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Mountain Life & Work vol. 34 no. 3 1958 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv34n30758 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 34 no. 3 1958 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky 1958 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. MOUNTAIN VOL. XXXIV NO, 3 LIFE AND WORK ---________i958-__________ P U B L I S H E D A T THE O F F ICE O F THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS SEALE BUILDING. MAIN STREET, BEREA. KENTUCKY. ENTERED AS SECOND CLASO MATTER AT BEREA. KENTUCKY. MANAGING EDITOR: Charles Drake, College Station, Berea, Ky. Associate Editor: Mardi Drake PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE: ,'Hiss Florene Brooks, Chairman Mr. Richard Chase Mrs. Helen Bollard Krechniak Mrs. Septima Clark Mr. Earl Palmer Dr. Robert Cornett Mrs. Jac Lyndon Tharpe Miss Maureen Faulkner Mr. Willard Trepus Miss Mildred Hines Mr. Jess Wilson Mrs. Pauline Hord STAFF ARTIST: Mrs. Burton Rogers Mountain Life & Work is published quarterly by the COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. Perley F. Ayer, Executive Secretary. Subscription price: $1.00 per year to non-members of the Council. This subscription price is included in the member ship fee of the Council. 1L11 members receive the magazine. Subscriptions should be sent to: THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Box 2000, College Station Berea, Kentucky ARTICLES for this magazine should be sent to the above address in care of the Managing Editor. SIGNED OR QUOTED ARTICLES ARE NOT NECESSARILY THE EXPRESSION OF EDITORIAL OPINION. NOR DO ARTICLES APPEARING IN THIS MAGAZINE NECESSARILY CARRY THE ENDORSEMENT OF THE COUNCIL OR ITS OFFICERS. PICTURE CREDITS Cover and pp. 23-27, Lou Harshaw; Asheville Chamber of Commerce; p. 14, Roy Walters; p. 17, Pine Mountain Settlement School; p. 20, Chad Drake; p. 37, Allen Kegley; p. 38, Loyal Jones; p. 39, Ed Dupuy; p. 41, Knoxville News-Sentinel; p. 43, Carl Hanley; p. 53 (Youth Cover), Loyal Jones; p. 55-56, Jess Wilson. 3 COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS, INC. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ IN THIS ISSUE Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ ... THE GANGING HIGHLANDS ...Homard Beers AGFIVCYITIS James L. Pa tton 8 CONSERVATION IS A PERSONAL MATTER. Robert Ferguson 10 THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL 12 BETTER HEALTH FOR MOUNTAIN MOTHERS Louise Hutchins 16 THE APPALACHIAN SCHOLAR . Wray & Drake 21 APPALACHIAN HOLIDAY 23 BOOKS ~ORTH KNOWING 28 Pattern of a Dream Helen Dingman 29 JONIS AND THE GIANT'S GIRL.. Folk tale from Leonard Roberts 33 HE CARVES A WAY OF LIFE Chad Drake 37 INNER-CITY CHURCH MINISTERS TO MIGRANTS Carl Hanley 42 "GOOD SAMARITANS' LIFT LITERACY LEVEL David Dustin 46 MOUNTAIN YOUTH FUN NIGHT AT McKEE Colleen Farmer 55 TREES TO PAY COLLEGE EXPENSES 57 BALLAD GATHERER, 59 YOUR WILD LIFE I. Q. 62 LET'S MAKE OURSELVES KNOWN THIS EMBLEM OF A COMMON Sterling lapel button $1.50 DEDICATION TO THE APPALACHIAN Sterling pin $1.50 SOUTH MAY BE PURCHASED AND Sterling tie bar $5.00 WORN BY COUNCIL MEMBERS. Sterling bar pin $5.00 (See back cover for membership) (Prices include tax) SEND ORDERS TO: Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. College Box 2000, Berea, Kentucky YOUR CONFERENCE HOME IN THE SMOKY MOUNTAINS Mountain View 1-jo~el GATLII~IBLIRG. TENN. Gatlinburg's FIRST a nd STI LL Favorite MODERN RESORT HOTEL, OPEN ALL THE YEAR 5 Great social changes are going on within the Appalachian South. The pattern of these changes was delineated at two special sessions of the last annual conference of the Council 6y a dozen experts who have been studying the region. DR. HOWARD BEERS, Head of the Department of Sociology and Rural Sociology at the University of Kentucky, has summarized the conclusions that came out of the meetings in the following article. In it he points out what is taking place in ... s The Changing Highlands WITH RESPECT TO POPULATION features, the Appalachian South has "joined the United States." In essential characteristics and main trends, the region exhibits more and more the same qualities observable in the nation at large. Hence, the features of the region are less unique and distinctive and are not as much the expression of only internal factors as they formerly were. At the same time, there is some breaking up of the old alleged regional highland homogeneity, and new patterns of diversity and variety in sub-regions and local sub-cultures are seen. A corollary of this point is that the evaluation of Appalachian regional situations can no longer be made only in terms of internal standards. Educational level, ratios of church membership and attendance, health conditions, recreational patterns, and all other social and cultural elements of life in the region have to be measured and weighed against standards that have at least national reference. On the "touchy" point of outmigration, one must acknowledge that economic adjustment within the region and of region to nation will continue to take people from the mountains. Leaders in the region will do well to turn their concern and their effort to the problem of helping persons, families, institutions, and communities to face reality and make necessary adjustments. Today after fifteen years of national prosperity, the families of the southern states have average incomes only about two-thirds as high as those in the rest of the nation. To be sure this represents progress, because as late as 1939 average incomes in the South were only about one-half those of the rest of the nation. In fact, looking at the situation today, one can say that urban whites in the South are nearly as well off, in terms of income, as urban whites outside of the South, once we make allowances for differences 6 in cost of living. Even now, however, southern farm families, white and Negro, have average incomes only about one-half of those of farm families elsewhere in the United States. In the Appalachian South few farm families have cash incomes from all sources of more than a thousand dollars a year. Furthermore, the Appalachian South's low-income farm families include relatively few who are poor because they are aged, disabled, widowed, or divorced. Rather, they consist primarily of complete farm-operator families whose family heads are male, able-bodied, and in their more productive years. Such farm families are, therefore, poor primarily because they produce little. They produce little because they lack enough land and capital to earn an adequate income from farming. And at the same time these people lack non-farm job opportunities. How can the Appalachian South solve this problem of overpopulation and low-income agriculture? It must accelerate the industrial urban development of its rural areas. Public recognition of the following needs would facilitate such industrial development: First, there is a need for much greater financial support for the activities of the several state industrial development commissions. Second, we need continued expansion of power facilities to , j1 meet the area's future industrial needs. Third, we need improved labor market information. Fourth, we need the development of federal policies more favorable to the location of new defense plants in lowincome rural areas. Finally, we need the development of f ederal grants-in-aid to improve public school education, to extend non-farm vocational I education or training to the rural high schools, and to provide better medical, health, and library facilities in rural areas. In other words, in most low-income rural areas agriculture must ultimately be reorganized on a community-wide basis. In fact, in the more mountainous counties, forestry may ultimately have almost wholly to displace agriculture. But in either case, community-wide reorganization of the land use must await a substantial reduction in the pressure of farm population on the local land resources and a consequent reduction in local land values. Once the overpopulation problem is solved, however, much more generous public farm credit will be an absolute necessity. While the South was at one time an underdeveloped region educationally, the situation is improving, and the gap between our educational level and that of the rest of the country is, in many re spects, closing.From the 1940 and 1950 census figures, we see 7 that the whole nation increased its level of schooling from a position a bit more than half-way through the ninth grade to about a third of the way through the tenth grade-from 8. 6 years of schooling to 9. 3 years. In the same decade the typical person in one of the southern mountain states increased his schooling similarly but was behind about one grade-from 7. 7 years of School completed to 8. 4 years of school completed in that ten-year period. So tie average southerner had about the same level of education in 1950 that his national counterpart had had ten years earlier. There are figures to show that in the 257 mountain counties there was a loss of 75 per cent of the students who entered the first grade in 1944-45 before their high school graduation in 1956. In other words, in these 257 counties 75 of each 100 children who entered the first grade in 1944 dropped out of school before they graduated from high school. The counties in one state lost 89 per cent of one class during the twelve school years; that is, only 11 per cent of the students who started in the first grade graduated from high school. For those who remain in school, unfortunately, there are the problems of inadequately trained teachers and meager facilities. The sooner we come to speak of Health Care, instead of Public Health and Medical Care as separate entities, the sooner we will really solve our problems in this field. The "basic health need" has been defined (by G. W. Johns) as "some means of assuring that every worker and his dependents, rich and poor, shall have full access to the highest quality services of modern medical science, not only in time of emergency but in the everyday preservation of good health. " o 0 0 ~Wnz~~~O Reviewing the development of public welfare programs in the Southern Appalachians, explanations were presented of public assistance, old age and survivors insurance (Social Security), aid to the blind,the old, the dependent child, and the totally disabled, medical care for recipients of public assistance, vocational rehabilitation and child welfare services. Their impact on the region has been of considerable and increasing influence. v`. The work of the Kentucky Department of Economic Develop ment was presented as an illustration of ways to encourage new industrial development within the region. Industrialists, in seeking locations, look for labor supply, transportation facilities, power, raw materials, and desirable towns. The work of the Department is mainly under the heading of assisting communities to develop desirable towns. # # # # # 8 WARNING ! DEADLY DISEASE agencyitis ~ ~CONTAGIOUS! SPREADS RAPIDLY THROUGH ~RGE GROUPS. CAN BE FATAL! HAVE WE FALLEN VICTIM to "Agency-itis" here in the southern mountain region? In an address given before a regional meeting of the Council of the Southern Mountains this spring, Dr. James L. Patton, head of the Kentucky Bureau of Vocational Education and a member of the state board of the national Rural Development Program, spoke of the challenge to all groups working for the welfare of a region to 1) pool their knowhow and gear into a united program and 2) to keep their work people-centered. Beginning with a statistical analysis of the economic, educational and other needs of the people in fifteen eastern counties of Kentucky (copies of which analysis may be ordered from the Council office) Dr. Patton went on to discuss how we may hope to meet these needs. "There is sufficient know-how in the different governmental agencies," he said, "that if properly geared in to a pattern of work could be a great force in the development of the people in the area. A degree of hope lies in the Rural Development Program because of its basic concept of all agencies working together to stimulate people in rural areas to self-improvement. "The individual agencies that make up the Rural Development state organization"-and could this not include all of us who are working in the Appalachian region?