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Mountain Life & Work vol. 3 no. 4 January 1928 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv3n40128 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 3 no. 4 January 1928 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky January 1928 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume III January, 1928 Number IV WES7ERN N0~kTH CAROLE~(eA Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roads to Fulfillment . . . . . The Spinning Wheel ....... Industrial Development in North Carolina . . . Mountain Mothers Safeguarding Democracy .... According to Your Faith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John F. Smith . . . . . . Harriet M. Berry Helen H. Dingman . . . . . . . Harold W. Stoke ... Emeth Tattle Orrin L. Keener Dorothy Graves-Pierce A Medical Romance of the Blue Ridge . . . . . . . . Douglas P. Murphy, M.D. Notes from the John C. Campbell Folk School The Farmers' Federation The North Carolina Mountains A Selected Bibliography . . . . ........ Zeb Green ...... . Mary L. Thornton Published by Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation A T Mountai*n Li e D ~or Volume III JANUARY, 1928 Number IV Helen H. Dingman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editor Dr. Wm. James Hutchins . . . . . . . . . Counsellor Orrin L. Keener . . . . . . . . . . . Associate Editor Luther M. Ambrose . . . . . . . Business Manager CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson . . . . . . New York City Mrs. John C. Campbell . . . . Brasstown, N. C. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn . . . . . . . . Atlanta, Ga. Hon. W. 0. Saunders . . . . Elizabeth City, N. C. Dr. John P. McConnell . . . . East Radford, Va. Dr. Arthur T. McCormack . . . . Louisville, Ky. Dr. E. C. Branson . . . . . . . . Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. John J. Tigert . . . . . . . . Washington, D. C. Issued quarterly-January, April, July, October Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Sin-le Copy 30c Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as secondclass mail matter Address all communications to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Berea, Kentucky EDITORIAL Acting upon the decision born of sane, logical thinking, the State of North Carolina during the last few years has launched out upon a program of progress which is rapidly bringing her people into the realization of longcherished dreams. Located in a region where the climate is always inviting, and possessing rare topographical features which hold a perennial charm, the Old North State long since resolved to build into her business, civic and social life the qualities that will compare favorably in character with the bountiful gifts which Nature has bestowed upon her. Many years ago a far-seeing quartet of North Carolina's sons somehow caught a vision of a greater Commonwealth and a happier and more prosperous people. These men began pointing upward and onward to the vi sion that lay before their eyes and persuading others to see it as they beheld it. Page and Aycock, McKiver and Alderman saw clearly, thought sanely, kept their feet on the earth, and became prophets among their fellow men. They wrote and lectured, held conferences, laid plans, framed laws and saw them enacted, and sought in numerous ways to translate their ideas into terms of practical benefit to the people of the old State they loved so well. Slowly, gradually their fellow citizens responded until the movement fostered so faithfully by these four sons grew into a crusade whose force has been felt in every cove and hamlet of the Old Commonwealth. The crusade is still very much in evidence and is still aglow with righteous ardor. It has found expression in the hundreds and hundreds of miles of magnificent highways that unite all parts of the State and invite the traveler to come and share the natural blessings which the residents enjoy at all times. It has found expression in the multitude of modern school buildings erected within reach of the children of the open country. It has also found expression in vast improvements in educational programs for individual schools, for cities and counties, and for the entire state. Every effort is being made to do a state's full share by both the white child and the black child, and by the red child who still lives within its borders. And the unlettered adult is by no means neglected. That once forgotten man is coming rapidly into his own. No other state south of the Potomac has done more effective work in adult education. In all educational matters the State Department of Education sets standards, the Legislature enacts laws and the people cordially respond. The spirit of the crusade is further seen in a most encouraging effort to make civic life highly efficient and satisfying. Far-reaching health campaigns have for many years been carried on under the direction of men and wo (Continued on Page 20) Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 ROADS TO FULFILLMENT By Harriet M. Berry, Secretary, North Carolina Good Roads Association A Story of the North Carolina State Highway System and the People of the Southern Appalachians Isolation due to physical barriers has been the chief cause for the continued primitiveness of the inhabitants of the Carolina Mountains as well as of other sections of the Southern Appalachians. Because of this isolation, in these mountains as nowhere else the English colonists, than these mountains, particularly the locality surrounding the Great Smokies. And the Smoky Mountain settler who was on the ground and ultimately to possess it, found himself doing not only his own fighting, but that of his contending govern One of the Ribbons of Concrete. original American frontiersman has been preserved. Here we find the descendants of old Scotland's borderers who helped the Irish Presbyterians fight for their separation of church and state, of the Englishmen who sought release from royal Episcopacy, and of the original Palatinate who scorned court sycophancy. Historically, there is no area in the United States that has seen bloodier struggles of frontiersmen against savages, or of French against ment as well. These national rivals helped at times by the Cherokee, the Creek, or the Shawnee. took part in one of the most formidable contests ever carried on for the possession of a vast territory. In the latter part of the seventeenth century, during all of the eighteenth, and well into the nineteenth, warring states and nations used this terrain as a battlefield. As a result there is hardly a peak, gap, stream, cove, or valley which has not been the January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 scene of massacre, scalping, or tomahawking, of ambuscade or torture. With such a background and experience, there is little wonder that these people in their restricted environment have preserved their original instincts and conditions along with their primeval forests. Today they are as individual, upstanding, and clear-cut as the vast mountain spaces in which they live. Such an heritage would have been the foundation of a virile and conquering race but for the physical handicaps which have kept the average mountaineer entrenched within his little cove, in unsanitary surroundings, undernourished, ignorant of the great accomplishments of modern science and of the rich possibilities of our present civilization. Surrounded by great potential wealth-vast forests, immeasurable waterpowers, minerals, and fertile valleys-the mountaineer has lived from hand to mouth on poorly cultivated corn patches and gardens, by hunting and fishing, and by occasional spasms of work at a lumber ramp or in some remote "settlement." His jeloved mountains have proven an insuperable barrier to the formation of social contacts, to the acquirement of educational facilities, and to the establishment of industries, such as would have enabled him to develop and capitalize Nature's great endowments and compete successfully with his fellows in less favored but more accessible areas. Instead, he has become, in the main, a "hewer of wood and drawer of water" for those of alien soil who have initiated and capitalized the great lumber operations which have swept this section and the waterpower developments now under way. In 1921 the State of North Carolina, becoming more conscious of herself as a state, decided to embark on a program of highway construction such as would reach into every county, connecting county seats and principal towns by a modern system of roads. Many of the border counties, particularly in the mountain areas, were more intimately associated economically and socially with neighboring states than with their own state and were veritably "lost provinces." Unable to "lift themselves by their own boot straps," the peo )le of these mountain counties were literally suffering from "arrested development" because of the impenetrability of these mountain fastnesses. A few lines of railroad were their only means of communication with the outside world. Along these lines, the Southern and the C., C. & C., small towns and villages gradually assembled, serving mainly as shipping points for lumber operations and mining camps. The strong arm of the state has now penetrated throughout all this vast region, reaching out in all directions from Asheville, the one metropolis of the mountains, and bringing to these people opportunities never before dreamed of. The great cross-state highway sometimes called the "Central Highway" or "Old Hickory" but commonly known as Number 10, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Georgia line, over six hundred and eighty miles of swamp, plain, hill, dale, and lofty mountain, is the great artery of travel. From Asheville west through one hundred and thirty miles of mountain ranges and deep gorges, this highway penetrates the "Land of Big Waters," with its mighty forests and scores of fertile valleys. Branching off from Number 10 are numerous other state highways leading into the exceedingly fertile counties of Clay and Macon, which hitherto had no communication with the outside world except over branch railroads whose rates were prohibitive to commercial enterprise and to any extensive farming operations. New highways are also being built through the beautiful "Sapphire Country" of Transylvania, Jackson, and Macon counties; others into the section of the Linville Gorge, one of Nature's masterpieces; and still others have opened up the fertile areas of Watauga, Ashe, and Alleghany counties. The writer was secretary of the North Carolina Good Roads Association, the organization which worked out the general plan for the state highway system, educated the people to the idea, wrote the law, and secured its enactment by the Legislature of 1921. In the preliminary educational work which led to the enactment of this law, the writer travelled over these mountains by train, in antiquated Fords, on wagons, by horseback, and afoot to Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 tell the people what would happen to them if the state could be persuaded to embark on this enterprise. Meetings were held in courthouses, schoolhouses, churches, stores, and in the open, and one group was collected in the railroad station. Wherever even a small group of a half dozen people could be assembled, No Longer Isolated. the story of economic redemption through an efficient transportation system was told. Never before had the state stretched out a helping hand to the counties, and many folks -were incredulous as to the dream ever coming true or as to what it would do for them even if it did materialize. The more intelligent ones in each community thought there a'mought be something in it" and decided to "take a shot" anyway and to donate the five dollars asked of each person who joined the Association. In this way the work of the Association was financed, while at the same time the membership was built up and the ;germ of a new idea implanted in the minds of people throughout the length and breadth of the state. Many a mountain man has since said: "That's the best five dollars I ever spent." The story of the ten years spent in educating the people to a more economic and efficient expenditure of public funds for road 'building, of building up an organization of ever six thousand people centered around one idea, of organizing committees in every county, of fighting through three legislatures, of converting the entire press of the state to an ec onomic policy at variance with the traditional ideas of local self government which had gripped the state from its birth and finally of marshaling all these forces into a solid phalanx which forced a reluctant Legislature to pass an act of such magnitude, is a story that would require volumes to recount in detail. The 1921 act gave to the Highway Commission it established powers such as had not been granted by any other state up to that time; it appropriated $50,000,000 without a vote of the people for the construction of the 5,500 miles of road contemplated in the act; it provided a plan of financing, through taxes on motor vehicles and gasoline, such as would pay the interest on the bonds, establish a sinking fund for their retirement, and yield a fund of three to four million dollars annually for the upkeep of these roads. So thoroughly was the idea sold to the people that it has become the most popular enterprise ever undertaken by the state, as is evidenced by the fact that the Legislature of 1923 appropriated $15,000,000 additional bonds for continuing the work; the Legislature of 1924, $24,000,000; and the Legislature of 1925, Why Mountain Highways Cost. $30,000,000, all without a dissenting voice. In order to assure the people of the various sections that they would receive an equitable amount of these expenditures, the state was divided into nine districts and the funds allotted among these districts in the same ratio as is provided for in the Federal Aid act-i. e., according to population, area, and January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 state road mileage. The eighth and ninth districts cover the mountain area; and while these districts have not been able to construct as many miles of road as some of the others on account of the cost per mile of grading and surfacing over this difficult territory, yet a sufficient mileage has been built, at the cost of millions of dollars, to insure an outlet for a great majority of these people. This task could never have been accomplished through county financing and administration. Also, the counties have been given an object lesson in road building and maintenance such as would never have come to them otherwise; and they are able to use such county funds as they may have in the building of community roads which act as feeders to the great state system, thus enabling the people of the remote sections to make contacts with the outside world. And what have these highways meant to the people of the Blue Ridge, the Great Smokies, and the numerous other ridges stretching between? Have they proved the touchstone of opportunity, quickening the energies of these people, and opening the door to a fuller life? Let us see what has happened in the incredibly short time of three years, since the completion of some of these roads actually effected physical contact with other sections of the state and of neighboring states. Education: The stimulus to better schools, brought about by the state highway system in rural North Carolina, and particularly in these mountain areas, is almost incredible. Dr. E. C. Brooks, formerly Superintendent of Education in North Carolina and now President of the North Carolina State Colleg,e of Agriculture and Engineering, says 1 "The road and school programs have progressed together. Standard high school advantages are now open to the rural children in eve: y county in the state, and the number attending has increased from about twenty thousand in 1920 to approximately one hundred thousand in 1926." Mr. A. T. Allen, present Superintendent of Public Instruction, writes: "I should like to say a few words showing how the development of rural education in North Carolina has been benefited by the construction of good roads. In fact, it has brought about a new day in rural education in North Carolina. j As these good roads are opened up, large consolidated schools are built along them. In the five or six years (since the road program was started) more than six hundred such buildings have been erected. They range in size anywhere from six to twenty rooms, in which buildings is conducted a much more comprehensive program of education than was ever before contemplated for rural schools in this state. In these consolidated schools we find many standard high schools, some of them with an enrollment of more than two hundred high school pupils. Vocational agriculture and vocational domestic science are given in many of them, and a consi.derable number are now offering music and other fine arts. Approximately forty-five thousand white boys and girls are enrolled in the high school departments of these consolidated schools, and from them this year are graduating about six thousand rural boys and girls. This is more than twice as many graduates as the whole state was turning out when this road program began. All this was made possible by the construction of these roads because good highways make it possible for us to transport every day the schools are in session approximately a hundred thousand children to and from school in a fleet of more than twenty-five hundred auto trucks." 