PUBLICATIONS COMMISSION OF THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. ANNOUNCES A Workshop in Clear Writing for Easy Reading EMORY AND HENRY COLLEGE, EMORY, VIRGINIA AUGUST 11-15,1958 AIM OF THE WORKSHOP: To learn how to write useful, factual materials so interesting and easy that everyone-even those with limited reading ability-will want to read them. THE WORKSHOP will be under the direction of Robert S. Laubach, son of the famed originator of Each One Teach One, Dr. Frank C. Laubach. Mr. Laubach has worked with his father on literacy campaigns in some thirty countries. He teaches "literacy journalism" at the School of Journalism, Syracuse University. COSTS: Tuition, Registration, Meals and Dormitory Accomodations at Emory and Henry College . . . . . . . $40.00 A limited number of scholarships available. THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS VIRGINIA HIGHLANDS FESTIVAL cooperating SCOPE OF THE WORKSHOP: In five days, four and a half hours each day, with a minimum of lecture and a lot of writing, you will have the chance to: )) Learn where to get facts helpful to others )) Learn what makes factual writing interesting to read )) Learn how reading helps in programs of social uplift ))Practice writing facts that hit the mark: articles on health, agriculture, home making, child care, family relations, and many others ))Share with your leader and fellow workshoppers your ideas and progress in writing )) Work together on a group project for publication For further information write to: Publications Commission Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. College Box 2000, Berea, Kentucky EMORY :; HENRY COLLEGE 21 Writing Workshop Planned at N. C. Regional Meeting CLEAR WRITING FOR EASY READING, a workshop to learn how to write factual materials so interesting and easy that that everyone-even those with limited reading ability-will want to read them, is the latest dream of the Publications Commission about to become reality. At the North Carolina regional meeting of the Council held at Boone, April 12, members of the commission met with Robert Laubach, son of Dr. Frank C. Laubach, to discuss this possibility. Mr. Laubach said that a Morro chief was really responsible for his father's slogan "Each One Teach One." When funds for the literacy program in the Philippines were exhausted, and Dr. Laubach told the chief reluctantly that the program would have to be curtailed, the chief decreed that each person who had learned to read must teach one other on pain of losing his head. Robert Laubach suggested that recourse to such motivation is hardly practicable in our situation and pointed out the necessity for substituting interest for force. Mr. Laubach, who has worked with his father on some thirty literacy campaigns and teaches "literacy journalism" at the School of Journalism, Syracuse University, will direct the efforts of the j Workshop which will be held at Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia, August 11-15. It will be under the cooperating sponsorship of the Council, Emory and Henry College, and the Virginia Highlands Festival held at Abingdon nearby. Anyone who is interested in writing in this particular fieldinteresting material easy to read-should write to the Publications Commission, Council of the Southern Mountains, College Box 2000, Berea, Kentucky, for full particulars. The total cost of registration, tuition, dormitory room and meals will be $40. 00. A limited number of scholarships will be available. Crossnore, Glade Valley, Beech Creek, Banner Elk, Appalachian State Teachers College, as well as the North Carolina Extension Service and the Town and Country Department of the Methodist Church, were represented among the more than fifty people who attended the regional meeting. There they spent the 22 day in studying ways of increasing family income through specialty products, ways of raising the educational level of all people-for example the consideration of the writing workshop experimentand ways of promoting the overall welfare of the region by united action of all individuals and agencies. The Glee Club of the College furnished musical numbers under the direction of Mrs. Virginia Linney. Miss Beulah Campbell, professor of elementary education, was in charge of arrangements, while Richard Chase, author of the JACK TALES and other folk literature, presided as host to the meeting. The Wesleyan Fellowship served the luncheon. # # # # # Folk School Adds a Course EARLY this year, the John C. Campbell Folk School added a new staff member, Mayes Behrman, who is to develop an extension division. One of the first activities of this new division is the offering of a Handicraft-Vacation course, July 28-August 16. The course is designed to meet the -Reed of the vacationer who is interested in crafts, wants to enjoy this part of the country, see the folk school way of life, and learn something of our mountain history, folk songs, handicrafts, flora, minerals, birds, hills, and lakes in a leisurely way. The mornings will be given to classes in woodcarving, woodworking, weaving, creative writing, etc. The afternoons will be free for relaxation; fishing, swimming, mineral hunts; trips to Chatuge, Hiawassee and Fontana Lakes; Joyce Kilmer Forest; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and the Cherokee Indian Reservation. Any of these places can be visited in an afternoon. In the evenings there will be folk dancing, singing, movies or slides, and discussions. The evening meal each Monday will begin a new session. Costs per week: $7. 50 for tuition, $42. 00 for room and board, linens furnished. Write: Mr. Mayes Behrman, John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, N. C. THE WISE FARMER WILL MEASURE AND GRADE HIS LOGS SO HE CAN BARGAIN WITH BUYERS. THESE 3O.INCH POPLAR LOGS ARE FROM A FOUR LOG TREE. How do you sell your timber? STUMPAGE OR LOGS? MANY FARMERS lose money on their trees. They lose money on their trees because they sell them on the stump. Those who cut their own trees make more money because they get paid for their trees AND their labor. Those who cut their own trees also keep control of their woods. This does away with waste. Doing away with waste means more money in the future. 24 Before cutting your logs, you should do the following things )) 1. Look over your trees. Mark the trees you want to cut. Find out their size and kind. Find out how good they are. )) 2. Go to the buyer and find out what he needs. Know what you HAVE and what the buyer NEEDS. THEN cut your trees. Sawmill men will help you get the most out of your trees. KNOWING YOUR LOG ~i But each case is different. So, how do you know how good a log is? )) 1. One way to know your log is by diameter. Diameter is thickness. In most cases, thick logs ' give more number one lumber. )) 2. Also, butt logs give more good lumber than upper logs. Butt logs are from the lower part of the tree. They give better lumber because they are thicker. )) 3. Log length is also important. A good rule is to cut logs as long as you can. )) 4. But you must cut out rotten parts. Always cut out crooked places. Always cut out cracked places. )) 5. Some bad places do not have to be cut out. These are knots, wormholes, and bird pecks. 25 KINDS OF HARDWOOD LOGS There are three kinds of hardwood logs. These are: factory logs, tie logs, and local-use logs. )) 1. A factory log is cut into boards. This log must look good. The best looking wood is near the outs ide. )) 2. A tie log needs to be large and strong. A tie log does not have to look as good as a factory log. )) 3. A local-use log has bad places. But the local-se log can be used where look:; and strength are not important. SOME OTHER HINTS The hints below may also help you make more money from your trees: )) 1. Get your logs to market before insects and disease have a chance to work on them. i )) 2. Study up on defects and grading. (Write: U. S. Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. Ask for : Hardwood Log Grades for Standard Lumber and How to Apply Them. This booklet is free. Also send 25~ to: Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Ask for: Log Defects in Southern Hardwoods.) )) 3. Study each tree by itself. Get the best you can out of it. Transposed by Norris B. Woodie from the original article by B. C. Cobb, TVA, in FOREST FARMER for January 1956 Ã‚Â°I.) ecnsiN VoA ca weU " A%er,l~ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of ppTONS and BALDWINS Weaving wools from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious wools that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri", "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and woofs-and samples of the weaving wools described above - all for $1.00 postpaid, 27 OLD FOX 7his appealing story of "Old Fox, " the mule who wurked like a mule, is recounted by a teacher-minister of ALVIN BOGGS the Pine Mountain region in Kentucky, who is now teaching and preaching in his home valley. OUR FAMILY FELT that the budget would not stand the pur chase of a much needed horse or mule. The greater part of our small farm was on steep hillsides, and much of our farming had to be done by hand. On the steeper places the dirt would roll with each dig and fill our shoes to the top and running over. The hardest place to dig was in the "swag" where the rocks had found a resting place after slipping down the steep slopes. Sometimes it was necessary to carry dirt from eight or ten feet away to put around several hills of corn. It is easier to dig one hole through the rocks and carry the dirt from that one to feed several hills of corn than to dig through rocks at every hill. My brother and I wanted an animal to do the work. In addition to plowing, we needed stove wood and fire wood brought to the house. There was coal to haul, and we would need wood for our molasses stir-off. ` When it was evident that we could not afford a horse or even a mule, we began asking for the next bull calves that were born on the farm. We believed that they would be worth more to work than to sell for the small amount the stock buyer would pay. Since none of us knew how to make a yoke, it ;gas difficult to convince Dad that this would be a worthwhile project. However, the next two calves that came to our barn were