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Mountain Life & Work vol. 05 no. 2 July, 1929 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv5n20729 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 05 no. 2 July, 1929 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky July, 1929 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume V July, 1929 Number II Conference Number Opening Address-Franklin J. ClayÃ‚Â°k The Abundant Country Life--Nat T. Frame Are We Developing Dependence or Independence?-Olive D. Campbcll 10 The Next Step in Institutions-L. C. Conncll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Social Case Work Principles-Walliavi Ca),l Hunt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The Place of the Church in the Life of our Mountain People . . . . . . . . 25 -Elmer Gabbard Cooperation-1a7. Howaod Slam Report of the Southern Mountain Handicraft Association Published at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation A f Mount In 1,i e D a Volume V July, 1929 Number II Published at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation Work Mountain Life and Work Helen H. Dingman . . . . . . . ... .... .. . Editor Dr. Wm. James Hutchins . . . . . . . . Counsellor Orrin L. Keener . . . . . .. .. . Associate Editor William P. Fenn . . . . . . . . . . Associate Editor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson . . . . . . New York City Mrs. John C, Campbell . . . . Brasstown, N, C. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn . . . . . . . Atlanta, Ga. Hon. W. O. Saunders . . . . Elizabeth City, N. G. Dr. John P. McConnell . . . . East Radford, Va. Dr. Arthur T. McCormack ....Louisville, Ky. Dr. E, C, Branson . . . . . . . . Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. John J. Tigert . . . . . . . . . . Gainesville, Fla. Issued quarterly-January, April, July, October Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as secondclass mail matter Address all communications to MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Berea, Kentucky The papers given at the seventeenth annual meeting of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers at Knoxville, April 2-4, are printed in this issue of Mountain Life and Work. We regret that space does not permit giving more of the discussions which followed these addresses, but interesting bits here and there will be found throughout the number. If any of our readers wish extra copies of these proceedings, we shall appreciate having the orders come in promptly. You will note a change in the staff of Mountain Life and Work. We are sorry to announce that Mr. Ambrose, because of the pressure of other duties, does not feel that he can continue longer as Business Manager. We are most for tunate in securing the interest and cooperation of Mr. William P. Fenn, who will serve as one of the Associate Editors. For the present the corresponc'~ence regarding subscriptions will be carried on by the Editor. If any of our readers who have copies of the January 1927 issue of Mountain Life and Work on Kentucky Progress will send them into the office, we shall gladly reimburse them. That issue is about exhausted and there is still a demand for it in our orders for complete files. Minds of the people need to be awakened more than their fingers taught. There is dreadful dreariness in not being able to discuss great issues. Try to awaken minds by making people skillful. Farming is not a profitable occupation and always will be a deficit occupation. When you teach people to be successful at economic gain they leave the country. Farming is a life in which thought and feeling are more than money, or else it perishes. When agriculture weighs money more than sentiment and feeling, then it comes to its end. There must be more pondering on life problems. State universities must spend less attention on mere skill and more on conveying great thoughts. Great thoughts are not unusual in the universities, but are scant and few on the land, where, if you will implant those thoughts, they will bring improvements of themselves. The mountaineer loves the mountains, and, if it can be done, he wants to continue to live there. The trouble with us is that we want to solve his problem rather than to train him so he may solve his own. Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 OPENING ADDRESS By FRANKLIN J. CLARK, Secretary, National Council, Protestant Episcopal Church I accepted with great hesitation the invitation to make this address. One reason was because of my great respect for the intelligence of this group of workers. You have proved this, first, because you have chosen to live in the mountains, and second, because you have chosen to work with the mountain people. Again, you are all experts in your several callings, while I cannot claim to be an expert in anything, unless you accept the difinition that "an expert is just an ordinary man away from home." I then wondered what subject I could discuss with you. I certainly could not talk about the mountains, for, in comparison with you, I know nothing about the subject. There did seem to me to be one subject in which we were all vitally interested, and which I might discuss with you. That is the Church. What do I mean by the Church? Well, I wish very much we could find a good definition upon which we could all agree. Failing that, perhaps we can find some things which the Church is not, upon which we can agree. I think we all agree that the Church is not the particular denomination to which we belong. Robert E. Speer stated this emphatically in an interdenominational prayer service under the auspices of 'the Foreign Missions Conference held in the Chapel of our Church Missions House in New York a few days ago. He said, "We could not think of the Church as a group of men gathered together around some particular belief." Intolerance is bred in any such narrow idea of the Church. I was interested in reading in Dr. Cadman's column in the New York T)1bune sometime ago a letter from a Roman Catholic, stating that Dr. Cadman seemed to be a man of intelligence, and the writer wondered, therefore, why his good sense did not lead him to membership in the one true Church. Dr. Cadman replied that if his friend insisted on drawing a circle that shut him out he would claim the privilege of drawing a circle that took the friend in. Shailer Matthews never said a truer thing than, that as long as each denomination insists on traveling around the circumference of the circle we shall never get closer to each other, but so soon as we turn towards the center, which is Christ, and the closer we get to him, the closer we get to each other. I had a personal illustration of this some years ago when a member of a team of fifteen speakers going through the states of Washington, Oregon, and California, holding three-day conventions under the auspices of the Laymen's Missionary Movement. We traveled in the same railway trains, lived at the some hotels, and spoke from the same platforms, but to this day I do not know to what particular denomination some of those men and women belong. We were not concerned about those things which tend to separate us, but had in mind the one supreme fact that unites us all-the Kingdom of Christ and its extension throughout the world. I hope you will read Dr. Peter Ainslee's latest book, "The Scandal of Christianity." It was written because of a chance remark by a cabby who drove him to funerals. The cabby said one day, "Doctor, I drive you to the cemetery and then I drive a Methodist and then a Baptist, and so on, and no matter what they are they all come to the same place. Why so many kinds of churches, and all worshipping the same God?" Why indeed so many churches-or rather divisions of the body of Christ and all worshipping the same God, and why, if we insist on gathering around our own idea should we be so intolerant of the ideas of others? An incident occurred at the General Assembly of the Episcopal Church, held last October in Washington, that pleased me very much. A speaker in discussing a question in the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies, referred to those not connected with the Episcopal Church as the "outlying bodies." Immediately former U. S. Senator George Wharton Pepper claimed the floor and said he felt sure that statement did not represent the thought of the majority of of those in the Episcopal Church. Instead of refe:ring to our separated brethren as "outlying bodies," he would like to think of them as July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 outstanding bodies, and the applause following this statement showed that the House was with him. I think one reason I enjoy so much coming to this Conference of Mountain Workers, made up as it is from various branches of the Church, is the fact that never in its history, so far as I can recall, has there ever been the slightest ripple of discord due to denominationalism. I cannot help believing this is due largely to the fine spirit injected in the conference at its inception by John C. Campbell. I remember so well at conference after conference, when he was presiding over its deliberations how he emphasized the importance of loyalty to Christ rather than loyalty to any particular idea about Christ. He certainly exemplified it in his own character and work. It seems to me his spirit still dwells with us. So I wonder whether we can agree that the Church is bigger than any particular part or section of it, no matter what that section may be called. We certainly would not think of the Church as a religious club, yet I believe many have this idea of the Church: a place where they have their names enrolled, where they go occasionally, if convenient, where they pay their dues more or less-probably less-regularly, but something with whose life they have no vital connection. When Dr. Twing was rector of St. George's Church on Stuyvesant Square, New York City, many years ago, a man and his wife came to him and said they would like to join the Church. They warned him, however, that they would not expect to be called on to do any work in the Church or its organization. They would contribute towards the support of the Church when they attended service, which might not be often, and did not want to be bothered with any financial appeals. Dr. Twing replied that evidently St. George's was not the church they were looking for, but if they would go about a mile up Fifth Avenue they would come to just the place they described-The Church of the Heavenly Rest. It seems to me no exaggeration to say that a good many church members look upon the Church as a religious club. This was so apparent to one rector that he divided his members into three classes. The parishioners were the group of faithful members who can always be depended on, and who work, pray, and give for the extension of Christ's Kingdom. Thank God there is always such a group in every parish to stand by and help. What would the Church do without them. Then he found the payrishoners, those who had their names on the rolls of the Church but did not consider it necessary to attend its services or work for its program, but who were willing to pay their clues as they would in any other club. And then he found he had parish-shunners-no need to describe them. Every religious leader knows who and what they are, and every parish has them-on the rolls, at least. If that doesn't look like a religious club, then I do not know what a club is-religious or otherwise. The Church certainly is not any particular denomination, nor is it intended to be a religious club. I like to think of it as a power house for the development and release of power. I was crossing the Mississippi River one day, and as I looked out of the car window at the sluggish stream passing beneath, I wondered where was the power I had heard so much about being tied up in that river. Then I thought of the dam thrown across the river at Keokuk, Iowa, where the drops of water-points of power-pass through the machinery and generate electricity, which is sent over great service wires 179 miles to St. Louis, where it is passed through transformers, and used to light the house, the church, and the place of business, and to run the wheels of commerce of that great city. It seemed to me that the Church ought to be something like that. It should be able to take you and me-points of power-and develop us into output-that output being the light of the Gospel of Christ-to be sent by way of the missionai i.es to places needing the light and power of Christ. The Church, a great power house, capable of developing from and through us, its members, a power greater than we could develop in our individual capacity, bringing us all together, 580 million of us, one-third of the population of the world; a power great enough to win the world for Christ, if we could think and act as though the Church were not just our own little section of it, or just a religious club. I believe that at the time of Jesus' resurrection he released all the power that was in Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 herent in him during his earthly career, and made it available for his Church. What else do the last two verses in St. Matthew's Gospel mean but this? The trouble with us, as I see it, is that we are trying to claim the power and presence of Christ without carrying out the program of Christ. We like to read "all power is given unto me in Heaven and in earth," and "lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world," but these two promises are inextricably tied together by the command to use that power in carrying out his program. "Go ye therefore." We want the power and presence of Christ in our personal and our official lives, but we do not care for this program; and we cannot have this power and presence without fulfilling the conditions upon which they are predicated. This is the spiritual law. What we want to have for ourselves we must share with others, else we lose even that which we have. We fail to realize, perhaps, that this spiritual law is just as inexorable as any natural law. We know perfectly well that if we violate a natural law we are bound to suffer the penalty. When I was a boy living on a farm in Iowa I went out in the barnyard one cold morning. Someone dared me to touch the frosty iron pump-handle with my tongue. I wouldn't refuse a dare, so I touched it and immediately became acquainted with the fact that the violation of a natural law carried with it its certain penalty. We wonder why our churches are really only religious clubs, lacking in spirituality, why it seems an impossible task to change the pay-rishioners and parish-shunne,rs into good active God-serving parishioners, why we think of ourselves as a little group gathered around an idea, or why our churches are really only religoius clubs, and not very religious, either. Should we not look for the answer right here? Are we trying to carry out Christ's program, and "Go"? Let us use the power committed to the Church for the purpose Christ most evidently intended it to be used-to make Him known the world over. And here we are, you and I, leaders in this Church, to help carry out this program. The pity of it is, the Church, humanly speaking, can go no further than we lead it. It seems to be God's plan to rest the case with us. As I read the history of His revelation I gather that this has been His plan all along-to choose a man, make His revelation to him, and send him out to pass it on. I once heard Dr. Speer say that if the modern man had the experience Isaiah had in the temple, and should hear God asking that question, "Who will go for us and whom shall we send?" he would reply, "Here am I, send her." We are not living up to our full privilege and responsibility as leaders, else the Church would be making more progress in the world. Right leadership-intelligent, consecrated, fearless, and well prepared-is perhaps one of the greatest needs in the Church today. A prize was offered at Annapolis Naval Academy for the best essay on the failure of the Spanish Armada. The winning essay stated that the failure was due to the lack of three ships-seamanship, marksmanship, and leadership. I wonder if the lack of these three ships in the great spiritual armada is not causing failure. We need seamanship-the right kind of preparation and training so we will know how to do the Church's work in the best and most effective way. Marksmanship is most necessary we must have an objective towards which we are aiming and not work aimlessly; we must make our work tell-it must be effective. And leadership, of course, is necessary, to properly direct the other two. I believe the people in our Churches long for the right kind of leadership. Dr. Speer (and I am glad to quote him, as I consider him one of the great spiritual leaders of the Christian Church today) in an article in the Federal Council Bulletin, quoted this poem written by an Indian poet and which he tore out of an Anglo-Indian paper in India. "Weary are we of empty creeds Of deafening calls to fruitless deeds; Weary of priests who cannot pray, Of guides who show no man th.e way; Weary of rites wise men condemn, Of worship linked with lust and shame; Weary of Custom, blind, enthroned; Of conscience trampled, God disowned; Weary of men in sections cleft, Hindu life. of love bereft; Woman debased, no more a queen, Nor knowing what she once hath been; Weary of babbling about birth, And mockery men call mirth; Weary of life not understood, July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page A battle, not a brotherhood; Weary of Kali Yuga years, 1'righte,ned with chaos, darkness, fears; Lite is an ill, the sea of births is wide, And we are weary; who shall be our guide?" As I look at the Church today 1 see many fields where this leadership might be exercised to the great benefit of both the Church and large groups of people. One field too long neglected and ready today to accept the right kind of leadership is our young people. Nowhere is sane leadership more needed. There is a new movement among the young people, certainly among those in our Church, that challenges our best thought and endeavor. One of the most significant events that has occurred in the Protestant Episcopal Church in years transpired at the last General Convention. The young people of our church addressed a communication to the church through its highest legislative body, a message prepared by the young people themselves at their own convention held just previous to the General Convention and read by a young girl to the entire General Convention-bishops, presbyters and laymen-at a joint session in Washington last October. Note the significance of this message: They expressed a belief in two things 1. A definite consciousness that the Church is looking with interest and concern upon its youth. 