-"are so inflicted with 'agencyitis' that we are unable to give the leadership that could be given if once we would get the welfare of people definitely at the center of our thinking. It is true that in our basic philosophy people are uppermost in mind; but in setting up the machinery to operate we are sometimes handicapped by the inability of groups to get together and work as a team. 9 "To lift the educational, spiritual, and sociological horizons of the people through an organized effort on the part of local committees is probably the key to unlocking the doors of opportunity to the future development of rural people in the southern mountain region. To do this there must be unity of purpose as to program development and the education of rural leadership. For this job to be done effectively we must open the channels of untapped technical know-how of governmental agencies in order that they might be instrumental in the team approach to the development of people. "Through Rural Development working with the Council these resources can be tapped and made use of through organized community leadership. The challenge that faces us is tremendous I" September Meet Planned Seven Counties Talk Mutual Problems SEVEN COUNTIES of the Upper Piedmont Plateau in Georgia will send representatives in late September to Gainesville to discuss industrial, recreational, and agricultural development. The seven counties represent a distinct geographic area of the highland region. They include Banks, Dawson, Forsyth, Habersham, Hall, Lumpkin, and White. One of the problems to be discussed is the fact that the area has lost over 11, 000 inhabitants since 1950. The meeting will include municipal and civic leaders from the seven county area. It is jointly sponsored by a power company and local officials, and will be a one-day meeting. A recent major development in the area is the Buford Dam across the Chattahoochee River. The resultant lake, named for the poet Sidney Lanier, is drawing thousands of people into the area for water sports. One of the topics to be discussed is water safety. Highway officials have promised to attend with highway plans for the next five years. Leaders in the area are hopeful that the extensive lake will draw new industry into the area, and part of the meeting will be devoted to steps that can be taken to make sure that communities are ready to receive factories. ##### io con,jePeatieft ~,e 4 Pepjonal ,platter ROBERT B. FERGUSON CONSERVATION IS THE WISEST use of our natural resources. The question arises: What are natural resources? It must arise before the real import of the word "conservation" strikes home. If we consider only such things as are listed in our old geography texts in school, we are likely to become malignantly far-sighted. Oil, minerals, water, forests, land--it is true that these are natural resources; but, aside from valuable patriotic connotations, they are so general as to be misleading. They fail to impress us with the very nearness of our natural resources. I know a man who each year nurses into verdant life a marvelous lawn. It is fertilized, watered, mowed, edged, trimmed. If a particular planting does not come up, he imports a fresh load of fine topsoil or hauls in a bale of peat moss. The result is a lawn so beautiful that motorists slow down to get a better look. In the autumn, when the leaves have 11 floated down, he is still active. The leaves are raked and carted around to the back, and soon a slender spire of smoke wafts skyward. Thus, the nourishment of his soil becomes carbon in the breeze. He burns part of the produce of his acres. Basically, he interrupts a natural cycle ...the restoration of his soil. That is why he hauls in topsoil. The destruction just performed is all too common nowadays. In terms of economy it is poor business. No farmer worth his,salt would let a crop of such value go up in smoke. He would find a place for it. Though bulky when freshly fallen, leaves settle and by spring become compressed almost to the level of the ground. It is a simple matter to construct a "holding pen" for decomposing leaves. A wire pen, five or six feet square and open at the top, will do. When filled with the harvest of leaves it can be weighted down with stones. Done each year, the result will be a build-up of rich humus good for garden or that bare patch in the lawn. Conservation is really a personal matter. It is a process of indivichaal growth, a process of learning. Two men learned that leaves when saved as described above are a natural fishing-worm haven. One kept his pile until he had harvested his worms, then hauled the rest away to be burned. The second man, more observant and more attuned to nature, saw he was getting a far richer harvest than worms alone. Indeed, he felt the worms a by-product when he sifted through his fingers the rich soil his leaves had become. The following summer on the same spot he made a very small garden, 4 by 6 feet, which yielded an average of seven tomatoes a day and a mess of beans twice a week all through the growing season. In the autumn a planting of turnip greens was also made. His efforts were returned ten-fold. He had fishing worms, too, and when they weren't dangling from the end of a cane pole, they were working for him in the garden. This second man feels the personal quality of the word "conservation. " He is beginning to really understand what natural resources are. Conservation is not an end in itself more and more it becomes a way of s~ living. 'CONDENSED FROM -i THE TENNESSEE CONSERVATIONIST I 12 Understanding the Community "Education must be conceived as broadly as life itself, as broadly as democracy itself. Curriculum policies and plans growing o`~ of such a concept will be formulated with reference to the nee and problems of society and of individuals. The curriculum will be focused upon the culture - its values, its conflicts, and its potentialities. The competencies required of the individual as a personality and as a member of social groups will be developed. As educational opportunities are extended, education will make a difference in the realities of everyday community living." -National Education Association I I What Kind Is Yours? IS YOURS a community school? Do you agree with the statem It above: "Education must be conceived as broadly as life itself, as broadly as democracy itself." ? These are questions that have been raised in recent years in the Rural School Improvement Program financed by the Fund for the Advancement of Education and carried on in Eastern Kentucky. A report of the first four years of that project has been issued and is available to those professionally interested. Ask for the Report, Rural School Improvement Project, Department of Education, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. On the opposite page we are printing one of the "quiz sheets" contained in the Report. Just for the fun of it, take this quiz yourself. How does your local school rate? Or don't you know enough about it to take the test? If you are in doubt about the way in which your school serves its community, why not take a little time off and visit the place, just to get acquainted with what is going on there. , And when you have made your visit, why not write us a lett~ telling us what you find there. We are especially anxious for letters telling us of creative ideas that are being used with success. We would like to pass them along to others. We hope to publish at least a dozen letters in our next issue telling what schools are like and what they are doing in different communities of the Appalachian South. 13 Is Your School A Community School? Should It Be A Community School? (This check list will tell you your answer!) Below are listed seven characteristics of the community 4chool. Beside each one are four numerals representing a range of practice (and thinking) from "nothing done" to "largely achieved." To contrast your school practice with your own thinking, put circles around numbers which most nearly indicate actual school practice, and boxes around numbers which most nearly reflect your own thinking of what should be. COMMUNITY SCHOOL PRACTICE AND THINKING IN MY SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS Nothing A Little Well on Largely Done Accomplished Our Way Achieved 1. Improves quality of liv ing here and now _____ 0 1 2 3 2. Uses the community as a laboratory for learn ing __________________ 0 1 2 3 3. Makes the school plant a community center ___ 0 1 2 3 4. Organizes the core-cur riculum a r o u n d the processes and problems of living ______________ 0 1 2 5. Includes lay people in school policy and pro gram planning ________ 0 1 2 3 6. Leads in community coordination _________ 0 1 2 3 7. Practices and promotes democracy in all human relationships _________ 0 1 2 3 SCORING DIRECTIONS: Add together the encircled figures to get the score for your school practice. Then add the boxed figures to get the score for your own thinking. Contrast the scores and consider the implications. A score of 21 denotes a genuine community school. A score of 14 shows excellent progress toward a community school. A score of 7 indicates that a beginning has been made. A score of less than 7 suggests a complacent traditional school. 14 I i I I Better Schools Begin With A Concerned Community WHICH SCHOOL WOULD YOU LIKE TO ATTEND? These two pictures illustrate better than any words the difference that a concerned community makes. Both schools have the same basic design and construction, but what a difference! What about the school in YOUR community? Does it fit at the top or the bottom of this page? YOU Can Aid Rural Children Vitamins Needed \ ' WHAT MAKES THE DIFFERENCE between a listless and a vigorous child? It may be only a bottle of vitamins. Reports from many parts of our area mention the need for vitamins to supplement the diet of undernourished children. Several experiments within the past few years point to a dramatic i increase in learning power among children who are given just one vitamin capsule a day. If you have access to a supply of vitamins, you can help by forwarding them to the Council of the Southern Mountains for dis tribution through the schools of our area. Doctors, dentists, nurses, doctors' receptionists, and others who receive sample vitamins can become invaluable donors of better health to underprivileged children. The vitamins desired are the multiple type in capsule form, obtainable without prescription. These can be mailed directly to the Council's address, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. , and they will be distributed through the Health Committee of the Council, without cost, to schools and health centers where there are needy children. Ora Vitamins can be used immediately, as winter approaches. Collecting and mailing them to the Council would make an excellent welfare project for either an interested individual or a group. #### WE CALL TO YOUR ATTENTION Social Legislation Information Service This bulletin reports impartially on federal social legislation and the activities of federal agencies affecting family life, children, and community services in the areas of education, welfare, health, housing, employment, and recreation. No position is taken for or against any legislation. Priced at 25~ per single copy (less for group orders), the bulletin should be ordered from the Social Legislation Information Service, Inc. , 1346 Connecticut Ave. N. W. , Washington, D. C. 16 Better Health for Mountain Mothers t LOUISE HUTCHINS ' i TWENTY-THREE YEARS AGO, at a conference of the Southern Mountain Workers (now the Council of the Southern Mountains), a group of Berea women heard about the planned 1 parenthood work being done at Logan, West Virginia, under the auspices of the Friends Service Committee. This was the begin ping of a new approach toward meeting the needs of women in re mote mountain areas. A nurse was going from home to home telling women how to space their children. I. On their return to Berea they met with Mrs. Page, of Phila delphia, an agent of Dr. Clarence Gamble. This doctor, who has s devoted years in the field of contraceptive research, was desirous t] of testing methods which could be used by rural women, without access to the usual type of urban contraceptive clinic with a full staff of doctors and nurses. He offered to pay the salary of a nurse, furnish a car and pay its expenses, and pay for materials s used, if the group would keep careful records on each case. t, The Berea group immediately accepted