bulls, and increased pressure was brought on our parents to allow us to keep them. They were near enough the same age to make a good team. Dad finally agreed that IF we could get work out of them, we could keep them. If they would not work they must be sold. We accepted the verdict; for the calves it meant "work or die." One of them did not survive the winter. The other began to show signs of better health as soon -as grass was green to give a change of diet from shelled corn. 28 We had no yoke and no harness. We decided to make something that would do the job anyway. We did not know how the bull would react to having a bit in his mouth, but we twisted a piece of telephone wire into the semblance of one leaving a loop on each end into which to tie the rope reins. There were no hames; so we went to the hills and cut dogwood saplings about two inches in diameter. We put holes through the ends with brace and bit and tied them top and bottom with strips of leather. There were no chains for traces from hames to the home-made single tree; so little chunks of chain here and there were pieced together with cold shuts or open rings. Then Mother sewed towsacks together for a collar, and more sacks were used for the backband we soon discovered to be necessary. There was no special day set to begin breaking "Fox. " (We knew Fox was hardly a suitable name for a cow-brute, but we expected him to work like a horse, so we named him for one we knew in the logging woods.) When we harnessed him in the hallway of the barn, Fox chewed on the telephone wire bit and thought that was the toughest nubbin he had ever been offered. His head turned one way, while his eyes rolled the other. We boys thought he would die, but anybody or anything at that home had to work if he expected to eat, and no exception could be made in the case of the bull calf. We petted him, and while one held the rope bridle reins, the other put the new set of home-made harness over his shoulders and back. Suddenly with all his energy, he raised up and jumped the bars at the end of the hallway. Pieces of harness flew in all directions. Darkness stopped the activity for that day. This defeat must not be told; a stock buyer might come by tomorrow l Next day we got the harness put back together, and we took a firm grip on the reins. For extra good measure my brother got a finger grip in Fox's nose. The harness was fastened. We grasped the rope reins, and Fox was urged out into the barnyard. That bull didn't go straight, unless it was straight up and down. He just sort of exploded. He was first on his knees and then jumping in the air and chewing the bit. It seemed that every lunge would ruin the harness. Finally he yielded to his persecutors and stopped with his sides heaving and his nostrils wide. We hooked him to a small sled with a #2 washtub nailed on it to haul in the tops of cane seed from the cane patch. A small pole of wood was not a bad thing to use in his early training. J After he had become used to working, he was to haul a sled off coal from the family coal bank away up the mountain. Fox already knew what was meant by "get up" and "whoa." He had even learned to "gee" and "haw. 11 He was allowed to stop to rest once on the way up the moun tain. Then he did not want to start again when told to. We shouted "Get up I" He just shook his head. We applied a handy brush in a most effective way, and to show his objections further, Fox kicked and jumped backward into the sled. The place was so steep that the sled began to slip backward down the mountain. Fox had his hind feet in the sled. There was a piece of barbwire in the sled which cut his legs. When he finally freed himself, he went for ward, and I never knew him to kick or jump backward again. The next time he was told to get up, he got. He thought we had played a terrible trick on him. ! I believe he could pull more than his weight. I have seen him pull a log on the level that he could not take over the top of a hill. When a load was too heavy for him, we two boys would get on each side of the single tree and pull with him. We did not need to beat him. We would talk to him and help, and he would keep trying even until he would skin his knees. When he plowed on a steep place, it did not hurt him to fall. He would get up pulling. f Fox was the envy of many a greedy stock buyer. He was not for sale! He was the father of many calves in the community, but there was never one of his offspring so obedient or so able in the harness. When it was proven that Fox would work, there came a big surprise. Dad had been more observant than we boys had thought. One day the mail man delivered to us a package that contained a new collar, pad, Names, draw chains, and even a canvas backhand. We boys got the collar on upside down, and first one and then an other member of the family offered helpful suggestions. It was difficult to decide whether Fox should wear his collar like a mule or like a horse. 30 There was one day that I do not like to remember. A stock dealer brought a large pony, a small horse really, to try to trade for our bull. "This pony will plow or carry a person beautifully, and she is young and spirited," he claimed. We had always wanted a pony and finally yielded and said good bye to Old Fox. The pony ran with the plow, and an authority told us that she was at least 20 years old. One day when hauling in fresh soybean hay, the pony ate too much, and we had a grave to dig. Now we were back where we had started. Those farming days soon ended, but Old Fox will always be remembered. His patience, his obedience, his willingness to work are qualities to be treasured in this day of speed. I wish that he knew what we felt when we realized that we could not reverse that awful decision. The sale of Old Fox was the greatest mistake we ever made on that farm. # # # # # Full-Blown Hearts At first how tight the petals of the heart: As closed as is the bud of any rose, Where strange and unseen forces have a part Before the waiting heart and bud unclose. The sun must shine, the heavenly winds must blow, And from the gnarled brown cutting there will shoot The stem, the leaf, the pointed bud, and lo, A glory from a dark implanted root: A blinding radiance, and there full-blown, A rose, the loveliest bloom the earth has known. The heart must have the sunlight of much love, The dew of kindness and the silver rain Of sorrow, and it must be conscious of A power back of the bitter winds of pain. It must learn patience through the passing years, It must be cheerful through the deepest gloom, It must be valiant even through its fears, It must reach in, and out, and up, to bloom. The heart that opens slowly at God's touch Is like a rose, and pleases Him as much. .J ---- Grace Noll Crowell Mrs. W.H. Barclay, for whom the poem was written by her friend Mrs. Crowell, wishes to share it with her friends in the Council. SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN STUDIES Dr. W. D. Weatherford, Director of Administration, Southern Appalachian Studies, has released the following statement to the Press. THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS of Southern Appalachian Studies, with representatives of eleven denominations present, and the interested support of research talent from the seven state universities in the Southern Appalachian region, met at Berea College on March 31, in a full and frank discussion of the objectives of the Study and methods of procedure. First of all there was a full statement of the serious purposes of the Study. There is not the slightest desire just to get the facts for the sake of getting them. There is no idle curiosity in the mind of any Board member or any research worker. The purpose is thoroughly constructive. We want to know the full facts in order that we may bring all agencies working in the mountains-churches, schools, medical agencies, and social workers-to have a better understanding of needs and ways of meeting those needs. In other words the Studies will be person centered and not simply fact centered. Some fears have been expressed both by individuals and by some few newspapers that this would be another case of slumming for the sake of turning up sensational facts. One paper even suggested that they guessed we would find out how many people did not wear shoes and how many dwellings had no privies. Another paper screamed loudly that the poor "hillbillies" were going to be exposed again. There never were more mistaken ideas. In the first place, this Board knows no such persons as "hillbillies." We are dealing with mountain people or highlanders, and we have no nicknames to bestow. To this Board there is no such person as a "hillbilly. " We are not in the business of slumming. We want to know the real needs and the real achievements of genuine human beings who live in a special environment which has often offered hard conditions of life, but has also brought out many of the noblest qualities of human nature. Further it was determined that thoroughly scientific procedures will be pursued. The Board gave to the research workers (among them some of the ablest scholars in the field) complete freedom of procedure. We do not expect them to be hampered or handi 32 capped by anyone's prejudices or pre-suppositions. We want the truth, pure and simple. For only if we know the conditions and facts as they are, can we hope to induce churches, schools, medical agencies, and others to pursue programs for the real betterment of the people. Again, the more we went into the problem the more we realized how limited our funds are. We have already been besieged by other agencies to help them carry out special projects which are very important. Most of our funds had to be specifically allocated before we could hope to get an appropriation from the Ford Foundation, and what funds we have unallocated will be entirely too limited to do all the things which seem absolutely necessary in connection with our specific task. The Board was greatly heartened by the large number of persons widely scattered who have written expressing great concern for the success of the Studies and their own willingness to cooperate in any way the Board might need their help and they might find it within their capacity to respond. The interest in the project is both constructive and widespread. The Board welcomes all such interest. In particular, we would welcome any constructive studies that have been made in recent years, such as masters or doctorate theses and other written material which pertain to mountain life and conditions, but which may or may not have been published. Any helpful information should be sent to the central office of Southern Appalachian Studies, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. The Study will be at least two years in duration. It will have full or part time of a dozen of the ablest scholars in the field. We will hope to be able to release from time to time facts already discovered, and ultimately a full report will be published. The whole Study will be thoroughly constructive, the basic assumption being that you can never solve any serious problem until you really know what the problem is. We will waste no time in trying to satisy idle curiosity. # # # # # BE READY FOR CHRISTMAS ! START NOW! HAND-KNIT CHRISTMAS STOCKINGS: A "Night Before Christmas" gift for your favorite children, in bright red, white, and green; with trees, trains, dancing children, knit right in, as well as first name and birth year. More than a decoration, this is ample to hold Santa's offerings. Top to toe length, 26 inches. Circumfer ence, 12". State first name and birth year if wanted 3.50 PENNYWISE PRESS Dorothy Nace Tharpe MaLinardville, Route 2. Tennessee Write for catalog with its many gift items. 