7 he little one-room, one-teacher school which was the rule in these mountain districts a few years ago-and many remote sections had no schools at all-is now fast giving place to the consolidated school with up-to-date equipment, standard grades, and more efficient teachers. The past three or four years have brought to these children of the hills undreamed of educational opportunities, such as will in time, it is felt, give to the state and the nation a group of people of intellectual vigor in keeping with the strength and prowess of their ancestors. Agriculture: The Southern Appalachians, geologically, are among the oldest mountains in the world. The countless march of centuries has developed on them a flora unsurpassed Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 by that of any similar area on the globe. This has resulted in an accumulation of humus along these mountainsides and in the thousands of valleys, making very fertile soil. Up until recent years, most of this land was used for corn patches or given over to the grazing has proven of scrub cattle, neither of which profitable to the producers. The surplus corn usually found its way to market in a jug, the only way that it could be transported over the mountain trails; and the cattle were driven over these trails to some point on the railroad. Anew day in agriculture is just over the horizon for these people. Organizations such as the Farmers' Federation at Asheville, and many dairy and cheese associations, are springing up. Those stimulate the production of commodities which grow well in this climate and on this soil, by demonstrating the feasibility of marketing such commodities at a profit to the producer. Because of this stimulus, the production of poultry and dairy products, of fruits and vegetables, is becoming a real factor in the economic life of this section. Because of the roads, tourists from all over the world are visiting these mountains and resort hotels are being erected, thus increasing the local market demand for these products. The farmers are able to haul their products a long distance to the railroads, and through marketing organizations which insure car-lot shipments, to take advantage of markets in New York and other big eastern cities. They have even sent apples to the European markets. Various institutions for agricultural education are materializing, such as the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown and numerous farm life schools, which are teaching these people the fundamentals of a successful agriculture. With the way to intelligent production and effective marketing opened to them, there is no reason why the agriculture of this section should not become one of its major industries. Industry: Formerly the only commercial enterprises in these mountain counties have been an exploitation of the timber products in the lumber operations, pulp and paper mills, and tannic acid plants. These furnished the only sources of incomes to those seeking work. With the depletion of the forests, there would' undoubtedly be a curtailment even of this form of work. Since the opening up of this mountain region by the road system, capitalists from other sections of the state and nation have been able to visit these mountains and have seen in their natural resources, climate, and location, possibilities with regard to such raw materials as cotton. Already gigantic power developments are under way, involving the expenditure of millions of dollars. Cotton mills, bleacheries, furniture factories, etc., are being built within the vicinities of Asheville, Hendersonville, Brevard, Lenoir, and other towns. Because of favorable climatic conditions, abundance of labor, and the extension of the power developments, other industries will be built which will furnish an abundance of work, so that it will no longer be necessary for the natives to seek work elsewhere. During the past ten to fifteen years there has been a constant migration of these mountain people to the mills of the Piedmont because they were unable to make a living in their native habitat. Other Public Work Facilitated: The highways have made it possible for these counties to have public welfare officials, many of whom have done very effective work, not only of the remedial type, but of a constructive nature. The school attendance law has been enforced, and the Mothers' Aid, which the state is providing for widows with children, has been carried into the remotest coves, enabling them to take care of these children at home instead of sending them to institutions. Highways have enabled the county agents to make more contacts with the farmers and thus inaugurate a more efficient agricultural program. Highways have been the means of bringing to these people other agencies which in time will bring about a more tolerable life for them. What appear to be ribbons of concrete and asphalt, winding over and around these mountains and through these valleys, are great arteries through which will come new vigor to a people who have grown anemic through lack of proper sustenance and whose wits have (Continued on Page 24) January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 THE SPINNING WHEEL By Helen H. Dingman It was such a happy Christmas party. The Loghouse that night-always beautiful with its display of mountain weavings, gay hooked rugs, and bits of pottery-was the scene of much gaiety. The looms over in the Loom Room next door were silent, and the Our Loom Room. w e a v e r s of "The Spinning Wheel" were having their holiday celebration. Supper was cooked over the great fireplace, gifts were distributed from the tree by "Santa Claus," and the Christmas carols learned and practiced to the click of the looms on the busy preceeding days were sung by the happy group as they sat around the fire. Indeed I was a privileged guest to share in the intimate joy of that family group. I had arrived just that afternoon eager to see the new home of "The Spinning Wheel," for I had visited it two years before when it was just in its early infancy and was housed in a little cabin way off the main highway. Now it was occupying two buildings on Highway No. 20, at Beaver Lake, four miles out of Asheville. The Loom Room was a wing of Miss Douglas' attractive new house; and the Loghouse, once the home of the great-grandmother of two of the weaving girls and recently moved from its original site on Paint Fork, was the display and salesroom of the attractive handicraft of the mountains. Here was really a dream come true. Clementine Douglas, the owner and director of "The Spinning Wheel," had spent three summers with me years ago in the Kentucky Mountains, and there her great love for the mountain people and her desire to develop among them the old industries of weaving and rug-making were first kindled. Carding, Spinning and Vegetable Dyeing. Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 The joy of this dream fulfilled is expressed in a recent remark, "The Loom Room is the happiest room I've ever worked in in my life." That happiness is shared by her weavers and by her many rug-makers way out in the Carolina hills. For by no means is the work of "The Spinning Wheel" all done in the Loom Room. The sewing and finishing of many of the weavings go into the homes, and the rugmaking has become really a family industry. A weaver who has recently married is now operating her own loom in her own home and finding a sale for her output through "The Spinning Wheel." The creative instinct is given full swing in this little industry. Each girl develops and often originates her own individual design and then has the proud distinction of filling the orders for her special creation. This same idea is followed out with the rug-makers. Miss Douglas says that she can often tell which family lives in a house by the colors which are out drying. After the dyeing process the gaycolored strips festoon the fences, trees, and every other available drying place. Different families work out shades which others are almost never successful in matching, and just so do their designs have an individuality of their own. These colors and designs become their private possession and all orders for those patterns must go to them. Naturally, whoever makes the prettiest designs and colorings gets the most orders. This is a great stimulus to better work, and not only do the families, but their neighbors, take great pride when they graduate into the circle of the "best sellers." However, it is not only of the designs fashioned in the weavings and hooked rugs that I wish to speak but of the new patterns that are woven into the fabric of human life. To follow the dollars earned is a journey and adventure into social welfare. To one dark home came light and more sunshine. When the door was shut in winter it had been too dark to see the designs, and as a result the work was streaked. The rug money made possible two windows. Several houses were beaver-boarded because the cold that found its way through the cracks made the fingers too stiff to hook rugs; and the size of three homes was necessarily increased so as to make room for the frames of the large-sized rugs. Roads were improved so that rugs could be shipped in the winter. One rug-maker, a young woman of sixteen, bought with her earnings a Ford car which proved a veritable godsend to her father who was a mountain preacher. Several families moved nearer town in order to ship the rugs more easily and to have better schools for the children. In other families, "rug dollars" have made possible paying board in town for the older children, The Loghouse. so that they might have high school advantages. Hooked rugs have meant new legs and a new life to one little lame child, as a result of an operation and a long hospital treatment. And there are babies that are rejoicing because of better care both before and after birth. Future incomes are being assured because of an apple orchard that has been planted and the machinery for making furniture that has been installed. Savings bank accounts have been started by the weavers. This last year every perfect piece of work produced in the Loom Room has received a ten per cent bonus, and that bonus has had to be put into the savings account. One girl drew out her savings to buy a piano when she was married; last year two of the girls used theirs for music lessons; another's made possible the lumber (Continued on Page 20) January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 90 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH CAROLINA By Harold W. Stoke, Associate Industrial development is changing fundamentally the character of the whole South. The cross-roads store has evolved into a village, gathering about itself other stores, a church, and the inevitable garages. The villages-that-were have become bustling, hurrying towns, with a central factory or two whose daily whistles are the life schedules of its citizens. The former towns have become crashing,booming cities. If they exhibit the awkwardness and angularity of their adolescent growth, they also show the energy and potentiality of the same period. Some spots have shown such amazing expansion that they have attracted national attention. It is with no sarcastic smile that men speak of Birmingham as the "Pittsburgh of the South," or calculatingly refer to Atlanta as "our next railway center." The concentration of iron, coal, water-power, and other resources favorable to industrial development, have on their discovery, led to such feverish activity that gold rushes alone furnish suitable comparisons. However, it is not these phenomenal examples, many as they are, which prove the case for the changing South. Rather it is the comprehensive and steady although rapid growth that does not confine itself to isolated spots of unusual richness but spreads itself more evenly, if less spectacularly, over the entire section, touching every industry and affecting the lives of all the people. It is doubtful if any state of the South has been able to elevate the average tone of the life of all her people higher than has North Carolina. Here there has not been the flashing growth of a Birmingham or the feverish unnatural growth of a Florida. In North Carolina, steadiness, rapid but solidly built expansion, and uniform stimulation of all industries, have been characteristic of the development. All industries-manufacturing, railroads, power, communication, trade-have kept pace with each other and participated in amazing prosperity. A cursory glance at the economic data of Professor of History, Berea College the state shows one industry which has outstripped its most persistent rivals. Cotton manufacturing ranks first in the close race for industrial leadership. It has been customary for so many years to look to New England and particularly to Massachusetts as the home of the textile industry that a great many people do not yet know that North Carolina; forged ahead of Massachusetts in the manufacturing of cotton as early as 1923. In 192 the "Textile World" reported that there were engaged in the industry 419 establishments in North Carolina as opposed to 277 in Massachusetts, the next highest state. On October 31, 1927, these 419 estabIishm~ents were operating at approximately 9'T per cent full capacity, having a total of 6,052, 358 whirring spindles active every day. These mills were being operated by an average monthly group of wage earners numbering 84,. 