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Mountain Life & Work vol. 03 no. 1 April, 1927 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv3n10427 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 03 no. 1 April, 1927 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky April, 1927 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume III April, 1927 A-""ICULTURE Un Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. J. Galpin Agriculture in the Southern Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. R. Neel Changing the Agricultural System in a Mountain County . . . . C. W. Tilson Poultry in the Hill Country . . . . . . . . . . . The Four-H Clubs of West Virginia . . . Fruit on the Mountain Farm Three Years in the Foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains as a Smith-Hughes Teacher ... . . .. . Dairying in the Mountain Sections The Story of a Mountain Farmer . . . . . . . Charles S. Price . Pauline Spangles . Floyd BraLliar .Henry W. Derden ...George Caret' . . . . . . . J. S. Rowland A Mountain Worker's Bookshelves . . . . . . . . . . Florence Holmes Ridgway Music for the Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gladys V. Jameson Number I ''ublished Quarterly by Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the Nation. Mountain Life ~ Work Volume III APRIL, 1927 NumberI Helen H. Dingman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editor D7Ã‚Â°. Wm. James Hutchins . . . . . . . . . Counsellor Orrin L. Keener Associate Editor Luther M. Ambrose . . . . . . . Business Manager CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson . . . . . . New York City Mrs. John C. Campbell . . . . Brasstown. N. C. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn . . . . . . . . Atlanta, Ga. Hon. W. 0. Sounders . . . . Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. John P. 1\IcConnell . . . . East Radford, Va. Dr. Arthur T. McCormack . . . . Louisville, Ky. Dr. E. C. Branson . . . . . . . . Chapel Hill. N. C. Dr. John J. Tigert . . . . . . . . Washington, D. C. Issued quarterly-January, April, July, October Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as secondclass mail matter Address all communications to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Berea, Kentucky SAYING A THING OR TWO FOR THE MOUNTAINS By C. J. Galpin Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. De partment of Agriculture If I am not very much mistaken, it is something of a shock to us as we come to years of maturity to find out that human life, wherever it is lived, whatever the lot in life, whatever the possessions, whatever the accomplishments, friendships, honors, achievements, is defective. We learn with surprise and sorrow that life has its weak spots-like a flaw in steel, an air bubble in the lens, a knot in the board, rot in the apple. And these defects in human life give unrest, and discontent. In the as yet unsuccessful attempt to take the flaws out of human life and prevent its breakdowns, several great systems of thought have been developed; science, art, business, religion. Science would make us know enough to circumvent these breakdowns. Art would make the world and life beautiful enough to submerge and suppress defects. Business would give us all wealth enough to outwit these defects. And religion, confessing that man is born to discontent, sin, and death, would turn his gaze to a new and better world which holds life in perfection, and thus makes life on earth tolerable through hope. Knowing, therefore, that human life is bound to have its dissatisfactions, I ask you to look again with me at three sources of quasicontentment which farm life, and perhaps especially mountain life, possesses above all other kinds of life. I do not say that these three contentments will wipe out the inherent defect in human life; but I do say that wise men and women in all times and in all races, so far as history gives us a record, testify to the value of these three contentments to soften the pangs and disappointments of human life and human struggle. If I read human character aright, one of the great sources of human discontent is the fact that each person must live with himself. His body is married to his soul. His soul is married to his brain and mind. And he must ever talk, think, act in character with himself-a self which is highly charged with and very much predetermined by the past. He is short in stature, he would be tall. He is brunette, he would be blond. But more, the pattern of his thinking is monotonously the same. He is slow at figures. He is quick in temper. He envies his neighbor. He covets this man's suavity, that man's poise. He is out of sorts with himself, while he accuses others; and he blames his lot, he blames his occupation, he blames the world. Now what I have to say is a ridiculously simple thing. But I will brave your smiles. It is this. The farm and mountain life provide a way of escape, to a certain degree, from Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 this confinement to one's own petty personality. It is set in a planet like a pearl in a ring. It has all nature for its neighbor; the brilliance of the sky, the broad spaces, a great chunk of heaven over the land; and the essential feature of this neighbor, nature, is wonderful freedom-liberty to go, to stay, to look, to work. The farm man and woman quietly, unconsciously, become absorbed in their nature. Not simply that the beauty of nature thrills them-the rosyfingered dawn, the brown, up-turned earth, lights and shadows that play on the land, the fierce storms that break over the mountains-but the majesty and mystery of it all dominates and tends to take each out of himself and blend his life with the great forces that surround him. There is one other way of getting out of self which rivals and probably excels absorption in nature. That is family. In all ages and races the family tree, the family life, the hearth, home, homestead, sons, daughters, grandchildren, ancestors, pedigree, descendants, have occupied a position of highest value among humans. The family group to protect, to perpetuate; land laws and inheritance, privileges and sanctions, bear witness. This, perhaps, is the great human compensation for suffering and much privation. Love, "the greatest thing in the world," is the root of the family. You say, "Shucks, family is the commonest thing going." Yes, I am talking only about the commonest things. You say, "City men have families. This is not a farm matter." This is what I write to dispute. Family is a farm matter, just because the difficulties of raising a family in the city are so great that the family there has not the quiet contentments that spring from family life. I am trying to show how mountaineers can soften some of the blows of life by losing self in surroundings. The next source of contentment is life. This is really a part of nature, but still so different from the earth, climate, and sky and space, it must be thought of by itself. Farming is unique because it deals with life-the live seed, the growing wheat, the live tree, the live animal. Birth, growth, decay. Here is the great mystery of our planet. In the evolution, perfection of life; in the perfection of plants, seeds, the farmer not only is absorbed, but he sees reflected the human struggle also. He learns to be a philosopher. This quiet absorption in the life about him, in the will of the live animal, in the mystery of what lies behind, makes the farmer the moderate, the conservatist. This is the life of the sage deeply versed in this world; him of the moderate ambition, moderate aim for wealth and pleasure; him of the knowing heart; him who lives a balanced life, who lives in the midst of things that grow, and knows that life is moderation. It is very difficult, I know, in an era of money and price curiosity, of business tight in the saddle, to understand these quiet values of farm life. The ancients, however, knew them well. The Bible testifies of them. Having thus pointed out how easy it is to fall into the error of attributing unescapable sorrows and discontents to the farming and farm life itself; and having called attention to the peculiar advantages of farming as a solven of many of the disorders inherent in human life, may I pass on to name and consider briefly some forces which, even in the mountains, are at work to improve farm life and so, greatly to accentuate the three basic advantages of farming as an occupation. The first force that I will name is the machine, with which I connect and include mechanical power-the machine in the farm work of the man, the machine in the household work of the woman. The annual task of lifting up and turning over the surface of every tilled field, once, twice, thrice, or more times; the task of lifting many, many things, small and large, light and heavy, and carrying them, and lifting them again and again; the task of transforming by some use of energy, many products; all these tasks are so inevitable, so inherent, that they characterize and stamp farming as with a trade mark. The ancient Egyptian, Greek, or Roman aristocratic land owner placed these tasks upon the thighs, backs, shoulders, hands, and feet of human slaves. These aristocrats enjoyed country life immensely because they had the April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 basic advantages of country life without the personal strain every day of struggling with the burdens. The human slave was the aristocrat's machine. In America-and this is what I shout aloud -the farm machine and the household machine are the slaves of the farmer and of the farm woman; and the machine has come to be a force of the first magnitude in transforming farm life from an occupation of toil to an occupation of intellect and intelligence. I would name as the second great force which is at work improving farm life in the mountains, enlightenment. This is one of the ages of widespread enlightenment. It does seem as if the very universe itself-sun, earth, moon, and stars were engaged in a race to open up to men the secrets which they have held hidden so long. No longer can it be said that a few favored individuals know the facts of the world and secrete them, but today even the isolated households in the mountains may share in the great body of knowledge. This force of enlightenment-through many other channels than education, although formal education will always hold a primary placeis giving social confidence to farmers, to farm women, to the very children born and bred on farms; and as a result rural people are slipping into their rightful place in society at large. The day of illiteracy is drawing to a close in the mountains. The day of scorn of learning, scorn of schools, scorn of books, scorn of culture, scorn of refinement, scorn of the amenities of life, scorn of the social and esthetic arts-the day, I say, of scorn of human advancement is doomed on mountain farms, all because universal enlightenment is demonstrating the value of rural culture as an adjunct to the great basic benefits of farm life. I am quite sure that I am not far out of the way when I name cooperation-the modern technology of the cooperative farm enterpriseas a present-day force which is at work in behalf of farm life. Gladstone said, "Cooperation is the social wonder of the age." Certain it is that the cooperation as developed in the small nations of Europe is the social miracle which has checked the benumbing effects of peasantry upon the peasant, and has begun to put the brutal part of peasantry in Europe on the run. It is not necessary to name other well known forces. You catch the drift of my optimism. Out of the operation of these and other forces, which might be enumerated, I do wish to point out that a conception is taking form, which, for lack of a better term, we may call "rural civilization." This belief in a coming rural civilization, morever, is out of all proportion to the ratio of the number of farm people to the total population of the nation. The value of this segment of society to the nation is so great as the habitat of children, as the habitat of the American type family, and as the source of the population to cities, that the hope for a worthy rural civilization is a dignified, national hope. In fact, this belief, this lofty hope is erected now into a great national cause -a cause, a struggle, if you please, which takes its place alongside the other great historic American causes and struggles. And the mountains will participate in the glory, as well as in the struggle. The great readjustment needed at the present time is the fundamental one of valuesnot property values, but life values. What mo~es of living, what manners of occupation are worth while? We shall never be able on either side of the boundary line to make progressive readjustments in rural life unless the people in town, as well as in the country, accept and proclaim a more exalted sense of rural values than prevails today. J. B. Reynolds. The two most universal sets of adjustments which every person engaged in the profession of agriculture today must make are those to the physical elements such as soil, climate and the nurture of crops and animals and those to the markets in which the products of the farm are sold. The modern farmer must be both a scientist and a business man if he is going to be a successful entrepreneurÃ‚Â°. Carl C. Taylor. Permanent home life commenced with the development of agriculture. -Sanderson. Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 Agriculture in the Southern Mountains By L. R. Neel, Associate Ed'tor, Southern Agriculturist Agriculture in the mountains has its owe;. peculiar problems. And if it is to be successful, it must be approached from a different viewpoint and with different methods from those which obtain in the broad valleys and the plains. It is an agriculture of small and irregular fields, often of steep and rock-strewn slopes. It is an agriculture from which the tractor and large tillage tools are to a great extent precluded; an agriculture where the laws the sterile soil, their condition can only get wo:se, for the small amount of fertility is being depleted annually. Abandonment is a process to be hastened as much as possible, even if at times the state is called in to take over such lands. However, where the soil is fertile and where on slopes or in narrow valleys and bottoms can be found a reasonable amount of land for cultivation, agriculture can be made successful, and Field of Rye on Mountain Branch Experiment Station, Szcannanoa, N. C. of gravitation add to the burden of man and beast, as steep hillsides must be climbed and then descended; an agriculture which cannot return the maximum wage per day or hour for the labor devoted to it. Yet, in spite of its limitations, agriculture, has an important place in t'ae southern mountain region. Many hundreds of families are living satisfactory and successful lives on southern mountain farms. Indeed here are found some of the happiest people and some of the best citizens in the country. Mhere are mountain farms which, for the best interests both of the people on them and of the state, should be abandoned. All agencies should work to bring this about as quickly as possible. The families should move off the farms that are steep, rough, and poor, and let the trees recapture the cleared areas for the forest. The people can do better at farming under more favorable conditions elsewhere or in some other industry. While they cling to in many cases is being made so. An endeavor should be made to increase the efficiency of this larger group of mountain farmers in order to make their place in our national life better and more secure. The mountain farm is peculiarly adapted to family agriculture. Ordinarily that one will be most successful which is of such size that the farmer and his family can do most of the work required. The outside help that is hired will be mainly that of a neighbor with surplus time or surplus boys, willing to accept a standard of wages somewhat lower than is found in larger agricultural areas. Lut both the mountain farmer and his helpers have a reward other than gold for working in the small fields and on the rough or steep slopes. They have the companionship of the mountains, and to many that is a priceless consideration; they have the fine clear waters that burst from the hollows, and the best summer climate that is to be found it April, 192 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 this country. The call of the hills is strong and lasting. What are a few extra dollars to men and women who have the love of the mountains in their hearts? The southern mountain farmers who are succeeding in a marked degree have adopted a "live at home" program. The garden, the orchard, the poultry yard, and the milk house furnish food for the table. Great is the ingenuity by which variety and a steady supply of wholesome food is provided through the combined efforts of the farmer and his wife. And it is by giving increased attention to home production of foods that other mountain farms are to be made more successful. The garden is the most important area on the mountain farm. It can be started early in the spring and can be kept going until frost. An abundant supply of its produce can be stored in the natural state in cellars or mounds outside, in the dry state in some suitable place, and in cans on the cellar shelves. Always there can be vegetables for the table, and always without buying. Fruit does well on the mountain farm. Tree fruits can be grown with less care than is necessary in the valleys, and bush fruits in many cases do much better than in lower lands. Apples can be kept longer than at lower altitudes on account of lower temperatures. The mountain farmer can easily keep apples fresh for eating and cooking until late March or in many sections until May. Better methods of horticulture are necessary, however. The sprayer, which has not come into extensive use yet, is needed to improve the quality of the fruit, especially of the marketable surplus. Also, the mountain farm er should give more attention to the variety of fruits grown, as he has a wider range of choice than the farmer in the valley. In the "live at home program" the hen, the cow, and the pig play very important parts. The size of the flock of poultry will vary with the grain supply, but every mountain family should have chickens and eggs for eating and some to sell. The mountain farm that is run properly has much grass and clover, which means a constant supply of green pas ture for poultry, and a large area that is benefited by the work of chick ens and turkeys in insect control. Nothing is better adapted to the mountain farm than the cow. She can furnish the family with a big part of its living, and here, as in the Swiss mountains, milk and milk products can furnish a very important item of cash income. Pork production will depend upon the corn crop, yet the successful mountain farm will produce some corn that can well be fed to a few hogs. This, w4h full use of pasture crops, kitchen was.'e, and at times acorns and beechnuts in the woods, will raise hogs enough to furnish the home meat supply, and often a surplus for market. Sweets for the farmer's table come from two or three sources, bees, sugar maples, and sorghum. Bees, properly managed, do well in the mountains. The blossoms of various trees afford nectar for producing honey of good quality. By watching the bees and keeping this separate from that stored from "honey dew" and the undesirable kinds of blossoms, first class honey can be made from woods flowers alone. And alsike, white clover, sweet clover, and buckwheat, where grown, furnish pastures Driving the Sheep to Market Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 which the bees like even better. Thus the family can easily have honey for its table as well as some to sell. On many mountain farms there are sugar trees, the product of which is delicious to eat and easy to sell. Where there is no maple product, a small sorghum patch will provide molasses for eating and cooking purposes. , Thus the mountain farmer by making the most of his garden, orchard, p o u I t r y, milk cow, hogs, bees, and sugar grove or sorghum patch can produce seventy-five to ninety percent of his living, and a mighty good living at that. Then the surplus from these sources does, in not a few cases, provide all the money that is needed to buy the few remaining supplies, pay taxes, etc. Mountain markets A Pmrebred Slaontlaoon Cow and Calf By Courtesy of the Southern Agriculturist are daily growing better. There is a demand for all kinds of things to eat at the mines, lumber camps and saw mills, vacation resorts, summer camps and hotels. There are a number of sources of cash income aside from the surpluses of the "live at home" program. Among these is timber. Trees flourish in the mountain region. The woodland will furnish the farmer all of his building material-except possibly a small amount of finished lumber for inside work- his fence posts, and his fuel from the waste. If the woodland is of some size, it will provide timber to sell from time to time, and this source of income is one that will amount to more and more as the years pass. The fruits of some forest trees are also valuable. If black walnuts are not already there, the finest specimens should be planted on every mountain farm, choosing places where hogs do not run much of the time, as the hard shells injure the teeth of stock hogs. Choice hickory nuts should be planted and cared for. Japanese chestnuts should be set out, as this variety is said to be resistant to the chestnut anthracnose which is killing the native chestnut. Some of the more hardy pecans may well be planted, and hazel nuts set out in waste places. Hardy English walnuts are doing well in parts of the mountains and might be planted more generally. These will make beautiful trees, and their pro ducts will add to the 4ood things for fam ily use. Markets can be found locally and by shipping. Today there is an increasing demand for shelled nuts. Sometimes there will be land available for a h3arket crop, such as Irish potatoes, or tobacco, but ordinarily the main use of level land will be to produce feed for the farm stock. Cattle and sheep are other important items of cash income. The mountain pasture can be handled so that it will carry cattle seven to nine months of the year. The writer has seen cattle do well on pastures until Christmas in West Virginia at an altitude of three thousand feet. The wintering qualities of the mountain pasture are important for they reduce the needed amount of winter feed in barn and stack. With such pasture, good stock cattle and fine grass-fattened cattle can be produced by the use of very little grain and only a moderate amount of roughage. If a good breed of calves is raised and proper care is taken, a high priced finished product will be produced whether the calf is sold to some farmer in the valley to finish or a little grain is fed and the animal is finished at eighteen to thirty months as young beef. Since sheep can live practically all the year round on permanent pastures, they are well(Continued on Page 10) April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 Changing the Agricultural System in a Mountain County By C. W. Tilson, County Agent, Jackson County, North Carolina Before I ever entered State College of Agriculture, it was my greatest hope to have an active part in developing the agricultural system of Western North Carolina into one that would endure for generations to come. Our mountain people have depended on living from their wealth of natural resources. They were once contented to work timber as their main cash crop and to sell their surplus cattle and hogs in the fall to buy the winter supplies which they could not produce on the farm. Any undeveloped country, of course, goes through this state of agriculture. In our West I am going to tell you of the start made during the past two years is given with the hope that it may be of help in some way to other people who have similar problems. It is a proven fact that our mountain people will work much harder to do something for themselves and their county if they cooperate in planning the work and thoroughly understand their part as they go along. With this in mind as soon as I had become acquainted with the thinking farmers and business men in the county we decided that the Chamber of Commercle of Sylva, our county seat, should invite Once of the Tzcenty ern North Carolina mountains we are just reaching the place where we must turn from this first stage to a more dependable type of farming, not only for the present generation but for those which follow. With the coming of good roads, the demand for more and better schools, and a higher standard of living, our farmers are awakening to the fact that a sound and dependable cash crop system of farming for our mountains and little valleys is necessary. I am now in the mountains seventy-five miles from my birthplace trying to serve as a leader for Jackson County farmers and business men in establishing such a type of farming. What Purebred Dairy Sires some farmers from each township to a supper to talk over our agricultural situation. Besides the three speeches made by Agricultural Extension men, several farmers and business men took part in the discussion of our county farming problems. Our men left that meeting with the realization that we had a real problem to solve in adopting the best system of cash farming for our county. But they also left with the greater confidence in each other necessary to solve this problem. Organization Within the next few weeks the county was covered in a series of moving picture meetings. Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 These pictures were salesmen for the type of cash crops we believed should be adopted for our county. At the same time the people were told that township representatives for a County Board of Agriculture would be elected a month later, and this Board, composed of farmers and business men, would make plans for the agricultural development of the county. After these fifteen men had been elected by the people a meeting was called. The Jackson County Board of Agriculture was organized, and a plan of work for the coming year as well as a foundation plan for years to come was made. The plan of work was centered largely around the accept~d slogan: "Five Cows, A Hundred Hens, Thirty Ewes and a Brood Sow, we say, with Lime and Legumes make Farming Gash Pay." Cows For our dairy work we decided to lay the foundation for furnishing the excellent market we already had with a high quality butterfat. It was planned to place ten purebred dairy bulls and one hundred high producing cows in the county. During the past year twenty purebred dairy bulls have been placed in the county and forty-three scrub bulls exterminated. One hundred and forty high producing dairy cows and heifers have been brought into the county and in the process one hundred and forty-seven scrub cows have gone out. A definite plan of growing feed for our dairy cattle has been very successful. Our market is paying fifty cents per pound for butterfat this week, and the Tennessee Jersey cows which we have had a year, have already paid for themselves. We gave our business men and two bankers a part in planning our program of work. When we decided the county needed twenty fine dairy bulls, these men furnished the backing for buying them and paid 25 per cent of the cost. We placed one of these bulls in each community of the county where dairy cattle should be kept, and we did such a thorough job of disposing of our scrub sires that Jackson County led the State in the Purebred Dairy Sires Campaign during the past year. The farmers show that they appreciate the part our business men have taken in this work. The business men also gladly supported the drive which enabled us to have a county-wide tubercular test of all our cattle, and this cooperation has done a great deal toward uniting our farmers and business men in working to make Jackson County a better place in which to live. Hens Our Board of Agriculture planned to place ten thousand standard-bred baby chicks with fifty farmers in order to standardize these fifty farm flocks last year. Eleven thousand chicks were paced on forty-seven farms. With standard brooders and brooder houses eighty per cent of these chicks were raised. In October of the past fall, practically every farm had its seventy-five to one hundred pullets, housed well and beginning to lay when eggs were fifty cents per dozen. During the winter these hens have been at work, yielding to their owners a real profit. As one farmer says-"All winter long my hens at work in their house have cleared every day more than any day's wage I could earn." We have held cooperative car-lot poultry sales during the past year with fair success for a baby poultry county. Over $6,000 worth of poultry was marketed this way during the year by the County Poultry Association. Our farmers and business men have already realized that the 20,000 standard-bred chicks which we must have for this year should be produced at home from our own flocks. In order to do this a firm of three, composed of two business men and a farmer, have established a county hatchery, which is now busy