his offer and set about e finding a nurse. Thus was founded the Mountain Maternal Health tl League, first known as the Kentucky Maternal Health League. Their first nurse came with a passionate interest in the cause. S Born in a two-room log cabin by the Rockcastle River, she had had b: to give up a scholarship for Annville Institute to help her mother s, with her ever-increasing brood of children. Then, when she was G only sixteen, her mother died in her eleventh childbirth, and the daughter was left to bring up the remaining ten children. Finally i, M she had her chance to go to school and to nursing school and to C learn how to space children, a secret which her mother longed for but never knew. Miss Una Gilliam started on her first trip through Madison, Jackson, and Rockcastle counties, and visited 500 families, by car and on horseback, between July of 1936 and November of 1937:r,~ 11.41 She knew exactly how to approach the women and was absolutely fi: convinced of the need for her work. For two months she also fn worked in Pittman Center, in Tennessee. In 1937 the Council of Southern Mountain Workers sent requests to the Commissioners of Health and Welfare in the mountain states to incorporate planned parenthood instruction in each county health department. Then the Mountain Maternal Health League was ~to work with other organizations to secure inclusion of this instruction as one of the functions of the public health service in Kentucky. Although the organization has continued to work toward this end, it has never obtained full consent from the Kentucky State Department of Health. Seven other southern states have been more far-sighted. From 1937 to 1946 North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Georgia,and Virginia have included planned parenthood as a part of their regular public health service, with full approval and cooperation from the U. S. Public Health Service. In 1938 Miss Gilliam started work in the mining camps of Harlan and Hazard. That Christmas she married. About the same time, Dr. Gamble, feeling satisfied with his 14mrÃ‚Â°research, cut his support of the work to one-third. However, in spite of that, Miss Lena Gilliam's sister Sylvia was hired in November, 1938, and the work was carried on by faith and voluntary contributions. Throughout the spring and summer of 1939 Miss Gilliam worked in Jackson, Rockcastle, Garrard and Madison counties and the case load rose to 625 patients. Then in 1940 the Kentucky Birth Control League helped to send Miss Sylvia Gilliam back to Harlan County. Working at Evarts and Cumberland, Miss Gilliam made 547 home visits and found 400 mothers using the method. She then went on to Lancaster and Adair counties. In response to an appeal from the Maternal Health League of Michigan, Mrs. Sylvia Gilliam Payne was loaned to them for work ',.~ra.mong migrants during July and August of 1941. This was the first work in planned parenthood undertaken among migrants. She found over 200 working in the blueberry fields of Berrien County, 18 many of the families sleeping in cars and on the ground. There were 161 case histories taken and supplies given to 141. From there Mrs. Payne moved to North Carolina and was lost to us as a nurse. From 1941 until 1943 we maintained an office worker, who ~y kept the 700 women on our lists supplied with refills of jelly at clinic prices. Dr. Gamble found that his method, which could be taught at home, was about 85% effective. He discontinued his financial support at this time. In 1943 we were able to secure the services of a married nurse, Mrs. Wilmot Carter. She had to limit her work to areas which could be reached in a day's drive from Berea. A good deal of her work was done in the slums of Richmond, particularly among colored women. A clinic was established at the Berea College Hospital in 194 We have been fortunate in having volunteer women doctors con- t stantly in attendance ever since, a few having come from as far as 150 miles away and several from 40 miles away. Our group has been affiliated with the Planned Parenthood Federation of America since 1945, and our clinic is fully approved by them. t In 1947 Mrs. Gretchen James, an experienced public health s nurse, was secured for our field work. She made 260 new con tacts in five counties of eastern Kentucky, receiving fine cooper ation from field workers of the Aid to Dependent Children in Gar- o rard, Estill, Jackson, and Breathitt counties. However, our funds ran out in 1949 and Mrs. James returned to the field of public health. There was a period of four years in which the clinic continued at the hospital, with about 100 patients a year, and supplies were sent out to between 200 and 300 patients a year. During this time t we kept sending out appeal letters, and by 1953 we had enough f money to try to find another nurse. We heard about the brave and worthy attempt of two midwife nurses, graduates of the Frontier Nursing Service School, to start work in Knott County, the home county of one of them, Miss Ivalean Caudill. The other nurse, Miss Evelyn Mottrem, was a graduate of St. John's Hospital in Brooklyn, but had had six years of experi ence with the Frontier Nursing Service. The two nurses estab lished themselves at Pippa Passes, eight miles farther into the ~ mountains than the Hindman Settlement School. They had already.,/ made friends with the old granny midwife, who had resigned in their favor and even asked them to deliver her own granddaughter. As there were only three doctors in the whole county, only two of c ss whom could make calls, there was great need and no medical opposition. As the work of these nurses became known, they began to receive help from the Theta Delta Tau and Sigma Phi Gamma nation i.~.al sororities and the Appalachian Fund. They also now receive a partial salary from the Knott County Board of Health for their school immunization work. Thus the meager funds of the Mountain Maternal Health League have been able to last longer. It is enlightening to look back over the records and see how their work has grown: Clinic visits Home visits Deliveries Immunizations 1955 1,334 880 28 3,000 1956 1,585 913 48 2,422 1957 1,855 1,031 19 5,566 All of this has been done despite the terrible roads, which they must travel in jeeps, and the fact that some of the homes are ' off even the worst roads and the nurses must carry their heavy bags up the mountain. With contacts like these, they have an ideal chance to speak to the mothers, either just after they have had their babies or at some gathering of mothers for preschool immunizations. Whether the drop in deliveries from 48 to 19 is due to their planned parent `~1/hood teaching would be hard to estimate, but at least it is the only figure which is not increasing. s The most recent expansion of our work involves another nurse midwife and graduate of the Frontier Nursing Service. In August Miss Peggy Kenmer started work in the Stinking Creek area of Knox County. She is being helped by us and will instruct the wo men in simple ways of planning their families, in an area where ' the work has never been done before. With her is a school teacher friend, who will serve in a one-room school so remote that it has been difficult to keep a teacher. Finally, we have interested the visiting nurse of Oneida Hospital in sending in for supplies for her neediest patients. We Ln have hopes of assisting soon in Perry and Rockcastle counties, too. The need for this work is just as vital now as it was when it was started 22 years ago. We have many women like the one who recently came to me for help. She has seven children; the father is unemployed. They receive no relief except for surplus com ~'modities from the federal government. In a neighboring county there is a school welfare worker who visits, with sacks of clothes, about 100 families whose children could not attend school because they did not have clothes to wear. MISS PEGGY KENMER, R,N. (LEFT) AND MISS IRMA GALL. WHO ARE WORKING IN KNOX COUNTY. KY. ARE SHOWN WITH THEIR FOUR-FOOTED FRIENDS BOB AND JUNE. She says that there are another 200 families in a similar predicament whom she does not have time to visit. It is our hope that some day all women of the mountains may learn that they do not have to have an endless stream of babies who cannot be decently clothed, fed and cared for, so that those J children the mothers do have will be able to go to school and to improve their life. # # # # # DR. LOUISE HUTCHINS. PRESIDENT OF THE MOUNTAIN MATERNAL HEALTH LEAGUE. IS THE WIFE OF THE PRESIDENT OF BEREA COLLEGE. SHE HAS FOR MANY YEARS GIVEN GENEROUSLY OF HER TIME IN ADVISING MOTHERS AND CARING FOR THEIR CHILDREN. BOTH AT THE BEREA COLLEGE HOSPITAL AND AT CLINICS ELSEWHERE. 22 For over a generation devoted editors have helped this magazine to grow into a respected source of information about what is going on in the Appalachian South. The following article tells how this growth can continue. The new section, which we hope to add in the near future, will in no way replace the magazine as you know it now. Instead, it will add a new dimension to the scope of the publication, and give you a larger magazine for your enjoyment. , The Appalachian Scholar e. FRANK J. WRAY and RICHARD B. DRAKE ~; A PRINCIPAL NEED of the Southern Appalachians today is understanding. Depressed economically, torn apart by emigration and disintegrating cultural patterns, the area is, in the words of one of our Congressmen, "an island of poverty in a land of milk and honey. " If we could understand the forces that work ~` -Ã‚Â°b Ã‚Â°~ upon us, if we could be made more aware of the most important '~=Ã‚Â°''~`traditions of which -Ae are custodians, perhaps then we might be able to meet the problems of our area realistically and profitably. ' ' The world of scholarship is reacting, we believe, to this s need. Already fifteen scholars from nine southern universities ,~.a~ and colleges are at work in the Southern Appalachian Studies Program trying to understand the changes that have taken place in the mountains during the last generation. A history of Appalachian America will soon be offered at Berea College, and other signs point to an increasing scholarly concern for the mountain region. It is in response to this growing interest in Appalachian scholarship that Mountain Life and Work proposes to add to each issue a special supplement comprised of articles and news of a scholarly nature, to be edited by Frank J. Way and Richard B. Drake. We are convinced that by providing an outlet for serious research we will increase the amount of that research and thus deepen the understanding of our region. More specifically, we hope to include three types of material: articles, bibliography, and news of research-in-progress. The JE articles will speak only for their authors, and will not necessarily , reflect the views of the editors or of the Council of the Southern Mountains. We expect them to be serious, honest, well-balanced 22 and supported by adequate research, but the conclusions are the responsibility of the authors alone. In keeping with the interdis ciplinary approach, we hope that many of the articles will reflect I -~. broad interests in Appalachia and will be intelligible to those out- _.Y` _ ` side the author's own discipline. However, articles of a more technical nature will be considered if they appear consistent with our general purposes. In the bibliographical section we hope to present reviews of books and monographs which have significance for the Appalachian t area. Also, we hope to draw attention to pertinent articles in other journals, theses, and collections of source materials which come to our attention. In the news section we hope to help scholars know what other scholars are doing in Appalachian research. We will also be hap py to make known the kinds of material for which individual schol ars are searching. Obviously this service will depend entirely upon the cooperation of the scholars themselves. Articles, bibliographical information, news, and suggestions should be sent to Frank J. Wray, Box 1992, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky. Unless we have asked for specific manuscripts, how ever, we cannot undertake to return any, unless sufficient return postage has been provided. ##### VALUE CHOICE AND l9hERICAN FnREIQV AID IN EDUCATIONAL PERSPECTIVE by Fuliang Chang, Professor of Sociology, Berea College. A paper read at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Ohio