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Mountain Life & Work vol. 07 no. 1 April, 1931 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv7n10431 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 07 no. 1 April, 1931 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky April, 1931 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume VII April, 1931 Testing IE'S Philosophy -Olive D. Campbell 2 Some Guidance Needs of Mountain Boys and Girls O. Latham Hatcher 8 "Semper Liberi" James R. Robertson 14 The Ozark Uplift -W. Gordon Ross 17 Two Poems -Amy May Rogers 20 The Proof of the Pudding =-Virginia Slusher 22 Ten Years of the Farmers Federation James C. K. McClure, Jr. The Road Builders --Mary E. Garner 26 23 The Training of Mentally Retarded Children Number I -A. H. Meese 28 Published Quarterly at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Mountain 1,ife Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ Work Volume VII April, 1931 Number I Mountain Life and Work Helen H. Dingman ............ Editor Dr. Wm. James Hutchins . . . . . . . . Counsellor Orrin L. Keener . . . . . .. . . . Associate Editor May B. Smith, . . . . . . . . . . . . Associate Editor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson . . . . . . New York City Mrs. John C Campbell . . . . Brasstown, N C. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn . . . . . . . Atlanta, Ga. Dr. John P. McConnell . . . . East Radford, Va. Dr. Arthur T. McCormack . . . . Louisville, Ky. Dr. E C Branson . . . . . . . . Chapel Hill, N. C. Dr. John J. Tigert . . . . . . . . . . Gainesville, Fla. ISSUED QUARTERLY-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter. ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY We hope that all readers of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK were able to hear ZE, George Russell, the great Irish poet, economist, and cooperator on his recent lecture tour in America. His address on the building of a rural civilization was a ringing challenge to all interested in rural life and culture. MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK is very happy to print in this issue a timely article by Mrs. Campbell in which she evaluates the work of the first five years of the John C. Campbell Folk School in the light of the philosophy of ~E. The editors do not know of a piece of work in the mountains that is so truly working out the sound principles of economic and social cooperation advocated by our distinguished Irish visitor. Mrs. Campbell is using this same material in the spring issue of her school leaflet but is willing to share it with our readers. The highway and the auto are bringing the world into the mountains. Soon this section will be no different from any other sec'L'ion. The unique quality of a pioneer past is fast disap pearing and the drab monotony of "Main Street" is taking its place. Whatever may be the gains in socialization and economic prosperity there will be the distinct loss of an old culture. The Southern Mountain Handicraft Guild rec ognizes this and is making every effort to pre serve fine examples of the old crafts and to photograph and keep as a permanent record some of the lovely old log houses and water mills. This is a worthy enough cause to enlist the interest and cooperation of all readers of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, especially those who are familiar with different sections of the Southern Mountains and can help in this cam paign of saving for the future these beauties of the past. It is not too much to say that the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers brings each year refreshment and concrete help to those attending regularly or frequently, and interest and enlightenment to those attending for the first time. But that the meeting of last March was one of exceptional vitality seemed at the close to be a general ,judgment, whether the individual judgments were based on comparison with previous Mountain Workers' Conferences or with other gatherings of other groups. The program gave a series of addresses by able and experienced people; it was a program that would not be welcomed by a group other than forward-looking and open-minded. Following the addresses were interested and sometimes extended discussions wherein definite and varied reactions to what had been spoken were presented with admirable clearness and force. (Continued on Page Twenty-five) Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 TESTING AE'S PHILOSOPHY OLIVE D. CAMPBELL "The idea and plan of a great rural civilization must shine like a bu)Ã‚Â°ning lamp in the imagination of the youth"-E FIVE YEARS ago last December, the John C. Campbell Folk School was organized at Brasstown for the building up of rural life in this far southwestern corner of North Carolina. It seems fitting that we pause now, restate our aims, and review the progress we have made toward their realization. Especially should we measure ourselves in the light of the inspiring words of zE, George Russell, the great Irish poet, economist, and cooperator, who, traveling over America these past months, has envisioned the up-building of a rural civilization. The founders of this school here acknowledge their indebtedness to this remarkable man whom they visited in Dublin in 1923, on their way home from a year's study in Denmark, and who-voicing the ideals of the movement initiated by Sir Horace Plunkett-had long before that deeply influenced their thinking on the country-life problem. "You in America have built an urban civilization, but before you grow enthusiastic about it, remember it is not the work done which should excite enthusiasm, but the work still to be done-the building of a rural civilization. "-~E "Does anyone think that out of all these little cabins and farm homes there will come harmonious effort to a common end without organization and set purpose?" Like many rural sections, here in the mountains and elsewhere, we of the country about Brasstown are poor, economically, socially, culturally. We have been isolated, accustomed to live every family to itself, distrustful of others. We did not even trust ourselves. We lacked hope and purpose. Without "an imaginative conception" of what rural life may be, or preparation for it, our young people have drifted out to manufacturing centers, to return, often penniless, in periods of industrial depression. Most of those interested in finishing a high school education have their faces already turned toward the opportunities of the city. Yet this particular section of the mountains is not only beautiful, but capable of extensive agricultural development, especially along dairy lines. Many strong people still own and live on their own farms and would gladly continue to do so, could they look forward to a better life for themselves and their children. "We must have some purpose and plan in building up a rural civilization. "-.ZE "What dream shall we dream or what labor shall we undertake? 1 answer: The first thing to do is to create and realize the feeling for the community and break up the evil and petty isolation of man from man."-,E Our first effort in Brasstown was to get together on a community basis. We tried to create for ourselves a social life which, enriching in itself, would gradually open to us new ideas and ideals. Almost spontaneously, in the middle of the first year, the Women's Community Club came into being, followed later by the Men's Club. Both clubs had in mind, in their organization, the building up of the community. The men have concentrated more or less closely on, matters pertaining to agricultural practice. The women have been the moving spirits in all kinds of social and cultural activities; they are the backbone of the Cooperative Handicraft Association. This past winter the two clubs have found their greatest social satisfaction in a number of joint meetings, part social, part cultural. We have glimpsed ZE's vision of a rural civilization through a report of his speech in Atlanta; we have seen moving pictures of our April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFEE AND WORK Page 3 GEORGE W. RUSSELL-2E Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 selves, and slides of water transportation in which we could imagine Georg Bidstrup on his way to a three-months vacation in Denmark. A spelling bee has set the old folks studying again their Blueback Speller. And always we must play a number of singing-games, for "there's just no use talking, we like those games!" If we do not have a "natural supper," we have a "midnight" one, as Aunt Liz Ledford, who is early about all things, puts it. To be sure many of us afterwards, like Jim Clayton, "have nary a bit more sleep in us than a screech owl!" He and Mrs. Jim, on their return from the last "midnight" coffee at 11:00 p.m., were not the only ones to build up a good fire and talk over the evening. Even Mr. Campbell's The Southern Highlander and His Homeland, which they are reading, did not put them to sleep! Nor are all our meetings play. One afternoon we planted trees, shrubs, and flowers around the creamery. That most tangible evidence of our combined efforts must be a place of beauty in the eyes of the countryside. "We get our pay by looking at it," said Bill Clayton, with spade poised over the big hole he was digging for a holly bush. Mrs. Bill planted away; she had said her say at the previous club meeting. "No one can tell what the school means. It means everything to those who work with it." "The greatest thing this school has done," Mr. Bill continued, is to get us acquainted with each other." "Working so, we create the conditions in which the spirit of the community grows strong."