turning out chicks; thus our money is kept at home to develop our county. Ewes A cooperative car-lot wool sale and the production of more and better sheep were the objectives for sheep work in the county for the past year. Our wool sale was a real success, and many of our farmers are taking more interest in sheep growing. Sow Our goal in hog production for 1926 was to have thirty farms each with a purebred brood sow, with a hog house and pasture. Twentythree farmers completed the project and the pigs they produced are bringing in cash now. April, 192 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 Lime Our plan was to buy cooperatively two hundred fifty tons of agricultural lime to be used, a few tons to the farm, for demonstration in growing legumes. Two hundred and thirty-four tons of lime were bought and used by the farmers last fall. This year we will see the result in our clover and soy beans. Legumes Over five hundred bushels of soy bean seed and half as much clover seed were our goal. More than this amount of good seed was bought In visiting the dairying, poultry and hog raising project in the section they also learned a great deal about housing, feeding, and managing cows, hogs, and chickens. As I heard our men discussing how much more prosperous these East Tennessee farmers were and how much better a standard of living they enjoyed, I knew a real lesson had been learned there which would give results in Jackson County. The men were unanimous in saying our tour was in many ways worth ten times what it cost. Lobs and Gals Club Work Nor did we in our planning forget the farm A Floc- Which Earned $70.!0 in O)ac D1o7ath and sown during the year for hay and soilbuilding. With a good season, some wonderful yields were made. Our soil building program is, of course, the solid foundation for safety and prosperity in the long time system of farming. By means of the continued use of lime and legumes in our crop rotation, the selling of our crops through our livestock, and the returning of the manure to the lands, we are bound to build and maintain a fertile soil. Farmer's Tour One of the outstanding educational features for the past year was our Farmer's Tour in late July. Farmers and business men alike, dressed in overalls, with camping outfits and home grown rations made a week's tour in Ford cars through East Tennessee to study an old established system of cash crop farming similar to the one we are now starting in Jackson county. All enjoyed seeing the wonderful results Tennessee farmers are getting in soil building after years of lime, legumes, and livestock. el s of tomorrow. We thought that there should Le nine Boys and Girls Community Agricultural Clubs in the county. We were able to organize and establish eight of these in eight different communities. In each club there was an average of seventeen boys and girls working as junior demonstrators with dairy calves, poultry, pigs, sheep and potatoes. An aver age of twelve members in each club completed their work for the year, with some splendid results. Five of the eight organized clubs had local leaders who wel a very active throughout the year and wee^e in a big way responsible for the success of their groups. We had an encampment and the boys and girls who attended had a week of wonderful pleasure and training. Our club prizes are furnished by the Chamber of Commerce, banks and business firms. We have a silver cup given to the best all-round club each year by the Sylva Chamber of Commerce, a ring for the best all-round club member given by the County Agent, and good cash prizes for dairy calf, potato, pig and poultry club winners given by the Jackson County Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 Bank, Tuckaseegee Bank, Sylva Supply Company, and Jackson County Poultry Association, respectively. This is a splendid way for our business men to establish close contact with our farm boys and girls, and the two are learning to pull together for developing a greater Jackson County. Conclusion Our aim is to give everybody who will think and work a part in the agricultural development of Jackson County, and we find most of our folks ready to cooper ate when given an opportunity. Then we give every bit of credit possible to each and every person for the work he or she has done. By having an active part in the planning and working out of our rural and agricultural problems, our bankers, business men, editors, school superintendents, teachers, and county officers, all cooperating with our farmers, are proud of the results obtained in the development of our county. The spirit of cooperation is certainly living and growing in Jackson County. Already wonderful results are coming from their progressive thinking and working; we are building good roads and schools along with a safe and sound system of cash farming. AGRICULTURE IV' THE SOUTHERN :110 UNTAINS i~Continued from page 6) suited to the mountain farm. To supplement the permanent pasture in winter, rye and crimson clover can be sown on some of the crop land. Some clover or soy bean hay should be put up for feeding in bad or snowy weather. Just a little grain should be fed the sheep and lambs to produce the finest lambs for market in June and July. The southern mountain farm offers an opportunity for a good living if right methods are used. The soil must be cared for through proper use of barn-yard manure and the growth of legumes, particularly clover. It now looks as if the Korean lespedeza may be a legume that will grow high up in the mountains where lime is lacking. The use of some phosphate fertilizer may soon be advisable on grass hands and where the slope is not too great; also lime. Only good stock should be kept, and the best methods of feeding must be practiced. Mountain farming will continue to be small farming, but need not be slovenly farming. It must be intelligent and ever advancing. For the progressive farmer who substitutes other greater values for some of the dollar val ues, who takes time to look for the beautiful and ler to meditate in the shadow of the great moun tains, the southern mountain farm offers an un excelled opportunity for a big, wholesome, and worthwhile life. WINTER CAMP FOR COMMUNITY LEADERS The winter camp for community leaders held at Jackson's Mill, West Virginia, January 17 to February 25 under the auspices of the Extension Division had a total enrollment of 225 men and women. The younger adults between eighteen and thirty gave most of their time to Mr, and Mrs. S. A. Mathiasen of Pocono Peoples College, who carried them through a folk school program adapting Danish methods to West Virginia conditions. The older adults worked with Rev. A. H. Rapking on community and personal problems. In addition to the folk school and community development courses :;pedal institutes were held under the leader ship of various members of the extension staff. The themes of these institutes were: "Preparing for Summer Tourists," "Bean Beetles and Potato Bugs," "Home Indutries," Better Eggs and Milk," "Roadside Markets," "Farm Forestry," "Community News." The buildings and equipment at Jackson's Mill proved well adapted for winter camp use even during the coldest weather. Plans are now being fo-mulaied for another winter camp in 1928. The life of the community is determined by the degree to which its people are able to act together for the best promotion of their common welfare. -Sanderson April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 Poultry in the Hill Country By Charles S. Price, Head of Poultry Department, Berea College The poultry enterprise is one of the biggest single industries in our land. According to the 1920 census report the annual national income from eggs produced and poultry raised was a little over $1,047,000,000, and this figure does not include the production in the villages, towns, and cities. The recent report of the 1925 Agricultural Census reveals the fact that every state in the Union, with the exception of one, showed a substantial increase in the poultry population during the five year period 1920-1925, one state showing a gain of 56 percent. This decided increase in the number of any of our Southern States? How does it compare with the average in the United States? The writer has been interested recently in collecting certain data, mainly from the census reports and from County Agricultural Agents, relative to the poultry industry in representative or typical mountain counties of Eastern Kentucky. These counties are also fairly representative of Southern Appalachia, which includes certain counties of Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky, and in which reside more than 6,000,000 of our purest A Pure-Fred Flock fowls in the various states swells our annual income from poultry until it now far exceeds the billion dollar mark. The economic importance of poultry, therefore, is vastly more significant than many of us realize. Again referring to the 1920 census we find that poultry was raised on 90.8 percent of the farms of the United States, while the same year there were 75.2 per cent of the farms of the country keeping hogs; 78.8 percent keeping dairy cattle; 28.6 percent keeping beef cattle; and 8.4 percent keeping sheep. These figures give a definite idea of the widespread nature of the poultry industry and something of its relative importance. But what about the status of poultry produced in Eastern Kentucky or, for that matter, in the mountains of Anglo-Saxon stock. It has been found that practically every faa m in this territory keeps a few chickens, and that the average number of fowls per farm in ten of these counties is 38.2, with an average annual farm income from poultry of $42.34. The latter fi.gu: e, however, does not include the eggs or poultry used for home consumption. The average production per hen per year in these counties is 40.8 eggs, which is very low and is the cause for the scanty income per farm flock. On the average farm in the United States we find 6? chickens with an average yearly production of 56 eggs per hen. The annual income from poultry is $80.00 per farm. 'these figures are almost twice the amount Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 quoted for the average of our ten mountain counties of Eastern Kentucky. Why is this true? For anyone who has traveled in the mountains of any of the states mentioned above the reasons are obvious. But for those who may not have first-hand knowledge of the agricultural conditions of this territory, perhaps a short explanation is in order. What do we find? Pure-bred poultry? Good poultry houses? Flocks well kept? Some. Not many, however. The idea that "mixed" chickens lay more eggs than pure-breds is very prevalent. It is possible to ride fifteen or important has been this trade that someone has truthfully said, "If it were not for the poultry of Eastern Kentucky the country store would go out of business." County Agent K. J. Bowles of Estill County, Kentucky recently stated that in his county the farm flock was a means by which the farm family had a weekly 'ncome through the entire year and was without a doubt a source by which the common necessities of life were furnished. Continuing further VIr. Bowles says, "The poultry industry is of greater importance for Eastern Kentucky than any other single farm enterprise, because poul Interior of a Well Arranged House twenty miles in some counties and not see a poultry house. The few unfortunate hens roost on the paling fence, in the apple tree, on the plow handle, or in case a Ford is available, the steering wheel which they seem to prefer to the back of the front seat. The hogs are fed before daylight and after dark to keep the chickens from getting the corn, the cobs making good throwing material in case some nocturnal hen ventures forth. In other words, very little attention is given to the flock. But even with conditions as they are, poultry has been the chief source of income for a great majority of the farm families. Chickens beyond count and thousands of dozens of eggs have been carried on the horns of side-saddles to the country store and there exchanged for many of the necessities of life. So great and so try will thrive on many of the hills where it is next to impossible to gr ow any other crop." Certainly Mr. Bowles is correct in his state'nent regarding the relative importance of poultry in the mountains. The topography of the 'end renders it very difficult to cultivate nrofi.tably. Fewer acres of cultivated crops, more grass on the hillsides, and a good sized flock of pare-bred poultry on the farms, we hPlieve, will help considerably to cure many of the agricultural ills of this section of the country. Poultry is one thing that can "stick" to a hillside and thrive if given a "scratching" chance. There are other reasons why we believe poultry should occupy a more important place in the highlands of Eastern Kentucky. One very si.mr_ificant factor is that the products are April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 marketable. They are more or less concentrated in form and therefore can be handled with much less difficulty than many other things that are now produced on the farms. Another factor which is certainly of no less importance is that of the markets themselves. Some of the best markets in the country are in the mountains. Mining camps and towns or small industrial centers are springing up through this region, and the time is already here when the demand for eggs and poultry far exceeds the supply. -en the price of eggs in some of these centers is higher than in the better New York markets. A third factor which should not be overlooked in considering the importance of poultry for this section is that, comparatively speaking, fowls do not consume a large amount of the College of Agriculture, Lexington, Kentucky, initiated the Eastern Kentucky Poultry Improvement Project which is sponsored by the State Agricultural Extension Division and is being carried out in cooperation with County Agricultural Agents in the various counties of this section of the state. This has been the greatest movement thus far in promoting poultry interest in the mountains. Marvelous results are being obtained through this medium. During the year 1924-25, Russell County made greater progress than any other county enrolled in the Better Poultry Campaign. Mr. Marshall Sasser, the Agricultural Agent in this County, writes, "There are now 11,476 pure-bred poultry in my county. This number far exceeds that of previous years." Mr. Sasser A Standard 40x60 ft. Hottse. Will Accommodate 400-500 Birds of feed. They have the unique ability of turning a very high percentage of the raw product, feed, into the