139 or well above 15 per cent of all the population of the state gainfully employed. Over $60,000,000, in 1925, were paid in wages and salaries to these 84,000 people. Such a pay-roll is huge, of course, but it does not represent the total wealth distributed to the people of the state because of this tremendous industry. The value of the raw cotton products in 1925 was $207,417,377, which became after manufacture $316,324,088, showing a value added to the raw materials by the workers of the state of over $108,000,000. Since the greatest part of the cotton manufactured by the state is sold beyond its borders, the wealth thus added to the value of the raw materials represents, in the main, the annual increase in wealth contributed by the cotton manufacturing industry to the state. One other fact of more than passing interest is that the spindles of North Carolina were active an average of 319 hours during the month of October, 1927, while those of Massachusetts were in operation only 153 hours. Other factors are involved, of course, but this fact is an eloquent statement of the longer working day prevailing in the former state. Statistics alone never tell the story. It is Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 only when they are interpreted in terms of life that they become vividly real. The implications in the brief statements of wages, increased wealth, and hours of labor are extremely significant. Those implications are higher standards of living-better food, clothing, housing-better schools, churches, automobiles, good roads. The addition of such funds to the purchasing power of any people is important and full of meaning for all industries. Concentration of population, and its attendant social and educational problems combine with the problems of child labor and the employment of women to stimulate constructive thinking. Human life in all its phases has been and will be intensified by the tremendous development of the state's premier industry. The supply of puwer is the one basis on which depends the growth, not only of cotton manufacturing, but of roost other industries of the state. The phenomenal expansion of all North Carolina's industries is primarily due to the increasing availability of power, -steam, water, electric. The latest reports of the United States Geological Surveyranked North Carolina fourth among the states east of the Mississippi in developed water power, and gave her the same ranking in undeveloped resources. In 1926, 122 companies developed from water power 597,000 horse power. Of these companies, 47 are municipal or public utility corporations which utilize 410,000 horse power for lighting and power purposes. Altogether, 1,067,150 horse power were developed in the state in 1925 ; and while an increasing amount of this power is generated from water, 37.9 per cent was produced by fuel. A telling proof of advancing efficiency in the use of fuel for the production of power is contained in these facts: It required, in 1919, 4.94 pounds of coal to produce one kilowatt hour of electricity; in 1925, but 1.94 pounds. Of course most of the power developed from water or fuel is transformed into electricity, which in turn may be transmitted far from its source and becomes an advance agent of change and progress wherever it penetrates. The volume of electrical energy increased 126 per cent in the six years 1919-25 reaching a total in the latter year of almost one and one-half billion kilowatt hours. This vast to tal becomes yet more significant when it is know that it represents 25.22 per cent of the total electrical power of the Southern Appalachian states. At the present time sixty-seven of the hundred counties of North Carolina are crossed by electrical transmission lines which may be tapped for industrial use at almost any point. Forty-five towns have plants municipally owned and operated; and in the entire state, 336 towns are supplied with ,electrical power for industrial or light purposes. Of the power used for industrial purposes, over one-third is utilized in the manufacturing of cotton. The Southern Power Company, and the Electric Bond and Share Company, who together control 78 per cent of the developed power, are even now planning projects as great as any thus far executed. In the power resources of a state, more than in any other single resource, reside its industrial potentialities. The TidewaterPiedmont belts have naturally been in the foreground in the changing character of the state. The mountainous section of North Carolina has had its share of progress, but that share has been limited by the difficult geographical conditions. The development of power sites along the tumbling rivers of the west will be followed by the erection of mills and plants of every sort near the source of such power. "Of the estimated undeveloped horse power available, not more than fifteen or twenty per cent is upon streams draining east of the Blue Ridge. Much the greater amount of undeveloped power lies on streams flowing into the Tennessee and is remote from present industrial development. From this there will, probably arise two results: (1) New industrial development will grow up in western North Carolina near the available power supply, and (2) power from these sources will, at some future ti--. be transmitted to the industrial regions of the Piedmont." This brief glance at two of the major industries of North Carolina is indicative of its steady growth, and is, at the same time a prophecy of a new era destined to wipe out sectional differences and to transform the character of the entire state. January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page I1 MOUNTAIN h'-rncth Tattle. Former Director of "'hen the North Carolina plan of public welfare had begun to make itself felt in the central part of the state, the coastal and mountain counties had, for the most part, not yet sensed the first tremor of the state's social awakening. This was not so much because of lack of interest as because of bad roads and the lack of money for a new county officer, a superintendent of public welfare. As the net Receiving "Mothers' Aid." work of concrete roads has grown, the schools have improved, more and better teachers have come in, and greater effort has been ~ made to connect the child-in-school with the child-inthe-home. Making that connection, however, is largely the work of the superintendent of public welfare, and only a few counties have yet realized that they cannot afford to be without such an officer. In 1923 when the Mothers' Aid bill was passed with its appropriation of $50,000 per year-to be divided among the counties on a population basis and met dollar for dollar by them-Buncombe was the only mountain county with a whole time superintendent of welfare. This superintendent was supported by a strong county board of welfare, all of whom were interested in Mothers' Aid work. In a few months their monthly quota was being used and they wanted more money to help more of the many mothers in their county who were trying to rear their families right. These county workers understood MOTHERS 'Vlotlters' Aid in North Carolina that Mother's Aid work was, in broad terms,, an attempt to save the home that was worth the effort, when the father for some reason had dropped out, and yet preserve the family pride. They understood that saving a home meant being a friend to that mother and those children-putting them in touch with means to help themselves, perhaps moving them from one farm or neighborhood to another, discussing family problems, helping with business difficulties, finding work for certain members of the family, finding mar-. kets for home products, persuading them to risk the terrors of doctors and dentists for a future good. These workers knew that "the gift without the giver is bare," and they gave freely. In the counties to the north and west and even in the "near east" the story was different. These smaller counties were without superintendents of welfare, and the superintendents of schools on whom the work fell were already carrying a heavy load and did not Does "Mothers' Aid" Pay? have time for work. They either sent in application blanks imperfectly filled out because they did not know the facts, or they took no interest in the work because the county quotas were so small, the number of women need ing help so great, and they did not know how to discriminate. Instead of helping one mother adequately, some of the county commissioners wanted to spread the money among Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 several, and ended by really helping none. The state director had only stenographic help, and had much other work to do. Traveling expenses were limited, and so was time. Often incomplete applications were not accepted until a personal visit could be male. Usually the mother was found to be all t'_,aat could be desired, but the small amount of aid she could get in money and the smaller amount in friendliness because of lack of workers made the work look hopeless. Perhaps a brief account of two of these mountain mothers will be the best way to illustrate some of the difficulties of this kind of social work in the mountains. It was late in the afternoon when the director morn the state departme t reached a county seat after a Vhirty-mile drive over a state highway with a oneeyed driver who saw no curves. (A hairraising experience!) For two hours she hunted for the superintendent of schools and Vie members of the county board of welfare. Finally two members of the county board were lo2ated, but neither had ever visited the one mother in their cou_zty w '-'o was Letting all their quota, nor Ccid they know %vhere slhe lived. It was too late to go that afternoon particularly since the c'irector had not yet found a place for the night; one of t'-e hoard members agreed, therefore, to get the information and take the director to see the woman in the moi ning. At eight o'clock next morning they started. For ten miles they jolted over a country road until they reached a river minus a bridge. Leaving the car, they started walking the three or mo-_ a miles to, the house. It was a hot August day, but the path was along a rushing stream and under great old trees. When they reached the home, they found a tiny cabin perched on a hot hillside. Here lived a widowed mother, her helpless father-in-law, and her two little girls. They were delighted to see company. The place vras clean, flowers bloomed in the yard, begs hummed. There was plenty to eat at that season, and the mother had been drying fruit for the winter. They did not own the place; the school was three miles away; the nearest neighbor, two miles off; and they did not go to church at all be cause they had no way to travel the six miles. The mother looked strong but said she had rheumatism. Her teeth were almost gone. The little girls had bad tonsils and adenoids. No doctor had ever visited the sick man. It was apparent why the "givers" had given only the gift, as it took a whole day to make the trip. That night the director had a meeting wath the board of welfare; she made a report and some requests. They were interested and sa'_d they would visit the mother, would help h.r find and rent a place nearer a school, and would see about medical attention for the family. A year later another visit was made to the sane town, the same trip was taken, and the same conditions found. The board had cone not-_Iif~.g. Whin that county gets a live superintendent of welfare, as it will, such a type of supe:v:sion will cease. That woman has intelligence; she aces not want charity but a chance. I er environment keeps her static; and what is worse, the children are being depiived of :school and other advantages in spite of a compulsory attendance law. In another county, not so tar from this one, there was no superintendent of welfare but there wus an active county board. The chairman of this board found a family living in a two-room house near the highway on a little piece of land that they owned. The father had re2ently died and the mother was sick. They vie--,e too proud to be-, but he:sickness had compelled them to ask for temporary aid. The board of welfare visited them, gave emergency aid, provieed medical attention, and soon grantcd Mother's Aid. They found work in the home for the sixteen-year-old girl, who had had "enough schoolin"', while the mother went out to work in a mica mine. The fourteen-year-old boy went back to school and in the summer had a job. With the regular monthly check from state and county, the mother's wages, and summer washing for tourists, thp family is well on its way to independence. Eight years of social work in all parts of North Carolina have shown that even "good (Continued on Page 20) January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 SAFEGUARDI~ N. DEMOCRACY By Orrin L. Keener The history of the United States is marked by two great struggles. The first secured for us political independence. The second freed a - ace from bondage. We are now in the midst of a third great struggle, the successful outcome of which is essential to safeguard the fruits of the other two. A brilliant victeiÃ‚Â°y in one campaign of this contest is the theme of t:~is article. The battlefield, Buncombe county, North Carolina; the commanding general, Mrs. Elizabeth C. Morriss, of Ash eville. For at least a generation following the sad struggle of the sixties, the Southern states suffered for lack of sufficient funds to finance adequately those organizations which make for progress, chief of which is the public school. As a result of short uehool terms, poor equipment. bad roads, and low attendance, to say nothing of poorly trained and miserably paid teachers, there were many boys and bids, especially in rural communities, who g:2w to adulthood without getting sufficient pi-actice in the use of the three R's to equip them for modern life. The 1920 census showed that, in North Carolina, illiteracy among native whites ten years old and over amounted to 8.2 per cent; among the negroes, to 24.5 per cent. In fairness to North Carolina it should be stated that illiteracy is found in every state, and even in the District of Columbia. According to the 1920 census 6 per cent of our entire population was illiterate; among the black race t'-,,e rate was 22.9 per cent. (Among the great nations of the world, the United States ranks tenth in percentage of literacy, not a recoi d to be proud of.) These figures, however, do not tell the whole story. To the 5,000,000 in our nation who cannot sign their own names, must be added a number, perhaps three times as large, who never or seldom read anything. In order to appreciate what these facts and figures mean, one must consider the relation of illiteracy to earning power, to health, to ciLizensnip in a democracy, and to abundant lite ror t:e inwiviouad. As Mrs. Morriss says, "An illiterate citizenship is the prey and tool of the demagogue, the material from which the vicious and criminal classes are recruited." And vendors of patent medicines, agents of fraudulent articles, quack doctors, shyster lawyers, crooked and selfish employers, all prey upon the ignorant and the uniformed. North Carolina has struggled with the problem of illiteracy. In 1911-15 there was a wave of volunteer effort; in 1917 and 1918 the state gave limited support; and in 1919 the schools for illiterates were made part of the public school system. From 1921 on, however, no state fund was available for the work and t'_:,er a was no state program, although some classes for adult illiterates were taught. Funcombe County was the first county definitely o_ganized for attacking the problem. It is now about six years since Mrs. Morr iss began her work in that county. The difficulties to be overcome were many. "At first the literate groups, represented by those who control public funds, seemed slow in realizing their responsibility, but the workers were un0.,~rstandingly patient." Since there were no means to hire teachers, and no teachers trained to teach adult illiterates, Mrs. Morris selected a group P_nd began teaching them herself. Then, in her ovin words, "The officials began receiving letters, perhaps not totally uninspired, from pupils who were recently illiterate. Enough funds were forthcoming to add two teacherÃ‚Â°s for another term, then another. All of the literate groups heard from these pupils and from these teachers in half a dozen different ways; and the public officials, in turn, heard from these groups. And though there were many months of `darkness lit by faith,' public support, when it did come, was intelligent and adequate, increasing as the needs arose." Today the Asheville city and Buncombe County boards of education appropriate $10,000 yearly for the work. Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 192$ Before teachers can be trained, there must be methods of teaching; and these are not the same for adults as for children. Teaching methods had to be developed by experience. As a result of much patient work, Mrs. Morriss accumlated a body of knowledge that she could pass on to others. For the past four summers she has given a course in "Methods for Teaching Adult Illiterates" in the Asheville Normal School. Thus she has trained others to assist with the work. Regarding methods and principles used, she says, "The New Education seems to be demanded by the very nature of the case: Individual instruction, in a socialized environment, permitting each pupil to work to capacity; a task, a plan, freedom, problems, projects." But money and methods were not the only factors. Third, and most important, was the ,vrobl,em of getting pupils. One person expressed it thus, "Our birds roost high, on scattered limbs." All sources of information about adult illiterates were used. But five-sixths of the pupils were secured by the teacher and some interested pupil making house to house visits. The explanation of Mrs. Morriss' remarkable success in solving all these problems lies, perhaps, not in the time and work given to her task, although she did not spare either of these, but in her sympathetic understanding of human nature. This was partially revealed in her methods, mentioned above, of getting finanicial support for her work. It is more clearly shown in her method of approaching pupils-for approaching them is even more difficult than finding them, especially for new workers. "The more experienced workers," she explains, "have found half a dozen psychological principles which are effective in doing away with the pupil's embarrassment and with their own." "1. The adult illiterate may be, and often is progressive-open to new ideas-but not plastic, i. e., not shaped readily by any new suggestion." Therefore repeated and varied efforts must be used to secure interest. "2. Slantwise suggestions are far more likely to be accepted than direct suggestions." A teacher says. "We are planning to have a night school in this neighborhood. Do you know anyone who would be interested in coming to it?" rather than, "Won't you come to our night school?" "3. Any adult is more susceptible to suggestions that come from one clothed with prestige. The dictionary tells us that prestige is that which excites such wonder or interest or admiration as paralyzes the critical faculty. So the teachers associate with themselves someone from whom this prestige can be reflected, or who will recount what the schools have done for him or his neighbors in some other place. "4. Imagination and feelings must be appealed to rather than reason through arguments. The teachers remember their own moods when their predominant feeling is just. to be let alone. By the opportunities they can offer, they try to appear as the open door into a new life. "5. Reiteration of the same idea in various forms is helpful to the production of an effect. upon any person in a normal state of mind. The teachers plan at least half a dozen points of attack when trying to secure interest-wives, employers, children, job, friends. They know that what strikes us from all directions at almost the same time has a tremendous effect. "6. The type of our pupils is distinctly individualistic with a strong consciousness of personal freedom, free will, and a tendency for each man, if not to think for himself, at least to value and rely on his own judgment and opinion. "Abraham Lincoln so surely reached the very heart of the matter of approach that each new teacher is given his words as a summary of our method of approach: `If you would win a man to your cause, first. convince him that you are his friend. Therein is a drop of honey that catches his heart, which, say what you may, is the greatest highroad to his reason, and which, when once gained, you will find but little trouble in convincing his judgment of the justice of your cause, if indeed that cause be a really just one. " `On the contrary, assume to dictate to his judgment or to command his action, or to January, 192$ MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 mark him as one to be shunned or despised, and he will retreat within himself, close all avenues to his head and heart. " `Such is man, and so must he be understood by those who would lead him, even to his own interests.' " This spirit of friendship has won pupils' confidence and kept it. "We like you to teach us, because you are just like usjust common like us." It is this spirit that has won the cooperation of loyal supporters and capable assistants, and has inspired these assistants with the same friendly attitude. After a visit to some home to investigate day-school absences-a task to which each of the full-time assistants gives one day each week-when perhaps some serious situation has had to be diagnosed and adjusted, the parting word is often, "Come back to see us whenever you can. It does a body good to see you." It seems that the success of the whole undertaking is just another illustration of the truth, "love never faileth." The value of any organized movement of this kind depends upon the results secured. As another who once taught illiterate adults has said, "By their fruits ye shall know them." Let us look, then, to see what manner of fruit this tree has brought forth. In the six years time, approximately four thousand pupils have been in the schools. About one-third of these have finished the three grades-they are considered illiterate by their teachers until the work of the third grade is mastered. The great majority of the pupils have been native whites, as there are not over eight hundred foreign-born in a total county population of sixty-four thousand; and less than ten thousand negroes, practically all of whom are in Asheville. Schools for each of the three groups have been held regularly, and the attendance of each has been about in proportion to population. So much for the numbers, for the quantity of the product. Now let us see what the training in the Community Schools means to the individual, the family, the community. Education increases earning power and thrift. A widow who had been taking in washings was able, because of night school training, to get a job and support her four children without state aid. One man received a ten-dollar per month increase after thirty-six evenings spent at night school; he was worth more to his company as well as to himself. And just what a ten-dollar wage increase means in satisfaction of physical, mental, and spiritual needs, only an aspiring low-wage-earner with a family knows. Again from the standpoint of the individual, ponder what it would mean for some religious soul to be able for the first time to read for himself the Sermon. on the Mount. Or think of the boost to a man's self-respect that would come when he had learned to write, so that he would never again have to- feel the sense of shame that came as he asked some neighbor to sign his name for him. He would have a sense of equality with his fellows; and as his inferiority complex disappeared, his energies would be released. Or consider what learning to read would mean to the mother who had seen her husband and children pick up papers and books after the evening meal to enter a world from which she had been shut out. Henceforth she could be their companion in the world of books and the printed page. Another mother gained the miraculous power to read for herself the letters sent home by her children, who had all grown up and gone, and the great comfort and satisfaction of being able to write her thoughts to them in reply. Thus have individuals entered into the abundant life. To the family, the training in the Community Schools for adults means better health. Women learn to read and write recipes, how to plan a less monotonous and better balanced diet for their families; they read articles on child care, better babies, etc. Says Mrs, Morriss, "Even the impersonal government would rejoice if it could see some of the young mothers learning to read its bulletin, `What Growing Children Need.' " For the family's benefit, the teachers submit a number of projects looking toward the establishing of a normal happy home environment. "In theory and in practice, following carefully outlined plans, the pupils become acquainted with high standards in health, prop Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 er food, thrift, education, recreation, co-operation, and citizenship. To understand the underlying principles on which these activities are based, it is necessary to remember that the average age of the pupils is thirty years and that most of them have a number of small children at home; that these children have a long period of plasticity in the course of which the knowledge of the parents, their practical wisdom, valuations, and sentiments are copied spontaneously, even unconsciously." Pointing out one of the greatest values of the Community Schools, and illustrating the foregoing statement, is this testimony of the County Superintendent of Public Welfare, "My observation is that a parent taught means a child in school." Adults who have just shaken off the burden of illiteracy realize what a handicap it is, and they desire that their children shall know how to use the tools of learning. Thus illiteracy is being reached at its source. The gains to the community are not only those which come through better homes, better schools, and more thrifty citizens. All those co-operative enterprises, which depend for their success on an elightened citizenry are given a boost, e. g. the Farmers' Federation. There is an increased community consciousness; the different social and occupational groups realize their interdependence. "Every representative literate organization," states Mrs. Morriss, "has had a share in the work." Out of this co-operation has come a new county co-ordinating plan. Beginning last July (1927) , the county was divided into six districts with one full-time community-school worker having the title and powers of Assistant Supervisor of the elementary day schools in each district. The Community School Director, Mrs. Morriss, became Rural Supervisor of the Elementary Schools in charge of Adult Education. The district workers, cooperating with the schools, are expected to keep in touch with all matters of health, sanitation, juvenile delinquency and with other community welfare problems, and to report them weekly to the proper agencies or officials. The latter's co-ordination, in turn, fa cilitates prompt service and elimates duplication. Such are some of the results achieved. However, the significance of this work in Buncombe county is not alone that to some four thousand individuals has come a more abundant life, valuable as that is; nor that Buncombe county is organized better for any and all cooperative civic enterprises which promote the general good; nor that she is laying a foundation for continued progress and prosperity in the better environment being afforded the oncoming generation in their plastic, formative years. All these are significant gains, very valuable, very much worth while. But the greater value lies in this, that Buncombe has pointed the way to every other North Carolina county that wishes to solve the problem of illiteracy: and counties in other states can draw upon this same experience. Two years ago (December, 1926), John J. Tigert, U. S. Commissioner of Education, proposed to the General Federation of Women's Clubs a one-county survey of illiteracy in each state of the union. Buncombe was the first county to complete its survey. According to the Federation's Bulletin, "the plans for the survey and the subsequent providing of teaching facilities for the illiterates by the school authorities were so sane, so thorough, and so suggestive that the Committee of Illiteracy of the Department of Education asked Mrs. Elizabeth C. Morriss, under whose supervision this work was done and who still directs the adult schools, to prepare a pamphlet for the use of the General Federation in forwarding the undertaking. This pamphlet is now available. There is also the "Citizens Reference Book, a textbook for adult beginners in community schools in two volumes," by Mrs. Morriss, which has been recently published by University of North Carolina Press. And more important than either of these is the demonstration of the spirit in which any work of this kind must be conceived and carried out: machinery and methods are not enough. The goal or purpose of the Committee on Illiteracy of the United States Department of Education is: "To abolish illiteracy by 1930." (Continued on Page 2.4) January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 ACCORDING TO YOUR FAITH By Domtlzy Graves-Pierce, Pisgah Industrial Institute, Candler, N. C. It was in the summer of 1914 that the Pisgah Industrial Institute was begun. The founders were E. C. Waller, Wm. Steinman, and C. A. Graves, with their respective families. Just two weeks before the World War broke out, the bargain was concluded which secured to these three men one hundred sixtyeight acres of land located nine miles from Asheville. Mr. Steinman had traded his small Pisgah Sanitarium, DIain Building. farm in as part payment for the place, and Mr. Graves expected to realize enough from the sale of his farms in Tennessee to meet the rest of the payments as they came due. However, the war came, real estate slumped, and the embryo institution found that it must depend upon its limited resources for sustenance. The assets of the would-be school were few. First there was the land, partly timber, none of it very productive. Then came the buildings. The farmhouse contained ten rooms, three of the upper ones unfinished. Some distance from the house there were two little cabins which could be utilized for students' rooms, also one near the house which had been used for a wash house and a smoke house. Other buildings were a large threestory barn near the house, a small concrete storeroom with a granary above, and an "ancient" shop. There was practically no school equipment, and almost no money to buy it with. However, Professor and Mrs. Waller, with a teacher from Ohio who donated a year's work, proceeded to open school. Mrs. Graves was there to take charge of the culinary department; nine boarding students appeared, bringing with them furniture, loaned and donated; and school work began Oct. 4, 1914. It must be understood that these students were to pay a considerable part of their school expenses by their labor, and labor was very necessary at this time. First, the buildings were subjected to a thorough cleaning, some of the rooms were papered, repairs were made, and finally every one was comfortably housed. For more than a month Mr. Steinman was detained on his placa, and until he could brinff his teams, fire-wood must be cut in the woods and carried by hand to the house. A well was the source of water supply, and water for launehy and cooking purposes must be pumped and carried. For three years the farm house was the main building of the institution. The six rooms on the ground floor provided a kitchen, dining room, chapel, two rooms for the Stein The Present School Family in Front of the Trans formed Barn. man family, and one for the Wallers. Upstairs, the four rooms were occupied by girls. The boys lived in the cabins. However, in spite of crowded conditions, improvised class rooms, and busy teachers, the school work was thorough and satisfactory, and from the first, the school has been filled to capacity. The room in which Mr. and Mrs. Waller Page 18 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 lived, and one tiny room upstairs seemed to possess chameleon properties. By night, the Waller room was a bed room. When morning came, the folding bed was closed, and the place became a living room, reception room, class room, music room, and on two occasions qn operating room. Just as remarkable was the little business office upstairs, which was occupied by the bookkeeper and her sister. The: limited office equipment was there, and the office work was done there, but it was also a class room and the guest room. Guests did nut realize the happenings behind the scenes, when. often on a few minutes' notice, the two girls must give up their room and `bunk" wherever they could. Once, with two other girls, they slept crosswise of a bed, with their feet on chairs. One Monday morning when the Waller room was in use for an operation which was being performed upon a young man from the neighborhood, the sometimes bookkeeper and teacher was directing affairs at the laundry when another teacher rushed in asking, "Do you know the doctor is expecting to put that patient in your room, and he will be through in fifteen minutes?" Only fifteen minutes to take out. personal belongings and have that room sanitary enough for a surgical patient! They did it, though. We must pass over financial struggles and work done under most inconvenient circumstances by teachers receiving only board and room, plus the privilege of making over second-hand clothing from missionary barrels, and very occasionally- a few dollars in cash. Students kept coming; teachers were added to the force; the coming of two physicians, a man and wife, brought dreams of a future medical work to be connected with the school. More room was imperative, but how could the school build? The farm products were consumed in feeding the school family and the stock, and the small amount of cash paid in by students only supplied the necessary groceries. The teachers looked the ground over, and more and more the barn appealed to them as a solution of the problem. The sheds at the sides of the barn were torn down, and the lumber used in the erection of another barn in a better location. 