-.E "For a community of small farmers, individually owning the land by which they live, agricultural cooperation presents the only chance of economic, success." -Sir Horace Plunkett Ireland, Denmark, and Finland have all stirred us with the cooperative organization of their agriculture. Our own first cooperative, the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association, a credit union, came into being the first spring with a membership of twenty-seven and a share capital of $155. The last monthly report showed eighty-five members and a capital of over $2000. The Association has been able to declare a four per cent dividend to shareholders and depositors, after leaving a reserve fund of around $150. A Farmers' Association, organized in 1927, was followed shortly by our major effort, the Mountain Valley Creamery. The history of these two associations, which began with almost no capital, has been one of struggle to exist and to be understood. The creamery, in particular, has had to grow in the face of small production, poor agricultural practices, and low butter-fat prices. The farmers, however, appreciate the steady income-a total of approximately $1000 distributed in cream-checks every month-and suspicion and doubt are gradually giving away to faith and even enthusiasm as they begin to grasp the purpose and plan. Local pride helps us to see values as it does to market our product. Our creamery took first prize for butter in competition with ten others in North Carolina at the State Fair in Raleigh, 1930. Possibly we shall find, as they have found in Ireland, that a general-purpose society suits our needs better than associations on a commodity basis. We may some day amalgamate farmers' association, corn mill, and creamery. Already we see that it is easiest for the creamery truck to handle eggs, cotton-seed meal and fertilizers, as it goes out on its cream-collecting route. Such details are of interest and real importance to a study of rural cooperative organization, but they do not change the purpose of such an organization. Cooperation has, without question, a profound economic importance-the value which is usually uppermost in the mind of the farmer-but it should mean far more than pennies saved on cotton-seed meal or fertilizer or the extra cents a pound for butter-fat. IV "The cooperative movement is delivering over the shaping of rural life, and building up of its rural civilization, into the hands of farmers."-IE "Where men and women have learned April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 5 to work together in the business of their lives, they are easily induced to use their organization for social and intellectual purposes also."-Sir Horace Plunkett Already we at Brasstown who have bound ourselves together in clubs or cooperatives find our interests flowing over into other than purely economic fields. We are reading more, as the books borrowed from the school library show. We are thinking more. We are beginning to be concerned over questions which touched us I srnp Brhrn~ a ~, hp prou_Qh 1TVIsf'Im bI`lllp ~0u J4 little before: public health, law enforcement, juvenile delinquency, normal, wholesome recreation, the beauty of our community. We are concerned, too, that surrounding communities should create for themselves, singly or in cooperation with us, the life we have begun to live, which in its fullness we see shining far ahead for our children's children. No real reason exists why in time, if we keep steadily in mind our ideal and work together toward it, the many small communities throughout this region should not form "a network of living, progressive organizations, democratic in constitution and governed by the aristocracy of intellect and character."-~E "New arts and industries would spring up under the aegis of the local associations. Here we should fend the weaving of rugs, there, the manufacture of tops, elsewhere the women would be engaged in embroidery or lace making, and perhaps, everywhere we, might get a revival of the old local industry of weaving lzomespuns."-X QE's vision of rural industries in Ireland which "must supplement agriculture" is our vision, too, at the John C. Campbell Folk School. We have begun in a small way to try to perfect handmade products native to this section, such as chairs, brooms, quilts, weaving, and knitting, and to create new designs on the old foundations. Our local Cooperative Handicraft Association is a member of the new Southern Mountain Handicraft Guild; we are in full sympathy with its objectives-a high standard for all crafts of the Southern Mountains; encouragement of originality and of appreciation of beauty. The Association of twenty-one members-now just two years old-is doing a business of $1400 a year. The school must, for the present, provide leadership, standards, and market connections. It will always help to train craftsmen and furnish inspiration, but the enthusiastic appreciation of the members, both for the financial help and for the satisfaction which comes of creating beauty, points to a time when this association will stand on a sound basis of economic independence. "To mistake the folk school for a mere extension of vocationa', education is to mistake the mind for the soul. It must be recognized for what it is: a vocational method, but an evocationaL impulse."-.E Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 Those who have followed the thinking of Sir Horace Plunkett and ?E through this last quarter-to-half-century know how often they have referred to the Danish folk school as the source from which has flowed the spirit of cooperation and the extraordinary national progress of the Danes. That the fine achievement of Irish cooperatives has not been greater IE lays unhesitatingly to the fact that the "spirit of the Danish folk school was, and still largely is, absent from Ireland." So, from the beginning, we have conceived those with but a few grades, have come regularly from nine in the morning to three-thirty or four in the afternoon, with a varied evening progrlam from seven to nine. All but three lived at Keith House, and when one considers that we were in close touch for approximately four months-students and teachers as a family, doing the work of house and farmone cannot speak too highly of the fine spirit prevailing throughout the entire winter. One sensed the spirit best, perhaps, after supper in the big living room: Quay WOMEN'S CLUE ON THE ef a folk school founded on the principles underlying the Danish folk school and adapted to our local conditions, as the centre and mainspring of our movement for the upbuilding of a rural civilization. The idea of young adults going to school, not for credits, but for development in the life of every day, has taken root slowly. We have not pushed it, but have let it grow naturally out of our other activities anal as we have had equipment to take care of a student body. In our five years we have held four regular courses-that held this past winter approaching most nearly to what a true folk school should be. From November to March sixteen young people, boya sand girls, averaging in age about nineteen, high school graduates and WAY' TO A MEETING Ketner, our North Carolina butter-maker, reading his paper over the fire; Ronald Straus and Jane Chase making out cream-checks in the corner; Frank Brendle feverishly finishing Westward Ho!; a group of boys at Rook around the table; Ruth Parker mending under the lamp; Louise Pitman and a cluster of girls around Mrs. Campbell at the piano, their carols or ballads vying with the strains from below where the kitchen squad were washing dishes; George Bidstrup and Marguerite Butler adding their voices as they whittled animals at the hearth. Then all joined in gymnastics or singing games, or charades, or listened to a travel talk with slides or refiectoscope, or there may have been a general sing, or prac April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 tice for the Christmas play or some other special occasion. Mornings were given over to the more strictly cultural work-talks on history, geography, geology, literature, Bible, art appreciation, and work in reading, writing, arithmetic. Many became really interested in reading to themselves, and the gain in ability to use figures was surprising. There came too, an understanding of the value of our farm products the worth of each of our registered Jerseys (always a subject of warm discussion), reckoned by weight of milk, cream tests, and amount of feed; the cost of clothes, food, and other everyday necessities; the reason for saving, and for the Savings and Loan Association. The afternoons were given over to weaving, sewing, cooking, carving, woodworking, agriculture, and some field surveying and forestry. Practical application of the forestry teaching came under Elizabeth Gates' direction in work time. Over three thousand trees from the State Department of Forestry were put in, white and short leaf pine, locust, poplar, several hundred black walnuts, and an unestimated number of trees and shrubs planted for ornament alone"spruce-pines," hollies, rhododendrons, laurels, and many other species. The young people took a deep interest in this beautifying of our grounds, and there is hardly a part of our winter program which has called forth more comment in the community. Many of our neighbors have caught the planting spirit and are also putting in shrubs and trees about their homes, as well as setting out black walnuts on waste hillsides for the benefit of future generations. All of our students have said that they would like to come back next year. We can arrange a course for them; for some it would be most desirable; others we can help to specialize. Whether they come or not, however, we believe that life will be a different thing for them because they have been here this winter. They may not be able to pass a state or college examination nor yet be skilled mechanics, farmers, or craftsmen, but they have learned much that will help them to live a better life every day, here, or indeed wherever they may be. What is more, we believe they have caught a glimpse, very faint though it may be, of that rural civilization which ~E and Sir Horace Plunkett in a lifetime of effort have sought for Ireland, and which in its greatest fullness has been realized in Denmark. "Set your feet fast in the common soil. There are the roots of life. There you must learn to stand. Begin on the plane of every day-not in the blue of the heavens-and grow upward.. Must yon not plough the field before yon gather in the harvest? Love life. Hate no one. With jog and sorroav, hope and faith, you shall build here on earth a bridge yep to the stars." (A free translation o f a favorite Danish folk-school song). "We are dreaming of nothing impossible, nothing which has not been done somewhere already, nothing