33 "Along Came Jones" ~\ P. F. AYER Mr. Ayer brings us up-to-date on Council staff. "OPERATION BOOTSTRAP," as the Council movement was labeled in the press following the annual conference, implies unexpected success, in what might appear to be an impossible situation, by the people themselves. The most recent major achievement, as we lift ourselves by united effort, is the appointment of an Associate Executive Secretary who was born in the Appalachian South, grew up on a farm in a mountain county, went to our schools, and graduated from Berea College with the determination to live and to serve in the region. Loyal Edward Jones, Cherokee County, North Carolina, comes to the Council with a dedication matched by training and experience which together make him a natural for this position. In college, he majored in English and minored in history. His extra-curricular activities included dramatics, writing, athletics, and folk dancing. He was active in Church and Y M C A and was elected to Who's Who Among Students in American Colleges and Universities. He comes to the Council from a teaching position in Louisville, but his background is rich in varied experiences. He has been a farmer. He has worked in industry. He served in both the Army and the Navy, and was stationed for a time in Japan. He has been a trainer of horses, a teacher of high school students, and an educator of army personnel. Mr. Jones will share the administrative and promotional responsibilities of the entire Council organization and program. While most of his time will be spent at the Council office in Berea, this new arrangement will permit more administrative contact in the field. 34 This addition to the Council staff Mrs. Jones (nee Nancy Swan of Milwaukee, will also be an asset to the Council program and the community of Berea. She is a graduate of Berea College in the field of education. An experienced teacher and leader of young people, her hobbies are folk music and sewing. which in October, 1951, totaled one half-time executive secretary, a volunteer editor, a volunteer treasurer, and an occasional typist on a per-hour basis, brings the number to seventeen workers, give or take a halfdozen according to the day, the supply, and the budget. Here they are: )) P. F. Ayer, Executive Secretary, since October 1, 1951, on a half-time basis, released to the Council by Berea College, on leave beginning September 1958. )) Loyal Jones, Associate Executive Secretary, beginning June 15. ))Rowena Brewer, Senior Office Secretary since February 4, 1957. Wife of a Berea College student, both she and her husband are from Claiborne County, Tennessee. ))Katharine T. Ayer, Associate Editor of Mountain Life & Work, since September 1, 1957 , and "accommodation secretary" as needs have arisen since October 1S51. )) Mary Nell Byrd, Office Secretary, since February 27, 1958. Wife of a Berea College student, both she and her husband are from Pulaski, Virginia. )) Laura Smith, Recreation Interne, Smith College Workship for 1957-58 of Painesville, Ohio. Priscilla Baldwin will be her successor for 1958-59. )) Milton Ogle, Treasurer, on a per-hour basis as needed. Berea graduate, manager of the Berea College Broomcraft Student Industry. He is a native of Christiansburg, Virginia. )) Rev. Charles Drake, Editor of Mountain Life & Work on a volunteer part-time basis. Dean of Men, Berea College Foundation School. He hails from Georgia. )) Noel Felde, local grade school boy, janitor by the hour, two days a week. 35 )) Suzanne Camp, Itinerant Recreator, beginning July 7. A June graduate of Emory University, a philosophy major with recreation training and leadership experience, she comes from Atlanta. Get acquainted with her in the youth section as she tells of her last summer's adventures as substitute recreator. It's time now to write for her services for the coming year. )) Two positions not yet filled: a full-time field worker in economic development and one in religious emphases. )) Margaret Jaco, Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Miss Jaco has given three winters to the office in Berea and now continues to do all the work we can send to her at her home. We hope to have her here again during 1958-59. In addition to these "regulars," there are the four officiers of the Council, fifteen members of the Board of Directors, and the chairmen and members of four commissions, nine committees, and several sub-committees, who cooperate to make the Council I a movement of the people of the area. # # # # # I LET'S MAKE OURSELVES KNOWN s` THIS EMBLEM OF A COMMON Sterling lapel button $1.50 DEDICATION TO THE APPALACHIAN Sterling pin $1.50 SOUTH MAY BE PURCHASED AND Sterling tie bar $1.50 WORN BY COUNCIL MEMBERS. Sterling bar pin $1.50 (See back cover for membership) (Prices include tax) e SEND ORDERS T0: Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. College Box 2000, Berea, Kentucky Revised Edition of f WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all craftsinvaluable to crafts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation leaders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina YOUR CONFERENCE HOME IN THE SMOKY MOUNTAINS Mountain View Rotel GATLINBURG. TEN1Y. Gatlinburg's FIRST and STILL Favorite MODERN RESORT HOTEL, OPEN ALL THE YEAR 37 Ã‚Â«. . . PART OF THE NATION" 46th Annual Conference Report DAVID DUSTIN Mr. Dustin, journalism student recently come to the region, makes the acquaintance of the Council. GATLINBURG, TENN. February 15 - More than 350 delegates from the mountain areas of 9 southern states, from 6 oLher states, and Indonesia, meeting here for the 46th annual conference of the Council of the Southern Mountains, have been told during the last three days that the South is now part of the nation. The above paragraph would have made an accurate introduction to a newspaper account of the 1958 Gatlinburg conference. The South is now part of the nation-and even more than that. The South is now part of the world, and both the world and the South are beginning to realize that fact. Again and again, the records of the 1958 conference show this new interrelationship between the South and the rest of the world. For instance: While President Eisenhower and Premier Bulganin exchanged diplomatic notes which attempted to relax the tensions of the atomic arms race, a Gatlinburg speaker, Dr. George K. Schweitzer, spoke on "Christianity and the Atomic Age. " While economists of this nation and of the entire western world puzzled over the intricacies of recession, several Gatlinburg speakers stressed the implications of the current recession for the Southern Mountains. While representatives of several northern cities were deeply concerned about recent immigrations, leaders of small Southern Mountain communities worried over emigrations from their regions: both groups met together at Gatlinburg. 38 While the Administration in Washington was fighting for economic aid to foreign countries, Gatlinburg announced a $30, 000 grant to be used for community economic development in the Southern Mountains. Finally, the heavy snows which caught most of the rest of the nation unawares also descended on Gatlinburg, forcing the conference to adjourn a few hours earlier than was planned. This new interdependence was expressed to the conference by Dr. Earl D. C. Brewer, Em,ory University, in this way: I To many mountain sections the roads have come and with them a whole train of _ _ culture contacts-preachers . . . educators medical Mr. Faber receives warm thanks men industrialists from Council President Randolph. and also exploiters of a dozen sorts. Also, these roads... lead out of the mountains... men and women by the thousands / are moving off the hills and out of the valleys into... the cities of the nation. The diversity of new contacts between the Appalachian South and the rest of the world is dramatized by the delegates from the :ix states outside the area, by the delegate from Indonesia, and by the more than 113 distinct organizations represented at the conference. Although there are obviously many points of view from which the conference could be described, one viewpoint seems particularly important this year: that of the many outsiders who are meeting the Appalachian South for the first time. What is their first impression of their new acquaintance? Are they intrigued and excited? Or are they perhaps surprised and shocked? These questions are especially pertinent, because the goodwill and cooperation of the rest of the world is becoming increasing--. ly important as the South merges with that world. 