2. A humble conviction, that as a natural part of the Church's organization Youth has a very real contribution to make to the corporate life of the Church. In this message the young people urged the necessity (1) Of a lay crusade-to follow up the Bishop's Crusade-with addresses by laymen only (perhaps we parsons have been too long or too dry or too narrow for them.) They believe the time has come for the lay members of the Church to become more articulate, and are endeavoring to make this a major aim of the Young People's Movement. (2) They feel that the membership of the Church would increase its influence should it concern itself more unequivocally with those pressing issues of the day which are a part of the task of bringing in the Master's Kingdom. Some of these issues they define as a. World peace and Christian international relationships. b. Increased zeal in working for a solution of the economic life of this country more in keeping with the mind of Christ. c. They bespeak the great power of the Church in a positive educational program in preparation for the building of Christian homes as a basis for conduct in meeting one of youth's most dominant problems. d. They strive for a nation-wide renewal of the missionary motive. I believe 'the young people of our churches will welcome the leadership of us oldsters if it is offered in the right spirit and is of the right kind. We can and should help them to realize their own ideas and ideals; not try to impose any ready-made ones on them, but help them to develop and direct their own. One difficulty, perhaps, with us older folks is that we try to compare the young people of today with the young people of our generation, when we are living in an entirely different world now from what it was when I was a boy. Then I drove a horse, and my cruising radius was about at the same rate of speed and state of development. Today our young people have high-powered motor cars, and if they are not fast enough they use an aeroplane-and if perchance a boy wants to go to Paris he runs out his plane, and provisions himself with a ham sandwich, equips himself with a letter of introduction, and reaches Paris in thirty-three and one-half hours from New York. They hear the news of the world over the radio, and see in the movie things of which we never dreamed. Literally, the whole world, even its most inaccessible parts, is at the door of the youngster of today, in sound, color, and picture. And incidentally, if our sermons are dull, if the Church is behind the times, and if the young people want to hear something worth while to stimulate their spiritual life, they can tune in on the best preachers the country possesses. It is a new world, and the youngster is a new person and cannot be treated as I could be when I was a boy-except perhaps with this one qualification, youth everywhere, at all times, has responded and will respond gladly to intelligent, sympathetic, understanding leadership on the part of their elders. Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1 929 forever. If we have his power and his presence we can lead. There is just one more field for the exercise of our leadership that I will touch on tonight, for I must not trespass too long on your patience. Our people need leadership in the field of stewardship, and I speak frankly of our own church. We are far behind many of our friends of other names in this respect. One difficulty in promoting the idea of stewardship is the feeling many people have that there is something sordid and unclean about money and that it should not be mentioned in connection with spiritual things. If this is so it is our own fault. Money has no character in itself, but takes its character from its possessor. I can take a silver dollar to a chemist and ask him what it contains. His analysis will show that it contains silver, lead, and zinc, with a residuum of phosphate and tin. But take that dollar to a poor widow and ask her what it contains, and she will answer, food, clothing, shelter for herself and her childrenin fact, life itself. I can take that dollar and save my soul and yours with it, or cause it so to influence you and me that we will lose our souls. We give character to our money by the way we use it, and money need not be sordid and unclean unless we make it so. We need to make our people realize that what they have of wealth and talent is a gift from God and must be used in his service. Here again we meet the spiritual law. We cannot keep these things selfishly to ourselves without suffering the penalty. Yet man has been trying to do this from the very beginning. When God placed him in the garden he gave him everything and made him lord of all, except for one little portion God reserved to Himself Was man satisfied? It seems not; he wanted this reserved part too-and took it-and lost everything. The only man our Lord called a fool was the one who did the same thing. We talk about giving until it hurts. That is only the first stage. It generally hurts when we first give. We want to develop beyond the first stage into that better and more Christian stage of giving until it feels good. Anyone who has really tried to practice stewardship will agree that it develops one finally into that most desirable condition. Perhaps we have not been using Christ's method in developing stewardship in our people. Giving is not the first stage. We must show why and how to give. Dr. Sturgis has pointed out a logical process in the development of a Christian, according to Christ's own method. First look-"Lift up your eyes unto the fields." Know something about the Church, its obligations and opportunities. Then pray-"Pray ye, the Lord of the Harvest." When we find how much there is to do, and our own insufficiency, what could be more natural than to make it a subject of prayer. Then give-"Freely ye have received, freely give." 'Ale ought to be ready now, not only to study and pray, but to give to help Christ carry out his program. And finally, go-"Go ye therefore"-and -everyone he trained according to this method did go, in person, so captivated was each by the great adventure. I once read a very wonderful book written by Booker T. Washington. When speaking one time in Baltimore, trying to make clear a certain idea, he hit on a rather happy ilustration. He said the hand has its four fingers and its thumb. Each finger is different from the other, and the thumb is different from the fingers. That is what appeared to him to be the situation with regard to the race problem. There are different races with their different colors and their different problems, but after all they are not different units. At the base of all the fingers is the palm, and at the basis of the races is their humanity. Can we not look at our work in the same manner. Gur schools are in every section of the mountains. Why can't we be individual and different in our particular problems, the problems in our sections which must be met and solved in a particular way, and yet when it comes to cooperation and to meeting the general problems we are all facing, be a unit, even as all the fingers come into the palm of the hand? The mountain problem as such no longer exists. It is an agricultural problem-a question of getting people off of bad lands onto better lands. July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 THE ABUNDANT COUNTRY LIFE By NAT T. FRAME, Unive7~sity of West Virginia Some years ago the legislature of West Virginia established at the West Virginia College of Agriculture an Extension Division "to promote the improvement and advancement of rural life." The question promptly arose in the minds of those responsible for the administration of this extension work, "how may we know when rural life is being improved and advanced." This question was asked of philosophically-minded country folks, school authorities, as to total one thousand points. The comprehensive character of this score card may be judged from the page headings: Community Spirit 100 points, Citizenship 100 points, Recreation 100 points, Health 100 points, Homes 100 points, Schools 100 points, Churches 100 points, Business 100 points, Farms 200 points, total 1,000 points. Through the active assistance of Rev. A. H. Rapking, then in charge of the training of rural Oar ..c ~ 00 O A.H.RAPKING W VA. COUNTRY BUCKHANNON W.VA. NODE) LIFE COUNCIL. health officials, social workers, university professors, agricultural and home economics specialists, and members of the faculties of the denominational colleges. As a result of many such questionings, discussions and research, through a series of years, a set of practical standards or criteria or "ear marks" apparently indicative of advancement or improvement in rural community life, was put together in a score card so weighted ministers at West Virginia Wesleyan College, faculty members of the various denominational colleges, and country preachers representing the different denominations, worked out plans for helping to interpret these standards to country people through sermons and addresses, taking as their theme "The Abundant Life." A chart used in several hundred country churches in West Virginia during the last few years as a basis for sermons on "The Abundant Life" is Page $ MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 reproduced in this issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. It is recognized that the standards set forth in the West Virginia rural life score card may call for equipment and facilities for health, housing, schooling, recreation and religion, which are not approved by all Southern mountain workers as essential to the living of a satisfying and abundant life in the mountains. For purposes of discussion, however, I shall assume that there are certain minimum standards regarding sanitation and health, housing, schooling, sociability and religious education which are essential if families and neighborhoods in the mountains are to live the abundant life. Based on such an assumption, how much money must a mountain family receive in order to provide these necessary facilities and equipment ? Roughly speaking, on the basis of our experience with the West Virginia one-thousandpoint score card in more than three hundred neighborhoods, it seems that if we were to find a neighborhood where few families had less than $1,470 in money or its equivalent as an annual income, the community score would probably be above 90 percent. Where the family incomes range from $900 up, the score generally runs 80 percent or more. Where family incomes are commonly around $500 to $700, the score is above 60 percent. Where the family incomes are frequently as low as $300 to $400 the community score often falls below 50 percent. It would seem, therefore, that even if a score card with less exacting standards were considered acceptable for mountain life, still there must needs be family incomes of several hundred dollars per year if such standards are to be approximated. Extension agents, schools, social workers, and other agencies who desire to help build an abundant life in the mountains must spend part at least of their efforts in discovering economic "ways out" for farm families not now receiving at least several hundred dollars annual income. Some of the ways in which the West Virginia extension service is attempting to make adequate incomes available to marginal farm families in the state are: (1) Better farm practices, including the more skillful production of eggs, poultry, fruit, butter, etc., to meet existing market opportunities with a minimum of hillside plowing. (2) Education of the leaders at the community trade center to which these people are most naturally related, so such a center will realize its economic and civic responsibilities towards these farmers, especially in helping them find satisfactory markets for such products as they are best qualified to produce. (3) Assistance in the promotion of practicable and economical hard-road programs that will increase market opportunities for farms now isolated. (4) Encouragement of the cooperative organization of farm women known as Mountain State Home Industries, Inc., which now operates five retail home industries shops and disposes of increasing quantities of home handicraft work, nut meats, etc. (5) Putting employers of seasonal farm labor during apple picking, potato digging, etc., in touch with reliable small farmers whose acreages do not demand their full time at the particular season. (6) Encouragement of and cooperation with trade centers interested in establishment of lumbering enterprises or woodworking plants that will furnish market for woodlot products from these marginal farms or day labor for the farmers. (7) Encouragement and guidance of mountain farmers in pooling the collection of mountain shrubs and plants for cooperative shipment to public institutions and elsewhere for landscaping purposes. (8) Cooperation with other state and national agencies in the promotion of state or county parks or camps as recreational centers for tourists as well as home folks in the belief that these camps will use at good prices much farm and handicraft products from the surrounding hills. (9) Inspection and advertising of mountain state tourist homes as desirable places for tourists to stop when remote from recognized hotels and boarding houses. (10) Helping to educate these farmers regarding the state program of game and fish protection and fire prevention, both from the July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 larger point of view of public policy, and to make these farm folks available as game protectors, fire fighters, etc., to supplement their other incomes. (11) Encouraging law-abiding citizens of rural communities to give active co-operation to the federal, state, and county authorities in the prevention of bootlegging. Unfortunately it must be admitted that in West Virginia the records in recent years have shown that considerable numbers of farmers have tried to add to their incomes through this means. Too frequently such activities lead to the abandonment of agricultural enterprises and to disintegration not only socially and morally in the community, but even economically. The community problems growing out of such activities are, of course, difficult ones with which to deal. We in West Virginia are disposed to feel that a lesser number of rural communities are going to pieces from this cause at the present time than were a year or two ago. A considerable number of farm families located on what have been marginal acreages are finding increasing numbers of ways to earn incomes adequate for a reasonably abundant life. Analysis of situations in many of our counties, however, indicate clearly that there are hundreds of farm families in West Virginia on lands that are clearly submarginal. For these families there seems but one possible economic solution, namely, to move to better land. As a help toward the solution of this humanitarian problem as well as a means of furthering the welfare of the state as a whole, our extension service is cooperating actively in the development of a long-time public policy on land utilization. We believe that large acreages of mountain and marginal land should be allowed to reforest through incorporation in national or state forests or through tax laws so written as to encourage such reforestation. A certain number of families now living in such areas will work into permanent jobs in connection with forestry activities, or in lumbering and woodworking developments made possible by such forestry policies. Others will need to be assisted to new locations with favorable environment, as all mountain workers certainly will agree that the movement of dependent families from slums in the hills to slums in the cities is not a forward step. Such checks as we have made with the Monongahela National Forest authorities indicate that families who have been helped to relocate in recent years as a result of taking new areas into the forest, are now living a more abundant life than formerly. We are attempting to get further family records of those who have so moved. Our present knowledge indicates the desirability of a policy looking to the inclusion within national or state forest areas, or large privately owned timber boundaries, or several thousand submarginal farms apparently impossible of economic operation as agricultural enterprises. We believe the families on these farms can be guided to new locations where they will find possible a more abundant life than was attainable in the old environment. Two Poi;tts of View Is the question, how much is it necessary to have to promote good standards of living, or what have people got to spend? Should we not start with the income that prevails before deciding what it is necessary to spend? First: We want to know what it requires to have a satisfying life, and the figures as to how many of our neighborhoods have any possibility of raising money or its equivalent to provide that standard of living. It seems to me, then that those who can not reach that standard must have some help and a way out, and from the extension point of view, our problem is to find a way out. Second: That is the futility of a lot of our mountain work. We propose what we think they ought to have, and they accept where we pay for it. We should work out the standards on incomes as they are-not on a consuming score that we think should be. There are 1799 counties in the United States that have no public health service or nurse in the county-more than half the counties in the country. Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 ARE WE DEVELOPING DEPENDENCE OR INDEPENDENCE? By OLIVE D. CAMPBELL Director of The John C. I suppose that almost everyone has the same experience as he grows older-that of being less and less sure that his way of doing things, or indeed any special way of doing, is vitally important in and of itself. Everyone has to work out his own method, and it is here that the fight against standardization in education has one of its greatest arguments. We do not disagree so much about the end of our teaching. We all hope to help make better people and better and happier citizens, but we often get lost in the mazes of how to do it. We linger over the mechanics of our work, and are caught, perhaps unavoidably, in the system. During the years of this Conference we have become more and more frank in the analysis of our problems, and more searching in our inquiries as to methods of attacking them. This is as it should be. Of all people, we, who work in these rapidly changing mountains, should be most open-minded, most ready to adapt our methods to new conditions. I am always sorry when I hear that this or that person has felt the Conference atmosphere hostile, has gone away discouraged. We cannot afford to be discouraged because life is a changing thing, and because we are called upon to go on and on learning. I will admit that one longs sometimes for rest and assurance, but the only real rest and assurance come from inner conviction, from something one cannot prove with ruler or figures, or, I dare to say, with psychological tests. Which is only another way of saying that the spirit with which we work is more important than method, much as we can learn of better channels through which to direct that spirit. I recall a small community work which I visited a few years ago in the course of a study trip through the mountains. The two women workers were frail and impractical to a degree. Poorly equipped, poorly paid, poorly nourished, struggling with opposition, and taken advan Campbell Folk School tage of, seemingly, at every turn, they used methods and evidenced an outlook which seemed to me limited and pathetic beyond words. I wondered how a mission board could afford to let such work go on, and I may as well confess that I still wonder. Yet as I was riding away, I stopped at the store to talk a few moments with the storekeeper, a man described as "a friend but not a Christian." What he said has given me food for much thought. The community, he said, was a different place since those two women had come to live there. So if I may say something this afternoon which may seem to you critical or discouraging, please believe that I cannot say enough for the influence of the many fine men and women who have worked in these mountains for the last fifty years or more. No one can estimate what it has meant for them merely to live there, whatever the wisdom of some of the methods they have employed. This does not excuse them or us, however, from the Biblical command to face truth and grow. Having said which, I will ask you to sprinkle salt liberally over all I say. Please call it an inquiry only. It is not criticism. What I should like to discuss with you is the quality of life in the mountains, and our relation to it. This is what the wording of my subject on the program really means, for we cannot have high quality without independence, nor can we have real independence without quality. Those of you who were here last year and heard Dr. Estabrook, or who have read his stimulating paper in Mountain Life and Work (July, 1928), will remember his statement that, leaving out of account those who move out of the mountains, movement has been and constantly is taking place within the mountain area, a sorting and biological selection, whereby the more active physically and mentally seek places with more possibilities, forcing the less active into less desirable spots. Or in brief, July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 where economic opportunity is very limited, there eventually will be found the poorest of mountain stocks, with the poor schools, churches, agricultural and social life, which were once regarded as so characteristic of the mountains as a whole. I may as well confess to you that I have quarrelled with Dr. Estabrook many times over his conclusions, and over how correctly intelligence tests worked out by urban minds can indicate the measure of the super-rural mind. My own experience makes me sure that lack of response is very often due to unfamiliarity with the questioner's speech and way of putting questions, as much as to native slowness. The rural boy and girl, especially in so-called underprivileged areas, are amazingly limited in powers of expression. They are also extremely cautious in committing themselves. A blank look is the common defense with which puzzled suspicion veils lack of understanding. I believe there is far more hope in the people of such areas than court records and intelligence tests would lead us to infer. But after this confession, I must confess again that, taking Dr. Estabrook's talk on the broad lines it was given, I believe he is right. The natural tendency is all for ability to seek expression or opportunity, or, in other words, for the quality of life in remote and poor rural areas to degenerate slowly but steadily. We have only to look at parts of the New England hills, or the Ramapo Mountains, to see this premise worked to a logical conclusion. Tendencies in our own mountains worked to their logical conclusion would realize similar pictures of degeneracy, poverty and crime. Indeed, I have heard of one Appalachian area where already, it is said, city and country slums feed back and forth into each other with resultant crimes not common to this section as a whole. You will remember that Dr. Estabrook concluded, from such data as were available, that the population of the urban areas of the mountains, together with that of the average and better than average rural sections, undoubtedly now outnumbers that of the super-rural (that is, underprivileged) areas. Through various influences, including that of our own schools, many once underprivileged areas have moved into the average, or better than aver age. Even so, the suggested trends are dark enough to make us stop short and ask ourselves where we are and what we are trying to do. Up to now, few of us have tried to put our special section in perspective, to see how it checks with state averages. We go on doing the same thing because we do not feel the need of doing anything else, or are too limited in time, money and strength to consider new ways. Besides, few of us have had the opportunity to study new types of education, or to experiment with them. Nor can our investment in equipment and good-will be lightly readjusted or discarded. We do not know the newer methods of dealing with delinquency, dependency, mental deficiency and all the many ills which come within the realm of modern social work. And if these difficulties were removed, there remain the boards and constituencies to convince, and the public which always gives more readily to the old type of appeal than to the appeal of reason. These problems have come very close to me during the past three years when I have been working at a concrete situation. I doubt if any one of us is free from some, at least, of them, even if he is himself living in a normal (as measured by state averages) area of the mountains. The pull of the city is strong here just as it is elsewhere in the United States, the question pressing as to whether agriculture can offer a full life. The coming in of industry, too, brings problems just as grave. What the quality of country life is to be, remains a question. If we are in an underprivileged area, the questions multiply. Shall we take warning by the experience of tried social workers who tell us it is a waste of time to try to build constructively on unsound foundations? Shall we deliberately withdraw and let the situation work itself out as best it may? Or shall we go on as we have before, hoping we can move out the best, and thus aid the depopulation of the section? And what about those left, for there will always be a residue? Can we leave them out of consideration? On what shall we center effort-on the most hopeful? Or shall we let them gravitate toward such opportunity as presents itself while we turn our attention to Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 remedial measures for the apparently less promising? What should those remedial measures be, and are any remedial measures sound which come as charity from privileged beings above, conscious of their own superiority? In the first number of the new Journal of Adult Education is an article I wish you all might read, by Laurence Pearsall Jacks, on "Breadwinning and Soulsaving." It is far too long to discuss adequately here; I can only quote a few sentences and hope you will read the rest yourselves, if you have not already read it. "Of all the influences that maze une men and women of today what they are, for good or evil, the chief is unquestionably to be found in the nature of the manifold occupations by which they earn their living . . . . .If the labor by which a man (or a civilization) earns his living is of such a nature that it devitalizes his intelligence or demoralizes his character, it will be more than education can do to vitalize the one or to moralize the other . . . . . A type of education which seeks merely, no matter with how lofty an aim, to undo the effects of industry on the mind and character of a people will ultimately suffer defeat, for the forces of industry are mightier than it; at most it will succeed in unfitting people for their daily work while not fitting them for anything else . . . . --Nor will education succeed much better if what it has to offer is only a supplement or beneficent extra, a new and foreign thing, introduced by way of satisfying a man (or a civilization) who earns his living by an occupation which gives his manhood no satisfaction. For a man's living is after all his life and unless the living be a live reality there is nothing for education to operate upon . . . . . The quality of the spiritual food that mankind gets for its soul is strictly dependent on the way it goes about the business of earning the daily bread that feeds its body." If we cannot follow Mr. Jacks all the way to his conclusion that the final objective of the New Education is the gradual transformation of the industry of the world into the university of the world, here is John Stuart Mill, quoted in the last number of Mountain Life and Work. "Education is not compatible with extreme pov erty. It is impossible effectually to teach an indigent population. It is difficult to make those feel the value of comfort who have never enjoyed it, or those appreciate the wretchedness of a precarious subsistence who have been made reckless by always living from hand to mouth." Or this, also in Mountain Life and Work, from an address delivered at the Williamstown Institute of Politics, 1928, by Jakob Lange, Principal of the Smallholders School at Odense, Denmark. "As Carlyle said of the clay on the potter's wheel, it cannot be formed without being set in motion, so education cannot be forced on the stagnant mind. The longing for education springs from a feeling of hope, a trust in the future inspired by a prospect of economic emancipation." Is it, then, too much to say, in analyzing our work, that our basic consideration must be the economic? If we wish to be of use to those living in the mountains, then indeed "the living which is life" must concern us. The quality of life, intellectual, social, and spiritual, rests finally upon this. Without it, we who are private agencies may as well look forward to carrying our communities on our backs-educating, clothing, feeding, and even thinking for them indefinitely. Have we any excuse for doing this for the section which is, or may be, normal? Can we honestly ask money for it? How far should we do it for the subnormal area? Nor can we dismiss our responsibility for a consideration of the economic with the statement that we are educating our young people for life anywhere, and that therefore standard academic education is enough. We cannot even rest on vocational programs. Somehow-I do not pretend to know how-cultural and vocational must be brought more closely together in our thinking and in our teaching. The school cannot stand apart in academic removedness from life. Education must help to put meaning and ,joy as well as efficiency into the work by which we live. On the uses to which we put our lives it must build the hope of a widely and deeply cultured people. Mr. Lange, in the article from which I quoted before, sets it clearly before us: "On the longing-after and working-for economic indepen July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 dence based on self-help, which in the bosom of the small man naturally is associated with the idea of co-operation and a profound feeling for the equal rights of all, on these more than anything else depends the future of the people." Economic independence based ors self-help; a profound feeling for the equal rights o f allsurely these should be guiding principles in our efforts to be of use in the mountains. They are search-lights we should turn on our own beliefs and practices, no matter how well-born and honorably descended. And may I raise a question here which sometimes troubles me deeply. Is there not something a little false in the position of an endowed school which has no real roots in the basic life of its section, which derives its standards, practices and support from other, usually very different, sections? To be sure, certain standards belong to us all, but do we not also find in all places inadequate beings who cannot earn a living wherever they may be? The state, local and private charities must come to their relief. But I protest against the classing of all the mountains in this group. Here as elsewhere large groups of people are earning and living in ways which we from other sections and other ways of life cannot properly evaluate. Have we any right to hold out material comforts, dress, education, standards, which it is impossible for neighbors to secure with the means at their disposal? Is it too much to ask that, if our standards are important, we not only live them, but attain them as far as possible by means through which our neighbors may hope to acquire them? Surely our teaching is false unless we can offer hope; unless we have faith in what the country may be, and work toward the only basis on which faith may be realized. I admit all the