'Then the three-story building that was left was remodeled, using student help, and gradually it took the form of a school building. It now contains the chapel, the principal's office, which is also the library, two class rooms, the preceptress' room, and four rooms for girls. On the last day of 1917, when only five of the rooms in the new Assembly Building were in use, the farm house was destroyed by fire. The school property on the lower floor, such as kitchen and dining-room furniture, and the personal belongings of the Steinman family were saved, but the twelve girls living upstairs lost practically all their clothing and bedding. The house was ceiled with chestnut and pine, and it burned in less than half an hour. When it was in ashes, the roll was called, and plans laid for the immediate future. Many hands took hold, and the cook stoves were set up in the chapel, the partly cooked meal was finished, and dinner was finally served just thirty minutes late. Where to house the students was the next problem, and equally important was the question of clothes for the girls who were left destitute in the midst of winter. Asheville merchants very kindly furnished dry goods at reduced rates, and many friends contributed clothing until the wardrobes of the unfortunate girls were replenished. Kind neighbors offered rooms as a temporary solution of the rooming problem, and also donated several days of much appreciated work on the unfinished Assembly Building. In a few days school work was going on again, but under very crowded conditions. For the rest of the winter the chapel room in the Assembly Building did duty also as a kitchen, dining-room, and classroom. The space now occupied by the principal's office was utilized as a bakery, and the other room, now a classroom, on the ground floor was occupied by the Steinman family of five. In the spring the old shop was floored, windows were put in, and it was used for cooking and eating purposes until the next winter. Considering the name "dining-room" too dignified for the structure, the students named it "The Mess Hall." January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 During the summer following the fire, a cottage for Mr. Steinman's family was erected and the next year a neat dining hall, kitchen, and bakery was built on the site of the house that burned down. Succeeding years have brought a measure of success and prosperity. By strictest economy, by much sacrifice on the part of teachers. and by donations and loans from friends, various buildings have been erected as needed until now the visitor sees six teachers' homes. four students' cottages, a neat little sanitarium building with five cottages for patients, two barns, two shops, a large laundry and a greenhouse, in addition to the buildings originally on the place. During the years many students have paid all their expenses by their labor. Many more have been partly selfsupporting. This year fifty students are working their entire way, last year the number was nearly as large. Experience has shown that many of the students who work their way prove to be the best in the class room. In addition to the two years of nurses' training, of which we will speak later, practical subjects have been added to the course until now the students may take, as a part of the twelve grades of standard work which the institution offers, home economics, home nursing, domestic science, basketry, agriculture, farm mechanics, auto mechanics, plumbing, carpentry, and cabinet making. Believing that the Bible is the basis of all true character building, classes in Old and New Testament History and other Bible subjects, studied under an efficient teacher, are included in the curriculum. From the first, well-qualified music instructors have been connected with the school. Each year an orchestra and a chorus are organized, in addition to individual music instruction given. One of the great problems in any school that attempts to carry on industrial work is that of finding enough unbroken time for both students and teachers to make the work practical. As a happy solution, the school has adopted the plan of giving one subject at a time in each grade above the eighth. The sub ject is completed in nine weeks, and thus each grade is enabled to finish four subjects during the year. This plan makes it possible for the teacher to spend one half the day in the class room, then he has the rest of the time free for directing industrial activities. Unless such a plan were followed, it would be almost impossible to make industrial work practical. The one-study plan has been criticized as being psychologically unsound, but the best test of its value comes when our graduates, on entering college, find themselves well qualified to compete with their fellows who have been trained under standard methods. It will be easily seen that the carrying out of so strenuous a program of classes and work leaves no place for organized athletics. Rather than the high physical development of a few, we encourage games and sports in which all the student body can participate. At regular times each week, recreation periods are held under the charge of a leader. Opportunity for dramatic training is given each class when its practical work is presented each term in a public program. This article would be incomplete without mention of the medical work. It began the first year of the school, but of course in a very small way. In the summer of 1917 the liberality of a friend made the erection of a threeroom cottage possible. Before that, there were two one-room cottages where patients could be cared for. The main sanitarium building was finally completed and opened April 11, 1922. Sanitarium guests find themselves well cared for by Dr. 0. S. Lindberg and his capable wife, who is a registered nurse. The sick ones are constantly pointed to the Great Physician, who is able to give healing of body and soul. Owing to the small size of the institution, it does not offer a regular nurses' course, but gives two years training in practical and theoretical work. This has enabled many a girl who lacked the educational requirements necessary for entering a larger institution to obtain a knowledge which enabled her to care for the sick very efficiently. The Sanitarium has proved a great help to the school by providing funds for running ex Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 penses, and by affording a medium for cash returns from the garden, farm, and dairy. Also, many more students are able to work their way each year than could do so if the Sanitariurq did not furnish work for them. The place is quiet, away from the city; the scenery which only the beautiful Blue Ridge can afford; and the saying, "Once a patient, always a friend," seems to be a true one. MOUNTAIN MOTHERS (Cortinited f tuna Page 1?) stock" loses power mentally and physically if left too long to itself. New ideas from the outside must come in and must he presented patiently and in a spirit of equality if any progress is to result. Good roads and better schools are changing conditions; but the progress will be material progress alone unless more leaders can be secured who can carry into the homes higher and finer standards than those which come gratis over the trade arteries of concrete. Cherokee County has set the example of what can be done in a small county by a whole time superintendent of public welfare working with all the other agencies. The work done there by Miss Elizabeth Smith in Mothers' Aid, recreation, school attendance, and health is nothing short of marvelous, but that is another story.* *A Demonstration in Social Service, "Mountain Life and Work," July, 1927. THE SPINNING WHEEL (Contined from Page 8) for a new house; and still another's, a much needed piece of dental work. This year three of the weavers are attending the Opportunity School at Berea. Thus have horizons been widened and new richness and meaning woven into life. "The Spinning Wheel," with other of the mountain fireside industries, is making possible better economic and social conditions, as well as preserving the rich heritage of mountain arts. EDITORIAL (Contined from Page 1) men who know their problems and know how to solve them. In matters of child welfare great progress has been achieved and commendable efforts have been made to put an official hand that will act promptly, kindly, and under proper legal restraint within reach of every child in the Commonwealth in need of special attention. Honest efforts are being made to bring about adjustments in the treatment of prisoners that will assure justice to the offender and guarantee safety to society. And through wise administrative measures encouraging attempts are constantly being made to erect barriers between the youth of the State and a life of indifference and civic worthlessness. All this progress rests upon the firm foundation of a dependable citizenship and a vast amount of rational thinking. It will endure because its foundation is safe and sound. The spirit of North Carolina is further seen in a comprehensive program for an improved agriculture; in the sane leadership furnished by the University and by other outstanding schools; in the editoral work of Poe and Daniels and Harris and other well-known men of the press; in the State song, "The Old North State" which every teacher can sing and which is taught to every child. It is also revealed in the marvelous atmosphere about the great summer assemblies at Blue Ridge, Montreat, and other places; in the warm hospitality of the people, and in the level-headed way her citizens go about the business of making the Old Commonwealth, which Page and Aycock and McKiver loved so fondly, come into her own . John F. Smith "We are all roadmakers of one kind or another, making the roads rougher or smoother for those who come after us." "Happiness depends, as Nature knows, Less on exterior things than most suppose." -Cowper. January, 1928 N10UNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 21 A MEDICAL ROMANCE OF THE BLUE RIDGE Douglas P. Murphy, M. D. Twenty odd years ago two surgeons settled in a village in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Western North Carolina. They opened a hospital and began the practice of surgery. The story of this hospital, with its struggles and successes, is a romantic chapter in the medical history of the state. The hospital opened its doors in a most unpromising territory. The village of course could not support it, and the population of the county, of which this village was the county seat, was not large enougl. A wider field had to be sought; it would be necessary to make the hospital indispensable to a much greater population if it was to succeed. Railroad communication was very limited. Red clay roads, never too good and almost impassable in winter, did not improve the prospects for the work. General education was more limited than at present and medical knowledge throughout the surrounding country was very meager. Quack doctors reaped a harvest and patent medicines were purchased in great quantities. Family doctors of the regular schools did all in their power to alleviate differing, but they faced the insurmountable handicaps of their situation. They could and did perform minor surgical operations, but the more serious operations, such as removal of the appendix, gall-bladder, or kidney, could not be carried out. There was neither the equipment nor the skilled nursing assistance necessary for such work. The people were too poor to meet the expenses of a long journey to a distant hospital, and were also unaccustomed to going far from home. Those whom nature spared got well. Others dragged on a more or less miserable existence, because of lack of proper surgical care. Many died for lack of immediate surgical intervention. It has been said that prior to the opening of the hospital, only three citizens of this county had ever been operated upon for any very serious condition, and they were forced to travel long distances. Creating a demand for their services was slow, hard work for the founders of this institution. The people in the surrounding country-side had never been operated upon, and their friends had never been subjected to any serious surgical procedures. They had no realization of the great value of such measures and did not realize how often life could be conserved by timely and appropriate surgical judgment and skill. Furthermore, they did not know the two surgeons who offe,-ed t--ei~~ s~-~ ;,i=er. For these and perhaps other le= ons poop?e we ve not in a hurry to be taken to t.1e opevating table. They had first to understand the need; and then they wanted to see solre of the results before they took any chances. As the months passed, however, a few people applied for help. The number slowly increased. Frankness and conscientious work coupled with excellent surgical judgment and skill soon began to tell. People came from f2rt?ier and farther away, and even from other states. The hospital in a quiet and unobtrusive way was proving its value and need, Its reputation was reaching out in all directions. Then a period of gradual expansion began. The first hospital building, an old frame structure, was replaced by a larger one of brick. A separate new building for negroes was erected. Later, this too was replaced by a more satisfactory brick structure. All of this expansion followed the demands made by an ever increasing number of patients. Soon the staff was increased by another surgeon giving full time to the work. Early in the hospital's history, the great need of trained nurses in the community prompted the founding of a nurses' training school. From very small beginnings this school has increased until it now has eighteen pupil nurses and two graduate nurse instructors. These girls are housed in a fine home on the hospital grounds. Each year a class of six or seven is graduated from a threeyear course of instruction and training, and Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 these graduates form a valuable addition to the army of workers battling with disease in the Blue Ridge foothills. Because of the character and work of the surgical staff, one day a very remarkable thing happened. A well-known citizen of western North Carolina presented the hospital with one hundred thousand dollars. The story of this gift is a romance. The donor, a retired manufacturer who had made his fortune in could be secured. So he selected this hospital and its staff as trustees for his wonderful gift. He thought that placing a supply of radium in this little out-of-the-way place would bring aid to those who needed it most. The gift was accepted, and the necessary but complicated apparatus needed for its employment was installed. A physicist skilled in the management of the so-called "radon" plant, was employed. "Radon" is the techni In the Blue Ridge Country. (Bp Permission of the State Highway Commission) that section of the state, had a great desire to make a contribution to the people among whom he lived. He wished to do something for those very people who had helped make possible his success in life. He had seen what benefit radium could give to people suffering from cancer, and its remarkable curative properties