Valley Philosophy of Education Society and mimeographed for distribution by the Council of the Southern Mountains. Among materials exhibited at Gatlinburg by the Council at its 46th Annual Conference, one entitled "Value Choice and American Foreign Aid in Educational Perspective" is specially recommended to those who are interested in American foreign aid programs and in national and regional development service, as well as to states men, missionaries, and educators. Dr. Chang has many origi nal ideas on value choice from an educational point of view. It is particularly relevant for those who are trying to raise the living standards of the people of the Appalachian South. Whatever attempt in development is planned at home or abroad, a value choice is involved. The American foreign aid programs undertaken by both public and private agencies during the past decade have made the world our school district. Let us not sell short our ideas and ideals in education and democracy. # # Copies of Dr. Chang's paper are available on request to the Council. In Buck Creek Gap, near Asheville on the Blue Ridge Parkway, you will pass by Mount Mitchell, highest peak east of the Mississippi. Autumn foliage should be at its peak ~/in mid-October. Appalachian Holiday IF YOU ARE LOOKING for an ideal vacation place, try the Blue Ridge Parkway, that runs along the "ridgepole of Ap palachia." The Parkway leaves nothing to be desired if you are in love with the mountains. In the spring the slopes are tinted with patches of azalea, rhodendron, and laurel. Craggy Dome, a few miles east of Asheville, is the site of the world's largest stand of natural rhododendron, and is visited by thousands each June. In the fall, especially in October, the mountainsides blaze with the color of an Appalachian autumn. In addition to its natural wonders, the Parkway has beauti ful picnic and camping sites, lodges, craft shops, and numerous Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ reminders of our pioneer past. Begin your trip at Asheville, which Holiday magazine has called ` ...a city of elegance, wealth, and plain country living." From here the Parkway leads over the mountains to beauty and adventure. The " f abu lows 11-mile stretch" on the Wagon Road Gap section of the Parkway takes you up where trees are few and the air is alpine. YOUR PARKWAY VACATION need not include just scenery. In Asheville you will be in Thomas Wolfe's home town. You can visit craft shops and the headquarters for the Handicraft Guild. Short side trips will take you to the craft museum at the Cone Estate or into the workshop of a practicing craftsman. A slightly longer journey leads to Boone, where you can enjoy an outdoor drama or a folk festival during the summer months. Not far away is Beech Creek and the Jack tale country. Even without leaving the Parkway you will see many reminders of pioneer life--cabins, rail fences, barns, mills--that will make you glad that you brought both color and black and white film for your cameras. Reminders of our pioneer past provide a living museum. Picnic ar abound. A stop at any of them will provide as much delight to the eye as to the stomach, for all sites have been carefully selected. Parking places give the traveler a chance to stop and absorb the beauty of the region. Four million visitors have driven on the Parkway this year. All forty-nine states were represented, as well as many foreign nations. At intervals along the Parkway there are shops and gas stations, and for the traveler who wishes to spend the night, a choice between a cabin or a room in one of the lodges. f ~l _ - If you like to rough it you will find excellent camping sites and friendly rangerswho are glad to help. Books Worth Knowing CRAFTS IN THE SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS by Emma Weaver. Published by the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. 48 pp. Illustrated. $1.00. This new publication of the Southern Highland Handicraft Guild fills a real need. Not only does it give a short history of crafts in the southern mountains, but it also includes 73 photo graphs of craftsmen and their products, thus showing the full range of craft production in the region. The book is beautifully designed, and is a fitting added chap ter to Allen Eaton's Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands. Another important feature of this book, which seems longer than its 48 pages, is a geographical list of craft centers and in dividual craftsmen in the Appalachian South. This makes it valu able as a quick reference guide both to the tourist and to the resi dent of the area, and it does much to show the great variety of artistic growth that is taking place in our region now. `_ DOCTOR WOMAN OF THE CUMBERLANDS,The Autobiography of Dr. May 00 Cravath Wharton. Uplands, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee. So popular has Dr. May Wharton's autobiography become that the first edition was exhausted. A second edition has just been printed, with an additional chapter on the building of the nursing home and the retirement cottages at Uplands. This book was reviewed in Mountain Life & Work, No. 4, 1953. "The reader will find this book like a visit to an old friend. Here is all of 'Dr. May's' dry humor, usually in the form of understatement, and her penetrating directness. " A IS FOR APPLE by Sue Carr Wisecarver. Published by the Dietz Press. Inc., 216 pp. $2.50. Did you know that there are 250 different ways to serve apples? ~~ This definitive collection of recipes would make an excellent gift. It is spiral bound, with an attractive colored cover done in the style of an old-fashioned primer. GIFT FROM THE HILLS, by Lucy Morgan and Legette Blythe, pul lished by the Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc.,314 pp., 1958, $5.00. ALL READERS of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK will want to readGIFT FROM THE HILLS It is a regional story with real mountain flavor, which tells of the realization of an expanding dream that began with the placing of one loom in the home of a mountain neighbor. It ends -not the dream but the book -with he Penland School of Handicrafts, the physical plant of which is valued at more than two hundred thousand dollars. As to its value to the development of the creative arts and of international friend ship no estimate can possibly be made. For those readers who know the name of Lucy Morgan, and the more fortunate ones who know Lucy Morgan as a personality, this book is a help toward understanding why she is as she is and has achieved so much. Even though the story is so modestly told, her dauntless, ingenious spirit shines through every line. It is truly a story of adventure because "Miss Lucy" and those closely associated with her were always ready to gamble, not for selfish ends but for the growth and increasing demands of the school. Students have come to Penland from every state of the Union as well as from about fifty foreign nations. Although many different crafts have been taught, weaving has always been Miss Lucy's favorite. The Penland School of Handicrafts has not only helped to revive and preserve the art of weaving in our Southern Highlands but through its many contacts with other countries has also woven a rich and durable tapestry of international friendship. ++++ HE L E N D I N G MA N , WHO WRITES THIS REVIEW. IS A FORMER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY OF THE COUNCIL1 OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS AND EDITOR OF THIS MAGAZINE. LA true account of the actual is the purest poetry. -HENRY D. THOREAU THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MOUNTAINS PROUDLY ANNOUNCES R NEW EDITION of Maurdaft Z"" by DORA READ GOODALE ALLEN EATON, author of Handicrafts of the Southern Highlands, says: " Thank you for introducing me to the most exquisite poetry I have ever read." MEMORABLE POETRY often blossoms when a sensitive ear, a loving heart, and a searching mind live within a single personality. Dora Read Goodale had all these qualities, and out of her abiding love for the Appalachian South and its people the following poems have come. Miss Goodale's spiritual roots lay deep in the literary flowering of New England, but when she came to the Souther#) ~~;Highlands late in life, she was entranced by the poetic utter / ~ antes that slipped out in the every-day conversation of her neighbors. Her first poems were published when she was but a child, and she continued to write throughout her entire adult life. It was when she came to live and work on the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee, however, that her great gift bore its finest fruit. Miss Goodale was a "folk" poet in the sense that she was able to attune her ear to the natural poetry inherent in Southern Mountain speech and to record it in authentic spirit and detail. Her poetry has come as close to capturing the mountain spirit as any we know. This book was originally printed privately and enjoyed a wide sale with proceeds going to Uplands Sanitorium, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee, where Miss Goodalewas a devoted worker during her last years. MOUNTAIN DOORYARDS, in this new edition, will not only reach a wider reading public, but will continue to aid in the support of a rural medical center doing outstanding work among the people Miss Goodale loved and .\ The illustrations were especially drawn for this edition by Mary Rogers, staff artist for Mountain Life & Work magazine. Mrs. Rogers depicts in line the same quality of perception from her own experience in the mountains. -Chad Drake THE BLEEDING HEART My father's second 'Twas her as fotched the root and her as planted it . . . . "hwas overnights away, the place she come from, And she never went back more. Seems like I can see her now, the way she stood there And planted it deep The day she married Pa. There was some man else, I reckon, But she never told us Ma, she was quiet-turned. This is a sample page from Mountain Lboryards. Zb see the 54 others, all illustrated, send your order, with one dollar, to the Council of the Southern Mountains, Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. Est. 1888 SEND FOR CATALOG 40-page catalog containing 12 sample and color cards of linens, cottons and wools-and samples of the weaving wools described above-211 for $1.00 postpaid, which will be refunded on first order of $10 or more. %) mo;lv 1W W~ c4A U4 a ~6~ Golden Rule Products, always known for its vast stocks of imported linen yarns, has acquired the stock and exclusive sale of ppTONS and BALDWINS Weaving wools from Scotland You weavers now can explore an excitingly new world of checks and plaids, using these glorious wools that made Scotland and Scottish weavers famous . . . the Golden Rule "Woodpecker" and "Tweed" from Scotland and Tam O'Shanter "Worsted" made in the U.S.A. All of them offer almost limitless possibilities. They come in convenient tubes, ready to use. Suitable for both warp and weft. Send 10 cents for samples and prices All the leading looms: including "Missouri" "LeClerc" and others from belt looms at $2.98 up to 90-inch looms. Dept. 6, 115 Franklin Street, New York 13, N.Y. LEONARD ROBERTS shares with us... 33 I.A tu1e4 /or telet'inY JONIS AND THE GIANT'S GIRL "This is Type 313 C, The Girl as Helper. It is not common in Fhglish but rather widespread in Scottish and Irish tradition. Two good versions already recovered in Appalachia are " Jack and King Marock "in the JACK TALES and "Raglif Jaglif. . ."in I BOUGHT ME A DOG, and I have other texts from Harlan and Knox counties. This one was told by Harold Joseph, Leslie County." ONE TIME THERE WAS a giant come to a poor man and woman's house and helped them out and wouldn't take no pay. When he got ready to leave he said, "The only pay I'll take will be the next boy you have." Said, "If it's a girl, I don't want it, but if it's a boy, I want you to give it to me." They told him that would be all right, because they thought he would forget about it, or maybe they would have a girl. The giant left, and they didn't think any more about him. The next child they had, sure enough, was a boy. They was a-raising it, and the giant come and took it away from them. They offered him money, all they had, and cattle and everything, but he wouldn't hear to it. He wanted that boy. And he took it from its mommy and dad and carried it away to his castle. He named him Jonis and raised