difficulties. They are legion. But otherwise, what is left but to frankly advise people to go where they can get those things which seem to us necessary? I have always greatly admired the little groups who have come out from the Nashville Agricultural Normal Institute, at Madison, Tennessee. Several young couples have joined forces, and relying on their own savings and earning capacity, have had the courage to go into the country and work, and teach and build at the same time. They are a cooperating faculty whose salaries and success in general are dependent on their own efforts-not upon gifts from the outside. Such a basis of work is perhaps not possible, may not be desirable, for us all, but it gives us much to think about. And now if I say a few words about how we are trying to work out some of these ideas at Brasstown, please understand that I am doing it merely by way of illustration and not because I think that three short years can prove the lasting value of any development. We are not self-supporting, although we hope to be at least partially so some day. Our ways of living are almost inevitably different from those of our friends about us, even though they are simple and not beyond the reach of those who might desire them. We have all faith that the people of our section can in time secure what we have, and more, if they really wish to do so. I shall not say anything about our school for young adults-and many other activities-much as I should like to do so, but confine myself strictly to the subject assigned me. In the light of what I said then, you will understand that we are, as far as we can make ourselves, normal members of the community, a farm home. It would be better if the home centered about the normal family-husband, wife and children-but that we cannot help. Our farm, directed by a trained manager with endless energy, is developing more than our neighbors', but even with outside financial help it is held back by lack of capital, and it is limited by the same conditions which affect neighboring farms. We suffer from the same droughts, rains, pests, poor roads, isolation. We have no chance to profit from the sale of our chickens, eggs, milk, etc., than the more enterprising of those about us. Our neighbors' problems are ours in a very real sense, and we, feel them keenly as we try to build up our wornout soil, and our agricultural income. For these reasons, as well as from conviction, we can whole-heartedly foster cooperative enterprises which mean to us, as well as to our friends, "economic independence through selfhelp," and which are based upon a "profound feeling for the equal rights o f all." Our Credit Union, or Saving and Loan Association as we Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 call it in North Carolina, began almost with the beginning of our work. Angela Melville, whom you all know-now as one of the heads of the Pine Mountain School, but then freshly from the Credit Union Extension Bureau-was with us fortunately for our first few months. She helped us all, school and commuity, to understand the purposes and responsibilities of such an association, and started us on a sound basis. In three years we have grown from 28 senior and 4 junior members, with a share capital of $155 at $5.00 a share, to 84 members with over $1200 in shares and deposits. One of the junior members, a boy of twelve, is our largest depositor. He has considerably over $100 in the association, largely through cream checks from his own cow. Only adult members may borrow, and that for constructive purposes of advantage to the community as well as to the borrower. Requests are submitted in writing to the secretary-treasurer-who happens to be our local merchant-stating the purpose for which the loan is to be used and the security offered for it. The secretary-treasurer passes on the application to the credit committee, which may refuse or, grant it as it thinks best. Six percent is charged, with a service fee of 25 cents on every $25. No loan is renewed unless 10 percent of the original amount has been paid off and interest is up to date. As we are a land-owning community, exceedingly shy of mortgages and debt, we have had to learn that we must sometimes borrow in order to get ahead. Pure bred stock, chickens, hogs, fertilizer, feed, the building of a corncrib, and many similar loans have kept our capital moving steadily and have helped to build up our community. So far no losses have been incurred. The most important officials, the secretary-treasurer and the credit committee, have always been and are members of the community. Someone from the school is on the Board of Directors, but takes no especially active part. If you ever visit us-and I hope you will-you must not fail to go down to the store, see our books and have a talk with our secretary-treasurer. He will tell you, as will many others, that this association is the foundation stone of our community development. We could not get along without it. Our next venture was the Brasstown Farmers' Association, a cooperative beginning with 23 members and a share capital of $140 in $5.00 shares. At our annual meeting this last January we registered 64 members and a share capital of $830, not a bad increase for a little over a year's existence. Primarily this association was intended for purchasing feed stuffs and fertilizers wholesale, thus reducing costs of production, but we amended our charter to cover larger activities and have entered on some of them. Last summer the Association built a small, but substantial storage house, where it stores not only feed and fertilizer, but community corn bought when harvested. The storage of corn is fairly safe in this section, for the price has never been known to fall. We must always import, for we do not raise enough for our own use. This fall the Association bought 200 bushels, borrowing the $200 necessary from the Savings and Loan. This loan could be repaid at once, but the corn is being held for the community, which is practically out of that necessary commodity. With our small capital, buying on a scale which would mean large profits is now impossible, but we have good cooperation from wholesalers in the county-seat, and some outside firms will consign to us at wholesale rates. In the basement of its building, the Association operates a community cornmill. If you would walk in some Saturday morning you would have no doubt as to how this was patronized. We also grind and sell cornmeal for the county-seat market. Some day when we have capital, power and machinery, we look forward to grinding and mixing feeds of various kinds, thus helping to promote the dairy and poultry interests of this section. Our total profits from store and mill, reported at our annual meeting in January after four months of active operation, were $69.73. In the three months since that time we have about doubled our gains. Our miller, elected at a meeting of the Association, gets the usual toll of one-third, but none of the officers, including our broad-minded merchant who has acted as salesman up to now, receive any pay. As business increases, we shall, of course, have to employ a regular man, probably on a percentage basis. July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 A small cooperative hatchery followed on the heels of the Farmers' Association-small because the demand for chicks has been small so far -and will be until brooders are more common. Last year the Association hatched 2,857 chicks in a makeshift room boarded up in our old barn. One of our school boys did the main part of the work under Mr. Bidstrup's direction. First choice in the incubator was always given to shareholders, those who set eggs paying two cents per egg for setting, and two cents in addition for each egg hatched. On a share capital of $280 the hatchery cleared $107, which, after deposit for several months in the Savings and Loan, was spent this year for the building of a permanent house. In addition each shareholder contributed one-half day in labor toward this end. This spring we are making a special effort to introduce better stock, although we are still hatching for those who wish to set their own eggs. The incubators are running full capacity till the last of May, and we have had to refuse many settings. Our latest cooperative venture-a most unexpected one, for we did not hope to achieve it for a number of years-is a cooperative creamery, the Mountain Valley Creamery. It began operations in February in a model little creamery building, the work of many unskilled, but enthusiastic hands under the general direction of Sigurd Nielsen, the young Danish creamery expert (and friend of Mr. Bidstrup, our farmer) who came over with his wife last fall. Working at excavating, ditching or dam, laying pipe-for we had to pipe down water from the mountain across Big Brasstown Creek-arranging, ordering supplies, inspecting, managing all kinds of makeshifts, Mr. Nielsen has been the wonder of us all, and still is the wonder now that he has assumed his true position of buttermaker. I wish you might go to the creamery on a Tuesday or Friday morning when trucks and wagons and individuals bring in the cream in big and little cans. In white clothes Sigurd Nielsen receives, samples, weighs, and pours into the pasteurizer, while little Kirstine, his wife, washes off the cans, cleans them out and sterilizes them with steam-an office greatly appreciated by the farmer's wife. The whirl ing Babcock tester and the big churn are equally interesting. And all this belongs to us. We all had a share in it, and nothing has ever stirred us like it. I would not advise you, however, to blithely embark on a creamery, or any cooperative organization, without having a thorough understanding yourself of the principles, labor and problems involved, and the understanding support of at least some of your community-I would like to add, without a George Bidstrup and a Fred 0. Scroggs, whatever their names may chance to be. Such ventures affect us all too vitally. We cannot let them fail. I almost tremble as I see the joy of our neighbors, bringing in their buckets and cans, and planning for new pastures and new and better stock as they can afford them. "The longing-for and working for economic independence based on selfhelp," and a "profound feeling for the equal rights of all, on these more than anything else depend the future of the people." It is true. I know it. I have already suggested that the cooperatives are a practical help to the school as well as to our neighbors. More than one of the faculty has borrowed from the Savings and Loan Association. The farm buys feed and fertilizer from the Farmers' Association, and baby chicks from the Hatchery. We joyfully sell our cream to the Mountain Valley Creamery and buy back butter (what we can afford to use), and buttermilk for our pigs and chickens. Moreover, our students have a wonderful study ground right before them, whether they take it from the vantage point of the agricultural class, or work out all the savings in arithmetic. It adds zest to stock-judging, especially when followed by a morning with the Babcock tester. Yes, I admit that we at the school carry more than our share of work and responsibility. Three of these cooperatives would not have been begun-now at any rate-without the determined faith and energy of George Bidstrup, brought up in cooperative organizations in Denmark. They would suffer without his help and guiding hand. Perhaps we shall have to foster some of them for years, but in the meantime our neighbors are able to get small credit as they need it, and at a reasonable rate of in Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 terest; to save, if only a little, on fertilizer and feed; to secure good baby chicks if they want them; and to get cash returns on whatever cream they produce. As time goes on they will use their opportunities more widely and deeply, and the day will come when we at the school will carry only the share necessarily carried by the larger farmers in any cooperative organizations anywhere, even in Denmark. That is why I like cooperation, whatever its difficulties and dangers. The farmer learns by using; he improves because, bit by bit, he sees and understands the need for it. He becomes more socially-minded by necessity. His horizon broadens naturally, inevitably. There is no charity in that, no missionary appeal. It is, as Dr. Branson says, practicing Christianity. Whether agriculture, even organized, can offer a full life and hold energetic youth, is another question. We are making a beginning in handicrafts, although we have not gone far as yet. Here, too, we are trying to work out a co-operative association which will bring back profits to the members instead of to the school proper. Necessarily, the heaviest work must fall on the school, probably for years, and the difficulties are so many that we wonder sometimes how we are going to surmount them. We need the help of your experience-those of you who have been long working at the handicrafts. Indeed we should have found it much harder to get the start we have if it had not been for the generous help of some of you. So far, the men have been less interested than the women. Our Woman's Community Club, an active organization of some twenty-odd members, is alive to the possibilities, learning and helping. I wish, by the way, that I had time to tell you about this club which, without any outside help, manages the annual Christmas cei~., bration for the community, the Easter egg hunt, the old folks' dinner, an exhibit at the county fair, and other activities of value in our community life. Our dues we deposit in the Savings and Loan Association-over $100 now-as the best way, at present, of being of use to the community. I have, of course, given you some of the high lights in our work. There are plenty of prob lems, and such a long road before us to travel that I find myself dreading more and more to talk about and dwell upon what has been begun. To you I can speak more freely, for you know that we belong to you. We are an experiment ground for you to study. You may make what use you will of our successes and failures. Only one word more, and that at the risk of tiring you with many repetitions. If we, as educators, are to accomplish anything worth while, we must believe in our work. The minute we lose confidence, we lose power. But does anyone dare to say that confidence should not be based upon experience and constant study? If we are honest and intelligent-I almost said truly Christian-we shall have to examine our work more and more in the light of existing conditions. If we find that we are not meeting the situation as well as we might, let us fearlessly break from the old and open a new way. Such a course is not easy. We may find we are on a blind trail. At least we shall need all the courage and strength we can master. We must dare to fail if it is necessary. All honor to one of our veteran mountain workers who recently said, I am told, that she now realizes that she has done too much for her people, made them dependent. In these, her last, years of activity she has been trying to undo all she had tried to do before. All honor to her, I say, and to others like her! Failure to show results is not the worst thing, but failure to face the challenge. Who can know what our work is really worth? "Come, my friends, 'Tis not too late to seek a newer world. Push off, and sitting well in order smite The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths Of all the western stars, until I die. It may be that the gulfs will wash us down; It rnay be we shall touch the Happy Isles, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. Tho' much is taken, much abides; and tho' We are not now that strength which in old days Moved earth and heaven; that which we are, we are; One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield." July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 THE NEXT STEP IN INSTITUTIONS By LUCIEN C. CONNELL, Superintendent, Tennessee Masonic Widows and Orphans Honze I have chosen for my subject this evening a topic in which each of us should be vitally interested, not only as social workers, but also as citizens of the twentieth century, because the problems of East Tennessee are the same problems that are today confronting Middle and West Tennessee and our sister states. The Next Step for Institutions is my subject, but if you will bear with me for a few moments, I shall touch briefly upon the past performance of Institutions in Tennessee and the task before them. Let us first compare the Institutions of twenty-five years ago with the Institutions of today; what progress have we made except in buildings and grounds? Twenty-five years ago the Institution I represent had only 1 building and 10 acres of land; today we have 11 large buildings and 221 acres of land, and our population has increased from 50 residents to 304. Of course we have had increased population in the state of Tennessee, but nothing to compare with the increased population of Institutions. Other Institutions also have shown large increases in residents, and we are still after more buildings and more money to continue our work. At the rate we are going, twenty-five years from now our Institutions will certainly have to have more buildings and more land, but let us take "the next step" and thus save the large amount of money we should necessarily have to ask for under the present system. Let us also discuss the task of Institutions. Institutions should be used for clearing houses and nothing more, but we have made the grave mistake of permitting the Institution to be used as a home for undesirable citizens of every community. I would not have you think that the undesirables alone constitute the personnel of Institutions. Far from that. But is it not a fact that most communities, rather than handle their own problems, send the dependants to an Institution because they are just a little afraid that such dependants will cost them a few pennies ? Why should they want to dispose of their dependent cases and send them to a centralized place ? Surely the problems of East Tennessee belong to East Tennessee and not to Middle Tennessee alone. The sooner communities realize their own outstanding responsibilities, just that much sooner will they become good communities. "But what are Institutions for?" Much, in fact too much, is expected of Institutions. Courts and others commit a child to an Institution and expect it to correct every irregularity, and to see that he secure an education, learn some kind of vocation, and within a few years be inducted into the office of the President of the United States. 