impressed him. He knew that many of his neighbors were daily in need of such treatment but were too poor to go where it cal name given to the gas produced by radium. This gas, in very minute amounts, is collected by means of a very complicated apparatus. It is measured very accurately, being contained in very fine glass tubes about the size of a large sewing needle, but only one-half inch long. These little tubes of gas are then used in the treatment of the diseased conditions, being placed either in the center of the spot to be treated or on its surface. January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 The doctors in the surrounding country were notified when the radium treatments were ready, and on the opening day nearly one hundred patients were ready for treatment. They came from all directions, and with many kinds of trouble. For five years now this department has been functioning daily, bringing aid to many afflicted with cancer and other conditions which can be aided by judicious use of radium. Since the hospital is not endowed, and since the expense connected with the operation of the radium plant is very great, each person treated is asked to pay a nominal sum for the service received. Those whose finances are limited pay only as much as they are able; and patients who have no funds are not turned away, but are given the necessary treatment just the same. This growing clinic for the treatment of cancer and allied conditions has been a very potent factor in meeting one of the greatest problems confronting the medical profession in western North Carolina. It has served to bring relief to many sufferers from cancerous disease in the surrounding territory. Indirectly it has been of equal benefit as a factor in improving the general medical knowledge of the people. The clinic, caring for these patients as they have applied for aid, has been able to spread knowledge so necessary in the fight against cancer. It has impressed upon the patients and their friends the great importance of the early reporting of any signs of disease, especially cancer. These patients have been treated, and then their cases have been followed at monthly intervals; studies have been made of the progress of the cure when that was possible. At first many came so late in the course of the disease that curing them was out of the question. Many less advanced cases, however, received prompt cures, much to the patients' relief of mind and body. The technique of the radium treatments, the staggering cost of the equipment, and the peculiar manner in which the effects are brought about, all have been of great interest to the patients who have come for treatment. Where patients have small cancers on the skin surface, a glass tube of radium gas, enclosed in a little silver tube, is placed over the sore spot. After being allowed to remain in place for a few minutes it is removed. The patient then goes home, there having been no noticeable change in the place treated. In a week them appears a little red spot on the skin directly under the place where the radium had been applied. For several weeks the spot appears inflamed. Then as it gradually fades away, the sore spot disappears. Until just recently the writer worked in. this hospital and saw daily the problems presented by the people who were brought there for care. Five years spent in the community enabled him to see what medical progress was being made, and also what remains to be done to help remedy existing conditions. He saw and talked to people in all walks and conditions of life. In the case of the patients suffering from cancer, he believes that great good has already been accomplished but that much education is still needed in this field before the patients will do all in their power to keep themselves from dying unnecessarily early from this dread disease. The work of the hospital has by no means been limited to the treatment of cancer. In fact this has been one of the less important of its functions. The history of the radium clinic, however, presents one important side of the medical problems and progress in western North Carolina. The chief work of the hospital has been the care of patients suffering from disease and accidents which require surgical judgment and skill. It has served as an emergency center for the community, and numerous operations to remedy longstanding conditions have been performed there. The members of its staff act in a consulting capacity with the family physicians in the surrounding territory. The hospital equipment is available as an aid in diagnosing some of the more difficult diseases which afflict mankind. The local county medical society holds its monthly meeting in the hospital, at. which time the full-time county health physician discusses the public health problems most urgently needing attention. In these ways the institution stands as a "beacon light upon Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 a hill," and guides the community in its fight against disease. Today this hospital is a living example of the value such an institution can be to a community. Its record should be a stimulus to other parts of the Blue Ridge section to found similar institutions for the medical welfare of their people. If at present their resources are insufficient, they should look forward to a day in the near future when by concerted effort they will be able to erect a similar health center. Aid in such an undertaking will be afforded by the activities of the recently created Duke Endowment, which is now studying intensively tile hospital needs of the two Carolinas. The medical problems of the Blue Ridge are many. It has been possible to touch upon but a few. The p; ogress in tackling th-se difficulties has been, on the whole, sati ,facto?Ã‚Â°y, especially in the last few years. But there is still much room for improvement. Perhaps the next ten years will witness far greater strides in this direction than have even the last fifty! T:-_is advance will necessarily depend most upon the efforts of those wzo have the best education and the greatest vision, and who, in addition, have the best in telests of their fellow rnen at heart. SAFEGUARDING DEMOCRACY (Contimfed from Page 16) At least in one county the goal is a possibility. From one stronghold the enemy is being routed. May the exemplary success of Mrs. Morriss, and her co'iorts encourage and inspire otherÃ‚Â°s in sinJliar campaigns in this struggle which trtdy is "rr!aking the world safe for democracy" and democracy safe for the world. ROADS TO FULFILLMENT (Continued from Page G) been dulled through lack of contacts with the outside world. They herald a new era for the mountain people, and open a way to those who seek rest and refreshment of spirit in these lands of peace and beauty. UNTO THE HILLS By Ada Simpson Sherwood Unto the hills I lift mine eyes When Spring trips o'er the lea, And the wood bird's note From a bursting throat Is calling to you and me. The snowy clouds with blue are rent; The C'og-,wood spreads out its fair white tent; Its richest blood has the reduud spent To herald the joys to be. Unto the hills I lift mine eyes In Autumn's blazing glow, When the wild grape bowers And the nuts in showers TJer magic riches slow. T'^_e goldenrod lifts its royal head, The sumac flaunts its banner red, And the fog est bu- ies its gorgeous dead With requiem weird and low. Un'.-o the hills I lift mine eyes For strength and power and life, Where birds and bees, An,' t'_,e voice of t,`ees IVAith j ;y and praise are rife. The bto~vn onk rustles, "Make Him your choice !" The maple wzispers, "Rejoice, rejoice!" From the bu--ning bush I can hear His voice Above earth's noise and strife. No fountain is so small, but that Heaven may be imaged in its bosom.-Nathaniel Hawthorne Nothing seems stranger than the delusions of other people when they have ceased to be our own.-Frances Anne Kemble What a man did not glow for in his young days, he will not easily work for as a man. -Christopher Bruun. I despise the man who surrenders his conscience to a multitude as much as I do the one who surrenders it to one man. -Roosevelt. January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 NOTES FROM THE JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL JI HE John C. Campbell Folk School is intended for young people of front eighteen to thirty gears of age who are interested in continuing their education with only a brief interruption of their farm work. The aim is to help them preserve what is best in highland culture, develop their own native powers, and make counti,y life what it may be, better, more efficient, and more interesting. The school is named in memory of John C. Cxmpbell, author of "The Southern Highlander xnd His Homeland." After twenty-five gears of s~'udg and service in the Southern Mountains, Mr. ~7ampbell reached the belief that the folk se110013 of Denmark, which have been attended at one time or another by one-third of the adult rural population, offer a type of education well adapted to ),oral Ame) ica. The John C. Campbell Folk School is an experimcn.t in the application of the Danish prin-iples. 8egin~~ing its life in January, 1026, as a hwn., in the community, it has sought, through active share in the community activities, to build a firm foiradation of local understanding for the school proper, which operas in. December, 1027. Tlte farm of some 180 acres, in charge of an able young Danish farmer, is at once a .frank recognition of the economic problem of the region, a Ã¢â‚¬Â¢lemonstration of new methods, and in time will be, we hope, a nncan8 of partial self-support. The school is iuco),porated under the laws of North Carolina, and has the approval and deep interest of the Conference of Southern. Mountain Workers. The American Missionary Association, the. Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., and the National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, contrib~rte toward the support. Otheiwi,,~e thÃ¢â‚¬Â¢, school is dependent upon gifts from intei-csted friends who recognize the importance of this new type of education. Six months have brought rapid growth in the John C. Campbell Folk School. "Neatly stacked piles of framing" have taken the form of our Community Room, which, completed and painted, was ready for dedication on September third. It is a beautiful room, situated on a wooded knoll looking off toward cloudsha~owed mountains. Thirty-five by sixty feet, it affords ample space for meetings of a special character, and quite swallows up the group of some one hundred who, gathering every Saturday night for lectures, discussion, singing and games, overflowed the farmhouse livingroom. The gray walls, and the ceiling with its heavy beams in soft old red, blend with the grays, reds, and greens of the nativestone fireplace, "the finest chimney in the country," built by our community men under Mr. Deschamps' direction. The hand-made split-bottomed chairs were largely given by 'ocal people, whose names are printed on the backs. A more distant friend has added a piaro ; and elect?cic lights, another friend's moat welcome gift, came in November. It is only as we open the two doors to the left and look clown into the yawning excavation of our halfcompleted basement that we are reminded afresh that our lovely beginning is only a small part of the Community Douse to be. Until the basement is completed and above it rise walls and roof, we cannot house our actual boarding s^hool. But at least we have a place in which to meet and to begin our first school in December. Dedication Day dawned gray, with sharp showers which did not entirely melt away until late in the morning. In spite of the threatening skies, wagons, cars, and trucks began to roll in early with families, bountiful lunch baskets, and extra chairs to meet the special demands of the celebration. Several hundred people Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 assembled in the Community Room, decorated by our Danish guests with rich red sourwood trees and garlands meet for the occasion. Not only did we have with us John H. Dillard of Murphy, our local trustee, President William J. Hutchins of Berea College, and Chris. L. Christensen, head of the Bureau of Co-operative Marketing, U. S. Department of Agriculture, also a trustee; but there were with us three guests from across the sea, from little Denmark itself. Principal and Mrs. Jakob E. Lange, of the Smallholders' School at Odense, and Holger Bennike, of the Bestbirk Folk School, were all interested sharers in the opening of "the first mountain folk school"-an event to which they had looked forward since our visit to their country and their folk schools over four years ago. The Old Museum, Showing Clay ands Stick Chimney. Mr. Campbell, in his dreams of this day, could not have pictured a more auspicious beginning, from Colonel Dillard, who told of the deep-lying reasons for the school, to Mr. Christensen, who, concluding this day so full of meaning to us all, pointed to the part fellowship must play in country life. "Fellowship means the growth of understanding, which makes possible community development and the co-operative organization of agriculture." Nothing brings a sense of fellowship like sing ing together, and we have begun to sing at Brasstown. Songs of greeting and of thanks,, with many of our characteristic American melodies, were the community's part in the program. As Mr. Lange rose to speak, a small group sang in our guest's native tongue a song dear to the life of rural Denmark "Jeg er en simpel Bondemand" (I am just a common farmer). "I am just a common farmer, Simple and plain; And yet I love my modest calling, For around my little home Grow blossoms fair With color and perfume. Mine is the clear spring, Mine the fresh breeze. i grew up to the song of the birds, Learned a little of them too. I sing when the impulse comes To fly light and free. I sing behind the plough And to the sounds of the mowing. Hills and woods Give back my song. And when I am weary with toil And day is done, My spirit is fresh, my mind at ease, I am happy and free. I would not change places With any man on earth, Nor will I leave this spot in the North." ADDRESS ON DEDICATION DAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1927 By Jakob E. Lange, Principal of the Smallholders' School, Odense, Denmark As I stand here among you today, two leading facts impress my mind very strongly. The one is how small the world has become; and the other, how wonderful. Small it certainly has become. It was only the other day that your Lindbergh made the hop over "the pond," on a few sandwiches, and now this school which you are building here has come into existence as a result of another tour of January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 Europe, Mrs. Campbell's tour, and I have come across to you for the same purpose. And wonderful it has become. A lonely farmer by means of the radio can follow the events of the metropolis; and movements and ideas which arise in a remote country far away in Northern Europe can stimulate people into action even in this very far away and remote part of America. A little while ago you sang to me in Danish a song which a Danish farmer some sixty years ago wrote because, as a poet, he wanted to stimulate his countrymen to a bigger, freer, and more active life; because he wanted them, as the song has it, "to sing behind the plough." And now you sing it to me, moved by the same feeling. While I was in Nantucket a week ago I saw a poster-outside a church, I think it was -with this legend on it: "The only way to get rid of a past is to get a future out of it." Now this might have been a motto for the Danish peasantry during the last century in its work of liberation and emancipation. One hundred years ago the peasant-farmers were not only poor, but listless; they had not only to work hard, but to work without being able to see a future ahead of them. Their work supported the country, as the farmer's work always does, but they didn't feel that they had any stake in the country, and they were looked down upon as social inferiors. Now it is entirely different. Not only is the farmer better situated, but he is