him. By the time he growed up into a fine looking boy, the giant had got hold of three girls the way he got Jonis. And when he got up big, the 34 giant said to him, "Jonis, I want you to marry my oldest girl." Jonis said, "Why, the oldest one is the ugliest. I want to marry that purty one about my age and size." The giant didn't like that, and he thought he would break Jonis from wanting her. He says, "All right, if that's the way you're ~~~~ going to mind me, you can work for her. You have to do some ha41 jobs for me. " Jonis said all right, he'd try to do 'em. The giant says, "Here's my barn. If you can sweep it out so clean I can roll a golden ball over the floor without it getting dirty, I'll let you marry her." He left and told Jonis to have it cleaned by the time he got back. Jonis went out there and went to sweeping out the barn. He couldn't get it clean at all. That youngest girl come out there and said, "I hear you want to marry me." He said, "Yeaw, I do but I have to sweep this barn out so clean he can roll a golden ball over it without getting it dirty. " She said, "Lay down and take you a nap of sleep and then try it some more. " He took a little nap and waked up and looked at the barn, and it was as clean as a pin. The giant come in that evening and looked at the barn and took a golden ball out of his pocket and rolled it over the floor. It didn't ~~ get a bit dirty. The man said, "No," said, "you must a got help." ~.;~ Said, "I've got another job for you, and if you do it good, you can have the girl. " Jonis said, "What is it?" He said, "Now I want you to thatch this barn, put a cover on it so it won't leak, and you've got to do it with bird feathers and nary two of the feathers alike. Every feather has to be from a different bird." Jonis said he would try to do it, and the giant went away again. He went out there and looked it over and then took a shotgun and went to killing birds. He killed one about every shot and took the feather and put it in his pocket. But after a while he thought, "I'll never get enough feathers from different birds to thatch this barn." So that girl come out again, and he told her the job he had to do. He said, "I'll never find enough feathers to do this." She said, "Yeaw, you can. Take you a nap and then try again." When he waked up from sleep that time, he looked, and the barn was covered all over with all colors of feathers. The old giant~~ ~aI come in that evening and looked over the barn, and he didn't know what to think. He thought him up another job. Said, "You must a got help again." Said, "I've got one more job for you that I'd like to see you do." 35 Jonis said, "What could it be this time?" He said, "You see that old tree down gander with all them stickers on it?" Said, "Well, I want you to climb to the top and is get the eagle eggs out of the nest in the top. " Jonis said, "I can't do that. That tree's got so many thorns on it, I can't climb it. " The old giant left him standing there. He went down there xlooking up that old thorny tree, and that girl come down by him again and said, "What are you doing?" o He said, "I've got to get them eagle eggs out of the nest top of this tree. Don't see how it can be done." I She said, "I come to help you 'cause this is the third job and the hardest. " Said, "I'm going to make a ladder for you." She raised her fingers and put them on that tree and made a ladder. Jonis started climbing up her fingers. He got about to the top and looked and saw that old giant slipping down there. He wanted to see what made him work so good. The girl saw him, and she run and hid. The boy went on up to the top in a hurry and started back down gathering up her fingers as he come back. But he forgot one of her little fingers in the top of the tree. He had not the eggs from the nest without the old eagle seeing him and come down. Old giant waiting there said, "I thought they was somebody helping you," I said, "My daughter has been here, hain't she?" j !~ Jonis said, "Yeaw, she has been watching me climb this tree." Old giant said, "I saw her helping you, and now I'm going to kill ye!" Jonis jumped down and started running, jumped on a horse, it and the girl jumped up behind him. She said, "Le's ride away from here," said, "We'll escape to your house." They rode away over the hills and down the valleys and through the bushes. Purty soon they heard the wind from that old giant coming behind them. It would just blow the trees over. They come to a big thicket, and the horse didn't see no way to get through it. That girl got down and went to cutting the trees down with her hand, making a big path. That old man didn't know the way through the thicket, and he had to go back to get his ax. When he come back, he had lost them and had to go back home. They rode on then and come to an old shoemaker's house and Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ stopped to stay all night. They stayed there for several days, and then the boy decided he would go on by himself and see his daddy and mommy. She said he could go, but he would probably forget her. Said, "If you let your daddy or mommy hug you, or let the dog jump up on you and lick you, you will forget me." He said, "No, I won't. I won't let 'em." She let him go. 36 He went to his house, and his folks was glad to see him. They went to hug him, but he wouldn't let 'em, told 'em what his girl had said. Finally here come his old hound dog and jumped up on him and licked him. He forgot all about that girl. When he didn't come back, the girl knowed he had forgot her. 1~ She stayed on there with the old shoemaker and his wife. His wife was as ugly as a crow's nest. The girl went out one day and clim a tree over the water, where they used to come to see themselves, because they didn't have no looking glasses. The old woman went out there to comb her hair, and she saw that girl's face in the pool and thought it was her face. Thought she was that purty. She went back in home and told that old man she was aiming to quit him, she was too purty for him. But the man said, "Why, woman, you ain't purty. You're as ,3 ugly as you can be." She said, "Come out here to the water, and I'll show you." They went out there and looked down in the pool. And that shoemaker said, "That ain't you; that must be somebody else. " And he looked up in the tree and saw that girl and showed her to his old woman. But she went ahead and run off, wouldn't believe him. Thought she was that purty. The old shoemaker didn't care, and he just let her go and took care of the girl. She owed him a lot for taking care of her, and she thought up ~~ a plan to pay him back. She said, "I'm going to pay you for my keep. " So she begin to date the richest men in the country, and they got to quarrelling over her. She told them she would marry the one brought her the biggest sack of money. Well, they brought in big sacks of money and left 'em there for her to weigh. She put 'em off for a long time and then decided she wouldn't marry neither one. She give the money bags to the poor old shoemaker. Finally she heard that her lover Jonis was going to choose him a wife; but he didn't know which woman to take because he had to pick his bride from some purty girls dressed in suits just alike. They were going to have a dance that night, and he had to pick out his woman. Well, the girl living with the shoemaker decided she would get her one of them suits and go to the dance dressed up like the others. She went and entered into the hall where they was dancing. She got to dance with Jonis. When they were alone she stuck out her ~~ hand that had that little finger missing. Jonis saw the girl was purty and had one finger gone, and he remembered the girl who had helped him do the jobs of the giant. So he chose her from all the puny girls. They got married and lived happy ever after. # # # # ~,1 He Carves a Way of Life CHAD DRAKE THE "INDEPENDENT MOUNTAIN MAN" is a proverbial type, but if you want to meet him in person, go visit W. P. Smith in West Asheville, North Carolina. Smith's hand-carved roosters, turkeys, and character dolls have been sold by the thousands to people living in all parts of the country. He comes as close to being an "old-time whittler" as anyone you'll find in the mountains today. j As you watch Smith work, you are aware of what "craftsmanship" means, for there is never a false stroke with the knife, nor is there any delay in trying to "figure out the pattern." It takes i surprisingly few deft cuts to turn a peach tree limb into as perky I a rooster as ever crowed. With his knife Smith has carved himself a way of life that has left him proud and independent, rather than the welfare case he might have been. You see, Smith lost both legs under the wheels of a train when he was a young man. Shut off from the normal active occupations that a strapping mountain youth night have entered, Smith faced the prospect of selling pencils on a street corner-or of turning his pocket knife into an instrument of freedom. He chose to use his knife. 38 Smith developed his carving slowly. Entirely self-taught, he whittled toys and trinkets for the neighborhood children. Word of his skill spread, and someone brought him a small rooster carved from wood in Scandinavia and asked him to reproduce something like it. The carver tried. Over and over he sought to duplicate the rooster, but he could never get it right. Finally, he threw away the copies in disgust, and fumed his way out to the garden by his home. Later, on his way back to the house, he looked up and saw a rooster from his own flock perched on top of a brush pile and clearly outlined against the sky. Grabbing a dried limb from the brush pile, he rushed back to his shop and began to carve. The finished model satisfied him completely, and apparently it is appreciated by craft lovers as well, for he has sold thousands of similar carvings since. Mr. Smith has developed a wide variety of carvings. There are hens to go with the proud roosters, and turkeys made from pine cones, to go with the other barnyard citizens. He also carves an old mountain couple, clever dolls which are clothed by his wife. "I patterned them after real people, the woman after my grandmother and the man after a friend of mine who lived near here," he says. Both figures are authentically garbed. Mr. Smith is all business when it comes to carving. He goes down to the basement of his house every morning, just as regularly as a man going to his office, and he works steadily through the day. He carves models according to orders and his mood. Every step in the production of his carvings is carried through by Smith except the gathering of the raw materials. Youngsters in the neighborhood do that for him. He uses a wide variety of woods that grow around his home on the outskirts of Asheville. In the shop all the tools are placed at a low level that will be convenient for Mr. Smith. Fortunately his accident left him enougZ of his legs so that he can still get around without help. Thousands of people have seen Mr. Smith carving in his booth at the Craftsman's Fair each year. There is about his carvings a W. F. SMITH SHOWS HIS GRANDSON HOW TO CARVE simplicity and sprightliness that mark them as being part of the universal folk culture of our age. To Mr. Smith they represent far more than bits of folk art, `~ however. In his shop, surrounded by his carvings, he says: " Folks sometimes say I'm crazy for not going on welfare because of my legs. But I can't see it that way at all. As long as 1 can carve I'm free as this fellow." And he holds up a carved rooster whose proud gaze looks the world straight in the eye. ##### GOING LIKE HOTCAKES! Already sold-over 6000 copies of the Council's handy little songbook, Songs of all Times published by Lynn Rohrbough of the Cooperative Recreation Service. Have you sent for yours? Individual copies are only 25Ã‚Â¢, with a reduced price for groups. Order from the Council of the Southern Mountains. j.V#0VNC1N6 Revised Edition of WHERE TO GET WHAT The National Directory of Sources of Supply for all craftsinvaluoble to crofts workers, teachers, occupational therapists, vocational directors, recreation lenders, Boy and Girl Scout leaders, churches, schools, institutions, and hospitals. 