1 think Institutions have done exceptionally well with the material most of them have had to work with, but when parents have passed from the picture, how can Institutions take up the present and future problems in a child's life? They know nothing of the p st life and the chief characteristics of the child, but it is the duty of the Institution to learn t) know each child quickly and deal with him according to his best interests. A child could enter this room and, without the least hesitation, tell all about any of us, or he could look into your face and tell at a glance whether you are sincere or not; but it takes time to study a child and learn the things that the chili should or should not do. The Institutions have a very large task, and they are performing their duty as well as they can with the meager information they have at their disposal. Ins,itutions have done some good work, but then can do better work by taking the next step. Few of us understand Institution life or just whit it means to the child. Those of us, however, who live within the walls of the Institution can readily understand what the child is up against. The heads do the thinking, planning preparing, and everything else for the children, and the children soon reach the point when they are unable to do for themselves and insist that it is your duty to do for them. The children have no chance to worry for them Page 1S MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 selves as to where they are to get the next meal or clothes, or who is to pay for these things; they know they are forthcoming and that it is your duty to furnish these things without cost to them and without any effort on their part. You will find that in most homes the children perform certain duties, are given certain amounts for monthly allowances, and are required to take care of their clothes. The Institution child cannot be dealt with as the privatehome child; we cannot give that much attention to each individual child, But certainly, if we are to make substantial citizens of the children committed to us, we must deal with them individually and not as groups. The next step for Institutions will rectify a great deal of this trouble. County judges and Juvenile Cor,rt judges do not want to send children to Institutions, but what else can they do? There is no other recourse for them in our present condition. Many times judges have to act quickly, a~i the child might not have any place to stay for the night; so they send him to the closest Institution. To be sure, the Institution can prevail apon the judges to commit the child only temporarily, until the next step can be taken. It is only when nothing better can be done that the judge should commit permanently. Fraternal Institutions such as the one I represent, however, feel that the Institution is the best place for any child; and, without question or investigation of what is the best thing for the child, he is immediately uprooted and transferred to the Institution instead of being given a chmce to be rehabilitated in his own community, t us placing upon the Institution the duty of mak ng him a decided success. Therefore, the next step in Institutions is case work. Case work is a profession, one that should be looked upon as one of the greatest of professions. Every Institution has medical aid when the child is sick, but now we need something greater than medical aid. Dependence is a dread disease and can be best treated ly a trained case worker; otherwise this incurable malady will remain with us always. Iarge commercial institutions and manufactiring plants have seen the need of trained case vorkers and have added them to their staffs soas to keep the contacts clear between employer and employee. If commercial plants have seen the need of trained case workers, then why not the Institutions, who deal entirely with dependants? Case workers can be the largest asset of any Institution. We think we know what becomes of our children after they leave the Institution, but do we? The child leaves near the age of eighteen, but if a child ever needs attention it is between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one. A case worker doing follow-Lip work can help meet his need. The child may not be satisfied with his present surroundings, or with his job, but to whom can he appeal? Who will encourage a family on the road to rehabilitation unless the case worker can make the necessary visits and contacts ? Is it not better to have a family remain together than to separate them, placing the children in an Institution and permitting the mother to go her way without ties or obligations. The trained case worker can do much towards keeping that family together, placing a responsibility on the mother where it rightfully belongs; or, supposing it is best that the child be taken from the mother, the case worker can get firsthand information, make the necessary contacts, and do the best thing for that child. Other agencies will gladly cooperate with Institutions and work with you to the best interest of all parties concerned. I want to take this means of sincerely thanking those agencies who have cooperated with my Institution in the handling of cases. They will help you as they have helped me. But why take the child out of the country, why separate the child from its mother or other members of the family? I am speaking now of normal children. Such children have a perfect right under certain conditions to remain with and be a part of that family and of that community. You say the country or rural sections cannot offer the advantages the Institution does. The rural schools offer the same education all over the State that the Institution does, and in many cases much better. Certainly the rural child or the privatehome child enjoys freedom and has contacts which Institutions cannot permit, but which all children should have. It is my candid opinion that, if the child later desires to leave July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 the community, he or she will find the means to do so without being handicapped as the Institution child is. So I again say, let us take the next step and employ case workers, leaving the family or the children in their present communities and making substantial citizens of them. "The poor we will have with us always." Yes, more than 1,900 years ago they also had dependants. But though they did not have any Institutions for them, they did have community chests, and Stephen was the first "Chest Director." They took care of their poor without moving them to a central localized Institution. A trained case worker can save her yearly salary in six months for any Institution, by keeping out of the Institution those not entitled to admission, and by forming the neces sary contacts and rehabilitating dependants in their communities. Very little case work is done in my Institution, and yet, with the little work we are doing, we have at this time almost as many dependants we are assisting on the outside as we are wholly maintaining in the Institution. As a comparison, those on the outside cost $148 per year per capita, while those in the Institution cost $360 per year per capita, to say nothing of the better citizenship resulting in the first case. Furthermore, the number in our Institution has decreased from 304 to 216 in two years, these people having been rehabilitated or at least so placed that within a few years they will be self-sustaining. This has been done with a part-time case worker. Institutions are continuously crying for moneythey all need money, and almost every one has a large building programbut why do they not take the next step and employ trained case workers who will save the Institution both running expenses and large building costs? With trained case workers we will not need more large buildings; but those we already have will be more than sufficient. Our friends like to go around and point with pride to the many large buildings, and to hope for many more and larger buildings, and to brag about a large waiting list; I have had them do it. But we are going to take the next step and do the best thing for the child by giving him the same ad vantages the private-home child enjoys, and we will save money by so doing. The Mooseheart Institution has already taken the next step, and today it is assisting almost as many on the outside as in the Institution, namely 1,038 children, and those in charge are gratified with the results. The step has been a good one for them as well as for their children, and the same thing can and will apply to you if you but take the next step. Much of this work has been made possible by the Mothers' Aid or Mothers' Pension. The mother is required to work, but the assistance given her permits her to keep her children under her care. My Institution is giving aid to twenty-one mothers, and we know how pleasing it is to them. If your home was broken up by death of the husband or father, would you not rather keep your children under your own roof and under your own care by taking advantage of the mothers' aid, than to have your children removed to an Institution? A trained case worker will help others do what you would want done to you. The rural mountain church is fighting for its life, and in many instances is not living. Twenty years ago we were far better off in the rural part of the mountain territory than we are now. There is a decided trend, of course, toward settled communities-toward the county seats. Churches are growing in the county seats, and dying out in the country. In one county we rave a church of 450 members where twenty years ago they had 130. There are in that county some 48 churches. Two are located in the county seat and two in two other settlements. These settlements are able to keep alive their churches. They pay their pastors-one $180 a yaar and the other $150. But outside, in the lest of that county of 3'70 square miles, there is not a church that is paying its pastor as much as $100 a year. The work is not being taken car a of, therefore. Is there not a vital relation between the economic situation in the mountzins and the church'? As we improve the economic situation, are we not helping the people in spiritual things? Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 SOCIAL CASE WORK PRINCIPLES MODIFIED TO MEET RURAL CONDITIONS By WILLIAM CARL HUNT, Forty millions of people are now living in the open country in the United States. More than one-fourth of these live in the less favored areas such as our own Eastern mountain region stretching from New Englanad to the far South, the Western mountain sections, the desert stretches of the far West, and the dry farming areas of Montana, Wyoming, Washington, Oregon, etc. The economic retardation of agriculture as an industry constitutes a tremendous handicap to rural people in general and to any social progress. It is a well-established principle that the economic and social interests of a given community must rise together. Social development must rest upon economic well-being, and we cannot consider one to the exclusion of the other. But the economic handicaps of these underprivileged rural sections are almost fatal to proper social develobment. Means for constructive relief purposes and for establishing necessary institutions-such as hospitals, clinics, public schools and churches, homes for the aged, mentally defective, blind and otherwise physically handicapped, libraries, playgrounds, and other recreational facilities-together with machinery for facilitating properly organized social life in any community must depend upon economic well being. All the above .facilities and many more are accepted as a matter of course in tha average progressive city of today, whereas they are largely denied to our rural population All of these are constantly resorted to and uflized by the city social worker as a part of he- equipment for doing constructive family wo-k with individual cases, whereas in the countri she is compelled in large measure to make her own tools with which to work, or "to brew her own remedies." This is the first essential difference between city and rural case work and suggests immediately some of the modifications American Red C7Ã‚Â°oss which must be provided for when one attempts to apply case work technique to meet rural conditions and needs. The rural case worker must be much more of an engineer and less of a technician and specialist. Whereas in the city she has endless props and aids, in the country she must largely blaze her own trails and must be willing to modify her technical case work principles to fit rural conditions and needs, recognizing that only a relative degree of perfection and completeness is possible in many instances. Second essential dif f e-i,cnce: The term "case vork" would doubtless never have been coined if tPe technique had originated in the country instead of the city. In the city one can easily think of people and families in terms of cases without attaching to them much personality or identity. They can even be designated by number like the prisoners in our penitentiaries. They live packed close together in the congested districts, but are unacquainted with each other and for the most part are largely lost sight. of as individuals, simply making up a part of the whole mass we call "city." In the country quite the contrary is the case. Everybody not only knows everybody else, but knows everybody else's business as well. We cannot think of a rural family as a "case," as we do with the city family, but rather as a family with personality and classification in the minds of the neighbors, in many instances representing blood kinship to some of the best people in the community. These facts distinctly complicate social work with such families, as can readily be seen. Not only is the case worker compelled to keep these relatives and neighbors in mind for their own sakes, but she must guard with particular precaution the steps taken in rendering service and relief to rural needy families, and the information recorded must be regarded as doubly confidential. July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 21 Rural people not only know the present status of each family in the community, but have a way of remembering the past history of each. An example of this fact came to my attention a number of years ago when I was speaking to a group of representatives in a small rural community in northern Ohio, explaining to them the special importance of keeping their rural case work records strictly confidential. The school superintendent said, "Here is a case in point. Yesterday while I was walking down the street of our little village in company with an old residenter, he pointed out a prosperous looking man across the street and said, `There is our village banker. One would never suspect from his general appearance that his mother was compelled to receive county aid when his father died twenty-five years ago, leaving him and several other little brats on her hands.' " It is scarcely necessary to point out how pernicious it is that such information should have been made public at the outset and should have been passed along from mouth to mouth for a quarter of a century to embarrass and handicap this young man who had the capacity for rising above his early poverty and making a place for himself in the the world. If there is ever veed of not letting your