which we could not do hero. True it cannot be done all at once, but, if we get the idea clearly in our minds of the building up of a rural civilization, we can labour at it with the grand persistence of medieval burghers in their little towns, where one generation laid clown the foundations o f a great cathedral and saw only in hope and faith the gorgeous glooms over altar and sanctuary, and the blaze and flame of stained glass, where apostles, prophets, and angelic presences were pictured in fire, and the next generation raised high the walls, and the third generation only saw the realization of what their grandsires had dreamed." X-Ideals of the New .Rural Society Page 8 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 Some Guidance Needs of Mountain Boys and Girls O. LATHAM HATCHER THE SETTING out of two rural counselors of the Southern Woman's Educa tional Alliance early last October to add to their knowledge of mountain schools and to further educational and vocational guidance procedure among them, was told in the October issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. The information sought was wanted both to aid in their future mountain service and to pass on to other agencies and groups who find themselves interested in mountain schools and mountain work, and who want to know more about them. The counselors wanted to discuss with school heads and teachers the objectives and policies by which the schools are being operated, and to secure at first hand new light on trends and problems in mountain school education, on the vocational interests of mountain young people and how these were being met and stimulated, on the proportion of educated young people staying in the mountains, and on other related questions. Thirty-four schools have been visited, twenty-nine in Kentucky and five in Tennessee. Fifteen of these have been studied with some intensiveness, but helpful facts, if fewer, and general enlargement of understanding have been gained from all the others. The ,journey was begun in Kentucky. Especially because of the wide variety of mountain schools which that state presents, it was determined to see one or more of each type there and to stress the acquisition of information more than the rendering of service. In Tennessee, the number of schools contacted has been smaller and the stays longer, with approximately equal emphasis upon securing information and rendering service. The services given have included, according to the length of the stay and other considerations, conferences with the faculty, student round-table discussions, interviews with individual students, demonstrating the value of collecting data about individual boys and girls, suggesting record forms for preserving the data, interpreting the data, suggesting books and other sources of vocational informa tion, teaching demonstration classes in occupations, providing lesson plans, etc. The schools visited included public and private, elementary and high schools, junior and four-year colleges, and a state teachers college, with frequent combinations among some of these types. Some of the private schools serve also as the local schools, and various ones are associated in name with community centers or settlements. The schools are supported variously by denominational boards, national or sectional, by special organizations, by the state or county, by individual donors, and by a combination of various resources, their budgets varying from what seemed almost nothing at all to a size running well beyond $50,000. Only four rep(-rted endowments. Enrollments ranged from 55 to 730, with the size of the teaching staff or faculty varying from the one teacher in a one-room school to 42 teachers and officers, and the school plants varying in extent and effectiveness from a ramshackle one-room building to a comparatively large plant including various handsome buildings. Altogether a fairly good cross-section view of varieties of mountain schools has been gained on the journey, to add to findings from earlier ,journeys and to information gained in other ways. Names of the schools visited are omitted here because it would be impossible to specify except in a detailed report, whether, at any given point, findings applied in detail to a given school. That the dearth of high school facilities is still a major problem in the more isolated areas was distressingly apparent at times, although the present highway building campaign is working wonders in exL'ending educational and other opportunities. Highways are, however, only a part of the story; running out from them or behind them in countless directions are still almost countless unimproved side roads. What the future may hold in the way of improving these roads and of developing school bus transportation in such areas is not always easy to predict, but the fact remains that in this generation of school children thousands are shut April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 9 off from high school opportunity because there is no high school near enough for them to attend it, and their parents cannot afford to pay their board in centers where high schools are available. In a county broadly typical of the worst conditions in various states, the assistant county superintendent estimated that at least three hundred children who had finished the eighth grade and had no high school near them, were prevented from going on to high school because of their lack of the money necesssary for attending one elsewhere. Of the three high schools in the county, one required living in the county town and boarding wherever accommodations could be had; another, having a small dormitory, also required provision for living expenses; and a third, a private school, had a charge of $12.50 per month. The cost in all of these instances was prohibitive, and in consequence all these pupils were denied the high school opportunity. Many of the children have repeated the eighth grade in the one-room schools, some as often as three times, in order to continue in school. Such repetition is deadening; little can be gained from it where reading matter is entirely lacking, and where the teachers' background and home environment are little, if any, above the level of that of the children being taught. Moreover, there is no money in the county for improvements nor enough for current expenses on even the present low educational level. Undoubtedly the privately supported schools of the mission type are doing an invaluable service by providing high school facilities for thousands of pupils who might otherwise be deprived of them. But in most areas they can by no means accommodate all who need them, especially as they must take some charge for living expenses and cannot supply self-help work for all who would have to earn their way, although all make provisions for as much of it as possible. The provision from outside sources of large numbers of scholarships covering living expenses seems the only immediate solution, in view of all the poverty involved. Here is an opportunity for certain civic organizations to contribute to a philanthropy of the most constructive type, one full of human appeal and personal touch. At a recent meeting of the Rural Section of the National Vocational Guidance Association, various national service organizations hitherto chiefly concerned with helping city boys and girls through scholarships and loans expressed interest in sharing such aids with ambitious, capable young people in the county. Results are likely to follow this expression, if the facts of the need can be duly marshalled and presented collectively for the mountain area for study by national executives of such organizations. Another fact which emerges clearly among those gathered by the visiting counselors is that the dominant trend in the private mountain high school is towards college, and that the effort to prepare pupils for college is apt to be the strongly dominant one. To illustrate 11 of the 17 high school freshmen and sophomores in a somewhat isolated school were planning towards college; 27 out of a random group of 37, in another; 24 of 38 in a third; 20 of 43 in a fourth; 13 from 21, in a fifth; 35 of 70, in another, etc. In a few schools the proportions were less, so that among 374 boys and girls who explained their desires and plans only 198 indicated a college education as their goal, but even so we have 53 per cent. In explaining these aspirations, the boys and girls have, of course, spoken with differing degrees of energy, resolution, and general power of achievement. On the other hand, most of them are accustomed to hard work and are now earning a part, if not all, of their expenses at school. They assumed, too, that they would have to continue their self-help work in securing higher education and training. Certainly there is much in such a trend towards college for which to be grateful, but the trend itself needs the most careful analysis to prevent misdirected desires, and consequent loss of planning in the right direction. It is to be noted, too, that because of the waste, financial and spiritual, and the general dislocation which comes with maladjustment and failure in college, the colleges are increasingly discriminating in admitting students. They are urging the schools to take every precaution in doubtful cases, in the way of mental tests, character analysis, and other aids, so that they may be as sure as possible that each aspirant Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 for a college education will be best served by such education and that he will be directed towards the kind of college best suited for him. It is increasingly obvious, too, that many boys and girls who would profit by continuing their studies after high school will be better served by a vocational school than by a college, and there is also the problem of how to equip vocationally those who will drop out of school at the completion of the high school course or earlier. More curricular emphasis upon learning by doing would go far towards solving these and related basic problems of mountain schools, although intimate, informed guidance of the individual is the only final solution. All city schools have the problem of the boy or girl who will never reach his potential best in an education concerned mainly with books, and it is to be expected that the more underprivileged mountain areas will yield a larger proportion of such children. But the new point of view in education today, as represented by guidance and progressive education, insists upon finding the best in every child, and in giving him a chance to succeed according to the nature and amount of his individual capacity. Moreover, the mental awakening and inner release which the child dubbed a failure in books and subjects often gets from a sense of achievement in manual effort, not infrequently react favorably in his more bookish tasks and help to raise his standing there. To quote from an article in the January issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK "I have in mind a boy afflicted with drooping lids who attended a mission school for several years making no progress. By good fortune a manual instructor was asked to go to that school and teach carpenter work. This lad took to it like a duck to water. He was not satisfied just to nail one board on to another but wanted to do his work right; every ,joint must be tight, every corner square. He loved his work so much that he never wanted to quit, and better still, it helped him to learn in his classes, so that book learning which before meant nothing to hirn, was given a meaning and appealed to him. He made ~;rogress, advancing two grades beyond what he had been thought capable of doing."