finished product, egg. They produce economically if given the proper treatment. Practically all of the feed necessary for a balanced ration suitable for high egg production can be produced even on the poorest of farms. But you might well ask how does one know these theories will work? What is actually being done to prove that poultry may have a more important place on the mountain farm and may be a means of raising the standard of living of the family? In answer to such questions we need only consider the progress that is being made in poultry by County Agents and Extension Workers in some of our mountain counties. Some three years ago the Extension Division reports that during the same year 70 new poultry houses were built, 40 old houses were remodeled and that 68 people kept flock records in his county. Pulaski County was second with 68 new houses, 34 old houses remodeled, and 27 people keeping records. Laurel County was third (the ranking is not determined entirely by the figures quoted here) with 3,484 purebred poultry, 89 new houses, 33 old houses remodeled, and 71 persons keeping records. Most enviable progress has also been made by Mr. Willis Abner, County Agent of Pike County. "In the past" writes Mr. Abner "the flocks in my county have been very poor. This together with almost no houses and scanty unbalanced feeding, has resulted in very low egg production. Within the last two years, however, there has been a marked improvement; 48 model houses have been built, over 100 Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 brooder houses added, 250 people feeding balanced rations, and 50 people keeping records. We have now more than 200 pure-bred flocks with an average of approximately 100 birds, and the production is running upward of 100 eggs per hen." The County Agent goes on to say. "The poultry in Pike County brings the farmers more ready cash than any other single enterprise on the farm. I have people with complete cost accounts that show a nice labor income, the lowest being $2.61 and the highest $5.22 per bird." Mr. Abner also states that everything possible is being done to further the poultry interests in Pike County. Business men are cooperating; banks are loaning money; demonstrations on housing, culling, and feeding are being given by the county agent. Many people are availing themselves of these opportunities of advancing their poultry interests. In 1925 Rockcastle County under the agricultural leadership of Mr. Robert F. Spence enrolled 722 people in the Better Poultry Campaign. As a result, the number of pure-bred poultry increased more than 4,000 birds, 25 new houses were built, 115 old houses remodeled, and 117 flocks culled for egg producduction. "One lady with a flock of 110 Rhode Island Reds plainly demonstrated what can be done with poultry in the Hills," says the county agent, "after buying all the feed, in two years she cleared $325.00 on the flock. Her receipts amounted to $1175, while her expenses were $850." Rockcastle County in 1925 received $72,561 from poultry and poultry products. The prediction of Mr. Spence is, "The poultry business, both from a commercial and home standpoint, is just beginning in this section of the state." Reports from the other counties in this particular region could be presented, all of which would show substantial progress in this particular phase of farming which we feel is so important. It is interesting that much of this poultry improvement work is being done by the Junior Agricultural Club boys and girls. In one county 129 club members in 1925 raised poultry, producing 4,207 mature birds. In another county, of the 150 club boys and girls who started bank accounts, 62 earned their money by raising poultry. A girl in one of our mountain counties raised poultry for five years, making a profit of from $26 to $176 per year. She banked her earnings, and when she went away to High School used her own money. Numerous boys and girls now in our High School and in other institutions of learning are paying their own expenses with money made from raising poultry. Considering these things we would conclude that poultry should occupy a more important place than it now has on the mountain farm. A good sized flock on every farm of pure-bred birds, well housed and properly fed, will help ma,torj,q"QY, in ushering in a better day for the agricultural population in our Hill Country. ADULT EDUCATION NEWS It was an inspiring sight to watch the eager men and women trudge day after day, night after night, through such rain and mud as only Appalachia can produce, to attend the School for Adults conducted by the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, North Carolina, February 7th to 12th. Not a book was seen, not even a slate, but each day lectures and discussions were held on subjects of interest, as local history and geography, with enough of Denmark to show points of contact; on hygiene and sanitation; forestation; farming, especially the raising of poultry and cattle; and the need of team work. In spite of weather the attendance increased until by the middle of the week it became necessary to exclude all under sixteen. The results of the short session seemed to be a whetting of the appetite for more; a unanimous request for a continuance of school at least one evening a week; an urgent request from an adjoining county for a similar course; and the probable establishment of a permanent organization for cooperative buying and selling. It is hoped that the loyalty of local men in redeeming pledges of labor and material, and their genuine appreciation of this week's work in the crowded little farm house may lead to a windfall of sufficient funds to complete an adequate building to give the experiment a fair trial. April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 The Four-H Clubs of West Virginia By Pauline Spangler, District Home Demonstration Agent Club work for boys and girls in West Virginia began in 1911 under the direction of the Agricultural Extension Division. In the early days the activities were limited to canning and corn projects. These were soon extended to include sewing, potatoes, pigs, chickens, calves, etc. It was then found that the project work alone was not sufficient to get the results desired. '"lest Virginia's leaders maintained that it was not enough to demonstrate better methods of farming and home duties, but that this was simply a means to an end. Our biggest, most worthwhile crop, they said, is our boys and girls, and the primary purpose of club work should be to develop and train them for future citizens and leaders in the society in which they are to live. Therefore the club program was broadened by taking into consideration everything that makes up boy or girl life-the things that go for mental, social, religious, and physical development. The Head, the Hand, the Heart, and Health are represented by the four H's, and the clubs began to be known as the Four-H Clubs. The plan bas been so developed as to cooperate effectively with the state and county school authorities, health departments, Sunday School associations, and the various other agencies that are reaching out to boys and girls on the farms. But the clubs are still under the leadership of the Extension Division of the State Department of Agriculture, which is supported by state and federal funds. The work is carried on by the project method. Each boy or girl must compete in producing the best sewing or bread, the best corn or potatoes, the best sheep or chickens, or each must in some other way put into use training along lines that will help him toward the Fourth standards of life. Through these projects and the other activities of the clubs the youngsters learn many things. They begin to appreciate the privileges and responsibilities of ownership. They form a real partnership with their parents and become more interested in their homes and in farm life. They get the incentive to better school work. They find that church life is a part of their every day life by reason of the semi-religious service held at their meetings. At their parties and the camps held in forty different counties they receive instruction in organized play and games. In very truth, they do receive a full, all-round development. A well developed series of tests has been evolved to find out just how much ability each boy or girl has in comparison with other boys and girls of similar age and experience. Doctors and nurses find out the physical weaknesses of the children. The mental tests show whether arithmetic, or spelling, or reading should receive most attention in school. The boy tests his skill of hand by building a chicken coop or plowing a straight furrow. The girl shows how well she can cook or sew. The religious View of Jackson's Mill, West Virginia State Four-H Camp Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 and social development is similiarly tested. All these things go to show how well the youngster is qualified for leadership and cooperation with others. With this information at hand, the leaders turn their efforts toward helping the boy or girl overcome the weak and increase the strong points. The individual is shown the possibilities that lie before him and is encouraged to "learn to do by doing" under guidance. The club work is so developed as to place the responsibility of the learning on the boys and girls themselves and to make them feel this responsibility. As the Four-H program developed, the need of a place where the older boys and girls as well as their leaders could receive inspiration and training to help them in carrying forward the Four-H movement for better rural life became so great that the State Four-H Camp at Jackson's Mill was established. A wonderful atmosphere, with impelling traditions, has developed around this State Four-H Getting His Project Ready for the Fair Camp in the few years of its existence. Older club members, club leaders, teachers, parents, extension agents, others, all seem to absorb in a few days at Jackson's Mill a "Mountaineer Spirit" which they put into their work after they return home. The training in the methods of carrying on work with youth and with communities in which they live has also been very effective. Nestling in among the hills this Camp has developed physically into a most charming and attractive state park visited by thousands of people each season. As the common meeting ground of the leadership of the State interested in rural progress, Jackson's Mill is becoming a A Physical Examination in Country Camp mecca for all believers in the Four-H ideals, irrespective of the particular organizations to which they may belong. The contacts being made at Jackson's Mill between the workers in the different groups are helping to make possible a well-rounded and carefully coordinated country-life program for West Virginia. "Guiding Principles" The following five guiding principles are in large white letters on the silo of Mr. Dougan, a farmer near Beloit in Rock County, Wiscon sin 1. Good crops. 2. Proper storage. 3. Profitable live stock. 4. A stable market. 5. Life as well as living. -Rural America. To use all the land, abuse none of it and treat it well because it is holy. -Danish Motto. April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 Fruit on the Mountain Farm By Flood Bralliar It is pretty well understood by all who are in touch with the modern knowledge of diet that no foods are so important to health and normal development as fruits and green vegetables. It is safe to say that health is best when both are a part of the daily diet. There was a time in the mountains when nature provided these necessities, at least in the summer time. But at present the wild fruits are rapidly disappearing and very little is being planted to take their place. In fact, in one large district where I have been for the last three summers, the entire average production of cultivated fruit might be loaded on a single wagon, or at the most on two, yet there is a population of perhaps two or three thousand, including the usual number of children if any of our fruits require limestone soil. They will thrive and bear good crops on the naturally acid soil of the mountains. More than this, the high altitude and natural drainage of both water and cold air combine to fit the mountain c.)untry peculiarly for fruit growing. Properly set and cared for, one hundred strawberry plants planted this spring will produce fifty gallons or more of berries next spring, and likewise the second spring. What a blessing such a crop of berries would be to thousands of homes, and it can be produced on a plot of ground twenty-five feet square. If this be true, and it is, why should strawberries not be raised for market in those districts where timber has been cut off and there is little that can be raised to sell? They should Operating A Small Hand Sprayer found in mountain homes. Nor is this all. There is a feeling among the people that children at least must not be allowed to eat fruit. This would not be so serious were it not that few gardens are grown, and so the free use of green vegetables does not compensate for the lack of fruit. It is small wonder that all of the stores carry pills and other medicines as some of their chief wares. But from an economic standpoint as well as from a health standpoint every home should raise at least all of the fruit it can use. And this can be done readily enough, as fortunately few be so raised. I am well acquainted with one such neighborhood where a few years ago land could be bought for eight or ten dollars per acre. A teacher located a school in that vicinity and planted a strawberry patch. It produced well, and he induced some of the neighbors to set out a few plants. They also had a good crop. As a result within a short time a strawberry association was formed and a million and a half strawberry plants were set that spring. Thus prosperity came and has stayed. Many carloads of berries are now shipped from that neighbor Page 18 MOUNTAIN LICE AND WORK April, 192? hood, and berry land is worth a least a hundred dollars per acre. The South has a great shortage of red raspberries for the simple fact that they will not thrive and produce profitable crops in the valleys. But in the mountains, wherever I have seen them tried, they produce heavily even under fairly favorable conditions. The so-called Demonsh,ation in Pruning everbearing variety, St. Regis, seems to be particularly fitted for the mountain districts, and fortunately the berries are solid enough to ship to market. But even if none were ever sold the mountain family would greatly benefit by having a patch for home use. Two rows, six feet apart and one hundred