35c per copy-in coin or stamps. PENLAND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFTS Penland, North Carolina PINE MOUNTAIN CHRISTMAS NOTES A NEW KIND OF GREETING SMALL SKETCHES BY MARY ROGERS ~~ II I I I I ' IN BLACK ON WHITE CARDS WITH PLENTY OF ROOM FOR A NOTE. SAVE TIME AND POSTAGE - USE AS A POSTAL CARD FOUR DESIGNS 40 CENTS PER DOZEN WITH ENVELOPE, 25 CENTS WITHOUT, POSTPAID SEND 6 CENTS, STAMPS OR COIN, FOR SAMPLES. Send for catalog of gift items. HAND-KNIT CHRISTMAS STOCKINGS: A "Night Before Christmas" gift for your favorite children, in bright red, white, and green; with trees, trains, dancing children, knit right in, as well as first name and birth year. More than a decoration, this is ample to hold Santa's offerings. Top to toe length, 26 inches. Circumfer ence, 12". State first name and birth year if wanted 3.50 PENNYWISE PRESS Dorothy Nace 'harps Matinardville, Route 2, Tennessee WHOLESALE RATES TO SHOPS AND ORGANIZATIONS WOODS PRETTIES CORRESPONDENCE CARDS - a distinctive gift 40 c a dozen p. p. She's `Pennywlse' on the Press ALL RIGHT. Just what would be your notions on adding to the family incomethat is if your home on a mountain farm outside Maynardville was not even within sight of Little Valley Road; if your husband was doing graduate work at U-T; if you were a new mother. Mrs. Jac L. Tharpe pushed a little s e cond-hand p r i n t i n g press into the corner of the bedroom and started running off "W o o d s Pret t i e s" station e r y, personaliz e d ~y paper and Betsy 1Vlorris c h i ldren's note paper. Many a time she's wondered if she were "penny wise and pound foolish" to establish the P e n n y w i s e Press. B u t if she hasn't made a fortune, the press has t a k e n some of the '"press" out of living. And besides, she enjoys it. From Ohio DOROTHY N A C E THARPE was not born on a mountain top in Tennessee, She grew up in Cleveland, O., and was graduated from Western Reserve University. But she took to mountain airs (and also took up printing) in her days as secretary and public relations director for Pine Mountain Jiettlement 5 c h o o I, Pine Mountain, Ky. D o r o t h y found the little press that toad once been used in teachtng printing, and proceeded with some stationery for the school, and some little floral note paper to be sold there. Mrs. Burton Rogers , wife of the school's director, did the note paper designs, and now does the little pen and ink drawings for Dorothy Tharpe's items. Do you like snowdrops, hepatica, d o gwood? You can have them on correspondence c a r d s, b r i d g e tallies, etc. Also there are Christmas cards, books of folk t a 1 e s and music. Dorothy also includes in stock some of the Pine Mountain School products. And she has a knit listChristmas stockings in the cheeriest colors with first name or initials and birth year knitted right in. Also hand-knit are finger puppets -little mice - white, gray and black, which fit on one finger. Now He'll Teach DOROTHY AND JAC (he dropped the "k" just for a difference) met in Kentucky, while he was working at Harlan. They came to Tennessee in December, 1956, to a house on the farm of Jack's parents, the Charles E. Tharpes. The Tharpes have been there, oh, goodness knows how long. "No one has bothered to count up the generations," Dorothy says. Jac has been commuting the 28 miles to classes at U-T, getting his M.A. degree earlier this month. "He doesn't mind the commuting," Dorothy says, "so he'll continue commuting when he comes back to U-T this f911 to teach English full time." Meet Cectlv DOROTHY thanks her mail order-catalog business for keeping her in touch with people she'd never find time for writing otherwise. And this way she can enjoy the constant company of a so-charming d a a g h t e r, whose arrival nine months ago t u r n e d the Tharpe m e n a g e into a "Cecilycentered household." It's a serene life in that house in a lovely hollow in the hills. "I come shopping every two weeks or so," says Dorothy Tharpe, smiling. "That's often enough." The Knoxville News-Sentinel 42 xz Inner-City Church iT 0 Ministers to Migrants ~" a CARL HANLEY n f HUNDREDS OF NEWCOMERS arrive daily in our big cities. f They come from all over the world and they represent all vari eties of persons and clans. Prominent among them, in our mid- t western cities, is the white mountaineer from the Southern Ap- t palachians. i There is a kind of impersonalism in the city that harbors the c stranger and the newcomer. The kind of society that is found and perpetuated in the near down-town part of the city is at best dis organized and temporary. These facts not only reflect themselves in the big city's constituency but also determine to a large degree, or should, the kind of ministry that a church must render. The southern mountaineers whom we find around our down town church here in Cleveland are part of a conglomerate of new comers. All of these "stranger" groups have their own particular set of habits and folk-ways. Each group is confronted with the others, plus the everpressing problem of making a "go" of things as soon as they arrive. These who come to the Inner-City are renting rooms, apart ments, and parts of houses that are among the oldest in the city. They do this for various reasons: 1) Friends and persons in simi lar straits were living here when they came; 2) Most of the dwell ings are rented with the basic housekeeping equipment, thus making coming and going easier; and 3) The old, less prosperous looking dwellings are often quite similar to those familiar at home. Few of them are able to rent, or have even considered renting, a single house (unfurnished) out beyond these older dwellings for the same (or less) rent than they are giving for these few rooms. The southern Appalachian folk make a poor first impression in the city. Their skills are not immediately apparent. Many of their talents are as yet unpacked, and many of them never will be. Most of these people find work in factories, with construction companies and trucking concerns, or in one of the unskilled or semi-skilled trades. Upon arriving they find themselves in the role of stranger, in 43 most cases for the first time in their lives. Little time is wasted in making them keenly aware of this; a verbal name-tag is placed on them quickly, not only because of their appearance but also because of the way they talk. This serves to isolate their world from the one around them. In short, they are seen as strangers, and they in turn feel strange in a strange land. They are here for one reason: to seek jobs that will provide money enough so they can live "like other folks. " A padded tillfold is a powerful equalizer, especially when money back home has been so hard to come by. For them prosperity is seen in the possession of gadgets and things. But life is boring, even with all these. Where does one turn? Few turn to the city church, for it too is so strange. Other than in the singing of familiar mountain ballads and strumming the guitar little time and energy are spent on others or involving the welfare of others., There are many places to turn in a big city when one is bored, lonesome, and excluded. It is easy to get lost here, and this is one of the most important reasons for staying. The streets and places of cheap entertainment provide wide possibilities. This is the major area of off-hour activity. But there is not much on the street that the family can do together. Thus the loosely knit family is further dissected as the various individuals go their separate ways. Trouble and heartache await many who set out to relieve their lostness and boredom by being swallowed up in city life. The church and its ministry see the disorganized family situations and the resultant tragedies; it is within these circumstances that the church must serve. Its focus is at least two-fold. The church works through deeds of kindness and counseling (along with other social welfare agencies) to help relieve tragedies and broken situations. Then, the church is at work seeking to draw all ages into its program. Children are enrolled in after-school clubs, and through them it is hoped a leaven will work that will cause a growth toward new family solidarity. Through the children, contact is made with THERE'S NOT MUCH SPACE FOR PLAY IN THE INNER-CITY. 44 parents, relatives and friends. The call of Christ and the challenge to let God hold sway is extended, and a continuing friendship usually results. Through teen nights, church family nights, couples groups, and home interest groups the entire family is drawn to establish itself in the Christian tradition and live well while still uprooted and in the process of settling. This kind of personal evangelism does not attract droves and is often dishearteningly slow, but it is an effort to counter the big city's impersonalism and strangeness. It does get results. Elementary school children respond warmly to good entertainment, Teen-agers welcome a place to go where no one i; breathing down their necks and where they can feel relaxed yet worthily occupied. Parents and adults are glad when they find comradeship and interested co-workers who are not out to see how much they can "do them for. " It is easy to take the southern mountaineers for granted and leave them to go their individual ways. This is also true of any of the newcomer groups around us. The traditional inner-city church can justly be accused of doing this. Because of the barriers that exist between the different groups and the difficult problems involved in urbanization, progress has been slow. Now more emphasis is being brought to bear on the InnerCity, and there is a resurgence of effort to help the downtown city dwellers feel a part of and useful in the community in which they live. ##### CARL HANLEY. A FORMER TEACHER IN THE REGION. IS NOW A MINISTER IN A LARGE INNER-CITY CHURCH IN CLEVELAND. OHIO. CHURCH FURNITURE By buying frqm Clear Creek Furniture Factory, you will be saving . . , and serving a worthy cause. Owned and Operated by the ,1 $49.75 fob Only the finest and clearest red oak is used throughout. Pieces are carefully matched as to grain and coloring of wood. CLEAR CREEK BAPTIST SCHOOL PINEVILLE, KENTUCKY 45 Bible Society Publishes "Easy Reading" Scriptures 38 Jesus answered him, Wilt thou ,lay thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till bast denied me thrice. CHAPTER 14. Z Christ comforteth his disciples with the hope of heaven fesseth himself the way, the truth, and the lye, and one ws Father : 13 assureth their prayers in his name to be e~'E 15 requesteth love and obf-dience, 16 promzseth the Holy the Comforter, 2'7 and leaveth his peace with them. LE T not your heart be troubled: ye bk m God, believe also in me. 2 In my Father's house are many mangy if it were not so, I would have told yo E go to prepare a place for you. IF YOU ARE searching for easily read printed material to place in the hands of beginning readers, you will be interested in the large type Scriptures printed by the American Bible Society. Above is a sample section of the "large type" edition reproduced in its exact size. Individual books of the New Testament sell for as little as 25Ã‚Â¢, while copies of the entire New Testament plus Psalms are I only $1.65, cloth bound. If you are working in a mission center or school, or if you are ministering to a large group of people who might like to have copies of the large type Scriptures, inquire about bulk prices, explaining exactly the nature and extent of your work. Address all inquiries to The American Bible Society, 123 E. 6th St., Cincinnati 2, Ohio, or to the Society office nearest you. ' 46 "Good Samaritans" Lift Literacy Level ~ ~~r`' DAVID DUSTIN I, _ Fourth-grade reading ability is necessary for self-improvement. 10,000,000 adults in the U.S. (1950 census) i, cannot read at fourth-grade level. Money and teachers are not available to instruct these 10 million--by conventional methods. THIS IS TODAY'S adult-education problem-shared by our southern mountain region-as seen by Admiral Ion Pursell, of Frankfort, Ky. , director of the "Good Samaritans for the 3 R's." Pursell's organization has an answer to this problem: use unconventional methods. The core of Pursell's program is the "good Samaritan," the person who wants to help his neighbor and who, like the Samaritan of the Biblical parable, does not wait to be asked for help. All work in the program is done by volunteers. Admiral Pursell, retired from a naval career filled with educational projects, and his wife donate their full time and savings to directing the organization. Interested adults, often school teachers, carry word of Pursell's teaching methods to those who might be interested. And volunteer teachers, often youngsters, with Pursell's books and guidance help relatives and neighbors to learn. This is an adult-education program based upon several unconventional ideas: 1. Youthful teachers are a central feature. A $100 prize (only residents of Kentucky eligible) and several lesser awards are presented each year to the program's outstanding teachers under 20 years of age. Brenda Faye Miller-ten years old when she began-won the grand prize the first three years of the contest;and Shirl Adams, a boy of 13, won the 1957 contest. 