* It is recognized today that all boys and girls need a generous amount of learning by doing, *Hughes, Edward W. Recollections of Twenty Years, MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, Vol. VI No. Ã¢â‚¬Â¢4, Jan. 1931, P. 18. whether they are going to college or not; so that facilities provided primarily for the very manual-minded can also be used to advantage by other pupils. It should be realized, too, that whatever the handicaps in providing shop work facilities at any time, almost any school can make a simple beginning, advancing gradually from that. Much more study of possibilities seems needed in this direction. Since vocational guidance must inevitably build upon knowledge of vocational opportunities, as well as upon knowledge of the interests and capacities and assets and liabilities of the individual to be aided in his choice, the schools must accept as a necessity for an adequate service of this kind the provision of vocational information of various types. This information includes that which tells the boy and girl of the best occupational possibilities in their home communities or counties, that which explains what neighboring industries now developing so rapidly and problematically have to offer, and that which provides the needed facts about the occupations in the larger outside world. The activity of vocational aspiration among the boys and girls themselves and their overwhelming bias in favor of professional occupations create special reasons for safeguarding their choices by providing for them a sufficient range of information about occupations in general. But hardly a beginning of this provision is yet under way. Only one survey of local opportunities was reported; that one was made about ten years ago and is not now available locally. The general impression, varying somewhat in content from one area to another, seemed to be that mining, roadbuilding, railroad work, storekeeping, carpentry, dairying and general farming, with the usual meager proportion of professional workers, were the prevailing occupations for men. As regards local opportunities in agriculture, heads of seven schools expressing themselves on this point said that the opportunity to make an adequate living in their respective areas was slight; two thought it good, one considered it fair, one "splendid," and one good if the farmer has training. No specific reasons for these judgments were cited, although the main crops attempted in the community were named. It was not surprising that full, autho April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 itative information regarding local possibilities in farming was lacking in most mountain areas, inasmuch as the national and state departments of agriculture have only well started to measure the farmer's chances in given localities. On the other hand, most of the schools draw pupils from mountain ridge areas where it is already clear that normal living by farming cannot be expected. Also, colleges of agriculture and especially agricultural experiment stations are constantly adding to their information on such questions, and county farm demonstration agents have much to contribute. Kentucky provides the best studies made thus far of the agricultural possibilities of a given rural area, in an agricultural survey of Laurel County made under the direction of Dean Cooper of the Kentucky Experiment Station. Every school in the county, public and private, should use this information as a basis for vocational guidance on that subject. It shows what to expect in the way of agricultural returns in the county, if methods are scientific, and weather conditions fairly normal; also, what will grow in its typical soils, the expense of growing it, the range of incomes to be expected from it, etc. A similar investigation is under way under the same auspices in Knott County, Kentucky. From the results of these studies, keen, capable boys and girls in these counties can decide safely whether farming in that area will yield them what they feel they must have. In the event that reports from agricultural specialists regarding any area are unfavorable, this information should be passed on to the young people considering their future work, to those interested in farming, and to others as well. Vocational guidance should be made to perform another vital service in the mountain areas by preparing young people to understand the rapidly oncoming, if not for them immediate, industrial problem, so that there may be those to grapple with it more adequately, as educated leaders, as well as socially enlightened even if unskilled workmen. Industries are likely to affect increasingly the future of mountain young people who cannot or do not reach the higher levels of education and occupations. Nothing con be more important for the great masses of mountain young people who are near such centers or are otherwise influenced by them than the assembling and wise interpretation of information regarding industrial occupations. In the same spirit in which the Southern Summer School for Women Workers in Industry is seeking to promote vocationaland lifeadjustment for such workers after they enter industry, vocational guidance back in the mountain schools themselves should anticipate the need for such adjustment, preparing both girls and boys to meet the situation wisely where they encounter it. Such guidance should aim first of all at directing only suitable boys and girls towards such industries, and then at preventing maladjustment on the part of those who go. Information about 'the various types of industrial occupations, about opportunities on the various levels, and the education and training needed by workers ambitious to rise or to enter higher up, about the chances to rise, about living conditions, rights of employers and employees, etc., is needed. Such information should be kept up to date, and should be evaluated and interpreted wisely to school girls and boys. It is no easy task, but it is an urgent one. Also, if ambitious young mountain people can get the professional training needed for large industrial enterprises centered in or near the mountains-and many of the vocational choices given by boys this year indicate their interest in preparing for such occupations-they would have the advantage of intimate knowledge and understanding of mountain conditions and mountain people. The same is true of other mountain enterprises involving engineering, the upper levels of forestry, etc. There is urgent need, too, of adding to the school libraries reliable books about occupations. Many of these books give extremely helpful information about occupations being followed in the mountains, such as engineering, home economics, and farming, but aside from this, libraries are imperative for bringing to the more shut-in boys and girls adequate understanding of occupations being followed in the outside world, so that they may compare local and outside opportunities and make safe intelligent decisions regarding them. Twentyfive dollars will start a vocational shelf in the school library fairly well: several well-chosen books may be added each year. Even ten dollars will provide three or four of the more Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 general books on occupations, upon which all high school students can draw. The setting of a small vocational library and keeping it up at a cost ranging from ten to fifty dollars a year, according to the size of the school, would be an excellent type of gift for each school to solicit from friends of the school, and one likely to appeal at the present time. Ambitious students need to check their occupational aspirations with the facts to be faced in a given field of work. Those suited to the occupation sought. will gain inspiration in doing so; others will have before them the suggestions of other and fitter opportunities. From the occupational choices of 678 pupils, given usually with their ideas of the amount of education and of training which they consider necessary for entering the chosen occupation, it is clear that the vocational sentiment, if not an actual vocational drive, is strongly towards the professions. With all their lack of specific vocational information many of the boys and girls have discriminated with creditable judgment as to the general amount of education and training to which the professional choices made by them would commit them, and have implied acceptance of such commitments. Engineering with various specializations, educational work, forestry, aviation, and being a "scientist," an inventor, or a naturalist, a cartoonist, a doctor, a surgeon, a lawyer, a minister, engross the attention of the more ambitious among the boys. Others are intent upon mechanics as such, taken at different levels, and upon government work that will take them