feet long will give an abundant supply regularly for ten years. They must be given a good dressing or fertilizer every year, kept free of weeds and the canes confined to the rows. Black raspberries will produce almost as large crops and they always sell for a good price on any market, as there is never enough to supply the demand. These crops are especially stressed as they require little spraying and the money returns come quickly. No other crops will yield more for the space cultivated and the labor expended. Besides, here are crops in the production and handling of which the entire family can be used. The large families found in most mountain homes are a real asset when berry-picking time comes. Grapes are another crop peculiarly adapted to mountain culture. No one who lips ever walked through the tangles of wild grape vines will seriously doubt this. Grapes may be expected to produce a profitable crop two years out of three and to yield at least as well as those in the grape-growing districts of New York. To get such returns it is necessary that the vines be properly fertilized and cultivated, pruned once a year and sprayed at least three times a year. This does not involve, however, as much work or expense as do most other crops. Then in the south grapes come on the market before northern grapes and this increases the financial return. I am acquainted with one man who began growing grapes without a dollar of capital. He now owns twenty five or thirty thousand dollars worth of real estate alone. One day he said to me, "If a man cannot make money growing grapes in this country, I do not know how he can make it." Grapes should be planted on the side of the hills or at least on well drained places. A vineyard once properly planted and cared for will produce a steady income for a generation. Although they require more knowledge and skill than either strawberries or raspberries, they are easier to pick, stand shipment better, and are therefore more marketable. Peaches are more certain to bear in the mountains than in the valleys. The average mountaineer, however, thinks his work done when he has planted his trees. That he should prune, spray, and remove the borers never enters his head. Consequently he will tell you that, "Peaches just natcherly don't do well here no more. The trees sorter peter out." Yet the section around Harriman, Tennessee, just average mountain country, has become within the last eight years one of the largest peach shipping districts of America. (Continued on Page 25) April, 192 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 Three Years in the Foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains as Smith-Hughes Teacher By Henry W. Derdert Reinhardt College is a church school situated in Cherokee County, Georgia, in the lesser range of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It is in the center of the region where lingered longest the last of that race of people whom we cannot say were weaker than, but less fortunate than we, the Indians. The very name Cherokee is symbolic of love, respect, and reverence, and in such a spirit the school here has long served its people and has done it well. Men from various walks of life, judges, ministers, and teachers, have gone from Reinhardt to the mountains with an in school who wished to take Vocational Agriculture. Each boy who enrolled in the class had also to carry out a home project under the supervision of the teacher of Agriculture. In undertaking this task I had the advantage of having been : eared in t'ie section. I understood the people and could discuss their needs without offending them. The first year forty-four boys signed up for the course. 'I his gave me all I could handle in the way of supervision. Contests were put on in the various communities to promote good work and inte_7est. I found that the boys were. Class in Animal Hz(sbandry, Reinhardt College spiration to serve the community from whence they came, and to carry the Spirit of the Master to the remotest sections of Cherokee. But for years we felt there was something lacking. We are by nature an agricultural section and not a manufacturing region and the farmer, the man who needed most to know something of his profession, was not being reached. Real light on the situation dawned in 1924 with the addition of vocational training through the Smith-Hughes law. The work started with a class of boys in very much interested, but in some cases we had.'. severe criticism from "Dad". He would often tell' us in a somewhat joking but, serious manner that he had already worn out several good farms and there was no use of his trying to learn the new way. For some time we were at a loss to know how to win his sympathy. Finally Mr. Paul W. Chapman, State Supervisor of Vocational Education in Georgia, suggested our having a Father and Son banquet. In this way we were able to get together the fathers of those boys who were_ taking Agriculture, the Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 boys themselves, and some other community leaders to discuss the problems of the commuity. Naturally enough we found that our big problem was that of better agriculture. As a result of this meeting many new ideas developed. We organized our pig, calf, and poultry clubs, and out of these has grown a desire for better conditions at home. A Chamber of Commerce has been started and is supporting in a very material way an agricultural program which is attracting attention throughout the North Georgia section. Mr. S. C. Dobbs, a capitalist of Atlanta, Ga., in agriculture." Another boy from the farm, Ben Maxwell, came to Reinhardt at the age of fifteen. He entered the Agriculture class, and became very much interested in general Live Stock Farming. The first year he cleared $62.00 from his home project, which was the raising of a pure bred pig. The second year he expanded his work and added poultry. This of course called for sufficient grain to care for the two projects, with a general program of farm opertions. This time his profits amounted to $245.86. After having seen his ability I naturally advised him to take all the agriculture he could and Class in Poultry, became interested in our vocational program and erected a two-story stone building in which are taught agriculture, woodwork, forging, farm blacksmithing, and home economics. He is now chairman of our Board of Trustees and is influential in shaping the policy of the school. He feels that the chief purpose of Reinhardt College is to equip its students to go back to the farm as more progressive farmers and better housewives, thus improving the standard of citizenship of the mountains of North Georgia and the adjoining states. It has been indeed gratifying to see the results of some of our vocational projects in Cherokee County and the nearby sections of North Georgia. The mother of one of my students said, "Mr. Derden, my boy has made more on the farm these past two years than his father and I have made in ten, and I believe is is all due to the training he got at Reinhardt Peialzccrclt College continue to increase the size of his home projects. This year he cleared $1,125.24, and bids fair to go far above this next year. There are other cases I might refer to but for lack of space. Several of our students have gone out into the county and are doing progressive farming. Others have gone to the State College of Agriculture to prepare to teach. One student in the present Senior Class is specializing in horticulture, and plans to go into the fruit business here in his native county. Another went out two years ago and now has a splendid poultry business near here. In one community in this county there are 5,480 pure bred hens where two years ago there were none. There have been three registered dairy bulls and fourteen pure-bred hogs placed in the county through the efforts of our Agriculture Department. (Continued on Page 22) April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 21 Dairying in the Mountain Sections By George Caret', Virginia Extension Specialist Comparatively few dairy cows are to be found on our farms in the mountians of our southern states. What few there are will generally be of the scrub type rather than of any accepted dairy breed. Little attention or care is liven to these animals, and for the most part they are expected to shift for themselves and make their entire living from what they can gather from the mountain side. While we have no statistics to show how own young, because it has a very small udder and really should never have been raised in the first place. No amount or fine quality of feed can make a cow give milk at a profit if the cow does not have the inherited ability to do so; neither can we expect to get good results from a good cow unless we furnish her with the proper feeds and treatment to induce her to give large quantities of milk and butterfat. Selrctiazg A Good Dairy Co?r By Courtesy of Berea College much or rather how little milk and butter is used on our average mountain farms, it is a generally known fact that in most mountain homes very little milk is seen on the table and only a few are blessed with a supply of good butter. Wherever we find an absence of dairy products, we find underweight, undernourished, and poorly developed children, who are very susceptible to every form of disease and who do not have a fair chance to develop into the kind of a citizen they have the right to be. The scarcity of milk on these farms is due to several conditions, but there are three main causes for it; the kind of cows kept, the feed and the care they receive, the lack of knowledge of the value of dairy products. The animal which some call a cow because it has four legs, a head, neck, middle, tail, and three or four teats does not always give milk. In fact, this kind is generally dry; when fresh, it rarely gives enough good milk to nourish its There is great need for better cows in all other sections of the state as well as on the mountain farms. Where there are two or three cows of the low-producing type on the farm, it would be a profitable plan to sell these and buy one really good milk cow. The breed does not matter much, but it is essential to get good cows of whatever breed is decided on. The extension worker from the agriculture colleges and the county agents nearby are always willing to assist in the purchase of good dairy stock. Where it is not possible to finance the purchase of a cow, a good calf can generally be purchased for a few dollars and, if properly fed and cared for, will develop into a good cow in two years. The average cow on the mountain farm probably gets treatment in proportion to the milk she gives, but if a good cow is secured, proper treatment will have to be the rule. The dairy cows in our southern climate do Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 not require much housing. All that is necessary to solve the housing problem is a shed with a roof that does not leak, three sides that are -wind tight-the open side facing the southand a floor that is kept clean and well supplied with clean bedding. It is not an uncommon sight to see a poor, half-starved cow huddled up in a fence corner, headed away from the wind :and rain, endeavoring to keep alive. How can such an animal be expected to produce? As long as this kind of treatment is given the cow, it is no wonder that there is such a scarcity of milk. It is for the winter needs that provision must be made; in most of the mountainous sections the cow can gather enough feed from the natural growth of the hill pastures in summer. The cows give milk in the summer because they get plenty to eat, but when winter comes they dry up because they get little or nothing to eat. It would be easy to grow an acre of bean or pea hay to feed the cow on during the winter so that she could give plenty of milk instead of standing dry so long. Milk is more essential in the winter than in the summer, because it supplies us with healthy, body building food when we are not able to get fresh green food-stuffs which are so readily available in the summer. For the sake of the children if not of the animal, there should be an end of forcing cows to hunt their living in the woods. If enough food, leguminous hay like clover, beans, or peas is fed in the winter months it will not be necessary to use commercial feed to keep cows in good flesh and milking fairly well. At any rate this would be a big improvement over the present treatment provided. A good cow will contribute more than any other form of livestock toward the support of the mountain home, as well as furnishing the most healthful drink and food for the members of the family. Butter can always be sold, and the skimmilk which is left after the household needs have been filled will make the best kind of growing feed for hogs and chickens. County agents, mission and extension workers are doing all they can to increase the amount of dairy products and their use on mountain farms. It is the slow work of education but it is one of the foundation stones of a happier rural civilization. THREE YEARS IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAINS AS A SMITH-HUGHES TEACHER (Continued from Page 20) There is now a demand for a County Agricultural Agent, and two other high schools have asked for an Agriculture Department. Another feature of the work at Reinhardt is the Farm Shop. Here we teach the boys the proper care and use of tools, and how to make various farm implements as well as a great many articles to be used in the home. We try to emphasize work and its place in our lives. We are striving to make this department a center to which the people may come for solutions to many of their farm problems. The College Farm is an open demonstration and farmers are invited at all times to observe the operations. Under the direction of the Agriculture Department there have been a number of short courses put on in Vie various communities dealing with subjects of local interest. At this time there are two of such courses in progress. These courses take the foam of Part Time and Evening Classes, and are curried out according to state requirements. The Part Time Class is for the boy who has dropped out of school to earn a living, and the Evening Class for the adult farmer who is still interested in learning more about his job . The value of the Smith-Hughes work is certainly being demonstrated in this section. One leading farmer said, "Since Agriculture has been taught at Reinhardt College there are five times as many chickens in the county, twice as much hay, and a noted increase in almost all farm products." These were, of course; estimated figures but they serve to show that a