1 At least one member of the conference at Gatlinburg was meeting the South-and its assets and liabilities-for the first time. She did not represent any organization, but attended because she "had 39 heard a lot about the conference, and it sounded attractive." This person had spent much of her life as a missionary in China, and had come to live in Kentucky only half a year ago. Here, then, is someone who may be able to tell the conference of the Council of the Southern Mountains what kind of impression it makes upon the many outsiders who are discovering it for the first time. The following is an approximation of the words of this delegate: Gatlinburg is a delightful place to go. The buildings are of stone to fit in with the landscape. The Smokies loom up behind the town, and there are little roads going up into them. You keep thinking, "Gee, I wish I could go up there." We all ate at one big hotel, like a big family. There were too many of us to stay in one place. The people were skilled and talented and consecrated to their work. It was a hail-fellow-well met (in the best sense of the word) fellowship. There were strong I clashes of opinion, but the spirit was one of cooperation. We arrived at noon Wednesday. In the afternoon, my carload of young people had a committee meeting, but I was free and could help with the registration. That made me feel a part of things. In the evening, there was a big meal. Dr. George Schweitzer was the speaker, and I've been talking about him ever since. He is a scientist from Oak Ridge, and he told us about the atom bomb and the amount of armaments of this competitive age, and said that if we continued on this way we would annihilate ourselves. The only alternative, he said, is the Christian religion. I thought it was very worthwhile coming from a young man and a scientist. Thursday morning I went to a meeting on gerontology. This was a discussion on how to give our older people hope and a feeling of usefulness. A man from Brasstown told of cultivating whittling skills of old people, gradually teaching them to take up things they could sell. (In China we worked with elders, in order to save skills that were dying out. We had the elders teach the youngers. But today the Chinese Communists emphasize production of 'practical' things instead of the 'impractical' objects which represent the old culture.) To return to the conference, Thursday afternoon I went to a folklore meeting. I didn't know what questions to ask there. It was very interesting to hear mountain stories told in dialect, to hear about Cecil Sharp, the Englishman who discovered English ballads in the Southern Mountains, and to hear folklorists tell how old 40 people will shut up at first, and then after a while tell a whole string of stories. But I had the feeling that it was not as interesting as it could be; I would rather study stories than hear a lot of them told. Friday morning was Church Emphases: this has been my line of work. My feeling has always been that home mission work is real mission work. But in China we lived comfortably; we seldom sacrificed. Here, however, they talked about getting to the people more. The girls impressed me as the type that went right out and entered into the lives of the people. In foreign work, there is perfect cooperation, and I felt that that cooperation existed here too. They were not befuddling the people with denominationalism as happens in some towns and cities. Friday afternoon there was a general meeting with a panel of skilled government and university people. They reported well. It was a good plan to tie up the conference. On Saturday it snowed heavily, so we started home earlyit was a perilous ride home, just enough danger to make it interesting. All in all, it was very informative and exciting. I admire the vision of those who started mountain work and the attitude of those who are now working right with the people . . . . . Catherine Ezell, secretary, records the meetings of the Board, and Milton Ogle, treasurer, pays the bills. p,p,Ryer, executive secretary, H.S.Randolph, president, J.W.Bischoff, vice-president, discuss projects of the Council 41 Asked to sum up her first impression of the Southern Mountains, received through her visit to the conference at Gatlinburg as well as through other means, this woman said: "My reaction to the conference is to go on and on-to see what the mountains are like. I love the joy of riding through these mountains; in China the mountains are worn by the feet of the ages. There is a fascination and intrigue about places not developed. I want to learn more. " This, then, is the impression of one newcomer to the South. She was excited by the challenge of the problems brought out at the conference, by the dedication of the delegates there, and by the beauty of the mountains around Gatlinburg. And all these things motivate her to go on-to learn more about the Appalachian South. A more complete view of the conference would have to include about 350 impressions in addition to the one above. For certainly each delegate came away from Gatlinburg with an impression different from the impressions of his fellow delegates. To fill out its view of the conference, this report must include a brief summary of the various meetings and discussions and pronouncements there. The conference might be divided into two large parts: discussion of problems and instigation of action. The first part would include such highlights as: W )) 1. A panel on "Good Craft Design" discussed the problems of artistic value versus saleability of craft goods. This was pointed up by an excellent exhibit of crafts by members of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild under the able sponsorship of Miss Louise Pitman. )) 2. There were several meetings on religious emphases. Dr. Schweitzer spoke on "Christianity and the Atomic Age. " Dr. Earl Brewer reported on research which will be conducted in the Appalachian South during the next two years with the cooperation of church groups and a grant from the Ford Foundation. 42 A film on the translation of the Bible into 1100 languages and dialects was shown by the Rev. T. N. Wise of the American Bible Society. A discussion group on "Religion and Youth," moderated by the Rev. Philip Young of the Reems Creek Larger Parish, decided that the Church must offer more leadership and youth emphasis if it is to reach the young people. Other groups discussed the influence of the mountain religion upon daily life, and upon race relations, and the preparation of personnel for the mountain ministry. ))3. At a meeting on "Migration of People from the Appalachian South to Urban Centers," several delegates from Cincinnati presented the city end of the picture. )) 4. The young people spent several sessions exploring their place in the Appalachian South. )) 5. A workshop on "Problems of the Aging" was led by Mr. Sebastian Tine from the Senior Citizens Center of Nashville. 6.* A "Mass Meeting Study of the Appalachian South" was di rected by Dr. Frank J. Welch from the Board of Directors of T V A, ably supported by an imposing group of panelists. Dr. Howard Beers, Uni versity of Kentucky, the first Dr. Welch starts the discussion; Speaker, said that "trends of Dr. Beers awaits his turn. population in the Southern Ap palachian region now are not as much the expression only of internal factors as they formerly were . . . . . " Next, Dr. William Nicholls, Vanderbilt University, stated that the Deep South's "low-income problem is largely centered in its non-farm Negro population, and. . . in its farm population, both white and Negro." This means, of course, that the major low-income problem in the mountain region is a matter of rural white folks. He said, "while we should try to minimize human out-migration by industrial development within the area, a substantial out-migration . . . will continue to be necessary. " (A fuller report of this afternoon is promised for a later issue.) 43 According to Dr. Robert Anderson of the Southern Regional Education Board, although "the gap between our educational level and that of the rest of the country is, in many respects, closing," it is not yet closed, especially in the rural farm population. Dr. Anderson also predicted that increasing enrollments will pose a challenge to southern school systems in the future. Dr. Robert Wright, Consultant, Public Health Services in Virginia, spoke of future medical changes-including an increase in grouppractice clinics-that will give everyone access to the best health care. Mrs. Sally Perry, Office of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, said that there "is an increase in dependency in this southern area as compared with the rest of the country. " She stressed failings of the government welfare systems and expressed the hope that "more preventive services. . . will lead to less dependency and better lives for those who may be threatened by social and economic ills." Mr. Walter Shouse told how he, in his work with the Kentucky Department of Economic Development, helps communities make themselves desirable sites for industry. He emphasized the need for letting city officials know what help is available, if they will ask for it. R delegate speaks from the floor. These were some of the meetings having to do with discussion of the Appalachian South-with learning more about its problems and potentials. The second part of the conference had to do with action-with carrying out ideas for improvement. Under this second part, we might list the following highpoints: )) 1. Adoption of a $58, 000 budget for 1858 to include funds for an associate executive secretary, a field worker in religious emphasis, and one in economic development. Mr. Fearnow, U.S.Forest Service in W.Va., makes a point. )) 2. Appeal to the Publications Committee by Chad Drake to extend the communications of the Council beyond the Southern Mountain region. (Incidentally, the Associated Press, the United Press, WKNO in Memphis, the Charleston (W. Va.) GAZETTE, the Cincinnati ENQUIRER, and the -d)) READER'S DIGEST were represented at the conference. ) This committee also made plans to publish a second collection of folktales and a volume of poetry. )) 3. Plans for a writers workshop to study the problems of writing factual reading material for adults in the region with a low level of reading. )) 4. Plans by the Health Committee for six weeks of showing in north Georgia of the health trailer movie made last year and already shown to over 