afield, although practically all who choose mechanics specify training in a vocational school, and many of these prefer to live in the country. One hears nothing from this high school group of reverting to the unskilled labor of their fathers. Evidently, too, there is no u-ge among them to work in the mills and mires on the individual level, although the elementary school grades are likely to furnish their quota. Of the boys and girls, 57 per cent chose strictly professional occupations, or 73 per cent, if the more liberal and usual interpretation of the term is enlarged to include the 105 nurses, one athlete, and one professional baseball player. Over against this group are only 8 per cent who declare for farming and 18 per cent for trade or business, a total of 26 pecent. Home-making, the army, invention, and a few other occupations not easily classifiable as either business or professions account for the remaining one per cent. It is to be noted too that this large preponderance of interest in the professions connects very closely with the desire of these same young people to go to college, 53 per cent of 374 of them declaring for college, and 54 per cent for the more strictly classified professions. In the looser professional group totalling 73 per cent, the shrinkage as to college aspirations occurs chiefly among the would-be aviators, who doubtless take refuge in Lindbergh's academic record, and among the large group of intending nurses, who are divided as to whether or not to base their technical training on a college course. Among the girls the choice of teaching was by far the overwhelming one, with nursing drawing the next largest number. Office work attracted far fewer than is usual in rural areas; economics applied to business and otherwise, and religious work at home and in foreign fields are well-represented in choices; dramatic work, stage dancing, and a few other occupations of the adventurous kind tempted a few. On the whole, however, the boys' choices showed a much larger share of initiative and variety than appeared in those of the girls. The basic need for mountain schools as for others, in the matter of educational and vocational guidance, is to provide some one of the teachers with knowledge of its principles and techniques and give her a time allowance for working at it. Everybody who understands it believes in it in advance, but what is everybody's business is nobody's business. Most of the needs emphasized here have to do with adjusting education to the individual, helping him not only to find himself in and through try right education but to find and prepare for a.occupation into which the best and most cessful individual endeavor can be put. This means a degree of personal service to each boy and girl that is new to education, but which is increasingly necessary as life grows more and more complex. And certainly as one faces today the problems of the changing mountains and of the aspirations, revealed even in this article, of mountain boys and girls, along with the April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 problematic question of mountain farming, the growing unrest among mountain industrial workers, and all the rest, it would seem that guidance could nowhere else be more needed. Counselors are needed to study each boy and girl closely, not only in school work and play but in the light of family background, health, mental ability, aptitudes, and aspirations; to gather vocational information of all the needed kinds; to advise about the kind of further education needed, if any; to teach classes in occupations; and, above all, to be informed and understanding personal counselors. Every school needs at least one trained counselor, who can gradually train the other teachers into the most effective cooperation in the guidance program. How difficult is this of achievement? Not so difficult as may be imagined, inasmuch as a quite simple beginning of special preparation may be made by the teacher suited to being a counselor, and this prepartion may be gradually increased. Every sort of equipment and of successful teaching experience will contribute definitely to the needed equipment. If possible, the teacher looking forward to taking over such a function should give a year to technical study in the field of guidance, but if that is impossible, as it would be in many of the schools, even a summer's work would give a valuable inoculation with guidance principles and methods and with sources of vocational information. Such courses are available now in many universities and college summer schools, notably now at Harvard, Columbia, and the University of Virginia. An English statesman once said that if he could know the drift of discussion among thoughtful undergraduates of Oxford and Cambridge he could predict the future policies of England for the next generation, so far as the ideals and objectives were concerned. The analogy is by no means a perfect one as between these English students and mountain boys and girls, but the better private mountain schools are, in a sense, little Oxfords or Cambridges to them, equally nurseries of idealism and of personal aspirations; with full allowance for the natural uncertainties in realizing these aspirations, it is important to inquire where they are tending and just what the part of the school is in connection with these student choices. 0UR CONCEPTION of a civilization must include, nay, must begin with the life of the humblest, the life of the average man or manual worker, for if we neglect them we will build in sand. The neglected classes will wreck our civilization. The pioneers of a new social order must think first of the average man in field or factory, and so unite these and so inspire them that the noblest life will be possible through their companionship. -~E, National being April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 ing. Eastern Virginia was occupied by a English population of the higher class, increasingly accustomed to a life of comfort and the exercise of authority. West Virginia was the home of a population composed of Scotch, Scotch-Irish, Germans, and English, who came somewhat later and pushed on to what was then the frontier. They found good water, good hunting, :ind enough tillable land for the first generation. The population of eastern Virginia belonged prevailingly to the Church of England, with its centralized organization, while the population of the mountain section in the west was nonconformists, including Presbyterians, Baptists and Quakers, organized on a democratic basis. T h e educational ideals of eastern Virginia were more centralized a n d aristocratic. The University of Virginia, though founded in the interests of democracy, was tending to become the Oxford of America, a place for the education of gentlemen's sons, who came to be instructed by teachers of their own class. The educational ideals of western Virginia were democratic, aiming to give the largest good to the largest number. In political policies eastern Virginia was satisfied with a rule by the minority and retained a devotion to State sovereignty which grew out of her self-sufficiency. Western Virginia sought rather the expression of the will of the people as a whole and favored the Federal government, because it was dependent on a higher source than itself for development and prosperity. Eastern Virginia was open to commerce by the sea and had everything to gain by a freedom of trade, while western Virginia was shut off from a ready access to the markets and shared in the sentiment of the West for national improvements and trade regulation. FIRST STATE CAPITOL In the Revolutionary period the population of western Virginia had been a determining factor in the result. The battle of Point Pleasant, near the mouth of the Kanawha River, has been spoken of as the first battle of the war. Though fought before the war actually began and in the interests of the pioneer settlers against the Indians in 1774, it is vitally related to the great struggle. Indians and Colonial government alike were obstacles to the westward movement of the population which had been forbidden by the royal proclamation of 1763; at least the Coloni al governor failed to aid the settlers though he was in the neighborhood of the battle with a large force of soldiers. It was in the experience of the Revolution ary War that the mountain popula tion of western Virginia g a i n e d that confidence in themselves a n d that ability to as s e r t themselves which figured so prominently in later events. Schemes for separation between the two sections of Virginia may be traced back to a time preceding the Revolutionary War. The rapid growth of the population and virility of the people enabled the settlers of the mountain section to secure concessions from the eastern section whenever attempts were made to deprive them of their just and equal proportion in the representation and administration of the State's affairs. Many conflicts occurred, it is true, but there was nothing that served to rend them apart. With the year 1850 and the growing influence of slavery in all public questions, the two sections of Virginia drifted apart. Ambition for commercial leadership among the States of the South quite overcame the loyalty of the old Virginia to the Union, and she yielded to the example of South Carolina. With heroic effort the mountain section tried to hold her from OF WEST VIRGINIA April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 15 ing. Eastern Virginia was occupied by a English population of the higher class, increasingly accustomed to a life of comfort and the exercise of authority. West Virginia was the home of a population composed of Scotch, Scotch-Irish, Germans, and English, who came somewhat later and pushed on to what was then the frontier. They found good water, good hunting, :1.nd enough tillable land for the first generation. The population of eastern Virginia belonged prevailingly to the Church of England, with its centralized organization, while the population of the mountain section in the west was nonconformists, including Presbyterians, Baptists and Quakers, organized on a democratic basis. T h e educational ideals of eastern Virginia were more centralized a n d aristocratic. The