47 Young people have several advantages as teachers,says Pursell. They don't cause their pupils the embarrassment they might feel with an adult; they often are part of the 'amily, so migrations don't separate learner from teacher; and they have more time free for teaching. 2. "Each me teach one." This motto is borrowed from "lightning-literacy expert, ", Frank Laubach. The approach through amateurs reflects Pursell's belief that "education is older than books and teachers, "-meaning that it is not for experts alone but for everyone. 3. AcLlt motivation for learning the 3 R's must be considered. Most adults, according to Pursell, are much more strongly motivated to learn than are school children, and therefore learn faster. Adults under the age of 35 have two strong desires: to earn better pay and to keep ahead of their young children. After passing 35, adults usually replace these motives with two new ones: the desire to correspond with grownup children and the wish to read the Bible. 4. Classes should be carxixted in privacy. Fear of admitting deficient reading ability often shuts the door on strong motivations to learn. Many adults are afraid, with good reason, that they will be ridiculed if they admit their reading weakness. Such persons can be persuaded to learn only by someone they trust completely--a child or perhaps a neighbor upon whom the person relies for reading or writing letters. Once the adult has been persuaded to try to learn, classes must be conducted in complete secrecy. 5. fhe teaching method itself features learning by imitation and the teaching of words instead of alphabets. Repetition-a technique long a part of such practices as "lining out" hymns-isused in this method until sound has been firmly associated with printed symbol, and the student can read the words by himself. Words, instead of alphabets, says Pursell, have always been emphasized in the Chinese language, where there are too many characters to be profitably memorized singly. In English, it seems, this approach is useful because it gets the adult right into the midst of what he really wants to knowwords-as quickly as possible. Later, when writing is taken up, the alphabet will have to be learned, but until then, Pursell thinks, it is best not to bother with it. I 48 6. Publicity about literacy is very important. When asked by the Kentucky Chamber of Commerce maga sine KENTUCKY BUSINESS to answer the question:"What major steps... can be undertaken to eradicate adult illiteracy in Kentucky?" Admiral Pursell answered: "We should 'build-up' and glorify education until all citizens keenly desire to learn or teach... Unlimited radio time and newspaper space could be hired; roads and streets could have countless signs.. . At no public expense (organizations)-working together, as a great public service-could easily talk and write the people of Kentucky into educating themselves and each other. " I What of the future of the "Good Samaritans for the 3 R's" 7 How can the increasing demand for education be met? Can Pursell continue to give personal guidance to all "Good Samaritan" teachers when their number soars much above the present 2,500? Admiral Pursell's answer is the same one he has for other adult-education problems: less officialdom and professionalism, and more amateurism and "volunteerism. " In a 1955 speech Pursell outlined this master-plan: 1. Establish several "Good Samaritan" schools in one area. 2. Inform civic groups of that area what has been done and how. 3. Encourage these groups to assume local responsibility-financial and administrative. "Then," he concluded, "our work will have two phases-advising and helping such groups or persons who have assumed local responsibility for this endeavor, and continuing our efforts to get this program started in the counties or areas where-for any one of many reasons-it could not begin promptly. " TEACHING beloved older people at CONTD. NEXT PAGE ~ A ram home is lacy. You buy noThp1NEay lneÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ fb~~~n E Ã‚Â°aersaa K$Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ t oa Ã‚Â°a Our teaching advi ~1G~!is~ .fÃ¢â‚¬Â¢Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ 0Vy~ _. ~. . . rn _., re scribed a FREEI - ~Ot~ t fnmg T 900 mDtral M i Kindly urge many others to read ~l pthg O0Ã‚Â®Z t ort f of cur free taxis and nation-wide O nt h !61 0`'`" program in The CORONET MAGA ZINE for August 1957. et homeA is eea,.~. LOVED E buy Nnethlhg. 6000 SAMARITANS FOR THE THREE A'S Our teaching advice is free. I Oood 8emeritaas for the Three R's Admiral Ion Pgneli, Director AUmlral Ion PuraeU, Director Frankfort, Kentucky FRANKFORT, KENTUCKY PUPILS MAKE GOOD TEACHERS 49 One of the volunteer "Samaritans" talked with me one afternoon, in her southern Kentucky one-room schoolhouse. A library of approximately 250 books, half of them sent by "Good Samaritans," lined one corner of the classroom. This library and the monthly Bookmobile are the sources of most of the reading material in the community, according to this teacher. Only one home subscribes to a newspaper, and many homes contain no reading matter at all. Since learning of the "Good Samaritans for the 3 R's" she has been talking up the program at teachers' meetings and with her own pupils. One boy, named Shirl Adams, whom she last year persuaded to try teaching, won the $100 champion teacher prize for 1957. Adams, who had seemed to her an average, not especially hardworking student, was at first somewhat embarrassed about his teaching, she remembers. "But when he won that $100 he didn't have to worry about anybody's making fun of himl" She observed that often those who have just a little learning will ridicule learners. When I expressed my doubts as to whether secrets can successfully be hidden from neighbors, she maintained that, on the contrary, secrets can be kept and that so far the young teachers have kept them very well. After becoming teacher to an adult, she says, a youngster usually becomes a better pupil in school and his grades rise. When I asked how her community regards education, she replied that some of the neighbors are beginning to see its importance. "People here were not too interested in education," she said and added, "Some didn't even use to read the children's report cards-but they all do now." ##### 50 Admiral of the A B C's Waging a private war on illiteracy, this retired admiral, at his own expense, has taught hundreds to read and write Education has been writ large upon Ion Pursell's life. Born in a log cabin in Ohio County, Ky, he early absorbed his father's ardent conviction that "learning is ages older than schools. " The father himself had been educated by his own efforts and those of a grandmother. Pursell was helped in his early reading and writing by his father; and by the age of ten he was teaching an adult neighbor. More recently he has tutored himself in several subjects, including law and astronomy. This background of non-formal, each-show-the-otherwhat-he-knows education provided the cornerstone for the "Good Samaritans for the 3R's." Pursell's career in the U. S. Navy included many educational projects. A few years following graduation from Annapolis, he was assigned to the battleship Tennessee, where, finding many of the crew deficient in reading skills, he set about tutoring them. Later Pursell taught, at various times, German, Spanish, and engineering to the midshipmen at Annapolis. Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General of Guam from 1931 to 1934, he launched a program to teach the adults of that island the 3R's. After World War B Pursell-now a Captain and two-time winner of the Legion of Merit for his part in naval action in the Mediterranean-was named as chief of a U. S, naval mission to Ecuador. Finding that no educational facilities existed for non-commissioned men in the Ecuadorean navy, Pursell began a program whereby the officers taught the men. For his work he was awarded the decoration of Abdon Calderon, First Class, the highest decoration given by Ecuador. In 1950 Pursell retired from the Navy with the rank of Rear Admiral. 1n 1953 he launched the "Governor's Commission on ~, Adult Education," now known as the "Good Samaritans for the 3R's;" thus carrying his battle for education into the ranks of civilian life. ##### DAVID DUSTIN IS A GRADUATE STUDENT AT THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM. o~ /-~ad4ox .. r y B~ICI( J lA1Vf~1T IMPORTED LINEN YARNS FOR IIANDLOOM WEAVING METLON NON-TARNISHING METALLIC YARNS LANE LOOMS PORTABLE - JACK TYPE COUNTER BALANCE Before you buy - see the new PURRINGTON FOLDING LOOM Write us for the name of your nearest sales outlet and demonstrator Send 35Ã‚Â¢ for yarn samples FREDERICK J. FAWCETT, INC. Dept. M. 129 South St. , Boston 11, Mass. HANDWEAVING YARNS AND SUPPLIES LILY Yarns, developed especially for handweaving, are used by discriminating weavers everywhere. Always the highest in quality and the newest in textures and colors. Ready for prompt shipment in any quantity-Cottons, Wools, Chenilles, Homespuns, Linens, Metallics and Novelties. Also Looms, including the Leclerc folding loom, warping frames, bobbin racks and winders, table reels and tension boxes. Price list FREE. Send $1.00 for complete color cards and samples. (This $1.00 can be applied to your next order of $10.00.) Write to Dept. HWB . dvdez a8l ~youx duAieled #o1x THE HANDWEAVER'S HEADQUARTERS LILY MILLS COMPANY Dept. HWI3, Shelby, N. C. MOUNTAIN ,`~ y YOUTH j 54 MEMO: TO: All young people in the Appalachian South RE: MOUNTAIN YOUTH REMARKS: A walnut is very good to eat-once you get inside its shell. But you can't open it with your finger nails. You have to work at opening it before you enjoy its flavor. ' Which is to say that any person who is interested in the development of our Appalachian South must be ready to work if he is to get very far in his efforts. One of the desperate needs in the future will be for young people who can write about the region and who can properly inter pret it to the rest of the nation. We believe that MOUNTAIN YOUTH may be a way of dis covering and developing young writers who can tell the world about our southern mountains. I MOUNTAIN YOUTH is open to you right now. We will pub lish short stories, articles, news features, or poetry. Photographs are always welcome and needed. Folk material of all kinds is solicited. The field is wide open. It is up to you to make this part of our magazine a real expression of your way of life. Send us your material soon. MEMO: TO: All teachers and youth leaders in the Appalachian South RE: Making this magazine known to young people of the region REMARKS: We believe that this magazine can become a real force in developing a valuable regional self-consciousness. Will you help us by doing the following things: 1. Call the magazine to the attention of concerned young people. 2. Encourage your talented young people to write for this magazine. 3. Use the magazine as a study-source in social studies, English, and other classes to stimulate discussion about the region. 4. Tell us how we can improve this publication as a challenge to our young people. 5. Encourage youth to become members of the Council of the Southern Mountains by their taking advantage of the new $1. 