126, 000 people, five nurses scholarships to be made available, and two regional health days to be undertaken with the help of $2,000 in gifts. )) 5. Announcement by Stuart Faber, President of the Appalachian , Fund, of a grant of $30, 000 to the Council to be used for a community development program during the next three years. Pauline Hord expl Ã‚Â¢ins litera y progrcnn to Florene Broo~s. These were some of the events and discussions that concerned the delegates to the 46th annual conference of the Council. And behind all these meetings, all these speeches and discussions-behind the whole conference was the new increase of traffic over the inadequate roads of the Appalachian South. Vi Zanitis and Glad s Hargraves present Sidma Phi Gamma check to Heal th Chairman, Ralph Brown. According to the delegate whose impression is paraphrased at the beginning of this report, there is a reaction of shock as the Southern Mountains and the rest of the world meet for the first time. But it is not a despairing sort of shock. It is a shock of inspiration-of excitement about the challenges encountered-of impatience to go on and on, to learn more. # # # # # 45 Washington,D.C., Offers Many Resources For Study of the FOLK ARTS HELEN BULLARD KRECHNIAK The author is a busy writer, craftsman, and housewife in Ozone, Tennessee. She has written for our magazine before. DURINV`' THE PAST THREE months, in pursuing my own in terests in folk arts and crafts among the rich and seemingly endless collections in the libraries, museums, and galleries of the Capital, I have learned many useful things about these sources which I should like to pass on to anyone else who may be lucky enough to have a little time when in Washington to do the same thing. For folk music and folklore, you can walk right into the Archive of Folksong on the first floor of the Library of Congress and ask for assistance on any related subject. Or you can write for a free list of published collections of folksongs, and for a free list of records issued by the Library of Congress. For the records list address: RECORDING LABORA7nHY, ARCHIVE OF FOLKSONG, WASHING7DN, D.C. There is in the Archive a listening room for published records which one may use whether his intention is to buy or not. The Archive is staffed by folksong and folklore specialists under its head, Mrs. Rae Korson. The staff will also recommend books on special subjects which can be found in state and university libraries. This service is also available by mail, although the staff is not large enough for extensive correspondence. For Folk Arts and Crafts, however, you will have to go to the Main Catalog itself on the floor above. Do not waste time as I did on other classifications, but go directly to "Arts and Crafts Movement," which is the subject head under which most of this material is catalogued. For those interested in folk arts and crafts, a rare treasure awaits at the Index of American Design, which is located in the National Gallery of Art. A collection of 17, 500 water color renderings of American handwork awaits the researcher or the craftsman in search of ideas. These paintings, made in the W P A writers and artists project in the 1930's, were done directly from the original objects. No three-dimensional objects, however, are 46 I~ included in this collection. Some photographs to supplement the renderings have since been added. "Generally speaking," wrote the curator, Mr. Erwin O. Christensen, in a recent article in the College Art Journal, "the Index deals with the home and farm, with much that was shop-made. and occasionally with what was factory-made. Particularly comprehensive are the sections on furniture, ceramics, textiles, costume, Pennsylvania German, Spanish Southwest, and weathervanes, also wood carving and metal." The 19th century is most complete; the 17th and 18th pretty well represented. The Index has been carried only to 1900. All major geographic sections of the country are included, but a dozen states were left out because they had no unemployed artists. Among the omissions are the Dakotas, Oregon, Indiana, and the Carolinas. Other states in the Southern Highlands have meagre representation, a situation which we hope will one day be corrected. But for anyone interested in weaving, carving, ceramics, ironwork, jewelry, furniture, and woodenware, there is a wealth of material waiting to be found and enjoyed. The Index of American Design has a large number of traveling exhibitions of original renderings available on loan to responsible institutions. Subjects include Woodcarving, Ceramics-.Glass and Metal, Furniture, Early American Crafts, Textiles, and many others. There are also slic programs on similar subjects which can be borrowed by smaller groups. There is no fee for either type of exhibit, but the borrower pays transportation charges and a small insurance fee, For the printed list of subjects and further details, write: INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGV, NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART, WASHINGTON, D. C. Folk art in painting can be found in the National Gallery of Art in the Garbisch collection of 400 American primitive paintings. Over in the Smithsonian Institution not far from the National Gallery, the Natural History building has a marvelous collection called "The Hall of Early America" which includes many craft objects dating back to colonial times. The Arts and Industries building, across the Mall, contains a fine weaving and spinning section, ceramics, furniture, woodworking and needlework. Not a part of the government system is a fine Textile Museum at 2320 S, Street, N. W. which has rugs and textiles from 300 B. C. to the 19th century from the Near East, Far East, and Peru. It takes a lot of time and much footwork to cover all of these collections, but since most of us are interested in only one division, a week in Washington can give one a fine new grasp of his subject, once he knows how to choose exactly the right places to go. 4 # # # 47 Assessment of Race Relations--1957 Following are the concluding paragraphs of the '94th Annual Report to the American People on Developments in Race Relations" of President L. H. Foster, Tuskegee Institute on January 15,1958. The entire report may be obtained by writing to: TIe(Department of Records, P. 0. Box 68, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama A SURVEY OF LEGAL and group action during the year (1957) leads to the conclusion that race relations in the Southern States are in a more unsettled and disturbed status than a year ago. The divergent segregationist and desegregationist points of view are held more resolutely now than in the recent past. There is urgent need for realistic and constructive communication on the southern scene, if serious difficulties are to be avoided in the near future. Several factors operate currently to affect the state of race relations in the South: Segregationists have at their command substantial control of the economy, extensive authority in political affairs, and considerable influence on the publication policies of most media of mass communication. There is, too, the momentum of decades of operation of these resources in behalf of a segregated society. De segregationists, on the other hand, have the support of an awakened and expressed national concern for the welfare of all the American people. They also have the urgent pressures for freedom on the international front, and the widely proclaimed doctrine of human brotherhood. One obstacle to favorable race relations is the misinformation and misinterpretation about the national welfare. Public officials representing the South rarely make it clear in their talks or writings that America's welfare depends critically upon the strength of democracy at home. These spokesmen often express the opposite opinion, saying in effect that the international impact of poor race relations in America is inconsequential. Segregationists have made attempts to divert attention from their policies of restriction on Negro rights in the South. Instances in the North of racial discrimination and episodes of violence have been widely publicized in the South. However, the legal support for racial discrimination in the South is in sharp contrast to the legally desegregated situation which prevails generally in the North. This significant difference is not mentioned by segregationist spokesmen in their attempts to draw a parallel between racial developments in the two areas. 48 For the first time in many years, Negro citizens have in their democratic aspirations the active support of the Federal Government, reinforced by a strong public opinion outside of the South. Many segregationists desire to retain the pattern of Negro participation in American life which prevailed before May 17, 1954. This view fails to recognize the Negro's conviction that the democratic ideal is realizable for every American citizen without unnecessary delay. The country generally seems to recognize that the quality of race relations in the United States is no longer exclusively a southern or a northern concern. It even goes beyond being a national concern. Increasingly, the American public is recognizing that peoples throughout the world question America's hope and competence to lead a free world if one-tenth of its own people do not enjoy the freedoms it seeks to promote abroad. A second obstacle is the substantial absence of communication between whites and Negroes. This is deplored by many spokesmen with rarely a constructive suggestion for interchange of ideas or opinions in terms of current realities. Another factor contributing to unfavorable race relations is the almost complete absence of joint effort or program by the total citizenry in any southern community to promote the community welfare. These mutual interests of citizenssuch as expansion of industry, community beautification, better utility services, better welfare services, or improved recreation-could be harnessed for posititve action. The individuals involved in cooperative work for such useful purposes would contribute indirectly but substantially to better community race relations. The focus of the news in race relations in the South during 1957 was on the process of desegregation in the public affairs of citizens. This was sometimes a distressing story to view, but there were some high moments in the democratic tradition. The record shows that the South has not yet joined the rest of the country in the demonstration of impartial regard under the law and in uniformity of public treatment for all its citizens. Until this occurs, America's attention will continue, no doubt, to focus on the process of adjusting segregation practices to national ideals and to Federal law, both of which support desegregation. Any substantial neglect of current world trends in behalf of human rights delays perilously America's achievement of its urgently needed unity in democratic spirit, its efficiency of national productive effort, and its demonstration of commitment to high moral and spiritual values. # # # # # 49 BOOKS WORTH KNOWING-- 7HF. FRONTTFR MIND 6y Arthur K. Moore, The University of Kentucky Press, Lexington. 