great difference is apparent. That steady progress in educating the farmers and farmers' boys and gills is being made is evidenced by better homes and better farms, and what is best of all, by the increased number of children in the schools throughout the section. Farming is practically the only remaining industry conducted on a family basis. -Sanderson. April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 The Story of a Mountain Farmer By J. S. Rowland, Ows'ey Count, Kentucky When but a boy, I once made a trip from my mountain home to the Blue Grass section of Kentucky. I was amazed and delighted to see the herds of fine cattle and sheep, grazing on the beautiful blue grass pastures. I thought this was the most beautiful sight I had ever seen, and at once had a vision of myself grown to manhood, owning a fine farm, red cattle, and downy white sheep. One day in spring my older brother bought a calf for five dollars. As we were driving it home, he remarked that he thought it would bring him ten dollars by September. This occurrence started the following train of thought on one calf one would make five dollars; on stock, encouraged me by letting me have a little money and by pasturing my calves for me. I will not record here the story of a few "catham" calves which I bought, and which of course were sold at a loss, for they did not "fill out" according to my expectations. I soon learned, however, to buy a calf with straight legs, broad back and hips, and straight on the back from head to tail. This kind I found would grow rapidly and bring a nice profit. So after some years of labor and several terms in the school of experience, I began to hope that my boyhood dream would come true. At last I had money enough to buy a little rough mo Ã‚Â°_ twn ta=m, containing seventy-five Some of My Red lllozrrrtai~z Cattle two, ten; on three, fifteen; and on one hundred calves, five hundred dollars, which looked like a fortune to me. However I had one big problem yet to solve. I could not grow cattle without food for them; I could not have food without land; and I had neither land nor money. Keeping my vision in mind, I borrowed money from a friend to buy my first calves, but as I had no training in stock judging, some were of poor quality. Therefore, when I had sold them, and had deducted my expenses, I had gained only a few dollars. Yet, I had gained! This gave me courage to continue in the trade. My father, seeing I was so fond of acres. 1 sowed it in grass and borrowed money to stock it. Real happiness indeed! My own farm! My own stock! How faithfully I salted my cattle that summer. How often I called them off the hills to note their growth. And late that fall when a man came from the Blue Grass to buy them, he said, "Your cattle are as fat as mine. They are the fattest cattle I have ever seen in the mountains." The thought of my cattle being as fat as those of the Blue Grass was an inspiration to me. I saw I needed more land if I was to have more cattle. I was a school teacher at that time and every dollar I could spare (although how I could spare any out of the Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 salary I received then, I cannot imagine) I invested in land. I would buy a small tract cheaply, clear and fence it, sow grass, sell it for a nice little profit, and then buy a larger tract; always managing to graze a few cattle through the summer and sell them in the fall. I followed this manner of trading for some years, getting real pleasure from watching my cattle grow and fatten. I was not willing to let well enough alone, however, and decided to change my occupation. Therefore, I went into the merchandise business. But at the end of the third year, I found most of my money gone, myself in debt, and my goods credited out to unreliable persons. So back to the farm and to the pretty red cattle I had to go in order to get out of debt. As the stock business was always lucky for me I soon paid all my debts and began to make a little money. After a few years I conceived the idea that the Blue Grass regions would suit me better than the mountains. I thought a man in the Blue Grass could farm easier and make money faster than the mountain farmer. So I began to sell my little tracts of land, thinking I would soon be ready to say farewell to the hills. But alas! I found the price of the Blue Grass land too high for the contents of my pocketbook. When I found a farm I admired I was too poor to buy it; when I found a farm for which I could pay, I would not have it. I soon began to realize that the price of the big acreage I had sold in the mountains would only pay for a small farm in the Blue Grass. I also realized that the farmer with only a few acres, be they ever so good, could do little or no good in the business of growing livestock. I lost about a year in looking about and trying to find a location. I began to make comparisons like this. "There is good, rich, rough land in the mountains that can be bought from ten to twenty dollars per acre, which with proper care, will never wear out, and on which cattle and sheep will grow and fatten almost as well as in the Blue Grass regions, where land is selling for one hundred and two hundred dollars per acre." An old uncle, who lived near where I was born and reared, had a good farm containing four or five hundred acres that could be bought for nine thousand dollars. This land was rich, a part of it in grass, and a large portion in woodland. Adjoining this farm were other tracts which could be bought very cheaply and which added to my uncle's would make about seven hundred acres. After much consideration, I decided to buy this land and give up my dreams of the Blue Grass. Had I been a rich man those dreams probably would have been realized. But being only a poor mountaineer I had to content myself with buying the rough mountain farm and saying "Farewell to the Blue Grass." So I became resigned to my lot, contented and happy with a good flack of Southdown sheep and a herd of red cattle. My dream now was to get this farm set in grass, and grow enough sheep and cattle on it to provide comforts for my family and educate my child-en. The merchantable timber had all been taken off the land, so as fast as I could I cleared it up. The virgin soil I planted in corn for two or three years, then sowed oats or rye together with orcha~~d grass, timothy, and red clover, and on the roughest parts I added some Kentucky blue grass. Some one might wish to know how long grass lasts on steep land. A part of this land was in grass twelve years ago, and is grazing almost as good now as when I bought it. Some of the farmers here think when a pasture becomes filthy with sprouts and weeds, it must be put in corn and cultivated to get rid of them. I think this is cultivating the filth. My idea is to put stock, especially sheep, on the filthy land, let them eat the filth and get rid of it in that way, for as often as a farmer plows the steep hill land he is taking a risk of losing it by washing. On my farm I usually graze from one hundred to one hundred and fifty cattle, and about the same number of sheep. In 1925 I raised one hundred and seven lambs; in 1926 eightysix. I winter my ewes on orchard grass, not feeding any grain except when snow is on the ground; and I dare say that I have as fine a flock as there is in the mountains. Many farmers are discontinuing the raising and growing of livestock, have quit fencing April, 192 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 their farms, and are depending on the plowing and raising of grain for a livelihood. This, I think, is a great mistake. If there is any way a mountain farmer can make a decent living, and have any of the luxuries of life, it is not in the plowing of the hill sides and letting erosion take away the soil, but in the raising of livestock. This I believe to be the only salvation for the mountain lands. I am not boasting, but only giving you the information for which you asked. I can do this only by recording my personal experience. I have made a little money and a comfortable living on the farm. I have been making an annual cash income of two or three thousand dollars on my rough hills. I have given my five children a fairly good education and as they arrived at the age of twenty-one years, have given ,each a nice little sum as a start in life. We have a good home with all modern improvements; our own light plant, water works, etc., good cement outdoor cellar, barn, and all necessary out-buildings. Indeed, I feel that the Giver of all good gifts has blessed us wonderfully even though our home is in the hills. FRUIT ON THE MOUNTAIN FARM (Continued from Page 18) Cherries are very rare in the south and bring good prices. They have never "done well" in the rich lowlands, but wherever there are trees in the mountain section they produce heavy crops regularly. Last summer I saw some trees in the high mountains near Asheville that had never had any care of any kind, surely not for a quarter of a century, yet they were healthy trees and as large as the great oaks of the forest. They were bearing heavily, and the fruit was as fine as I have tasted in many years. Near Maryland, Tennessee there are also some cherry trees which have received no care and yet to my personal knowledge they bear bumper crops. If neglected trees do so well, would not a cherry orchard properly set, sprayed, and cased for be very profitable? The trees grow well, mature early, and bear fruit for a quarter of a century at least. Cherries ship as well as strawberries, and there would be no competition from northern growers when southern fruit is ripe. Except for home use, pears, like plums" will never be profitable unless cared for scientifically. A good orchard is a fine investment. When once grown to bearing size it will produce for a life time if not neglected. The trees should be regularly pruned, sprayed and fertilized. I know a few southern orchards that are doing a splendid business. The fruit is graded and sold it s~wndard packages.. It is as fine in appearance and better in flavor than any that is shipped in and brings top prices. Early apples are perhaps the most profitable if produced in large enough quantities to ship by the car load to the northern market. They arrive at a time w=?en mere is no competition as cold storage apples are either gone or have lost their quality, and northern apples are not yet ready. Apples and peaches should be planted on northern slopes, wherever it is practicable, as this prevents their blooming too early and thus, being killed by the frost. Plums are rather a doubtful crop for the mountain districts. The Japanese varieties, the only ones of high market value, bloom even earlier than peaches and are apt to be killed by late spring frosts. Then, too, they require very careful spraying to prevent rot and injury by curculio. If, however, the trees are planted on a northwestern slope and are well sprayed the fruit will bring good returns, as the demand is always greater than the supply. Except for home use, pears like plums, involve more risk than our other fruits. There is such a large production of the Keiff.er variety that it sells at a low price; even so, it is usually profitable. The better varieties are difficult to grow on account of fire blight. Where they can be raised successfully, however, they command high prices. On the whole the orchard is a great asset to a mountain farm. It furnishes one of the most healthful foods in the diet, and as has been shown, can be the source of a good income. If small canneries can be established to handle the inferÃ¢â‚¬Â¢or g, ades, fruit growing offers one of the greatest agricultural opportunities to the southern mountain farmer. Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 19,7 A Mountain Worker's Book Shelves By Mrs. Florence Holmes Ridgway Among the many callings to which people apply themselves probably none have more hazards for the intellectual life than those where exists a constant demand for personal, human service. It can hardly be questioned that the mountain worker who is devoted to his task may know, as much as any one in our land, what this demand means. His task is one of the greatest human interest and therefore absorbs his time and thought to the point where hazards to his intellectual life are involved. To keep out of a rut and tread new paths, to look through the windows of his dwelling upon the spacious world beyondthese are ideals toward which he struggles, yet is again and again overwhelmed by the profound interests of his immediate environment. To calculate the extent of these hazards and then set about reducing them is a part of life's program which cannot be overlooked if one's personal development is estimated at its relative value. Within reach of everyone in this hazardreducing effort stand as first aidsand it may be added last aids-the splendid hosts of friendly books. Emerson wrote in his Journal, "I like to have a man's knowledge comprehend more than one class of topics, more than one row of shelves. I like a man who likes to see a fine barn as well as a good tragedy." He stated what is for any man of any occupation the ideal by which he may escape from ruts and single tracks into the highways of the great world of knowledge. "More than one row of book shelves," is the thought that has prompted the author of this article to attempt some little service for the great men and women who work in the mountains by suggesting certain books which will help either to the better performance of the day's task or to the widening of the horizons of daily life. The books selected, which are of both cultural and professional values, are purposely presented in the form of an admixture rather than in grouped or labeled arrangement. For life itself is a splendid admixture of interests and contacts, and professional knowledge is at its best only when happily blended with general knowledge; only when "fine barns and good tragedies" are given their due relationships. Some of these books have been chosen with considerable hesitation because of their prices. They are presented, however, with the suggestion that if ownership is not convenient, they may usually be borrowed from the State Library Commissions located at the capitals of the various states. Galpin, Charles Joseph. Rural Life. Century, 1918, $2.75. Written several years ago this book still holds a foremost place as a guide to the interpretation and adjustment of farm life problems. The author is in charge of the Rural Life division of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. It is his conviction that "the rural life problem is one in miniature for each rural group rather than a massive