progressive in mind; his influence in the country everywhere is recognized as being of the greatest importance, and he himself has come to take a natural interest in his work. In building this school here in the mountains, you have been inspired by something of the same feeling. You also, like the Danish farmer, want to get rid of your past by getting a future out of it; you also want better farming and better economic conditions; you also want your sons to be able to "sing behind the plough." If in any way the example of the Danish "small-farmer" can be of help to you in this work of emancipation and education, we shall be proud. Twenty years ago the "small-farmers" of my province united for a similar purpose, the building of a school which was to be their educational center, and it is as a representative of this school and this movement that I say this to you, and wish you success. The motto which I gave you is a good one so far, but the question naturally arises, "Do we want to get rid of a past? Isn't it more natural in most cases not to get rid of your past, but to get hold of your past-to appropriate your past, so to speak? Wouldn't it be better to say: The only way to get hold of your past is to get a future out of it? If, for instance, a nobleman in England looks upon the pictures of his forefathers or reads about their The Community Room. deeds and accomplishments as defenders and supporters of England, but himself does nothing for his country, what is the good to him of his grand ancestry? Instead of supporting and inspiring him, his ancestry will only load him down and belittle him. The only way for him to really appropriate his past is to get a future out of it; that is to say, inspired by his forefathers' deeds, let him do something that, perhaps in a more democratic way, is for the Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 good of his country. And this holds true for all of us. Allow me to say here to you personally, Mrs. Campbell, that I think this feeling has also inspired you in your work at Brasstown. You have felt that by building a future out of your past, and only in that way, could you really become master of your past. This school will be a living expression of your own life, its trials, and sad events as well as its happy memories. Thus it will enrich yourself and this community. And I am sure that in so doing you will not fail. But before I conclude this talk I must say something about the special character of this school. America is rich in educational establishments, I admire a good many of them, and especially your strenuous efforts in this field. You have schools of different types. You have large and splendid colleges and universities which I should liken to big lighthouses concentrating enormous beams of light and illuminating vast spaces, but which also occasionally sweep as with a search-light the dark surroundings, only to leave them dark once more. Hundreds of birds, drawn by the brilliant rays, dash themselves against the lightand are found dead in the morning. Such schools are of very little use for the daily work and life of the scattered population. Then there is another kind of school-the small isolated roadside country school, empty and far away from everything and everybody. It reminds me of what you call a transformer -a little empty structure connected by a very thin electric wire with a central power plant far away, and used only for reducing the tension of the electric current to the needs of a very local and limited neighborhood. This kind of school serves a very useful purpose, but obviously it cannot create a future for the countryside. The school you are planning here is of a still different type. It is more like a mill situated at the bottom of a valley-a water-mill to be used for generating electric current. Such an electric plant is not run by currents from a central power plant far away. It is, in fact, set in motion by the water which comes down to the mill from every creek and every branch in the whole valley; and its electric current, generated, so to speak, by the co-operation of forces from the whole community, is sent out again to be used for illuminating the individual homes, for setting in motion the individual machinery, for heating the flatiron of the housewife and making the sitting-room cosy. Such a plant is what I should like this school to become. The educational currents which it is to send out far over the valleys should be not for illumination but for producing warmth and motivating power, for helping to create a richer and better life in all the individual homes. And all of you should feel that the active force which moves the wheels of the school, like water-power that turns the wheels of the mill, is created by the united action of all the homes in the community which supports it. Whenever this united action is strong, the work of the school will be influential and powerful for the good of all of you. May it always be so! Rema)-ks bay Mrs. Lange First I must bring my thanks to you all, Mrs. Campbell and all of you, for having given us the opportunity to be with you today. It is a great event for us, and I look forward to going back to my people and telling them about you and your beautiful country. As in these days I have been around and visited you and your homes, there have been two things which evidently it has been a joy for you to show me-your handwork and your flowers. Your old things tell me about your own and your ancestors' work, and your flowers as you women have them-in fine or simple pots, but always growing well-tell me that you love them. I am reminded of my people at home, for when the farmers' wives visit each other they spend hours talking about and looking upon their flowers. If I should wish anything for you and your beautiful country-and this is a day for bringing good wishes I should say-I could not wish you anything better than that it may always be your handwork and flowers, work and beauty, which you may have to show your visitors. I know that you and especially your young people-clever and good-looking as they are January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 have great possibilities, much greater than perhaps you are able to see just now. Theme are no limits for your agricultural progress. Think upon that, you young people! Your mountains may be the place in your big country which people will look upon as a centre of agricultural progress. It is your work to bring this about; you can do it if you wish. But at the same time 1 hope you never will be too busy in going ahead to take the flowers, the beauty, with you on your work for progress and bett e r conditions. And I know this school here and i t s people are longing to see progress made in that way. I met an old old woman in my country who had gone to America in her youth as an emigrant. She had had a hard time in America but she said :"Living in America for twenty years, I learned to love the American people. They met us with the greeting, `What can I do for you?', and I always felt that they meant it. They wanted to help." Traveling among American people, I feel the old woman's words true. You are kind and helpful. And I also feel how much your expression, "What can I do for you?", when coming from the heart, means to all of us. I feel that we need to meet each other from country to country with that greeting, and if you in your little community are to do well, it is also necessary that you meet ea~Ã‚Â°,h other with these words, saying them with a full heart, with deep and true wishes to help each other. I know Mrs. Campbell and Miss Butler are coming to you with their hearts full of this thought, "What can I do for you?," and I hope and believe you here are able to understand these wishes in the right way, and to receive them in the same spirit. Then your new school will be all that it should be for the mountains. The following announcement appeared in October in the local news sheets of Cherokee and Clay Counties and occasioned some little comment "The first session of the John C. Campbell. Folk School , at Brasstown, North Carolina, is, scheduled for this winter. It will begin December 1st and cover the months of December, January, and February. This course is open t o a 11 sixteen years and over, regardless of the number of grades they have passed, who are really interested in continuing their education and developing the best they have in them. There are, therefore, no stated requirements beyond a serious desire to The Farmhouse. learn and to grow. "Subjects to be given fall into different groups: simple field surveying; construction of model farm equipment, such as colony hog houses built according to Government blueprint; cooking and sewing; lectures in history, grammar, reading, writing, and arithmetic of the most practical kind; literature, economic geography, natural history, civil government, and health; daily music, Danish gymnastics, and sports. An opportunity for special group study of agricultural science, book-keeping, and forestry will be offered to those interested. "No examinations or credits will be given for this course, which is not intended to fit for particular trades, or to prepare for the graded school or college. It is designed to help young people take advantage of their natural powers and to make their life in the country better, more efficient, and more interesting. "Inquiries may be made in person at the school or addressed to Mrs. John C. Campbell, Brasstown, N. C." Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 THE FARMERS' FEDERATION Zeb Green, Editor of Farmers' Federation News The Farmers' Federation was organized to serve mountain farmers in the purchase and distribution of farm supplies and in the marketing of such products as may be grown in Jr. A warehouse was constructed at Fairview siding, about two miles east of Biltmore. At this lone country warehouse the volume of business the first year amounted to approxi 1. Top: The Marketing Department rn Asheville; 2. Lower Left: Blood-testing Experts Culling a Farm Poultry Flock; 3. Lower Left: Bringing in Poultry and Eggs. sufficient volume to make collective bargaining practical and desirable. The original unit was organized in the eastern part of Buncombe County seven years ago by a small group of neighbor farmers under the leadership of James G. K. McClure, mately $50,000. Demands began to come from other rural sections for similar distributive warehouse units, and the movement gained favor and gathered force in both Buncombe and Henderson counties. As a result there ar now eight warehouses operating in four coun January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 81 ties as a cooperative stock corporation with headquarters and wholesale warehouses on Roberts Street, Asheville, and a wholesale, retail, and cold-storage warehouse at Spindale, Rutherford County. The other warehouses are at Craggy and Weaverville in Buncombe County, at Fletcher and Hendersonville in Henderson County, and at Tryon in Polk County. Feeds, seeds, and fertilizers are the commodities that make up a large portion of the purchases made by farmers through the warehouses. A feed salesman is in the field all the time taking orders from dairymen and poultrymen, and, at the time wanted, these orders are delivered by Federation trucks from the nearest distributive warehouse. An auxiliary milk sales organization uses the Federation as a collective bargaining agency in making sales contracts with large creamery plants. Therefore, in many instances, Federation trucks carry feeds as they go out to bring in milk from dairy farms and chickens and eggs from poultry farms. Like most of the other farm co-operatives, the Farmers' Federation has had to pass through the early inspirational stages of organization into the realm of practical application of the co-operative principle in a rapidly expanding territory, and with this enlargement its problems have become more difficult, especially as it enters into the more complex field of marketing perishable products like fruits and vegetables. It may be remarked in this connection that the neighborhood group of farmers who built the warehouse at Fairview in 1921 never dreamed of a growth and expansion within six years time into a chain of warehouses with an annual business of more than a million dollars. It is the policy of the Federation not to encourage increased production in any division of the farm industry unless there are arrangements for a book-up between production and warehousing. This year the Federation marketed about thirty cars of tomatoes. While this is one of the minor projects, there is a possibility of enlargement, after canneries are provided, for taking care of the surplus, i.e. when the green tomato markets will not ab sorb all the offering, as was the case during the past season. Dairying and sales of dairy products by collective bargaining; promotion of the poultry industry by the sale of baby chicks from its accredited hatchery, with a season's capacity of 400,000 baby chicks; and the marketing of fruit and truck products-represent the main projects of the Farmers' Federation. This year the Federation promoted the building at Forest City of a sweet potato warehouse and drying plant with a capacity of 12,000 bushels. These potatoes will be marketed through the Spindale warehouse. The chain of Federation warehouses op,erates a fleet of sixteen trucks which are always kept busy and which at times can not meet all demands for wholesale and retail delivery service. CT course there must be an additional charge for this service; but busy dairy farmers consider the service worth more than it costs them, otherwise they would do their own trucking. Modern highways and auto transportation have made it possible for farmers to have commodities delivered at the individual farm stations, a privilege that was formerly enjoyed only by those who lived at or near railway stations. The Farmers' Federation has not attempted to organize around any single commodity. Diversity of the farm industry in the mountain counties and a lack of volume in the production of any particular staple make it economically impractical to build an organization around a single commodity, at least until the production can be very largely increased. Through the leadership of James G. K. McClure, Jr., President of the Farmers' Federation, a promotion fund of $100,000 has, been secured for the promotion and further development of the combined production and marketing program of the organization, under a plan that extends over a five-year period. "Most of our so-called reasoning contests in finding arguments for going on believing as. we already do. "The real reason for our beliefs are concealed from ourselves as well as from others."' -James Harvey Robinson Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 THE NORTH CAROLINA MOUNTAINS Compiled by Mary L. Thornton General References Campbell, J. C. The Southern Highlander and His Homeland. N. Y. Russell Sage Foundation, 1921. Clingman, T. L. The Mountain Region of North Carolina. In his Selections from Speeches and Writings. 