264 pp. 1957. $5.00 WE FENCE CORNER sociologists who glibly tell outsiders that we are still living in a "frontier society" in the Appa lachian South had better find another catchphrase, if we take this book to heart. If Arthur K. Moore is right-and he presents an amazingly I deep documentation to back up his case-the frontiersman and the c present mountaineer have little in common except for physical sur roundings. By implication, at least, Moore says that our traditional picture of the frontiersman needs redrawing into a more honest likeness. And he proceeds to sketch into the portrait some new dimensions that seem to be needed. Basically, says the authorof THE FRONTIER MIND, the frontiersman was an unlettered romantic seeking utopia. He fully expected to find "The New Eden" in the fertile fields just to the west of the mountains as quickly as he could, restless to settle the Bluegrass. $ This romantic dream of the New Heaven and the New Earth was shattered, of course, as soon as the planters and professional men of the Seaboard swarmed into the new lands conquered by the ; Boones and took it away from the frontiersmen through land grabs and legal tricks. Moore, who is a native Kentuckian and a professor of English at the University of Kentucky, does his best to puncture the myth that turned the frontiersman into a hero of Greek proportions. He shows how this myth was created by writers of the last century who depended more on their emotions than on reality. The chief value of this book is that it helps us to understand the motivations of the frontiersman. An excellent research job, it draws together material not usually accessible to most of us. The most obvious fault, to me at least, is the fact that some times the author takes up too much time and space examining the 50 characters created by writers of a former generation. An obvious conclusion that must be drawn from this book is that the motivations that activated the frontiersman are far different from those of the Southern Mountaineer today. The frontiersman had the attributes of a romantic nomadisr j the rural Southern Mountaineer of today seems to live within the framework of what Redfield calls a "universal peasant culture. " It is interesting to remember that one of the oldest pieces of writing yet recovered is a Babylonian clay tablet describing a conflict between a nomad and a farmer. Moore has shown us in this book that we can no longer use "frontier" or "pioneer" loosely when applied to the Appalachian South. Philosophically, the Southern Mountaineer is just as far removed from the frontiersman as he is from the denizen of the Loop. -------- Chad Drake MOUNTAIN DOORYARDS 6y Dora Read Goodale. Illustrations by Mary Rogers. A Council publication. 64 pp. $1.00. The Council takes especial pride and pleasure in republishing this volume of Miss Goodale's poetry, now out of print. Said Sarah Cleghorn of the first edition, "The poems have exactly the right infusion of dialect and not a syllable too much. They seem to me to contain more concentrated poetry than anything new I have come across for many a day." In her delightful drawings, Mary Rogers has aptly captured the mood and spirit of the poet. "I have never had greater pleasure in an assignment than in this one," said Mrs. Rogers. "Each poem has its own phrase or turn of words that suggests its own picture. I have only to draw from my experience in the mountains." Uplands Sanitorium, which was so dear to Miss Goodale's heart, will receive a royalty on all of the books. NIPPY AND THE YANKEE DOODLE, a collection of folktales by Dr. Leonard Roberts. Illustrations by Mary Rogers. A Council publication. 48 pp. 504. Because of the continued popularity of I BOUGHT ME A DOG, now in its fourth printing (this means that there are 10, 000 copies in print), the Council is issuing a second volume of folktales: NIPPY AND THE YANKEE DOODLE. From the wealth of his store of tales, Dr. Roberts brings us ten more. If you enjoyed them in Mountain Life & Work, you will be happy to have this collection. MOUNTAIN YOUTH Why donut YOU get into the swing like these young people who took part in this year's Mountain Folk Festival at Berea, Kentucky. If you would like help in securing leaders who could help you start a folk recreation group in your school or community, or if you already have a group and would like help in enriching your program, write to the Council. 52 MOUNTAIN This is the fourth time MOUNTAIN YOUTH YOUTH has appeared as a special section of the Council magazine. Where is that article, story, poem you were going to write? How about this? All over the United States, people are questioning the present educational methods in our schools. Do you agree with the youth group at the Eastern Kentucky regional meeting of the Council this spring which came forth with several recommendations to teachers which surprised most of the adults present? )) 1. Give more home work. )) 2. Be more strict in requiring work done. )) 3. Have more patience. Here is your chance "to tell the world. " The pages of MOUNTAIN YOUTH are open to you to discuss this problem of vital concern to every one of you. A Breath of Spring for Your Letters! Woods Pretties folded notes Five ink sketches by Mary Rogers on bond paper with matching envelopes. Dogwood, Mushroon, Hepatica, Oak, snowdrop. Assorted designs unless you specify one only. 10 Sheets and envelopes. . . 50Ã‚Â¢ postpaid PENNYWISE PRESS Dorothy Nace Tharpe Maynardville, Route 2, Tennessee WHOLESALE RATES TO SHOPS AND ORGANIZATIONS 53 Council leaders, Denada Cecil, Robbins, Tenn. and Ben West, Sylvania, Ala., teach folk dancing. Southern Union Organizes First STUDENTS AT Southern Union College, Wadley, Alabama, have organized the first campus unit of the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. Under the leadership of Vice President Douglas Wasson, a member of the Board of Directors of the Council, the group is making an intensive effort to relate the total educational program at Southern Union to the needs and opportunities of the Southern Highlands. Wadley is located in Randolph County, near the Talladega mountains at the very beginning of the Appalachian range in the South. The group meets biweekly and has a variety of programs: kodachrome lectures on the Great Smokies, a discussion on health programs in the Appalachians, story telling, ballad singing, and recreation. One of the first projects of the group was to provide entertainment for high school students coming in to the spring football and basketball tryouts. The Council unit has a "council" for its own organization. Miss Denada Cecil, Robbins, Tennessee, is chairman. Others are Larry Ray, Oxford, and Benny West, Sylvania, Alabama; Carol Murphy, Waterbury, Connecticut; and John D. Atkinson, St. Petersburg, Florida. Miss Jo Peacock, head of the English department at Southern Union, works with Mr. Wasson as an adult conselor for the group. # # # # # 54 THE MOUNTAIN "The Mountain" was written while the author was a mem ber of a prose writing class LOYAL JONES at Berea College. It was published in a collection in 1953. IT WAS SEPTEMBER of 1946 when we turned northward up the New England coast headed for Bar Harbor, Maine. We had come from the inky-blue Carribean, so different from the grey Atlantic. Now it was raining at sea, and the cold fog made us shiver. The waves piled furiously high, and the big ship rolled back and forth until sailors retched weakly over the side, if they got that far. Moisture dripped from the big guns as spray flew over everything. The sky had cleared by the time we neared Bar Harbor, and when the cry, "We're coming in," was relayed through the ship, I hurried on deck to bright sunlight. I looked around quickly and then stopped in amazement. There dead ahead was a mountain, the first I had seen since leaving North Carolina. I gazed at it fore a long time, suddenly homesick. It was not a tall mountain such as I had been used to, but I knew that it was to the people of Bar Harbor what Old Poorhouse or Tusquittee Bald was to me, although I had not thought much about them before. Now I remembered how the rain whitened Old Poorhouse before it reached down into the valley. I had grown up in the mountains without being much aware of them. I saw now the beauty of a mountain, serenely rugged, a great form looking paternally over a town. I thought back to the foothills of home, to the great bulge of the Smokies and to the rim of the Blue Ridge. I remembered how the Snow Bird and the Unaka ranges hemmed in a valley. I remembered Old Pisgah jutting into the sky and Mt. Mitchell with her sister mountains sprawling around her, all landmarks of a region I loved. I loved the sea with its power and beauty, its fury and its tranquility, but now I wanted to see the mountains, and I knew I must go back to them. 4 # # # # 55 The Council's new Itinerant Recreator writes this report of some of her work recently in the highlands of Georgia and Virginia. We've called it. . . SUZANNE & THE YOUNG'UNS SUZANNE G R wandering minstrel I-A thing of shreds and patches, Of ballads, songs, and snatches, And dreamy lullaby NANKI-POO, in Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta, "The Mi kado," was a wandering minstrel who came to the King's court in Titipu, Japan. He had a good bit of trouble from the Lord High Executioner