left hand know what information you hold in your right, it is in dealing with rural cases. Third essential difference: The community cps a case. Social case work has long recognized the principle that the family and not the individual should constitute the unit of consideration, and that it is impossible to deal directly with the problems of a given individual without taking into consideration the entire family situation. Family needs usually fall along the lines of poverty, bad housing, ill health, malnutrition; broken homes from death, separation or desertion; delinquency on the part of individuals; physical handicaps such as being blind, deaf, deformed, or crippled; mental handicaps, embracing both insanity and feeblemindedness in its varying degrees. Community needs on which the well-being of individual families rests usually fall along the line of education, religious facilities, public health, recreation, and organized social life. Rural communities are almost invariably less adequately equipped with these essentials than are the cities, and it becomes the duty of the rural social worker to assist in finding ways and means of supplying these needs. In doing so she is treating the cnr?27iuozity as a ease and must employ substantially the same principles that would apply in dealing with family cases. Fourth esse)atial difference: Worker must N?nio rural life. It is essential that the rural case worker should thoroughly understand and be in sympathy with rural life. The average farm boy twelve years of age has a knowledge of nature, soils, and soil fertility, the method of cultivating crops and their rotation, live stock--their selection and breeding-fruit trees -their pruning, spraying and culture-that the city person knows nothing of. His awkwardness and uncertainty when placed in a city situation would create an impression unfavorable to him by comparison if one did not bear in mind the dignity and importance of his attainments along these lines. The fact is, the citybred individual would compare just as unfavorably when placed in a rural setting. In order to work with any group of individuals it is important that their interests and attainments be properly appraised and full credit allowed for them. For this reason it is much more difficult to get competent case workers for rural areas, since most of them are trained from the city point of view and have a wealth of knowledge that is not applicable to this field. We have seen some of the essential differences between rural and urban situations. Let us now turn our attention to some standard case work principles as developed in cities and see how they apply to rural territory. It will be seen that the chief difference lies in the method of application rather than with the principles as such. The first principle of social case work to keep in mind is a desire to help your fellow-man intelligently or to be willing to look deeper than the mere surface; then to carry the aid through to a constructive conclusion. When I was a boy I heard an old minister say that it is better to give a beggar a kick than to give him fifty cents unless your interest in that man is sufficient to make you ascertain whether or not fifty cents is too much or too little to meet his needs. Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 In other words, indiscriminate giving and temporary and piece-meal assistance may often do more damage than no help at all. It should be self-evident that relief should be objective and not subjective, but it does not always work out that way. So many people give for their own relief of conscience, with little thought of the objective factor involved. Some time ago on a Sunday morning I saw walking down the street a prosperous looking man who passed a blind beggar on the curb. After a certain amount of hesitation and indecision he turned back and dropped a quarter in the dirty tin cup. I studied his facial expression and thought I discovered the gleam of self-satisfaction in his eye and a feeling of personal contentment. In other words, he had bought twentyfive cents worth of relief for himself and not for the blind beggar. It probably never occurred to him to pause to consider whether or not his aid was adequate to the man's needs, or to feel any sense of responsibility for having him placed in an institution where he would receive permanent care. Needs must be the first thing to ascertain in dealing with any family situation. Needs in rural districts, especially in mountain territory, will differ somewhat from those of the city; yet the principle holds, and needs must be ascertained before constructive work begins. The second principle to keep in mind: In order adequately to meet the social ills in any community we must render organized service. Without this it is certain that many instances of need will be overlooked entirely, while other cases may be assisted from various and overlapping sources. In carrying out this principle the rural case worker has a much greater responsibility than the city worker, because she is compelled in many instances to largely perfect her own organization, and often she must deal with the community as a case before she can turn her attention to the individual families within it. In fact rural case work can only be successfully done after proper rural organization has been perfected; and since proper rural organization in most instances does not exist, the social worker is confronted with this as her first great task. This means correlated and concerted action on the part of individuals and local agencies, usually working through a central council with a sufficient number of subsidiary committees. The most common groups brought into such an organization are churches, schools, doctors, clubs-including men's service clubs, women's clubs, and boys' and girls' clubs such as the H.H.H.H. Certain countywide officials will also adhere to this organization. These will include the farm agent, the home demonstration agent, the local Red Cross chapter, the health officer, and the county commissioners or whatever relief officials exist. Organized service is essential not only for the purposes of completeness and efficiency, but for giving the whole community a chance to participate directly or indirectly in the service rendered. Social work should never be thought of as the ,job of the case worker as such, but as the responsibility of the entire community working together, with the case worker merely as the agent. The third principle that I should list is belief in the worthwhileness of the most hopeless individual. This principle applies to city and country alike. There is no such thing as an unworthy person in the social work scheme of things. He may be unenergetic, he may be immoral, he may be besotted and his own worst enemy, he may be a law breaker or a cringing fugitive from justice, he may seem the very scum of the earth, but he is not unworthy of whatever intelligent and constructive aid the worker riay be able to render him. His need of help can be the only legitimate gauge, and not whether he belongs to my church or conforms to my code of morals. This question often arises in Red Cross disaster relief work in rural communities. Local committees are prone to say that here is a person who, notwithstanding the fact that he has lost all earthly possessions in the disaster, is unworthy of help. They not only insist upon withholding aid, but propose that the individual in question be shipped out of the community. In pursuing such a policy they do not recognize that they are violating the golden rule in two ways: First, as it applies to doing unto the individual as one would be done by, and second, as it applies to doing unto the neighboring community as their own community would be done by. It is obvi July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 ous that any real social problem is not solved, but is further complicated by transferring an undesirable individual or family from one community to another. The principle of "out of sight, out of mind" does not contribute to social adjustments. The fourth principle I would suggest is, keep the client's confidence. No real service may be rendered to him unless his confidence is secured and maintained. It is through this channel he reveals to the worker the complicated and confidential facts in his personal situation that render him unable to right his own boat and proceed under his own steam. Just as the patient must reveal to the doctor the facts that underlie his illness, as far as he knows them, so must the socially sick individual reveal to the social worker those underlying factors in his life that tend to explain his present status and furnish a basis for intelligent solution. We must get and hold his confidence. It is, as a rule, more difficult to gain the complete confidence of the average rural individual than of the city dweller, partly because of his natural tendency to be decidedly individualistic and partly because of his ready suspicion of the motives of a new person who might be inquiring into the secrets of his life. More tact and patience, therefore, are required of the country social worker than of the city worker, and more time will be consumed in building up an acquaintanceship as a basis for securing the necessary information. It follows that the investigation which the rural social worker makes of her case is less formal than that attempted by the city worker. In the first place she is likely to have considerable previous information concerning the client; furthermore, she is aware of the different psycholo-y involved and the necessity for adroitness on her part in securing from these reticent individuals the necessary information from which she can make a diagnosis, develop a plan, and proceed to apply the proper treatment. The next principle is: work whiz and not for the client. The client must not only indicate that he wants help, but he must be willing to help himself and be allowed the largest possible opportunity to do so. Otherwise, help tends to morally pauperize and weaken rather than really aid, and leaves the individual in a worse state than he was found. It is even more deadly to go beyond the point of need than to stop short of it. It is highly important to stimulate initiative and to furnish as far as possible opportunities for self-expression. Do not do for anybody what he can do for himself. This applies to education, social work, or any other human development. Most people have abilities locked up within themselves which, if once freed, will make it possible for them largely to make their own adjustments. It is impossible to make adjustments for someone else. This fact makes it necessary to move slowly and patiently, giving the situation time to evolve and giving the individual opportunity gradually to grow into a better state of being. It is evolutionary rather than revolutionary. One trouble confronting the rural worker, especially in the mountains, is the apathy on the part of individuals and communities to the undesirable conditions existing. Many people look upon ill health and physical handicaps as divine afflictions which are to be accepted and endured, but not actively combatted and corrected. This attitude operates in connection with many other ills to be found in rural territory. One of the problems of the worker is to create discontent-to make people actually want something better, and willing to exert themselves to get it. The plan for correction of any ill cannot be superimposed. No individual or community can with enthusiasm enter into a plan of action that is wholly created by someone else. It must be in part, at least, a subjective creation. The individual in need of assistance must be led to think and act for himself as far as is humanly possible. All growth and development is conditioned upon this principle. A tree is not really enlarged by nailing slabs upon it. The breaking of old habits or the forming of new ones must be as a result of the action of the individual and not by anything the social worker can do for him. His pride or his sense of shame may be called into play by wise suggestion, but, after all, the degree of real change that takes place in his life will depend upon the amount of effort and energy that he himself puts forth. Page 241 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 We may stimulate and quicken his desires for better things, but we cannot have those desires for him. Each achievement, provided it is his own, furnishes the individual with a stepping stone and stimulus for a greater achievement. The social worker should assist the family in need by setting goals toward which it can work, but the attainment of these goals, if they are ever attained, must be largely the result of the individual's own efforts. So far as material is concerned, the rural worker has somewhat an advantage because actual material relief is as a rule less necessary in dealing with rural cases than in city cases. It is more likely to be found that intelligent gitidmace and direction and assistance in makink prop)er adjustments will constitute a greater measure of the service rendered by a social worker to a rural family than will the matter of furnishing relief in the ordinary acceptance of that term. Such fundamentals as shelter, clothing, food and medical care must be provided for people everywhere, but some of these are likely to constitute less of a problem in the rural districts than in the city. Shelter in some fashion is already provided for the people living in the country. It may be inadequate and unwholesome; but nevertheless cases of eviction are very few and far between, and the matter of paying rent or being cast out is not so pressing a problem. While food is an essential, a country family is much less likely actually to perish from hunger than might a city family. The very fact that the family resides in the country and depends upon agriculture foa its existence presupposes the production of at least a limited amount of food supplies. This, coupled with the surplus of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood, in addition to the tendency of neighbors to aid one way or another, tends to render the rural case worker's problem less complicated as regards food. The rural case worker will often be confronted with the problem of supplying clothing for her clients, particularly shoes for school children. As to medical care, she may well be appalled at the task confronting her in the average rural community. Whereas the city worker has at her disposal doctors, public health nurses, free clinics for diagnosis and correction, hospitals, and various other sanitary and health facilities, many remote rural districts particularly are without any of these resources, arid, at best, the people will continue to suffer so long as this is the case. There are eighteen hundred counties in the United States that have no public health nurse today. The next principle that I have listed is the necessity for an open-minded attitude. This is essential in any walk of life and particularly so with a case worker. No prejudices should be allowed to creep in. The worker must constantly bear in mind that she is laboring with human-beings as they have been created by divine Providence and modified by the circumstances of life, and so long as they are in need of help, no questions of race, color or creed should arise. An open-minded attitude prevents the worker from falling into the mistake of forming preconceived notions of what should be done and makes it possible to amend opinions and modify plans as new facts in the case develop. This principle is of universal importance and applies to both city and rural workers alike. But after all is said and done, when all likenesses and differences are taken into account, whether it be in the heart of New York City or on a lonely mountain ridge, a CASE IS A FAMILY SOCIALLY ILL, AND THE OBJECT IN WORKING WITH SUCH A CASE IS TO MAKE IT SOCIALLY WELL. Just as the physician has not discharged his responsibility until his patient is fully recovered, so the case worker must feel her responsibility for assisting her client to complete rehabilitation. I want to ask a favor of everybody here. Whenever you see an example of something that is particularly beautiful in some mountain spot-a beautifully constructed cabin, an unusually lovely old-fashioned garden, an example of handicraft, or an example of hospitality, which is one of the finest arts-send it to Mountain Life, and WoeÃ‚Â°k. The great point is for us to try to discover beautiful things-and they are endless in the mountains themselves and in the mountain people. And in proportion as we bring these things out, can we bring the other things in. July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 THE PLACE OF THE CHURCH IN THE LIFE OF OUR MOUNTAIN PEOPLE By ELMER E. GABBARD, Pastor Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, Tennessee In the opening lecture of a series delivered at Yale University on "The Romance of Preaching," Dr. Chas. Sylvester