national problem for a few leaders." For this reason the stories of achievement cited are those of "home grown effort by the ordinary rural folks, however obscure their lives for the book is aimed to encourage the common people in the ordinary rural community. They are the people, in the final analysis, who will accomplish whatever is done." This book is very useful to anyone interested in rural life either as a study or as a practical handbook. The author's later book Rural Social Problems, (1924 Century $2.00) is a very clear and stimulating treatment of farm life problems and of the human needs of farm people with valuable suggestions for bringing about happier conditions thru easement of labor for farm women, better trading facilities, consolidation of schools and churches, library and hospital services, recreation and art opportunities and an alliance of city and farm. The Handbook of Rural Social Resources. Chicago University Press, 1926. $2.00 ; Paper $1.00. This volume, edited by Henry Israel and Benson V. Landis, is a reference book for rural workers which brings together a large amount of information formerly obtainable only "from widely scattered sources. It aims to present the developments of rural life during the last five years." The first part of the book consists of articles by authors of high standing on such topics as Rural population: Organized rural recreation: Farm women's organizations: Agricultural legislation, 1921-25. The second part presents the programs of about thirty national agencies engaged in rural social work. The scope of their work, methods by which individuals may secure service, their work, methods by which individ April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIB AND WORK Page 27 uals may secure service, their publications and officials are details of very practical value. The book will be useful to teachers, ministers, social workers, and all others engaged in rural work. The progressive farmer and his wife will also find it of value in giving wider acquaintance with rural America and with some of the resources within their reach. Williams, Whiting. Mainsprings of Men. Seribners 1925. $2.00. The book is largely based upon the author's own experience as a workingman in both America and Europe. He left an important executive position and entered the ranks of labor with the purpose of finding "What's on the worker's mind?" "As never before men are searching for the springs of action within themselves and within their fellows -evidently in the belief that the value of a life is measured by its influence upon the thoughts and actions of others. The widespread urgency of this search is the chief warrant of this book's effort to furnish such seekers a few suggestions capable of daily application. Free use has been made of the case method: wherever possible a fact or principle is set forth by showing how, in a particular section of human experience, it appeared to operate." While most of the cases cited do not parallel industrial situations in the mountains, yet the analysis of human desire and effort, and the resultant bases suggested for better adjustments and satisfactions in the ,vork-life of people are universally applicable. It is a book which will deepen the understanding of our own relation to work and of our fellowlaborers regardless of place and circumstances. But it is particularly valuable for leaders in industrial centers. The author believes that an "Eleventh Commandment could well be framed before the eyes of everyone of us who finds it so much easier to feel kindly toward our fellow man than to try to understand him: 'Thou shah not take thy neighbor for granted.' Among us all whether we live nobly or ignobly whether through the accomplishment of useful results or the mere gaining of a moment of attention to be a person is to wish to move worthily among worthy personsto have life and have it more abundantly. In none of us is the mainspring broken; only its control, its escapement is faulty." Such is the faith of this man who has dwelt long amid the very dregs of the world's workshop. Davis, Jerome, Editor. Business and the Church: a Symposium. Century Co., N. Y. 1926. $2.50. What can the church do for labor and for business?" "What can labor do for the church?" Believing that there exists a pressing need for an expression from business men themselves in answer to these questions twenty-one men were selected from the outstanding leaders of our country and asked to "give the heart of the philosophy or practice which they had worked out in the give and take of community life." (heir contributions represent a wide variety of opinion but touch a central core of agreement in "favor of the supremacy of the human side of business." As the editor states, "the crying reed of our time is to get away from mere platitudinous idealism to its practical translation into the working reality of day-by-day life, and the great test of our age is whether we can be loyal to the spirit of Jesus in our daily community life." People in general who want to know something of the ethical and spiritual forces at work in American business should read this book. Business men will find it a practical and stimulating volume and ministers, heartening and enlightening. Atkinson, Mary Meek. The Woman on the Farm. Century 1924. $2.00. A book of useful ideas for the leader of woman's groups and one of inspirational value as well as practical for the farm woman who is awake to her needs and potentialities. The author, herself a farm woman, sought the assistance of many other farm women throughout the country in presenting the subjects discussed. The projects given are all the result of successful practice in farm neighborhoods. The valuations of farm life are well balanced and the farm woman's work, problems and viewpoints well defined. Sayles, Mary B. The Problem Child in School. Joint Committee on Methods of Preventing Delinquency. N. Y. 1926. $1.00 The purpose of this book is to present studies of some of the common types of children whose habits, behavior and school progress give cause for concern, and the methods which may be used to prevent permanent maladjustment. The narratives are gathered from case records of teachers at work under the National Committee on Visiting Teachers. This is a book of real value to parents, teachers and socials workers in understanding and caring for problem children of school age. Another valuable study published by the Committee is Three Problem Children: being narratives from case records of a child guidance clinic. $1.00 Pupin, Michael I. From Immigrant to Inventor. Scribners Sons, N. Y. 1923. $2.00. Born in a Serbian village over a half-century ago, this peasant boy came to America while still a lad. He worked his way as farm hand and factory laborer until he was able to enter Columbia University. Later he studied in universities abroad. He won great distinction in his chosen field of electro mechanics. He tells the story of his life with charm and with admirable spirit. As an account of what youth can achieve through difficulties, of what Amercanization means from the immigrant side, and of what has been achieved in modern science and invention the book is not only highly informing, but also highly inspirational. It ranks as ore of the best biographies of our century and is of special value as a stimulus to youth. It is of interest that the American Missionary Association is distributing this book from: the Gregory fund to libraries for the special purpose of interesting young people in its message. Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 19,7 DeSchweinitz. Karl. The Art of Helping People out of Trouble. Houghton, Mifflin Co. 1924. $2.00. "The purpose of this book" the author states, "is to describe a method of helping people out cf trouble. The priciples underlying this method are applicable, not only when one is with an individual whose personal affairs a' a at a crisis, but whenever one finds himself so placed that he may influence others-whether as parent, teacher, employer, or neighbor, whether with patient, parishioner; friend or client." The author is secretary of the Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charity and has had wide experience in social worl`. The cases cited in the book are those of unadorned reality. He shows unusual insight into human nature and an equally great ability to apply to complex and baffling problems sourd workable principles. His book is invaluable not only for its suggestions for "helping people out of trouble," but for the art of living. It is stimulating to meet a faith which can say out of the depiChs of experience as does this author, "The more one works with people in trouble the greater his confidence in human lord and his respect for human beings becomes. Seeing what they accomplish in overcoming their difficulties brings an ever deepening faith in their capacity for self help." Out of life's very difficulties, out of our own fraility comes renewed appreciation of all that living can mean and the privilege that is ours in its practice. Eddy, Sherwood & Page, Kirby. Makersof F,yeedom: Biographical Sketeltes ire the Social Progress. Geo. H. Doran Co. N. Y. 1926. .50. This volume is an attempt to interpret the lives of eight men and women who have been among the outstanding leaders in the great reform movements of the world. The kind of world they lived in, what kind of people they were, what they did and said and what the results of their lives were, are the questions underlying the portrayal of their characters. The age-old enslavement of man and 'she record of his struggles and achievements form the theme of this ably written volume. The concluding chapter (which is also published separately at 10 cents) is entitled the "Present Struggle for Freedom". The authors here analyze some of the attitudes, practices ad institutions which are enslaving mankind today and weigh the question as to what an individual can do now to carry on the emancipation of the human spirit. This chapter is a most valuable summing up of the economic, international, racial, political and moral dangers of our modern times. DeKruif, Paul. Microbe Hunters. Harcourt, Brace & Co. N. Y. A vividly and accurately told story of some of the great discoverers of disease germs. Without cumbersome technicalities the author presents a vast amount of information in a style fascinating to the highest degree. The expert and the layman will both read this book with absorption. Beginning with Leeuwenhoek, a lens grinder of Holland 250 years ago and first discoverer of microbes, the book tells of the work of the dozen men whose discoveries have profoundly affected the welfare of our race. The reader not only learns much of scientific value but he realizes as he has not before the greatness of our debt to these heroic men who have so greatly aided mankind in its fight against disease. Their story forms one of the noblest chapters in human achievement. Felton, Ralph A. Our Templed Hills. Missionary Education Movement N. Y. 1926. $1.00; Paper .60. This is a study of church and xvral life and is especially designed for use in home mission circles. It is pleasantly written and packed with information. The author grew up on a farm and has had a very wide and rich experience in rural church and educational work. He discusses the changes in ways of living and working which have taken place in rural America and the need of constructing a Christian program which will fit into this new rural life. This program must include "civic righteousness, public health, wholesome social life, child welfare, happy home life, and an adequate income." The discouragement of farm people, their financial difficulties, the landless farmers and the relations of town and country dwellers are matters discussed in very clear cut fashion. The plans and policies offered are well-backed by successful cases. The chapter on "Leadership" affords prcfitable reading for everyone attempting the role of leader in any form of rural undertaking. "A Christian in the Countryside" is another very useful book by this author. It is a study course adapted to Sunday School use, and intended to make Bible study effectively apply to rural life problems. Durant, Will. The Store of Philosophy: the Liz'es and Opinions of the Greater Philosophers. Simon and Schuster, N. Y. 1926. $5.00. For several years as director of the Labor Temple School in New York, the author has very successfully organized and conducted adult education work. This experience han fitted him for getting at the heart of difficult subjects and making them clear and interesting to the lay mind. It is said that he spent 11 years in the preparation of this book and 3 years in writing it. He states that "it is not a complete history of philosophy but an attempt to humanize knowledge by centering the story of speculative thought around certain dominant personalities." For the busy mountain worker who longs to go far afield here is a book that will happily answer his purpose. It is a rather large volume not meant for swift reading but rather for steady companionship for weeks or months. April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 Hart, Joseph. Light from the North: the Danish Folk High Schools: Their Meaning to America. Henry Holt & Co., N. Y. 1927. $1.50. Dr. Hart, with a long and varied experience as teacher, holds the opinion that American schools do not succeed in the fundamental element of education-the cultivation of personality and independence of mind. "The democratic problem of education is not primarily a problem of training children but of making a community in which children cannot heln growing up to be democratic, intelligent, reverent of the goods of lire and eager to share in the tasks of the age. A school connot produce this result: nothing but a community can do so." Seeking light on these problems he went to Denmark to study the People's Hign Schools-so called because they deal with things of high concern in the life of the community. These schools in the course of a half century, have transformed the Danish rural people from primitive peasant farmers into the most successful and influential agricultural people in the world. The author proceeds from his vivid descriptions of these schools to show how similar schools may be established in rural America. The book is a significant contribution to adult education. Cheley, Frank H. The Job of Being a Dad. N. A. Wilde Co. Boston. 