University of Virginia, though founded in the interests of democracy, was tending to become the Oxford of America, a place for the education of gentlemen's sons, who came to be instructed by teachers of their own class. The educational ideals of western Virginia were democratic, aiming to give the largest good to the largest number. In political policies eastern Virginia was satisfied with a rule by the minority and retained a devotion to State sovereignty which grew out of her self-sufficiency. Western Virginia sought rather the expression of the will of the people as a whole and favored the Federal government, because it was dependent on a higher source than itself for development and prosperity. Eastern Virginia was open to commerce by the sea and had everything to gain by a freedom of trade, while western Virginia was shut off from a ready access to the markets and shared in the sentiment of the West for national improvements and trade regulation. FIRST STATE CAPITOL In the Revolutionary period the population of western Virginia had been a determining factor in the result. The battle of Point Pleasant, near the mouth of the Kanawha River, has been spoken of as the first battle of the war. Though fought before the war actually began and in the interests of the pioneer settlers against the Indians in 1774, it is vitally related to the great struggle. Indians and Colonial government alike were obstacles to the westward movement of the population which had been forbidden by the royal proclamation of 1763; at least the Coloni al governor failed to aid the settlers though he was in the neighborhood of the battle with a large force of soldiers. It was in the experience of the Revolution ary War that the mountain popula tion of western Virginia g a i n e d that confidence in themselves a n d that ability to as s e r t themselves which figured so prominently in later events. Schemes for separation between the two sections of Virginia may be traced back to a time preceding the Revolutionary War. The rapid growth of the population and virility of the people enabled the settlers of the mountain section to secure concessions from the eastern section whenever attempts were made to deprive them of their just and equal proportion in the representation and administration of the State's affairs. Many conflicts occurred, it is true, but there was nothing that served to rend them apart. With the year 1850 and the growing influence of slavery in all public questions, the two sections of Virginia drifted apart. Ambition for commercial leadership among the States of the South quite overcame the loyalty of the old Virginia to the Union, and she yielded to the example of South Carolina. With heroic effort the mountain section tried to hold her from OF WEST VIRGINIA Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 this course, but without avail. Western Virginia, contiguous to the Northern States and allied to them through the commercial channel of the Ohio River, became more closely allied to them in public interests as the slavery question grew in importance. Northern men occupied places in the schools, became editors of papers, and held other places of influence. The spirit of abolition was s t r o n g among a people unaccustomed to the use of slaves, and the mountains became the hope of John Brown and his scheme of emancipation, as the mountains of eastern Kentucky became the hope of Cassius M. Clay and his plan for emancipation. At the time when Virginia, in convention, was deliberating on secession in the east, popular meetings were being held in the mountain counties of the west. In April of 1861 a resolution was adopted at Clarksburg for the calling of a convention; at Kingwood the separation of western from eastern Virginia was declared essential to the maintenance of liberty. In May of 1861 a convention at Wheeling of four hundred delegates from forty or fifty counties condemned the Ordinance of Secession, and in June a convention at the same place renounced allegiance to it, and urged all citizens who had taken up arms for the Confederacy to lay them down again. In June, 1861, a second convention was held, and on the 20th a provisional government established, with Francis H. Pierpont as Governor. A legislature HON. ARTHUR I. BOREMAN First Governor of West Virginia STATE SEAL OF WEST VIRGINIA was elected and senators were sent to Washington to represent the "restored Commonwealth." The president and Congress recognized this government as the legal one in Virginia. In August of 1861 public opinion demanded that the process should become complete by the formation of a new and separate state. An ordinance to that effect was adopted and a convention called. A constitution was framed and accepted by the people in May of 1862, and the "restored government" voted to allow the new state to be formed from its territory. West Virginia applied to Congress for admission into the Union. The discussion continued for some time and centered about the question of legality. Could a new state be formed from an old one without the consent of the latter as provided in the constitution? Was the permission of the "restored government" enough? Thaddeus Stevens, the leader of the radical wing of the Republican party in the House, said that the interests of Virginia should not be considered, and no seceded state had any constitutional rights at all. It was held by others who favored admission that the cause of the Union would be aided by the ad dition of another state. A large major ity were for the measure in both Houses, and the bill passed in December of 1862. It was then sent to the President for his signature or rejection. He submit ted the matter to his Cabinet for advice, and they divided on the subject, three favoring admission and three opposing. Thus the decision was thrown on the shoulders of the President. Never lost in the maze of legal distinction, it was a characteristic of Lincoln to go to the heart of a matter. He did so in this case when he asked in giving his reasons for signing the bill, "Can the government stand if it indulges constitutional constructions by which men in rebellion against it are to be ac April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 counted man for man, the equals of those who maintain their loyalty to it?" The new State government began on the 20th of June, 1863, at Wheeling as the capital. The streets were thronged with people, and the national colors were flying from every available place. Beside the Provisional Governor, Pierpont, sat the new Governor of the State, Arthur I. Boreman, a splendid type of the Scotch-Irish people, whose aggressiveness and love of liberty had brought the State into being. The administration of the State was turned over to him in a fitting valedictory by the Provisional Governor. The "restored government" withdrew to Alexandria and later to Richmond, while the mountain State set out on its career as the thirty-fifth in the Union, a permanent memorial of the motto, "Montani Semper Liberi." THE OZARK UPLIFT W. GORDON ROSS THE title of this article ("uplift" is ageographical, not a missionary term) refers to a section of our Southern Mountains, that section in southwest Missouri and northwest Arkansas, extending almost to the Mississippi River. I hope we may regard this section somewhat realistically, but the human tendency to use rose-colored glasses works here as elsewhere; noble ideas seem to gain nobility as they gain the roseate hue which obscures the rough lines of reality. Alvin York's extraordinary performance in the Great War revived in us the tendency to hero-worship (if it needed reviving), and indeed has almost precluded any chance of our viewing the mountaineer without the romantic glamour which has surrounded him since the days of Daniel Boone. Stories have been told in such a way to the outsider that, though true enough, they have thrilled him to the extent of believing that the mountaineer's daily life is a continual re-enactment of Daniel Boone's most heroic exploits. But the outsider's attitude is not always the same. It may have the snobbishness and ignorance which put the name "mountain white" on the whole mountain population. Or let me quote a man who was visiting the Ozark country "Mr. B., what is your chief problem here, the backwoodser, the bootlegger, or the illiterate?" Or the outsider may ask such a question as "What type of education do you find most effective in the mountains?" Again, there is the attitude of the benevolent "rich uncle," more sentimental than intelligent, who regards the remote community in terms of needs which he can supply. But let us look more closely at the Ozarks. There is a section of northwest Arkansas, a section which can be mapped out fairly definitely, which contains the most unobserved, untouched, and unregarded social group in the nation. Commercially they have not been so untouched, because they can and do buy their cigarettes, their candy bars, and their lipsticks as do city dwellers. The commercial contact is established. But remoteness (plus poverty) has had its profound sociological effect on the group. And that remoteness has not been entirely geographical, for the region has been remote from interest, concern, and general attention. A few sociologists and educators have extolled the "two remaining pure seed beds of Anglo-Saxon intellect, the Southern Appalachians and the Ozark Uplift." But that particular Ozark section remains remote. Perhaps sophisticated New York and the naive Ozarks, that is, the section referred to, present the extremes of the urban-rural contrast in this country, more than, say, Chicago and the Southern Appalachians. The Ozarks are centrally located, being about equally distant from modernized California and internationally-minded New York, neither of which extends its interests inward enough to touch the Ozarks. Arterial highways miss it. Page 1H MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 The most definite touch, other than commercial, from the outside has been through the community center at Kingston, Madison County, Arkansas. The work has been fostered by the Brick Church of Rochester, New York. This community "project" presents a picture of the rural problem in general which is rather complete, if we take