50 student membership which includes a subscription to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. OUR COVER GIRL IS MISS LUCY JONES, OF SILVER POINT. TENNESSEE. Lucy IS A STUDENT AT BEREA'S FOUNDATION SCHOOL. AND IS SHOWN DEMONSTRATING WEAVING AT THE CRAFTSMAN'S FAIR THIS SUMMER. Fun Night at McKe COLLEEN FARMER IT MAY BE 10 o'clock Wednesday morning in Yokahama, Japan, or Tuesday midnight in Reykjavik, Iceland, but it's 7 P. M. in McKee, Kentucky, and as any teen-ager there can tell you, that's Tuesday Night Fun Club time. 55 It all started when the FFA and the FHA at our high school invited Jess Wilson to our annual get-together. Jess is an employee of the Jackson County Rural Electric Co-op and is very much interested in teen-agers and recreation. He has worked for several years in the 4-H Club camps in our area, and recently attended the Kentucky Recreation Workshop, where he received further training in recreation leadership. Everyone enjoyed the folk games so much at the annual meeting that we asked Jess if we might not do this more often. He said that he would be glad to come if some group of adults would sponsor it. After being refused a couple of times, but by no means discouraged, a committee took our problem to the Kiwanis Club and they agreed to sponsor us. Although we use the school gymnasium, our club is not a part of the school program. We like to think of it as a community project. Our president, Paul Marcum, is a young man recently out of school and now working for the local telephone cooperative. Mr. Wilson is quite a talker any other time, but on Fun Night he says no more than necessary. His ambition, he says, is to walk in the front door some night, lead a whole evening of fun, and then pack up his equipment and walk out without ever saying L/ a word. He never dismisses us-just puts "Goodnight, Irene" on the record player. Everyone chips in fifteen cents each night, and refreshments 56 are on the "house. " We use the remaining money for records. So far we have learned about eighteen different dances, from polkas to minuets, two steps, waltzes, reels, and running sets. As many as seventy-eight people have attended in one night,though sometimes we are down to thirty. Everyone is urged to partici pate. Those who insist on sitting on the sidelines are referred t~~ as "splinters." All parents in the community are invited to come, and we always have several adults present. s. We teen-agers of Jackson County, faced with limited recrea tional facilities, are proud of our Tuesday Night Fin Club, and welcome this opportunity for good clean fun each week. We sin cerely hope it is only the beginning of more and better activities for teen-agers in the future. If you-all are ever in Kentucky and around Jackson County on a a Tuesday, come join us-and don't be a "splinter. " ##### a COLLEEN FARMER is secretary-treasurer, "Ole Moneybags," of the Club. it She graduated from McKee High School this spring and will enter Sue fi Bennett College at London, Kentucky this fall. In high school she was p active in many organizations and was president of her class, s 57 m Girl, 14, Plants Pine Trees `gh To Earn College Expenses to 410 THE SALE OF CHRISTMAS TREES will take one Kentucky Y girl to college in a few years. Sue Graves, a high school sophomore, has planted some twelve hundred white pine seedlings 3- on her family's farm in Boone County, Kentucky. Like many other members of 4-H Clubs, Sere has worked on such projects as dairying, sewing, and home management. But 14-year-old Sue is interested in forestry, too. Sue and 16-year-old Betty Shirley, of Monroe County, were )n among twenty-nine scholarship recipients who studied management and utilization of timber resources at the 4-H Forestry Camp held ub. in Breathitt County, Kentucky, in July. Miss Shirley has included forestry among her projects for three years, and won her expense `s paid trip to camp for her 1957 accomplishments. The camp was sponsored by the Kentucky Forest Industries Committee. #### DOES IT SEEM TO YOU that most of this Youth Section is by or about young people in just one state, Kentucky? The editors have that feeling, too. C'mon, you gals and guys in Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas and Virginias LETS HEAR FROM YOU 1 Ae under twenty ? a resident of Kentucky ? are ;j one who tikes to help others ? interested in winning $100 ? If your answer is Yes to all four questions, be sure that you did not overlook the article beginning on page 4g. It is of especial interest to youl An old mountaineer talks with Cecil Sharpe, the English collector of ballads who visited the Appalachians before World War I, and compiled what is still recognized as the best collection of southern mountain ballads, songs, and dances. BILLY EDD WHEELER Dulcina is her name; you got it right. That's her back there, swinging like she'd never stop. There's music in her walk, I say, And in her dance a strong spirit thing That comes from under her own heart's ledge. Do-ce-do! and a little more do! Look at her hair, the way it streams Like blue, still smoke on a frosty morn. You knew this tune in England? And it was lost? That's something, now. It's plumb Kentucky, Far as I know. We call it "running set. " Birdie in a cage, chirping all alone! Is that music you're writing? Well-1-1-1. This one is "Jubilee"-you'll see her go 1 There's rhythm in her feet, I say, And in her step a song she learned From walking these hills, and seeing them roll Before her like water waves. 59 I That cough you've got is not from cold. It's raspy-like and full of sand. Birdie hop out! Crow hop in! She'll sing for you, too, if you start off. I used to sing myself, but not like her. " In her voice there's more than music. There's a mountain wind a-fluting Up lonely hollows, by chinked cabins, And young'uns sprawled over puncheon floorsShips a-sailing moon-struck waters, Kings and witches, brash young boys Aspilling over with love and devilmentA doctor needs to see at that chest 1 Allemande left with your left hand! ~'y . fl i Ã‚Â°~ ^1 f~ o ~. ~~i~/_ I She's named for the dulcimer. You've seen one, then? In North Ca'lina? I say, you've travelled some. You ought to stay the night-eat with us, too, If you can stand a poor man's board. It ain't bad, such as it is-leather dried apples, Sweet in a stew, cold kraut, and pickled corn, With shucky beans. We call that eating, now. Here she comes. Look at her move 1 There's music for you, not e'en fourteen. Dulcina, meet Mister Sharp. You see, she's shy. He's staying all night to sing some with us. But she'll warm up, when the new wears off. Promenade home! You know where, I don't care! I NOW BILLY EDD WHEELER. AUTHOR AND BALLAD SINGER. HAILS FROM THE HILLS OF WEST VIRGINIA. HE IS THE NEW ALUMNI SECRETARY AT BEREA COLLEGE. AND EDITS THE Berea Alumnus. SI!'/I'IN~ 6 r WANTED ! an opportunity TO HELP your community, school and church plan an over-all program for young and old TO TRAIN local leaders in adult recreation workshops TO INTRODUCE new ideas and skills into an already established recreation program TO SUPPLY information about recreation materials and workshops If you are interested, write to The Council of the Southern Mountains Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Ky. PRISCILLA BALD WIN 4rt3 and C r0. f +S available Priscilla is a graduate of Smith College, and is on a fellowship this year as a recreation interne for the Council. She is eager to help in general recreation--from arts and crafts, dramatics, and reading clubs to games and singing. S,p PJ5 SUZANNE CAMP A graduate of Emory University, Suzanne has had previous experience in leading recreation in communities, churches, schools, and camps. Last summer she was the recreation interne of the Council and visited communities in the mountain area to organize recreation programs. Fbr Suzanne, the more experienced of the two, the usual cost is $80 a week, $300 a month for Cbuncil members ($90--$325 for non-members). The sponsorship responsibility for Priscilla is room and board, $15 to the travel pool, and a contribution for the material desired. When service is needed and local funds are not available, the charges may be adjusted or waived, as the Cbuncil budget permits. 62 .N r u / y, .dn:. y~ _ __ ~' I. A muskrat ca stau submerged ~2(~' - I _ ;j~~- - ~ '~ lead li.e/ a maxim m of about: -- ~ lel a meÃ‚Â°tesrr '~~~5'._ .. Ib) I n,;-to ;k, . , ' Ã¢â‚¬Â¢,"~'Ã‚Â° lel ss mmwes I'ta ! . ~2Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ -_~ ~.:,;.~,.., i V W ` a. ~~_ WIDUR ,, ~, I Q o ~. Named for a ob.ious body feature, this graceful duck is y1SkÃ¢â‚¬Â¢W. a ,r,,Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã¢â‚¬Å¾~d. ~' - ~: c 3. You would exÃ‚Â°p:+ this - fish to spawn - 4. Which egg belongs to a w;td turkey? (a/ Brush or vegetation _ ~~^.~- _ Ib) Silt or mud hI a Ã‚Â°ar,e sand or ` rÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ _ gre. _:_ ____- -____ ~ ,Ã¢â‚¬Å¾r~ 5. You cea help wildlife by: .. lal Obeying Fish and game laws. (b) and 4,,k ommiosstion yÃ‚Â°Ã‚Â°r game r _ ~ Ip Planting food and -or plants. W 7. This is 6. If you fnd youÃ‚Â°g wild animals,;_ le) Cpe' in the woods, it is a good idea 81-gill ;? Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ rly .~-,;E y fo pick them up and take them ... -;~Ã¢â‚¬Â¢; .~.r~ (b) 81- gill E;: L:Ã¢â‚¬Å¾,. 'ice ~~~ home. True False ~ ~~I) Walleye 'y;,~. ,~~ t F r e. These tracks were left by: .ay.~ ~ ~~ . os r p ` "~i'rÃ¢â‚¬Â¢~~~~ la) An opossum ~a~\~~.oo~:Ã¢â‚¬Å¾~. ~mn.n~~, (b) A mink ( ) 8 , ,aÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ Ic/ A bobcat 191 'L "Fl '9 -yy to IIV 'g ,eAFy,~euv i.~ 19) 'f sseq yynowlleu,s a s,fl ~f///!. ;"~~'~a1,~~inr :5,~ w sra 1'I 'e I!'RÃ‚Â°Ã¢â‚¬Â¢d z I') 'I : MsÃ‚Â°v ;~a, ~,. ~~ ~ e,_ l Reprinted from VIRGINIA WILDLIFE An Old Riddle '1~ -- Contributed by LEONARD ROBERTS At the marker near Cumberland Gap where Kentucky, Virginia and Tennessee meet, you have a billy goat with its right hind foot in Tennessee, its left hind foot in Kentucky, and its two forefeet in Virginia. In which state would you stand to milk the goat? ANSWER - faoob .fllrq n ryTrm a,uop nok Ã¢â‚¬Â¢auo .fmN ~_-~~_~-,;~ ~~ /v.,~._ -_---_---~T_----__-_-y~_-. COMING EVENTS MOUNTAIN FOLK FESTIVAL, Adult Section, at Levi Jackson State Park, London, Ky. , for "those who are of college age and over who are interested in the use and preservation of non-competitive recreation." Write to Charity Comingore, Box 2012, Berea College, Berea, Ky. or to Frank Smith, Rainbow Ridge, Swanna.noa, N. C. CHEROKEE INDIAN FAIR, September 24-28. Arts and crafts, community and individual exhibits, Cherokee ball games, dances, songs. Write Indian Fair Association, Cherokee, N. C. for detailed information. ~Ã¢â‚¬Å¾~ AUTUMN TREE COLOR AUTO CARAVANS in the Smokies. Write the National Park Service, Gatlinburg, Tenn. Mid-October. ASHEVILLE ARTISTS GUILD EXHIBIT, October 8-31, at the Art Museum, Asheville, N. C. Fall foliage at peak in Blue Ridge. REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE COUNCIL of the So Mountains, October 18, Pine Mountain Settlement ; Pine Mountain, Ky. HANDICRAFT SHORT COURSE, October 20-Nov. 1, at John C. Campbell Folk School, Brasstown, N. C. Woodcarving, weaving, pottery, etc. Write Georg Bidstrup, Director, for information. FOLK DANCE WEEKEND, Campbell Folk School, American squares, En country dancing, folk petry, playing of reco: Write Georg Bidstrup, Director, as above. If you would like to subscribe to this magazine, fill in your name and address on the form below and send with $1.00 to the Council of the Southern Mountains, Inc. Box 2000, College Station, Berea, Kentucky. THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTHERN MKXIIVTIfIWINC. , works to share the best traditions and human resources of the Appalachian South with the rest of the nation. It also seeks to help meet some of the social, educational, spiritual,cm d cultural needs peculiar to this mountain territory. It works through and with schools, churches, medical centers and other institutions, and by means of sincere and able individuals both within and outside the area. --Participation is invited on these bases Student membership $ 1. 50 Active individual membership $ 3.00 t 4.00 Supporting membership 5.00 to 24. 00 Sustaining membership 25.00 or more Institutional membership 5.00 or more --Subscriptions to MOUNTAIN LIFE & WOW included in all memberships NAME- _ _ - ADDRESS. y (Please detach and mail to Box 21700, College Station, Berea, Ky.) .flembershl p ------------------------------------------------------------------- 4th issue 1957 Is ~Ã‚Â°.f. For Members: rs .tn Srrbs crl `p ~ According to our records, pE . your membership and/or 1Ã‚Â°rr ~a subscription appears to 4th Ã‚Â° ~ ,rs ~ have expired as indicated. r.Ts issue 'f'.o , `9s'~ `~o ~ We are continuing to send 57 ''~P ~ ~o ~ you current issues in the s8 ~ belief that you do not wish us to drop you from I f this ~,~~ o' Y, ~ our membership. May we corner i s NOT turned ~, '~ ~ ~. NÃ¢â‚¬Â¢ hear from you? up, you are ~ W 'j Ã‚Â°' -m W? c up to date. ~~ n. h `Ã‚Â°