1877. Pages 113-47. Cullowhee State Normal School, Cullowhee, N. C. Bulletin; Western N. C. Number. Cullowhee, N. C. Jan. 1926. (Vol. 2 No. 4) Davis, R. H. By-paths in the Mountains. In Harper's Magazine, July, Aug. Sept. 1880, pp. 167-85, 353-69, 532-47. Greater Western North Carolina Association. Greater Western N. C. (Asheville, Inland Press, 1913.) Greater Western North Carolina Association. Information to Visitors. (Asheville Inland Press 1913.) In the Land of the Sky. In National Magazine, June, 1911. Kephart, Horace. Our Southern Highlanders. N. Y. Macmillan, 1922. King, Edward. Great South. Hartford, Conn. American, 1875. Lanman, Charles. Letters from the Alleghany Mountains. N. Y. Putnam, 1849. Mason, R. L. The Lure of the Great Smokies. Boston, Houghton, 1927. Mr. Foster's Travel Magazine. Land of the Sky Issue. N. Y. The Magazine, May, 1914. Morley, M. W. Carolina Mountains. Bos-tcn, Houghton, 1913. Pratt, J. H. and Boyer, F. Q. Western N. C., Facts, Figures, Photographs. (Asheville) Authors, 1925. Presbrey, F. S. Land of the Sky and Beyond. N. Y. Fleming, Schiller, 1896. Schantz, 0. M. Beyond the Haze in the High Smokies. In Country Life in America, Aug. 1926, pp 60-61. Spalding, A. W. Men of the Mountains. Nashville, Tenn. Southern Publication Asso~ciation (c. 1915.) Torrey, Bradford. A World of Green Hills. Boston, Houghton, 1898. Warner, C. D. On Horseback; a Tour in Va., N. C., and Tenn. Boston, Houghton 1888. Zeigler, W. G. Heart of the Alleghanies. Raleigh, Williams (1883) History . . Arthur J. P. Western North Carolina; a History (from 1730 to 1913.) Raleigh, Edwards and Broughton, 1914. Smith, A. D. Western N. C., Historical and Biographical, Charlotte, Smith, 1890. Stillwell, E. H. Notes on the History of Western N. C. Part 1: A Handbook and Syllabus, Cullowhee, N. C., State Normal School, 1927. National Parks and Reserves Ashe, W. W. Creation of the Eastern National Forests. In American Forestry, Sept. 1922, pp. 521-25. Ayres, H. B. Southern Appalachian Forests. Wash. Govt. 1905. (U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper No. 37.) Great Smoky Mountains, Inc. Asheville, N. C. Save Our Mountains. (Asheville, Great Smoky Mountains, Inc. 1925?) Kephart, Horace. Last of the Eastern Wilderness. In World's Work. April, 1926, pp. 617-32. Kephart, Horace. National Park in the Great Smoky Mountains. Asheville, N. C. Smoky Mountains, Inc. 1925.) Pratt, J. H. Southern Appalachian Forest Reserve. In Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society Journal, Dec. 1905, pp. 15664. Shurtleff, A. A. A Visit to the Proposed National Park Areas in the Southern Appalachians. In Landscape Architecture, Jan. 1926, pp. 67- 7 3. U. S. Forests Service. National Forests of the Southern Appalachians. Wash. Govt. 1923. U. S. Forest Service. The Pisgah National Forest and Game Preserve. Wash. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, (1926. ) Nahocxl Resources. Geology, Topography, Climate Chapman, A.W. Flora of the Southern U. S. N. Y. Ivison, 1889. January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 33 Coker, W. C. Trees of N. C. Chapel Hill, N. C. W. C. Coker, 1916. Hale, P. M. In the Coal and Iron Counties of N. C. Raleigh, Hale, 1883. Hale, P. M. Woods, and Timbers of N. C. Raleigh, Hale, 1890. Lounsberry, Alice. Southern Wild Flowers and Trees. N. Y. Stokes (1901. ) North Carolina Geological Survey. Mineral Industry of N. C. Raleigh, N. C. Geological Survey, 1901-(Economic Paper Nos. 4, 6-9, 11, 14, 15, 23, 34, 49, 55, 60-) North Carolina State Board of Agriculture. North Carolina, the Land of Opportunity. Raleigh, State, 1923. Pressey, H. A. Hydrography of the Southern Appalachian Mountain Region. Wash. Govt. 1902. (U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 62-63.) Small, John K. Flora of the Southeastern U. S. 2nd ed. N. Y. Author, 1913. Social and Economic Conditions An American Backwater. In Blackwood's Magazine, Sept. 1911, pp. 355-66. Backwynds of the Blue Ridge. In Blackwood's Magazine, Dec. 1912, pp. 786-96. Branson, E. C. Our Carolina Highlanders. Chapel Hill, University of N. C., 1916. (Extension Bureau Circular. No. 2.) Campbell 0. D. and Sharp, C. J. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians. N. Y. Putnam, 1917. Campbell, 0. D. Southern Highland Schools Maintained by Denominational and Independent Agencies. N. Y. Russell Sage Foundation, 1921. Campbell, R. F. Mission Work among the Mountain Whites. Asheville, Citizen, 1899. Davidson, T. F. Carolina Mountaineer, the Highest Type of American Character. In Asheville, N. C.-Pen and Plate Club Annual Transactions. 1905. Dawley, T. R. Jr. Our Southern Mountaineers. In World's Work, March 1916, pp. 12704 -14. Erskine, Ralph. The Handicraftsmen of the Blue Ridge. In Craftsman, Nov. 1907, pp. 158-67. Frost, Norman. Statistical Study of the Public Sch--)ols of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Wash. Govt. 1915. (Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Education. 1905, No. 11.) Frost, W. G. Southern Mountaineer; Our Kindred of the Boone and Lincoln Type. In American Review of Reviews, March 1900, 10 p. Holman, Lydia. Civic Conditions in Our Mountain Communities. N. Y. American Civic Alliance, 1913. Knight, E. W. Education in the Southern Mountains. In School and Society, July 29, 1922, (13 p.) McDougall, Ian T. Elizabethan Highlanders of America. In Landmark, Dec. 1924, pp. 776-80. Mooney, James. Folk-lore of the Carolina Mountains. In Journal of American Folk-lore, April-June, 1889. Parker, Haywood. Folklore of the N. C. Mountaineer; Paper Read Before the Pen and Plate Club, Asheville, N. C. 1906. No Place, no Pub. n. d. Rambo, M. G. The "Submerged Tenth" among the Southern Mountaineers. In Methodist Review, July, 1905, pp. 56575. Smith, J. R. Farming Appalachia. In the American Review of Reviews, March, 1916, pp. 329-36. Thirkield, W. P. American Highlanders and Our Education Mission to Them. In Methodist Review, May, 1906. U. S. Children's Bureau. Rural Children in Selected Counties of N. C. Wash. Govt. 1918. Wilson, S. T. The Southern Mountaineers. N. Y. Literature Dept. Presbyterian Home Missions, 1906. "When they at last come to realize that their greatest help lay in themselves, that they must trust each other and work together, then only could begin the co-operative development which has made Denmark famous the world over-a movement whose basis is integrity, loyality, service, the good of the many above the profit of the individual. As on- gazes into the stream of life, what he .'s rnost likely to see is his own reflection. -X.Y.Z. Page 34 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 192$ AN EXPERIMENT IN TEACHER TRAINING The problem of definitely training and fitting teachers for effective teaching in mountain schools is a difficult one that has been only partially solved. Students graduating from normal training find schools to teach wherever they can, and rely upon professional classroom technique, such as is handed them by demonstration teachers, for methods that they will use. There is nothing wrong with the practice school and demonstration teachers, so far as each goes, but there is a shortcoming in that much of the work is conventional and not practical. Solomon said "Get wisdom; but with all thy getting, get understanding." This sizes up the demonstration school proposition in a few words. The teacher has wisdom in technique but is without that understanding that makes the student a vital teacher in communities far distant from the training school. The skilled surgeon knows in theory how to remove tonsils, but he never does so without finding out the patient's temperature, pulse, age, general condition of health, and financial condition. The demonstration teacher might profit by the doctor's method of adding understanding to the wisdom of his technique-that is, the prospective teacher might profit by seeing the children that are to be taught, their schoolhouse, their homes, the churches they attend, and by acquiring at first hand experience a knowledge of the community's mental and spiritual attitudes. The Asheville Normal is attempting to find a solution to the problem of adapting the student to his teaching, by sending the senior class into their home communities for periods of two or three weeks to observe the teaching in their local schools and to assist and teach under the direction of the county teacher and the county supervisor in counties where they provide for the supervision of teaching. The teachers in the Department of Education at the Normal go out with the students to their homes, visit them in the school work, and assist in any way possible in the problems of the local teacher. This scheme of practice teaching back in the communities from which the students come has been tried one year. The results have been most satisfying and justify the experiment for another year, with the expectation of its becoming a permanent feature of teacher-training in the Normal. County superintendents and supervisors were very enthusiastic over the experiment. In most instances, at the close of the experiment they wrote in expressing their appreciation of it and their willingness to continue the same arrangement for another year. The benefits seem to be as foilows : Students learn to teach under normal conditions, so that when they go out as teachers in the fall there is little loss of time in getting adjusted. They know in advance their local problems, and are able to solve many of them beforehand or at least with greater facility after arriving on the ground. These prospective teachers also get a vision of the opportunity for service through the church, Sunday school, and other community organizations. The teachers in the Department of Education benefit perhaps as much from this method of practice teaching as the students themselves. They are forced out of the realm of the theoretical and idealistic, so that they must modify and adapt their methods of teaching to fit conditions in the country school. "Five times six makes thirty" in either city or country, but it is quite possible that the method of teaching it to the country child might with advantage be different from the method employed in the city. The country teachers come in for their share of benefit through their contact with teachers from the Normal who represent the best theoretical methods and are deeply interested in them personally and in their problems of educational adaptation. The county schools are also recipients of some of the good of the method of practice teaching, for the county superintendent and his supervisors are given the opportunity to select with discrimination the inexperienced teachers for the coming year. The plan seems to be mutually beneficial to Normal, county schools, and all in any way connected with either. Another result of the experiment was the ease with which the ma January, 1928 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 35 jority of students found positions that were satisfactory to themselves and the community. It seems that the problem of the misfit teacher will be solved by the experiment if it proves to be a success. It is quite evident that the bonds of friendship that have been established through this method, between the school and mountain communities and their teachers, have been exceedingly valuable from the standpoint of friendly and sympathetic co-operation. -John E. Calfee, Asheville Normal BRASSTOWN SAVING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION In early May we celebrated the first birthday of our Brasstown Savings and Loan Association. Miss Berry, the director of these associations in North Carolina, was with us for the great occasion. The farmhouse livingroom was full to overflowing on this mid-week night of the busy season of planting. Happy were we to learn that our Junior Branch, ihich started with four members is now the largest in the state. The twenty-seven junior members have learned the first lesson of thrift, that is, to save. Many of the children had earned a five dollar share; a: few nearly two shares. At the present time one ten-year-old boy has fifty dollars in shares and deposits, the result of accumulated cream checks from his own cow. Fortunately our treasurer is the storekeeper, so it is very easy to convert eggs, chickens, corn, and even Indian relics into savings. One corner of the store, with its arrowheads, tomahawks, pipes, and beads, not only tells of the interest of the storekeeper in the Historical Association which will come some day, but also means that many children have added to their savings account. But the children are not the only ones who have learned to save. "The Women's Community Club" has a deposit of thirty-five dollars. In fact, the forty-seven adult members, and the seven depositors in addition, have accumulated a capital of almost $800 ; and to what good use this has been put through the loans to the Association members! The thirteen bor -owers have brought in pure-bred cattle, hogs, chickens, built poultry houses, repaired a dwelling house, and bought fertilizer. The interest on one note was paid by cream checks realized on the heifer purchased. Could one ask for a more productive loan-for that is the type of loan favored by the Association? We are looking forward to the day, in the not too distant future, when we shall have a numberof model poultry houses sheltering pure-bred. flocks, so that shipping co-operatively, we can secure a good price on our eggs. A co-operative purchasing society, to reduce the first cost on feed stuffs, has just been organized. If we expect to develop a new type of agriculture, one based on dairying, hog-raising, and poultry, we must work together intelligently to increase production and then together seek our market. CAROLINA NEW COLLEGE The Carolina New College is continuing the program of progressive education begun seven years ago by the Stanley McCormick School. This program was begun in response to the demand for prompt and effective assistance in helping the young people of the mountains adjust themselves to the rapidly changing social and economic conditions in this section. These young people have the problem of making not only the adjustment which other young persons must now make but also those which in other sections of the country have gradually been made throughout several generations. The institution therefore started out to get results in as direct a way as possible and with great economy in time and money. The curriculum has been limited to meaningful studies presented largely in the form of life interests and problems rather than as English I, Math. III, and others similar designations of the standard schools and colleges. Credit is a secondary matter and is given only in the form of certifying to definite accomplishments in the way of knowledge or skill in some particular field. The length of time a student attends courses is not considered as a unit for determining educational progress. The institution is being built up around a group of six or eight outstanding educators who not only are scholars but have vision and Page 36 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1928 the ability to interpret their knowledge in terms of living needs. The student body is being confined to folks who really want to learn and those who complete the work offered in the basic studies have the start essential to ,education. This work is offered as an alternative for the ordinary school and college training, and, for the interested students of normal ability, will require two years less time than the ordinary school and college course. The Carolina New College is not building up its program in a spirit of revolt against the established system of education. It in no wise feels that it has a panacea for all of the educa tional ills. It is merely attempting to create an opportunity for young folks to come to gether and face the problems of life and, with out waste of time or money, to develop such skills as they may need to meet these problems. The need of such an opportunity is great in the Southern Mountains, but it is not peculiar to this section. -Leroy F. Jackson Christian Kold, in reply to a student who complained that he enjoyed hearing Mr. Kold speak but couldn't remember what he said, made this answer. "Don't trouble yourself about which we were speaking, it would be a different matter. It is just as it is out in the fields. If we put drain pipes in the earth, we must put marks to that we can find them again. But when we set corn, it is not necessary to mark the place. It comes up again. You can be sure that the things you have heard from me with joy will come up all right again when you want them." "We laud the brave outspoken and those supposed to have the courage of their convictions-but only when these convictions are acceptable or indifferent to us. Otherwise honesty and frankness becomes mere impudence." The only man who never makes any mistakes is the man who never does anything. -Roosevelt. Of all man's creations, only the useful any the beautiful endure. Civilization is built on teamwork-is team work. -B. C. ForN. Preparation for life is participation in life. -W. C. Bagley The man whose worth can only be mea sured in dollars isn't worth much.-X.Y.Z.