time to see it all. Let us look at the favorable side first. Any community program, whether it be for the Ozarks, the Congo, or Park Avenue, will include education. That was almost the center of the Kingston program. Special emphasis was placed on home economics and vocational agriculture. That emphasis was due to a belief that mountain homes needed cleaning, refining, and modernizing, and that mountain people needed rejuvenation. Too, a strenuous attempt was made to raise the general scholastic standing and standards of the school. Thus in the spring of 1925 the first four-year-high-school graduate in the history of the county received his diploma. There were more the following year. The outside contact (with Brick Church) made possible the machinery for "turning out" the graduate in 1925, with the promise of more to follow. It made possible the securing of equipment for home economics classes. It made possible the securing of an extra teacher. Then there was the important item of health. Here again, outside help made some hospitalization possible. But before that time simpler helps such as layettes were provided. They were simply taken to homes where needed, though taking them to the homes was often a very laborious task. Of course, in home economics and vocational agriculture much attention was given to relevant matters of health, as was done in the physical education work in the school as a whole. To be sure obstacles were encountered. It would be easy to use the blanket indictment, unprogressivenessunprogressiveness in resisting agricultural training, in finding Biblical authority for opposing modern touches such as bobbed hair. But the speed with which we often rush to such an indictment should warn us of its tenuous nature. However, there were great obstacles. Yet the worker in such a place as Kingston could, by dint of unrelenting labor, help effect some few changes deserving the name of progress. And when that happened it was often as great a surprise to him as to the mountaineer. By that I mean (and it is a crucial and slighted point) he may expect some progress after the price has been wisely paid, but not always according to the "blue print" he may havq had at first, especially if he is an outsider. In other words, no one knows fully and exactly all that should be known about the rural problem. But anyone may see, by removing rose-colored glasses, that this remote section no longer needs the Indian-shooting pioneerthe romantic pioneer, I mean-but the more or less humble, hardworking, well-trained social pioneer who has the patience, the infinite patience, the forbearance, and the intelligence to mingle with cows, pigs, horses, and unsophisticated, often crude, people, far from the beaten track and the restless metropolis. Now let's look at the less favorable parts of the picture. The philanthropy (I think we may call it intelligent philanthropy) accorded the Kingston community has brought about certain tangible results. But also it has made other communities very jealous. That is perhaps one of the inevitable results of such concentration of life's visible goods. The modern "pioneer" must be prepared for such unromantic developments. Arkansas is being advertised more than ever before, but when the average promoter speaks of the state, he tells of its being sixth in the nation in timber production, second in the South in dairy products, first in the production of bauxite (aluminum), fourth in oil and gas, second in cotton, etc. Then he says it is making "great strides" in education. That is all very well, even the last statement, but not any too impressive if we think a moment. What are the great strides? From what to what? Well, for one thing, several years ago five counties in northwest Arkansas had the lowest educational rating in the United States. (That of course has nothing to do with "I. Q.'s"-their "I. Ws" were above the average if anything). That is simply an unromantic part of the picture, and it means that any type of education, rather than the type we have "found to be most April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 effective," will be established and maintained only by hard work and sacrifice, plus intelligence and training, presided over by a faith in values -to be realized. So, to the people who ask the questions, "What type of education is most effective in the mountains?" and "What is your chief problem, the backwoodser, the bootlegger, or the illiterate?" we must give, not answers but analyses, analyses of their questions as well as of local situations. Such questions are based on the easy, hence often false, assumptions that the entire local situation is obvious, that "cures" are readily determinable. The holder of such assumptions has the satisfaction of feeling progressive without the effort of making things progress. Unprogressiveness? This indictment against rural communities in general and the Ozarks in particular has already been mentioned. If it be a just and proper indictment, then one of the outstanding manifestations is the usual demonstration at funerals. The effects, on young people and children, of prolonged and overly-demonstrative grief are often definitely injurious. Some of it rather shocks an outsider and may cause him to thank God he is not as they areunless he realizes that such demonstration is, after all, a sort of entertainment for many outside the bereaved circle. There is an absence of variety in the day's routine-and a funeral affords variety. But that is just another part of the rural picture which is not romantic. That is a part requiring forbearance and sacrifice if one is to work in such a place as the Ozarks-forbearance on behalf of the simple practices of the people, and sacrifice of certain secular advantages and amusements of less remote or of metropolitan sections. The history of many Ozark communities for the past fifty or onehundred years has been a perennial recurrence of sameness. One consequence has been early marriage, often almost child marriage. The total consequence has been gathered up under the blanket indictment, "unprogressiveness." It is trite, if not almost fallacious, to say that the problem of the "mountain people" is simply the universal problem of education and enlightenment, the problem of "inculcating conceptions of the higher values in life and living" and of "inducing creative activity toward realization of the best self." That gives excellent rhapsody. But it is satisfaction without achievement. The express and implied plea of this article is for a clearer understanding of and a more tolerant regard for this "unprogressiveness"also for more active benevolence in initiating and furthering educational and health work in the "fastnesses" of our own land. For, after all, there is much more to Arkansas than its much-touted diamond mines, "the only ones in the nation." Of greater value are the social and spiritual diamond mines. THERE IS no reason why as intense, intellectual, and progressive a life should not be possible in the country as in the towns. The real reason for the stagnation is that the country population :s not organized. -~E, National Being Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 TWO POEMS AMY MAY ROGERS AFTER SUPPER I reckon I ought t' a hoed that corn, But seem' like I jist had to go Up on th' ridge this evenin', John; That wind meant June; I knowed th' blow! An', sure 'nough, there wuz all th' signs. Th' laurel, as 'th' town folks say, 'Uz pink, 'ith th' specks all showin' plain . . . . . "Calico" 's best name fer hit, long way! An' down along th' south side, where Th' fire burned over in th' Fall, Th' wintergreen wuz jist as thick . . . . . Th' berries 'uz white, an' purty small, But my! them leaves shore tasted good! Hyer's some right now, I fotched away. ,: Oh, well. . . . come mornin' I'll hoe corn . . . . . But I'm proud I went to th' ridge today! C0MP'NY Well, if hyer ain't some comp'ny. Look hyer, Wayne, Who's come in now fer summer! Hit shore is Right good to see ye! Find yerself a cheer Back where it's cool, an' rest yer hat. I 'lowed You'd be a-comin' in along 'bout now. Spare ye some eggs an' milk? Why, shore I kin, An' apples, too; an' purty soon the'll be Some roas'n-ears on that there early corn. Law, no! My gardin's not a-doin' no good. Hit's been a sight wet, an' hit jis' look' like Th' weeds 'ud take th' patch. But th' new moon, Hit come up dry las' night. July'll be fair. Now, you don't haf to go! Jis' set a spell . . . . . Wayne, fetch Miss Sue a drink fresh frum th' spring . . . . . I'm mighty proud you've come! Hit don't seem like Th' summer's rightly hyer, till you git in! April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE .AND WORK Page 21 Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING VIRGINIA SLUSHER A ND YOU teachers think you can't have a hot dish for your children each day at school? I served hot lunches both years I taught. While studying the management of hot lunches in normal school I said, "If I ever teach, I'll try them." Though I should hesitate to say that the trial was a grand success, I would never say we failed; and I know that for every effort we were fully repaid. We had a one-room school with two small wardrobes. One of these wardrobes we used for books, the other for our kitchen. We had a home-made table covered with oil cloth, shelves for tin cups and spoons, a one-burner oil stove, two dish pans, a soup ladle, and a few other small utensils. Since we were a number of miles from a store, we ordered soup beans, oats, crackers, condensed milk, and canned soups from a mail-order house. Our menus for a week were posted on the board the preceding Friday. If we had planned vegetable soup, the children would bring all available vegetables, one family would bring some corn, another some butter for seasoning. The result was a very appetizing dish for the youngsters at noon. Milk was often scarce, and so we mostly used canned milk. We served cocoa, creamed potatoes, creamed cabbage, oats, soup beans, tomato soup, and many other soups. Chocolate pudding was the favorite dish. I suppose you are wondering how a teacher could cook and wash dishes as well as teach and supervise the playground. I had nothing to do with the lunch except to see that things were cooked at the