while trying to get a wife, but finally he succeeded in getting her. Although I wasn't looking for a husband as Nanki-Poo was looking for a wife, I wandered over the South` ern Appalachians last summer as a recreator for the Council. Since Laurie Smith, the Smith College recreation interne for this year, was unable to come until fall, I substituted for her for a month. Immediately after the Craftsman's Fair in Asheville, I went to Bowdon, Georgia, to help set up a recreation program for a group of teenagers. West Georgia College, which is nearby, sponsors an adult education service-centered program called "College-in-the Country. " Thirty-one farm communities in four counties participate in the program. Unity community, one of the most active of the "College" groups,had become interested in working with the teenagers in their community and the surrounding ones as a project. The first night I was there, the teenagers brought their parents and younger brothers and sisters to an organizational meeting followed by an evening of games and dancing. We decided that the teenagers would meet every night, and on two nights the older adults, as well as the children, would join us for the evening. Every morning those who were too young to be called teenagers came to the schoolhouse to play games and learn folk dances taught by two of the older girls. The mothers cooperated wonderfully in bringing the children; each mother who had a car stopped J 56 at the neighboring farms to collect the youngsters. To end the week with a bang, a square dance band from a neighboring community played for a party, climaxed by a cakewalk. The highlight of Sunday was an all-day sing at one of the nearby churches. People came from all over Georgia and Alabama. We arrived at the church early in the morning, and even then the singing had already started. Immediately in front of the platform was the soprano section; to the right were the tenors and basses, and to the left were the altos. As we went in, the family I was with split up, each one going to his own section. The crowd sang all morning as people drifted in until there were no more seats in the church, and many were standing in doorways. At noon one of the men announced that after the next song, the ladies could spread the dinners which they had brought. Tables were provided in the churchyard. Even though the food was delicious and plentiful, these people had come to sing, and, since the singing was held only once a year, within an hour everybody had gathered again in the church. This time I thought I would try to sing alto, but soon I slipped back to the soprano section and sang there the rest of the afternoon. I am sure that Nanki-Poo never had a more enjoyable experience, nor did he receive more hospitality from anyone than I received from the Bowdon people. Next on the itinerary was the Virginia Highlands Festival at Abingdon, Virginia, the town that boasts of having no mosquitoes and the best drinking water in the East. Every year in cooperation with the Virginia State Board of Education, the Museum of Fine Arts, the University Extension Division, Emory and Henry College, V. P. I. , the Barter Theatre, the Council of the Southern Mountains, their civic and cultural clubs, Abingdon holds a "Festival of Arts." Crafts, paintings, and photography are exhibited. Panel discussions are held on various themes-writing, dramatics, art, and recreation. The emphasis in the Festival is toward building a more creative community through individual participation. Games and puppets with the children, as well as the story hour at the library, round out the program so that the whole community from the youngsters to the adults can participate fully. In the mornings the children came to the school to play games and make puppets, and in the afternoon the teenagers came to folk dance and play games. One of the most enjoyable parts of the day J was in the evening after the performance at the Barter Theatre. People gathered at the Chez Robert on the lawn of the Martha Washington Inn for a cup of coffee and a mountain square dance. 57 One afternoon, Mrs. Keys, the puppeteer, and I went to Damascus, a small town nearby, to play with the children. By the time we had set up the puppet stage, the room was full of youngsters anxious to see Jack and the Beanstalk and the Worm. After the plays, we went to the yard to learn how to "pick" cotton as we "pick" cotton in Georgia. Then we went on a bear hunt to "catch" a mountain bear. As soon as someone "saw" the bear, there were shrieks of laughter, and everybody "ran" home without "catching" him after all. The children enjoyed playing other games until Mrs. Keys and I had to return to Abingdon for a late afternoon session on the lawn of the Martha Washington Inn. The summer was almost over, and with the end of summer comes school. I made one more stop at Berea to return my recreation materials and headed home. My wandering had endedtemporarily at least. # # # # # Singers Entertain Conference rw A~ (From left to right: Mrs. Warrick, Jo-Ann Avery, Suzanne Sanders, Wands Bales, Clara Lou Willis, Jane Doane. Sally Haigh, the sixth member of the group, is missing from the picture.) A very real contribution was made to the program of the annual conference by the Washington College Academy sextet, which sang at several of the meetings. The Academy takes justifiable pride in the accomplishments of its music department under the direction of Mrs. L. M. Warrick. The school choir leads the singing of hymns each morning at the ten-minute devotional period which starts the school day. Mrs. Warrick's daughter Jane received the Eugenia Buxton cup for piano excellence at the Tennessee state festival this year. 58 Over Mountain Trails One of the forgotten feats of horse manship in American history was made across the roof of the Appalachians from Washington to Nashville by a Tennessee boy, Billy Phillips. He WARREN LAMBERT rode an incredible 860 miles in nine days. Here is the story. PROBABLY THE TWO most famous horseback rides in American history were Paul Revere's and General Philip H. Sheridan's. You know them both-April 18, 1775, when Revere rode up to Concord and Lexington, warning against the advance of General Gage-and October 19, 1864; it was twenty miles from Winchester to Cedar Creek, and Phil Sheridan covered it, after the cannon fire woke him up that morning, in time to turn crushing defeat into splendid victory and send Jubal Early spinning down the Shenandoah. They provided the meat for famous poems those rides-there was hardly a school boy in America who could not recite both of them. But Revere and Sheridan ran short races, calculated sprints against time, fine pieces of emergency service to the country, but hardly outstanding exploits of horsemanship in themselves. How many Americans know anything about a Tennessee boy who, in 1812, accomplished a triumph of endurance in the saddle that would have made either Revere or Sheridan willingly retire from the race? Before the days of telegraph and radio, governments had a problem that hardly occurs to us now. How, after all, did a king call up his barons for a war? How did a Congress publish its new public laws in distant states? Genghis Khan had done it, five centuries before 1812, in a sort of pony express which, it is said, could carry a message the breadth of Asia in thirty days. In the early years of the American Republic the job was done by the old Express-Courier Service, equipped with horsts at relay stations across the country, with men assigned to carry government dispatches and official orders wherever they might be directed. Twelve of them were posted to the White House, four a day on duty for call as needed. The boy who, in 1812, accomplished one of this country's greatest feats of horsemanship, was Billy Phillips. He came from around Nashville, and had won a name for himself in races for that energetic sportsman, Andrew Jackson. Senator Campbell had taken the boy to Washington where, cashing in on his previous experience, he signed on as an express-courier with the government. It was a relatively soft job, on the average; good pay, good hotels, and a chance to pick up extra money riding at the old Bladensburg Race Track. Much of the time there was no official riding to do and the salary was regular just the same. Billy Phillips' call to what ought to be great fame came on June 12, 1812. It was a Friday afternoon; Congress had just passed a joint resolution declaring the United States again at war with her mother country. President James Madison, his face set in hard lines, signed the enrolled copy as soon as they could get it to him at the White House. The country must be informed at once, and Madison called in the four express-couriers on duty. Phillips was one of them. His assignment: to carry the official dispatch south, to Richmond, Hillsboro, Salisbury, Morganton, Jonesboro, Knox ville, Nashville, Natchez, New Orleans. His specific instructions: to spread the word all along the route as he rode. Probably his knowledge of that country, where he had been reared, and his reputation as a hard rider won that particular road for him. He had 850 miles to go to Nashville, and he made it in just nine days. It was a feat of endurance hardly equaled in American and, probably, in world history. It was five in the afternoon when Congress voted war on England. It was an hour later when Madison signed the Resolution. Before sundown, Billy was across the Potomac into the Old Dominion. On Monday, the 15th, the Reverend Dr. Raynor, in Lexington, Virginia, wrote to a friend in Charlotte ". . .the President's express rider, Bill Phillips, has tore through this little place without stopping... he come and went in a cloud of dust, his horse's tail and his own long hair streaming alike in the wind as they flew by.. . "But as he past the tavern stand he... shouted 'Here's the Stuff I Wake up! War! War with England! 