Horne stated, "The man who compels a community to think with him, who kindles its enthusiasm, revives faith, purifies its ambitions, and gives steadfastness to its will, is a real master of society." I greet you, members of this conference, as "masters of society." You, consciously or unconsciously, are giving shape to the thought and life of the people you touch. This cannot be said, in the same degree, of any similar group in America. There is, in all the fields of human service, no more romantic field than yours. Every mountain home is a dwelling place of romance. There is not a mountain trail that, for the understanding heart, has not been made glorious by the feet of the Son of Man. The peaceful silence of every mountain valley eloquently proclaims faith and doubt, ambition and dissatisfaction, yearning and wistfulness. When Dr. Thomas Guthrie had left his beautiful parish on the North Sea for the new parish of St. Johns, Edinburgh, cut out of the Cowgate, the poorest and most neglected part of the city, he was standing one day looking down on the narrow filthy streets filled with their noisome brood, and longing with a heavy heart for the green fields and kind friends he had left behind, when he felt a heavy hand upon his shoulder and heard the thunderous voice of Dr. Chalmers say, as with the other hand he swept a wide gesture over the parish, "A magnificent field of operation, sir, a magnificent field of operation." With one hand on your shoulder and the other outstretched toward the hills and valleys from which you have come, I say to you what Chalmers said to Guthrie in days gone by, "A magnificent field of operation. A magnificent field of operation." You have honored me with a place on this program today. But I find myself overwhelm ed with the subject upon which you have asked me to speak. It is by far the biggest subject of the entire program. "What is the place of the church in the life of the mountain people?" I do not think that in such a group as this there is any vital difference of opinion as to what we mean by the church. I do not think that any one he,-,e had difficulty in following Dr. Clark in his opening address on the church. We all recognize that the church is something far bigger than the denomination to which we belong, that it is not a religious club or a group gathered around a particular idea. We may not attempt a definition of the church but it has certain distinguishing characteristics upon which we are all agreed. In the first place, it is composed of all true believers in the Lord Jesus Christ. They may worship in different fashions but they all worship with one heart and are led by one Spirit. Furthermore, we recognize that the existence of this church does not depend upon forms or ceremonies or chapels or pulpits or money or any favor of man. The life of its members does not hang upon church membership, baptism or the Lord's Supper, as important as these may be. It has only one head, one Shepherd, one Bishopthe Lord Jesus Christ. He alone by his spirit admits members into the church, though his followers may show the door. Let a man repent and believe the Gospel and at that moment he becomes a member of the true church. He may have no opportunity of being baptised but he has that which is far better than water baptism-the baptism of the Spirit. He may not be able to receive the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper but he feeds upon Christ every day that he lives, and no minister or church group can stop him. The idea of the church reaches its fullest expression, perhaps, in Paul's statement to a church more than eighteen hundred years ago, Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 "Now ye are the body of Christ." The word "body" comes from the same word from which we get our word "corporation." We get Paul's meaning more accurately by translating this passage, "Now ye are the corporation of Christ." A corporation is a body through which a group may be able to accomplish what no one of the group could do alone. There was a time when Jesus was here in a human body. He had hands and feet and lips. But his ministry in the flesh was brief. Ile gathered his disciples together and constituted them into a corporation, a body through which he might continue his ministry after he gave up his own body of flesh. On the last night that he was on earth he said to these disciples, "As the Father hath sent me, even so send I you." The church then, is a body through which Christ continues his ministry in the world. The territory of the church is being invaded by other organizations. There is per sistent and subtle propaganda against the church. On the road leading from the railroad station to my old home in Owsley County, there used to be a church house in which the windows were always broken. The bad boys, of the neighborhood amused themselves by throwing stones through the windows. Their practice of throwing stones at the church has become a popular amusement today. It is claimed by some that the church has outlived its day and is a parasite on society. There has gi own up a group of social workers who act as if they were doing all the social work and the church were doing none of it. I know of no one who claims that the church is perfect. It has never been perfect. It never will be perfect as long as it is in the world. But its weakness is on its human side and not on God's side. But in spite of its human weakness the church is today the greatest institution in the world. It is, directly or indirectly, responsible for all the uplift work of mankind. Charles Stelzle discovered recently in a study of more than one thousand social workers that more than 90 per cent of them were connected with the church: He states, "As a matter of fact the church through its membership controls every great philanthropic movement of any consequence. Prac ;cally all the money that goes to hospitals, orphan asylums and charitable institutions of various kinds comes from church people." Can it be that this is just an accident? All philanthropy and charity, all altruism and kindness, all social service and humanitarianism would crumble like a building without a foundation, apart from the life and ministry of the church. As a result of the power and influence of the church a great many enterprises have come into being. The Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., the Christian Endeavor Society, the W. C. T. U., the Red Cross, welfare organizations, humanitarian end benevolent enterprises have sprung up, but these are not the church and should never be allowed to take the place of the church in our lives. They are the children of the church, and if the church did not mother them and back them they would not be here long, and if it had not been for the church they would not be here at all. Paul, even in his day, expressed something of this feeling for the church in his message to the Galatians, "The church which is above is the mother of us all." I cannot keep from looking with suspicion upon any work or workers for the mountains that do not hold the church in the highest esteem: Now what is the mission of the church in the mountains? Here the place of the church is much larger than in the cities. Compared with the churches of the country and especially of the mountains, the churches of the cities have small opportunities for moulding the life of the people. The whole life of the mountain community may be made to center in the church.- The church is often in a position to "run" the picnics, socials, literary societies, singing schools; and may even direct and control the educational program for both young and old. There are not many places left today where the church has so great an opportunity. But why is the church interested in these things? Through the doing of these things, who-t is the church seeking to accomplish? We come back to the New Testament idea of the church as the "corporation" of Christ. The church is here to do the work of Jesus Christ. He was interested in all the affairs of human life. I like the picture that Bruce July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 Barton gives of the intensely human life of our Lord; and I have a letter from a man who has been a life-long student of mountain life and conditions, in which he states that the church has failed to give sufficient emphasis to the human side of the divine Christ. Jesus was interested in everything that concerned men and women, but there is no difficulty in seeing that he had a definite mission to perform. There were certain things that claimed his thought above all else. Sometimes we may lose sight of them in the daily round of His life, but they are there, underlying every thing that he did. As far as we are able to discover these things, they ought to become the mission of the church, for we are : ~~t into the world to carry on the work of Jesus. As we follow the life of Jesus, from the beginning to the close of his ministry, we find him seeking to make God known to the people. Sometimes it is with one man; again, it is with a multitude. Sometimes it is on the mountain slope and sometimes it is by the sea-side. But throughout the years of his ministry he was making God known to people. He sought to make the peasants and beggars and the poor know that God loved them. He taught the scribes and Pharisees that God is truth and righteousness. The great business of the church is to teach people to know God. This is the supreme need. People need food and clothing and shelter and recreation, but they need God for their souls, and this is the business of the church. When people do not know God truly they know him falsely, and there are thousands of people in the mountains, just as there are thousands of people outside, who are under the tyranny of a false conception of God. The church that has been planted on the Carolina slopes or in the Kentucky hills is there primarily to help the people know God. Without a right knowledge of God they lapse into greater and greater darkness. This task challenges all the resources at command. It calls for the most intimate contact with, and knowledge of, the people. Dan Crawford spent three years in the huts of natives, eating with them, living with them, that he might be prepared to do this very thing. It may involve the planting of schools and the teaching of people to read and write. John Knox founded the public school system of Scotland because he felt that the people, if they were to to know God, must learn to read the Bible for themselves. It is important for the boys and girls to learn about the world in which they live, how human society has developed through the years, but in it all they should be led to see God-that God is good and that he has laid down laws for life that must be observed or life will be ruined. The place of the church in the life of the mountains is to help people know God. Then we notice that Jesus was always helping people. He went about doing good. The deaf man, the lame man, the sinner, the widow, moved him to compassion, and there was a touch or a word for the ministry of the body or the soul. The church must carry on its ministry of helpfulness for those who need help. In the mountains there are no Associated Charities or organized agencies for ministering to the poor and unfortunate. The church should inspire the spirit of compassion and helpfulness in those who are able to help in the care of the sick, the fatherless and the unfortunate. The church is doing the work of Jesus when it provides for the opening of the eyes of a blind baby or for an operation that puts a boy on his feet who otherwise would be a cripple the rest of his life. I think that as a church we should be impressed with the concern that Jesus gave to the choice and development of leaders who would continue his work in the world. In most of the places that I know in the mountains, there is a great lack of leadership. Gifts of leadership should be encouraged so that there will never be a lack of some one to read a sermon, lead a prayer-meeting or manage a Sunday school. In the region of my boyhood home Sunday schools were organized over and over, because there was no one to keep them going after they were started. Then, finally, as I turn to the Gospels, I see another outstanding thing in the life and ministry of Jesus. Wherever we find Him, by the seas, by the wayside, He is always loving people and trying to get people to love each other. That was why He taught and helped them. Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 And after all, isn't that the only way? You can recall the people who have helped you most in the world. They were people who loved you. Only those who love you can really help you. Jesus taught the people and helped the people by loving them. There is no other way to do the work of Christ. A man may have a million dollars to give, but not until that money is transmuted vicariously by hands that are moved by love will it ever dry a human tear or minister to a human soul. We cannot teach people by ritual or argument that God loves them. There is only one way and that is the Jesus way. One of the missionaries of India tells us the story of a native whose wife had died, and the missionary in seeking to comfort him said, "My brother, remember in your great sorrow that God is love." "Yes," said the native as his face softened, "I know that God is love." The missionary was surprisd at the response and later inquired how he had learned that God is love. The native responded, "I used to work for Foy Sahib of Cawnpore, and no one can work for Foy Sahib and not know that God is love." It is the business of the church to love people. Over and over Jesus urged his disciples to love one another. Their love for each other was to be the outstanding mark by which they would be known to the world. This brings us to what is, perhaps, the most difficult thing that the church of the future faces in the mountainsdenominationalism and sectarian strife. Just how this is to be overcome, I do not know. But someone must take the lead in loving people into laying down their sectarianism and uniting in the building of the Kingdom of God. I have had experience with religious prejudice in the mountains. During the summers of my seminary years I worked in two mountain communities and I was followed each year by the "Old Regulars," Baptists who sought to discourage and hinder our work. But I have met few preachers or groups in the mountains that cannot be won over to cooperate in some way by the genuine Christian approach. And I have found no one that is not being used for good whose heart is dominated by a real love for God and for man. The way to the fulfillment of the mission for the church is the way of love. "Love never faileth." It will necessitate many sacrifices, but love is the way of sacrifice. We may have to give up many things that are dear to us, but in the surrender of them will be found our greatest joy. And now my final word. Do not be discouraged! You may be making a far deeper impression than you realize. One of the old giants of mythology smote the earth and wept because he made so little impression on it. Then he was told to look into the distance and there he saw a stream, started by the force of his blow, that was moving on out, widening and deepening as it flowed. And do not make apologies when you appeal for help to those who are outside the mountains. Let us catch the spirit of the old school master in "Beside the Bonnie Briar Bush" when he went to Drufnsheigh, the village miser, with an appeal for help to educate his pupil, George Howe. When the old miser hesitated between his reluctance to part with his money and his desire to tease the old master, the spirit of the humanist awoke in the teacher's breast and he smote with all his might. "Why, man, I am giving you the fairest chance you will ever have for winning wealth. You think I am asking a great thing when I ask for a few notes to give a poor boy an education. But I tell you, I'm honoring you. If you had the heart to spend your money on a lad like George Howe you would have two rewards that no man could take away from you. You would have the honest gratitude of a laddie whose desire for an education you have satisfied; and the second would be another scholar in the land, and I'm thinking with old John Knox that every scholar is something added to the riches of the Commonwealth." Do not make apologies when you appeal for help in ministering to the boys and girls of the mountains. America's fairest opportunity today is the privilege of helping these sons and daughters of the Southern mountains. July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 ON COOPERATION By E. H. ELAM, Principal, Cooperation is no new work. It has been with us a long time and we have heard much about it. Neither is this to be an exhaustive. paper, setting forth all the possibilities of cooperation. It will merely report a few things that have been done and are being done in some localities, with the hope that