1923. $1.75. The author who is President of the Father and son Society believes that if the average father knew as little about his business or profession as he does about his own boy the world "would go to smash in thirty days." "Yet the biggest job in the world is being a real dad to a real boy," and the biggest success a father can know. The 3,000 hours of time a year that the average boy has outside of sleeping, eating and going to school make the big question for fathers, "What does he do with all that time? Find out and then capitalize it with worth-while activities and you'll save the boy, yourself and society." The book is a straight-to-the-point-talk with fathers, sprinkled with bids of humor, but always resounding with troth. All phases of a boy's life are discussed and a chart for finding "your rating as a real dad" makes the proportions of the job crystal clear. Not only fathers but leaders of boys and everyone else interested in boys of school age will find this book full of practical help. Jones, E. Stanley. The Christ of the Indian Road. Abingdon Press, Cincinnati. 1926. $1.00. This is one of the most thought-widening religious books of our day. Dr. Jones, long time evangelistic missionary in India has found his way through perplexities and diversities of experience to a new light upon missions in India. "Christian missions have come to a crisis in India. A new and challenging situation con fronts us. If we are to meet it we must boldly follow Christ into untried paths." _ _ India has long been attracted to the Christ, but seen through Western civilization, she has hesitated at the acceptance of Him. The keen intellect of India has discerned the non-Christian as clearly as the Christian things in the civilization of the West. She has seen much that she did not want grafted upon the life of India. Now it is dawning upon the mind of India that Christ and Christianity are not the same and that she may have Him without the system that the West has built around Him. The discovery is one of greatest significance to India and Christianity. "Jesus walks a'_ong the roads of India's thought life today, and everywhere there is a new sense of values stirring in the life of the people. Christ is confronting men everywhere in India. Some of us feel that the next great spiritual impact upon the soul of the race is due to come by way of India." As one reads this little volume with its tremendous import he must perforce thick not alone of awakened Christ-ward looking India but of the failures which India points out in Western civilization-failures which our smug complacency cannot conceal from discerning eyes. Then-what of the Christ of the American road? Putterwoith, Julian E. Principles of Rural School Administration. Macmillan, 1926. In her editorial introduction Miss Mabel Carnet' regards this book as "most timely because there has never been a more critical period in either agriculture or education than the present" due to the financial and economic conditions now prevailing in our farming regions. The most urgent problem of rural school improvements in rural school affairs, analyzes educational obconsolidation or schools, whenever practicable, and the development of the one-teacher schools, wherever necessary. Professor Butterworth is regarded as the "most outstanding student of rural school administration and his book may be regarded as the most comprehensive contribution on this subject available." The author surveys and interprets recent developments in rural school affairs, analyses educational objectives and standards for their attainment and suggests principles of action. It is a constructive volume building upon the good already existing and emphasizing the value of the forces at hand, especially those of "intelligent and aggressive citizen effort under the stimulus of wise leadership." Squires, Walter Albion. Psychological Foundations of Religious Education. Goo. H. Doran Co. N. Y. 1926. $1.25. The author is Director of Week Day Religious Instruction in the Presbyterian Church of U. S. This book clearly sets forth the defects of the mechanistic and the values of the purposive psychology in the foundation work of religious education. "A type of religious education which is no longer Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 Christ-centered is already manifest in America and it can be traced to the type of psychology which is taught in many of our colleges and universities," the author declares. "Any program of education which does not center in Him, which does not provide adequate information concerning Him and lead to personal choice of Him as Saviour, may run along for a little while on borrowed power, but it must fail because of unreliable incentives." To ministers, teachers and others interested in religious education this is a book of large value in this day of enlarging educational opportunities. It is not generally known that "nearly half our states now offer public school credits for outside Bible study and in more than half of them pupils are dismissed during school hours in order that they may receive religious instruction in the churches." The problem of adequate religious instruction for our children is America's greatest problem, and determining the psychological foundations for this instruction is a matter of utmost importance. Richardson, Norval. My Diplomatic Education. Dodd, Mead & Co. 1923. $3.00. With literary charm the author tells of his fourteen years of diplomatic service from his induction into the work at Washington through his various experiences at Habana, Rome, Lisbon, Tokyo and other capitals. During the World War he was stationed at Rome with Ambassador Page. He writes of the human side of diplomatic affairs, sometimes with humorous touches but always informingly. The book not only gives illuminating insight into diplomatic life but contributes to that broader understanding of foreign people which is so pre-eminently a need of our times. Thompson, James V. Handbook for Workers with Young People. Abingdon Press. Cincinnati. 1922. $1.50. Everyone interested in work with young people will find this book very helpful for a better understanding of them and exceedingly rich in practical suggestions. The author through years of successful work with young people brings ripe wisdom to these pages and all the suggestions given have stood the "acid test of having been done in different places and by different persons." He emphasizes the necessity of the church bending its powers to the conservation of youth and to building a program which will fit into the needs of our modern young people. Grenfell, Wilfred Thomason. A Labrador Doctor: an Autobio,grapy. Houghton Mifflin Co. N. Y. 1919. $5.00. Dr. Grenfell did not voluntarily write the story of his life; he was fairly compelled to do so by his friends who recognized what would be the value of such a book, and the world is greatly indebted to them for their importunity. "Thirty-two years spent in the work for deep-sea fishermen in Newfoundland and Labrador have necessarily given me some experience which may be helpful to others. I feel that this alone justifies the story," writes Dr. Grenfell and this spirit, which is rather rare in autobiography attracts one at the outset to the reading of the book. The author is one of the preeminent heroes of modern Christian service. This simplytold, dramatic story of his life is not only of absorbing interest but of energizing spiritual value. It will appeal to young people as well as to their elders. Clark, Glenn. The Soul's Sincere Desire. Atlantic Monthly Press, Boston 1925. $2.00. A study of prayer with an interpretation of Jesus' method and spirit. The book is unusual in its suggestions and the thoughtful reader will gather much helpfulness for his every day life. "Let us take then as our model the zeal and steadfastness of the physical culturist and utilize it in the field of the spirit. A prayer should do for the spirit what calistherics do for the body-something to keep one in tune, fit, vital, efficient and constantly ready for the next problem of life." The author uses the three underlying principles of Walter Camp's "daily dozen" and applies them to prayer; stretching the muscles; breathing deeply and freely, and steady practice. Applied to prayer these principles mean stretching the mind to take in all of God; deep breathing of the soulpraying out the bad and praying in the good; practicing the prererce of God-making prayer a continuing exercise through the daily routine of life. Branson, Eugene Cunningham. Farm Life Abroad: Field Letter's . from Germany, Denmark and France. University of North Carolina. $2.00. 1924. A very delightfully written book and one crammed with unusual information. The author as Professor of rural socialeconomics at the University of North Carolina, is an able leader in the rural developments of his state and a conspicuous figure in the progress of the Southland. In 1923-24 Dr. Branson spent a year in Europe studying the "country-end of things." In these letters which were published in several of the North Carolina dailies he describes for his home-folk the way rural people abroad manage their life and work. "The aim of his studies was to pass on to the people of his state the things abroad best worth considering as essential to a satisfying farm civilization." It is a very awakening volume and leaves one with the idea that not only North Carolina but rural America in general has much to learn of better ways of living. The book has the further virtue of broadening one's understanding of people in other lands and is an important contribution to "international mind" litera ture. April, 1927 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 Music for the Mountains Gladys V. Jameson Any teaching of Music is a disturbing task. It swings one mercilessly from states of inspiration to planes of desperation; it bids one behold a beautiful star to hitch one's wagon to and then compels one to spend unending time making the harness. But ordinary music teaching becomes tame after experiencing it linked with that vast indeterminate uncertainty called the mountain problem. In the background of our minds we remember that the distant quiet coves are peopled with a generation whose music is years, perhaps centuries, old; music not written in notes, but communicated only by sound-haunting, inaccurate, often beautiful; tunes that fit our day like quaint costumery and words that seem to belong to another race. And just as surely we know that the mountain towns are filled with the raucous racket of the cheapest musical inventions, grinding out the latest degeneration called "popular music." Yet there is no definite type of music student coming from the mountains. A young man from a mountain town sits in the balcony of our chapel and hears a famous tenor sing the solos of an oratorio; he is filled with a great ambition and five years from that night he sings those same solos from that same platform. Sisters come to town to have a better chance for an education, hear a string quartet and within three years have advanced in the study of violin and cello to the promise of artistic careers. A young man from a county miles from a railroad hears a glee club and later goes back to his school-teaching to organize a community chorus. A college student comes away from his first artists' concert, his face radiant with fine appreciation, saying, "I have always thought there must be something like that in the world, but I had never experienced it before." "These are extraordinary cases!" you say. The startling thing is to realize they might have remained just ordinary. So I have begun to believe our greatest task is not just to teach music, but rather to present music to the peo ple who have not heard it before. This brings. up the extremely difficult problem of selecting the right music. Here we must conscientiously set aside our personal preferences. We must realize that the mountain communities are, made up of a people whose rightful heritage is the best that art and time can produce. For instance, never has there been such glorious music for children as there is today, for town children, for country children; at home, at work, at play; songs full of joy, of imagination, of stirring adventure. They are very easy to procure and I wish that every school could be teaching them. Homes are filled with undesirable records for victrolas, although a word of explanation and suggestion tactfully given, would make interesting one good record and the desire for more good records would invariably follow. Many homes have organs or pianos that are silent because there is no music there easy enough for the faltering fingers of inexperienced players. I should like to send to, every family a little book of home songs made so easy that a busy mother could learn them, and have them to enjoy after the children have all left home. In a few years there will be no large areas of isolation. New ideas and customs, some of them undesirable, will flood the sheltered valleys. What preparation are we making today for those days that are to come? There are at least two definite things we can do. We can help preserve the best of the old-time music existing in the mountains. And we can give out the most suitable of that music of the world which time and universality of feeling have determined to be fundamental in the culture of mankind Socrates' injunction to "know thyself" is the epitome of wisdom for the community as it is for the individual. -Sanderson. Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1927 Pngttig Fair Miss -; 1. A pret - ty fair Miss All in a _;_ gar - den, A brave young Sol - dier came rid - ing by; Ile rode and he rode un - til he came to pret-ty fair 2. O no Sir, no! A man of honor A man of honor I take you to be. How could you impose on this fair lady Who's not worthy your bride to be. 3. I have a true love on the ocean sailing For seven long years he's been gone from me. But if he sails for seven years longer No other man can marry me. 4. O suppose he is in the ocean drowned Or suppose he is in some battle slain Or suppose he has taken some fair Miss and married [her] His face, his face, you will no more see. O, if he drowned I hope he's happy, Or if he's in some battle slain, 5. Miss, And Said, "Pret-ty fair Miss, won't you mar- ry me?" Or if he's taken some fair Miss, and married her I love the girl that married him. 6. He put his hand all in his pocket His fingers being slim and small He showed to her the ring she had given him Prostrate before him she did fall. 7. He picked her up all in his arms. The kisses given were some two-three And he said "pretty Miss, won't you marry a soldier That's come far to marry thee?" We are publishing this ballad as it was sung by Miss Molly Wilcox of Elk Park, Avery County, N. C., at the ballad contest held in Berea, January 17. Miss Wilcox won first place.