1 WAR 1! ' " Before that letter could be delivered at Charlotte, Billy was through Salisbury, on the way to Jonesboro. That ride took him across the roof of the Appalachians; his horse galloped up mountain trails, forded the streams, thundered through some of the most magnificent country in America. Out of Morganton, the route turned northwest through Burke County, crossed the crest of the Appalachians somewhere in the region of Roan High Knob, passed a little northeast of the present Cherokee National Forest, and ran on into J 60 Washington County, Tennessee, and Jonesboro. In the late June heat, the vast mountain forests stretched away to either side of the trail; from parts of the road Billy could have seen the awesome grandeur of distant Appalachian ranges, milky blue in the haze-if he had had the time. But this was no sight-seeing tour; the dogwood and the redbud were out of bloom by then, but the rhododendron's glossy leaves, the stately oaks that overhung the road, the somber pines on the slopes of the mountains, all these, in the summer beauty of the Appalachians, he must have seen only out of the corner of his eye, as he rode across the crest and into Jonesboro. From there the "straight road," the old Emigrant Trail, skirted Knoxville to the north and direct to Nashville. But thinking that Governor Blount of Tennessee would be at his spacious home overlooking the river in Knoxville, Billy turned aside, lost six precious hours-for the Governor had gone to Nashville. When he found his error, Billy reined the horse, tirelessly turned its head across the mountains. Hardly an easy man to discourage. Before dark on June 21 he was in Nashville. He reported to the Governor at once, and the chief of state wrote out for him, "Received, etc. , certain letters from the President and the Secretary of War, by the hands of William Phillips, U. S. Courier, Nashville, June 21, 1812, ? o'clock P.M." Andrew Jackson was also in Nashville that night, and the defense of the West would fall on his shoulders. Billy had ridden in races for Jackson when only sixteen. Their conversation is not recorded, but Old Hickory must have been proud of the boy. The night of June 21, he spent with his parents. At daybreak, worn out now but still undaunted, he was on a fresh mount, and on the road to Natchez and New Orleans. It would carry him six hundred miles beyond Nashville. That last leg of the long trip took him something like a day longer than he had spent on the 860 miles out of Washington. Perhaps the remounts were not as good, and certainly Billy must have been exhausted. Probably he felt that having notified Blount and Jackson, the most important men in the West, he was past the need for the same kind of hurry that had carried him like a whirlwind through Virginia and east Tennessee. Even so, it was only July 2, nineteen days after he had left the national capital, better than fourteen hundred miles to the east, when Governor Claiborc ~ of Louisiana signed his receipt at eight in the evening. He had made one of the most amazing horseback rides in history: 860 miles in nine days, and then, without a rest, six hundred more in ten. sl Why has American history forgotten Billy Phillips? Probably the answer is not too hard to find. Soldiers often say that the way to win a medal is to do something heroic while an officer is looking. A great American man of letters immortalized Paul Revere. Thomas Buchanna Reed's "Sheridan's Ride" served the Civil War general in the same stead. Billy Phillips was one of those unlucky heroes who found no inspired scribe to set down what he had accomplished in ringing words to catch the public ear. And this is a pity, for Billy Phillips was an example. He should have become a symbol in our later history, for America in the 1800's was to become a land of the horse. Before many years more she would produce a Custer, vain and foolish, but a great cavalry man for all that, and a Jeb Stuart, who could have ridden with Napoleon. Before many years Phil Sheridan would have Rienzi, and Sam Grant his Cincinnatus, and the last real knight the western world ever saw would confer undying glory on even so bad an issue as slavery and so unwise a cause as secession, astride a horse named Traveller. Yes, Billy should have become a symbol. The saddle became the throne of an empire-America's new empire, spreading over almost infinite plains to the shining western ocean. That he did not is the fault of his own section. For Billy was a southerner, a Tennessean. New England had its bards to sing its heroes' stories. It is one of our section's tragedies that we produced too few of them to tell the sagas of Americans like Billy Phillips. The call to arms that he carried across the Appalachians into Tennessee was heard by many boys in the hills, and the troops, under Jackson, that humbled Lord Packingham at New Orleans, were largely, like Billy himself, westerners, and many of them from the mountains. Does America really know this-really know how great a part Appalachia has played, not just in Billy's day, but throughout all our history? Perhaps Billy Phillips, therefore, is another kind of symbol. He accomplished a physical feat hardly equaled in the service of his country, and our histroy has been allowed to overlook it. Perhaps we should see in him something our own section has neglected, so something we ought to have attended to. For not out of sectional pride, but as Americans, we should have let it be known that we, too, gave to this great country our Paul Revere. If some latter day poet will do this yet, he will render not only a service to the memory of William Phillips, U. S. Courier, but to us all. Mr. Lambert is instructor in social studies in Berea Foundation School. 62 INTRODUCING PRISCILLA BALDWIN Our Smith College Recreation Interne We asked Priscilla to tell us something about herself. Here is a glimpse in her own words. " My home town is Libertyville, Illinois (home town of Mr. Stevenson and the only Serbian Monastery in the United States.) "I truly enjoy people and the out-of-doors. In grade school and high school, I was very active in the 4-H (though I still burn the toast) and went to county and state fairs on a demonstration team until one afternoon, while demonstrating how to make upside down cake, I said, 'Now we break the egg on the side of the bowl' and I had a hard boiled eggl "During summers I've worked in an herb garden and as a _~~ life guard. One summer I took my brothers to a ranch in Montana; another time I studied creative writing at Northwestern University, and last summer I went to France on the Experiment in International Living, an organization which tries to promote international understanding among young people. "At college, I am majoring in English literature, which I hope to teach in high school two years from now. My main interests are in arts and crafts and children's dramatics. "I am looking forward eagerly to meeting you and to beginning my workship year. " For fourteen years Smith College students have sent a graduate to spend a year under the direction of the Council in the Appalachian South to help in setting up recreation programs and training recreation leaders in communities which do not have full time recreation leadership. Priscilla will be available after the first of September. Le+ ters addressed to her at the Council office will be sent on to her, so that she can start making her schedule even before she arrives in Berea. She will attend the John C. Campbell Folk School Recreation short course from June 23 to July 4 as her first meeting with the area. # # # # # 63 COMING EQE1IT1W1% JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL, Brasstown, N. C., holds special courses in: HANDICRAFTS, June 2-14 and July 28 to August 16; RECREATION, June 23 to July 4. Write Georg Bidstrup, Director. APPALACHIAN STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, Boone, N. C., holds three summer workshops: two in Children's Literature, STORYTELLING, June 11-25, and CREATING AN INTEREST IN BOOKS, July 21 to August 1; the other in LIVING FOLK TRADITIONS, July 21 to August 22. Credit may be received in these workshops. For the Children's Literature Workshops write to Miss Beulah Campbell, Director. For the Folk Workshop write to Director, Summer Session. " SINGIN' ON THE MOUNTAIN" is a traditional song festival held June 23 at Linville, N. C. LINCOLN MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY, Harrogate, Tenn., holds the AMERICAN SQUARES SCHOOL, June 29 to July 5. Write Charley Thomas, 500 East Red Bank Ave., Woodbury, N. J. WEST VIRGINIA'S Annual Folk Festival July 5 and 6 is at Glenville. CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild is set for July 14-18 in the City Auditorium, Asheville, N. C. FOLK FESTIVALS will be held every Saturday afternoon during July and August at the Festival Platform in Boone, N. C. VIRGINIA HIGHLANDS FESTIVAL, 10th Annual, will be held in Abingdon, August 1-15. VIRGINIA REGIONAL COUNCIL MEETING will be held August 4 in Abingdon. WORKSHOP IN CLEAR WRITING FOR EASY READING, sponsored cooperativel; by the Council, Virginia Highlands Festival, Emory and Henry College, will be held August 11-15 at Emory and Henry College, Emory, Va. Write to the Publications Commission, Council of the Southern Mountains. College Box 2000, Berea, Ky. MOUNTAIN DANCE AND FOLK FESTIVAL,31st Annual, is held August 7-9, in the City Auditorium, Asheville, N. C. GALA MUSIC FESTIVAL, 14th Annual, is held August 9-11, 15-17, and 22-25, at Brevard Music Center, Brevard, N. C. FOR THE DRAMAS see pages 7 and 8. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below and send with $1.00 to the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC.,works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian South with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help meet some of the social, educational, spiritual,ond cultural needs peculiar to this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and by means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. --Participation is invited on these bases Student membership $ 1,50 Active individual membership $ 3.00 to 4.00 Supporting membership 5.00 to 24.00 Sustaining membership 25.00 or more Institutional membership 5.00 or more --Subscriptions to MOUNTAIN LIFE d WORK included in all memberships NAME ADDRESS (Please detach and mail to Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky.) ------------------------------------------------------------------- *e%ersh3rd issue i 19,5 ~7 72`ll , o+d . For Members: is 't~. 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