they may have suggestive value for larger application to the whole mountain area. There are literally thousands of us who are attacking the same problems or similar problems all over the Southern Mountains. It is true enough that each local community has its own peculiarities, but there are many problems common to them all. Each of us is working out these problems in his own way. Now and then some new light may be added, but there is surely much overlapping of effort in this trial and error process. In method our work with so many of us trying our hand at so many things, is not unlike experimental work. Yet there is no unified program or plan in the experimentation. We are not able to make the greatest use of our accomplishments. Furthermore, true experimental work is supposed to be conducted by trained specialists. Not all our workers are trained specialists. This is an age of specialization. The lawyer, or the physician, or the business man does not attempt to cover all his field. He learns to do one thing, or a few things, well, and then serves many with his ability. When a man learns to operate successfully a grocery store, drug store, or a filling station, he adds others and others until he has a chain of them, putting his specialization to larger use. This is also a consolidation age. The railroads, the banks, the utilities, the schools are consolidating for greater efficiency. Incidentally, the consolidation brings about good will. We may even yet get our churches and nations together on a workable basis. In our work here in the mountains we may have in one locality a number of agencies, with absent directing attachments, that face exactly the same problems. Pleasant Hill Academy These local organizations have many things in common and ought to be able to work out their situation together, in ways that are both effi cient and harmonious. No doubt this is being done in places, and the local personalities are willing to do it in others. In the Cumberland Mountain section of Tennessee a little harmony has been made along this line of working together. For three or four years now a few private schools including Alpine Academy, Baxter Seminary, Cumberland Mountain School, Livingston Academy, and Pleasant Hill Academy, have been trying to get together on some of their common problems. One conference or more is held each year when principals and teachers get together on one of the school campuses and compare problems, methods, and points of interest. We are in the same field, doing similar work. We are not competing with each other, but cooperating in order that we may all profit by our combined experiences. Already much good has been accomplished by exchange of experience which we have found worth while. We are learning to appreciate each other and work together. Some of the larger aspects of the work are being considered together. As institutions we may divide our work and specialize so that our field may be covered with less duplication. Our work depends very largely upon benevolence, and already some initial steps have been made toward a plan to present our cause unitedly. In one case there has been a cross-over specialty teacher. One school has a strong music department while another has none. Arrangements have been made so that a music teacher goes from one school to the other, one day each week. This is a mere beginning of what may be possible in many lines. Last year there were two sectional conferences, one at Harrison and one at Crossville, bringing together the people who were vitally interested in the problems and possibilities of the Cumberland Mountain Section. At the first conference in Harriman, there were more than Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1929 forty people present, representing more than a dozen organizations and occupations. There was a very interesting allday discussion of our common problems. At the conference in Crossville last November, more than sixty people were present, representing even more interests than had been represented at Harriman. A re port was made on some survey work that had aimed to get at the basic conditions in our counties. In addition to the discussions there were two major addresses by Professor 0. N. Smith, representing the Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Tennessee, and Dr. Norman Frost of Peabody College. This was a profitable day, and those present went on record as favoring a continuation of the conferences. Appropriate committees were appointed and the next meeting is to be held in Crossville, April 25, 1929. These are brief statements of activities which we feel have been of value in our section. The thought naturally arises that there may be some valuable things that all of us as mountain workers can do together. Many of our groups are small and do not have talent and training enough to put over a complete and well-rounded program. Would it not be possible for a specialist to serve many of us or all of us along the line of his specialty. All of us together could employ him while possibly no one of us alone could do it. I was thinking ,just last night while the case work was before us how fine it would be if we could have enough case workers for all our in stitutions. A few years ago I heard a graduate of one of our mountain schools say that the two things that the Mountain people needed more than anything else were play and beauty, or an appreciation of them. Could we not all use a recreation specialist to "pep us up" now and then? And how great it would be to have a landscape architect whose sole duty would be to see that our mountain schools and communities were made more beautiful in their own setting. There might be traveling artists, health specialists, and even entertainers. A clearing house for mountain information, such as the office of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, seems most desirable. Our present cooperative effort along the line of handicrafts is a good example of what we may do together. Then there ought not to be too much overlapping in our institutions. Where two or three organizations are serving the same community, would it not be wise for some of them to move on to more needy places, or divide their work, letting each have a part, so that there may be less competition and more efficiency and good will ? If we as a united group of mountain workers ever decide specifically what we want and make a united effort for it, I am convinced that we can get it. There may be organizations or individuals ready now to pay the bill if we, or someone, will do the work. The very efficiency itself of a united effort ought to appeal to the business minds that can make it possible. There is all to gain and nothing to lose with prospective new donors, and surely none of our present constituents would be lost in such a move. There are always people who are ready to give to some more or less specific thing, but if we observe the trend of some of the larger benevolent organizations, I think we can see how they are thinking. For instance, I understand that the General Education Board and the Rosenwald Fund representatives recently told Fisk University and Mehary to get together and they would give them support. The result is they are to get together and receive more than two million dollars. They also told two universities in New Orleans to do the same thing, and they are getting together. Three institutions in Atlanta were told the same. They are now working out their cooperative plan. I am not intimating that support is promised if we will get together, but I am convinced that the power that could come from a united effort from us could bring the support we need. With all the millions that are now being given for worth while work and needs, why cannot there be a Mountain Foundation to serve some of the needs of us all? If these suggestions are worth while, they ought to provoke among our group thought and discussion which will lead to a fuller cooperation and a more efficient working out of our Mountain problems. July, 1929 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 A SOUTHERN MOUNTAIN HANDICRAFT ASSOCIATION REPORT OF PENLAND CONFERENCE For a number of years, we have talked over here the problems of handicrafts in the mountains. Many of you will remember Mr. Eaton's very delightful opening of the subject three years ago, and Mr. Worst's helpful address two years ago. Then we have had our round-tables and our exhibits. You will remember, too, from your own experience as well as the Conference discussions, some of the points raised: 1. How shall we keep up standards so that what goes out from our schools and centers may be, in character and quality, distinctive of the Southern Highlands? Poor quality will eventually destroy markets. 2. How shall we keep from competing with each other on the market? 3. How shall we find a larger market? 4. Is there a larger market, and a permanent one ? 5. What is to be our policy in the face of sharp competition with pseudo-handicraft work, done in large quantities and not entirely by hand ? 6. How shall we define handwork? Craft work ? 7. What are our reasons for carrying on such work; our own support, economic help to individual workers, or students, self-expression, etc. ? 8. Is there any way to arrive at price agreements, involvip_g fair price to workers, and fair reserve for overhead, loss, etc.? 9. How can we find out about fast dyes, or learn more about dyeing? This last winter, directly after Christmas, a few of us, representing seven pieces of work: Fireside Industries, Penland, N. C.; The Spinning Wheel, Asheville, N. C.; Brasstown Handicrafts Association, N. C.; Berea College, Berea, Ky.; Crossnore School, Crossnore, N. C.; Cedar Creek Community Center, Greeneville, Tenn.; Allanstand Industries, Asheville, N. C., met together at Penland to talk over the whole situation with a view to bringing recommendations to this meeting where all could discuss them. Mr. Eaton came down from the Russell Sage Foundation, New York, and was a very great help to us in clarifying questions and opening new points of view. We were surprised to find how many kinds of work were represented-weaving, hooked-rugs, basketry, pottery, hammered copper, hearth brooms, and various other articles, and that our little group represented, by a conservative estimate, $125,000 annual business. When one thinks of the number of other centers carrying on work of this type-we roughly listed some forty if I remember correctly-one can begin to have a little idea of how important this field of work is in the mountains. In spite of driving snow, cold, and bad roads, we had a delightful meeting, and a most satisfactory discussion, which culminated in the following resolutions passed unanimously: That we organize ourselves into an informal association, the function of which may be described by some such name as the Southern Mountain Handicraft Guild; That a committee be appointed by the chair to present to the Russell Sage Foundation the urgent desire of this group that the Foundation should advise with reference to the best form of organization of the association, and further, that the Foundation should conduct an early survey of the handicrafts in the schools and homes of the Southern Mountains as a fact basis for the association's wisest development; That the committee be empowered to take such steps between now and the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers in Knoxville, April 2nd. to 4th. as seems best to advance the development of the Guild and its work. Now this seems to me an exceedingly important step. We do not know just where such an organization would lead; there are many things to be carefully considered before we are really launched. We need much advice. It would be helpful to know how the Scandinavian countries and Canada have worked out their successful associations. If Mr. Eaton could help us Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK duly, 1929 here and we could get a better understanding of all the various sides of our own situation, we could begin more intelligently. If, as was suggested, a survey could be followed by an exhibit and a good deal of publicity, it would be a partial answer to the question as to how we could obtain a better market. Certainly an association should not curtail individual initiative and originality, nor destroy special markets. It would be rather in the nature of a Consumers' League tag, vouching for the quality of the product. and not preventing the use of a special school or industry tag. How we should manage inspection is another question. Possibly we could have, as again suggested at a meeting, a specialist who would travel about from center to center, advising on technical problems, telling where to get help or dyeing or what not, directing to new markets, calling conferences when advisable to talk over prices, and other problems. Some day we might possibly wish a common sales or exhibition room. How should this expert or possible sales room be financed? Here is still another question. Should it be cooperatively, or would outside help be necessary? I have only indicated very briefly what we discussed and some of the possibilities. I am sure every one of us present at Penland will be most ,grateful for a frank and full discussion and statement of opinion. My real quarrel with education at this time is the fact that it fits us for enjoying life on a different plane from that from which we came, and often for life on a plane different from that which we may hope to occupy. A real education ought to enrich our life in whatever circumstances we find ourselves, and we should not depend upon material wealth for that enrichment. Spiritual resources are often developed in the face of the lack of material re sources. I have heard nothing finer in the course of many years than the contribution made by Mrs. Campbell in her address as she expressed her idealism, the idealism which takes the idealistic as a woof to fashion a fabric not of hope but of practical expression in which the ideal and the practical are interwoven into a 'tapestry of great hope and beauty. People live in totals-in units, consisting of the economic, the religious and the educational. When you damage them in one feature you huit them in all. A community ;economically starved would have a meagre, poor church. That is the doctrine of the Protestant church in its foreign work. I commend that doctrine to the social worker. STILL AN OPPORTUNITY T o Buy Early Issues of Mountain Life and Work Recent subscribers may be interested in some earl_er issues of Mountain Life and Work, a few of which are still obtainable at 30 cents per copy. The available numbers with a partial list of contents are April, 1927-Agriculture Agriculture in the Southern Mountains _________________________ _ L. R. Neel Poultry in the Hill Country _ _________________________ Charles S. Price The Four-H Clubs of West Virginia ____. Fruit on the Mountain l arm _ _ _ Dairying in the Mountain Sections . The Story of a Mountain Farmer _ __ Pauline Spangler ___________________________ George Carey October, 1927-Rural Public Education Editorial __ ___ _ Pupils That Drop Out _ _ __ .________ Private Schools and Public Education Guiding Children's Reading in Rural Schools ___ Music in the Rural Schools ___________________ ______________ _ John J. Tigert _________ Warren H. Wilson ____________ _ Charles D. Lewis __________ Florence H. Ridgway ________________ Ralph G. Rigby January, 1928-Western North Carolina The Sp:nni.ng Wheel _ Industrial Development in North Carolina ______ Mountain Mothers _ A Meoical Romance of the Blue Ridge The Farmers' Federation April, 1928Biographical Number. In Memory of John C. Campbell Also other stories of the achievements of mountain men and women, such as "Doe" Stewart, Uncle Solomon Everidge, Rowena Roberts, and "A Mountain Mother" October, 1928-The Geology of the Mountains A Geographer's Idea of Mountaineers __________________ Ellsworth Huntington Ancient Men of the Mountains _ _____________________ W. D. Funkhouser Geology of Eastern Kentucky Soils _ _______________ Willard Rouse Jillson Wilbur G. Burroughs _____ Arthur Kith _ Helen H. Dingman _Harold W. Stoke ______________ Douglas P. Murphy, M.D. _______________________________ Zeb Green Mineral Resources of the Kentucky Mountains _ ______ Topography and Geology of the Southern Appalachains _______ ,January, 1929 Mountaineers in Mill Villages _____________________. The Plight of the Small Farmer __________________ Progressive Peasantry _ _______________________ The Shepherd of Red Bird _______________________ Coal Camps and Character _ __ __ ____ Industrial Development in the Southern Mountains __ July 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929 Reports of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers. Know the Mountains-Read Mountain Life and Work One Dollar Per Year Published Quarterly Berea, Ky. Lois MacDonald _______ Thomas Nixon Carver _________ ____ Jakob Lange _________ Florence Elton Singer T. Russ Hill