proper time, in the proper manner, and that the dishes were properly washed. The supervision was little trouble, for my girls soon became experts at all these things. When we were excused for dinner, the cooks for that week served the soup or whatever we were having, while we washed our hands in the creek which ran along the edge of the school ground. The children of each family had their own soap and towel. We came into the house, took our own seats, and the cooks in clean white aprons brought each a tin cup with something steaming in it. Then we asked the blessing. The hot dish brought forth our appetites and made our cold sandwiches taste ninety-nine per cent better! Afterward out to play we all went except the two dish washers. They of course had seen to it before lunch that two boys had carried the water and put it on the stove. Now like little brownies they flew to work, quickly cleaning tin cups and spoons. Dish cloths were left spotless. "Who pays for these things?" Open up your thin little pocketbook. It's true your salary is small, but you will never realize its being smaller by your having paid for some hot lunch material. "WE WASHED OUR HANDS IN THE CREEK" At first some children may not like what is served. Try having them eat three bites; next time they'll take six, and before you know it they'll be whispering to the cooks for a second helping. When they feel that they do not care for any soup, don't give them any crackers, and then they'll gladly take thin soup in order to have the crackers. Children, especially rural children, are fond of crackers. Now I hope you have concluded that it's no impossible job. Get busy, and give your youngsters something hot for their lunch. April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 TEN YEARS OF THE FARMERS FEDERATION JAMES G. K. MCCLURE, JR. TEN YEARS ago a small group of mountain farmers of Fairview Township in the Blue Ridge district of North Carolina met to discuss their problems. The chief problem which they had to solve was the difficulty of selling what they could raise. They felt that the reason for the extremely small production on the farms in the district was the immediate practical difficulty of finding a market. A first-hand illustration of the problem was that of selling Irish potatoes. If ten of these farmers planted Irish potatoes they would be likely to dig them about the same time in the fall, after the corn had been topped. The next good day after digging, each man would decide to drive to town to sell his potatoes. Having no telephone, he would not be familiar with prices. The ten reaching town on the same day, each with a load of potatoes, would glut the local market. Each would drive around town, competing with his neighbor, gradually cutting the price, and would end the day with half his load unsold. On their way home that night they would meet at a camp fire beside the road and talk it over, and the inevitable decision would be, "What is the use to grow it if we can't sell it? Next year we will make just enough to do us." This group of farmers decided to form an organization for the purpose of finding a market for what could be produced on the mountain farms of their section, the idea being that if a market could be found, the farmers would respond by producing more. They called their organization the Farmers Federation, and in order to spread the news around the township, they issued a small sheet called the Farmers Federation News, an inexpensive sheet printed on both sides, outlining the plan and sending the call-to-arms to the farmers. The response was quite surprising. Before many months had passed this group of farmers had built a siding at a convenient point and erected a small warehouse. A manager was secured at a salary of seventy-five dollars a month, and the doors of the first warehouse were opened for business in December, 1920. The Federation sold supplies to its members, effecting a great saving in the cost of fertilizer and feeds. Before many months had passed the manager needed a helper, and as the business grew it was necessary to have a truck. The news of the movement commenced to spread around the county, and the farmers in the Leicester district soon became anxious to have a warehouse at a point convenient for them. The second warehouse was therefore built. The movement continued to spread, and within five years eight warehouses were in operation in Buncombe, Henderson, Rutherford, and Polk Counties. During the first year or two the business consisted chiefly of handling feed, fertilizer, and seeds. Although the purpose of the organization was to market farm produce, it was soon evident that there was comparatively little produce to market. Also, the marketing of general produce is a much more difficult business than the selling of farm `supplies. There are a number of men in every community competent to handle farm supplies, but few who have had experience in marketing farm produce. In the mountain district, there is so little farm produce sold that it has never assumed the proportions of a business. As the organization gained experience it became increasingly evident that a great deal of work would have to be done along the line of developing production. Local markets could absorb very little of what the farmers could raise; to assemble produce in car lots with which to invade outside markets was a dificult job. The gap between the supplying of the local market and the accumulating of a sufficiently large volume to ship in car lots was the most difficult hurdle to jump. The directors of the Federation, all experienced farmers, decided that a definite, patient campaign must be waged to develop production of the various products that can be successfully grown in the mountains. An increase in poultry constituted the first objective. Poultry can be grown on any farm in the mountains. The Federation has never encouraged the growing of poultry on a com Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 mercial scale, but it has set a definite goal of one hundred hens on every farm. This number of hens can be taken care of by the farmer and his wife with very little expense, and with careful attention can be made to bring in a steady income. In order to maintain an all-theyear-round market for poultry it was found necessary to operate a dressing plant to supply the local market with dressed poultry, and also to operate poultry cars over quite a wide territory. The poultry cars, paying cash at the car door, would provide an outlet for all surplus poultry. The great difficulty was to develop production to the point where these cars could be supplied. A car takes about eighteen thousand pounds of poultry, and the shipper has to pay freight on that amount whether the car is full or not. At first there was not sufficient poultry in the section to fill a car. But some friends of the people had a vision of what might be accomplished and were willing to absorb the loss in operating these poultry cars until the people responded by increasing production. As the cars ran regularly, people began to realize that there was a market for poultry, and many a farmer's wife commenced to set a few more old hens. Last year the Farmers Federation paid the producers in its territory a little over $480,000 for poultry and eggs. This is a tremendous increase in production, and we believe it has been caused by our providing a market on which the people can depend. The people in the mountains are in quite a different situation from the farmers in many other sections. The wheat growers are able to unite in commodity organizations to sell large quantities of wheat. The orange growers are able to form commodity organizations to ship their oranges because they have a large volume of oranges. The cotton and tobacco growers, in the same way, form commodity organizations because they have a large amount of a single commodity. There is no commodity which the mountain farmer is producing in any quantity; therefore it is impossible for the mountain farmers to organize commodity organizations. The problem in the mountains is not so much one of marketing as one of production. The Farmers Federation, therefore, formed a type of organization which permits it to keep its doors open the year around. Handling feeds, fertilizers, seeds, and some of the heavier groceries which the farmer needs, and paying the managers and employees on the modest profits realized from the sale of these, it is ready to take chickens and eggs any day in the year, to ship Irish potatoes in August, and mountain rye (used extensively for seed purposes in the South) during two or three weeks in September, to handle a few hundred crates of strawberries in May, and a few thousand bushels of apples in October, to handle forest products such as ties, pulp wood, locust logs, basswood, and chestnut wood at any time. It seems, after ten years of experience, that this type of organization is the one best suited to the needs of the mountain farmers. At first the larger part of the business was handling farm supplies; now it is the sale of farm products. In the twelve months ending June 30, 1930, over $600,000 was paid to the farmers for produce raised on their farms. With an educational and development fund that has been generously supported by those interested in helping the mountain people to work out their own salvation, the Federation has been able to initiate new industries, such as a small cannery or the marketing of forest products, and to improve the quality of what is produced, by means of operating hatcheries and promoting better live stock. Each new enterprise is expected to be established on a permanent paying basis within three years. The Federation also plans to promote research work with this fund along the line of finding new sources of wealth for the people of the Southern Mountains. The Federation has had an annual crop of obstacles to overcome, such as a disastrous fire which wiped out its capital five years ago, drought, ignorance, and just recently the collapse of almost all the banks in the territory. In spite of these obstacles it has made steady progress in the volume of sales and particularly in the efficiency of the organization. The volume of business at the eight warehouses is running a little over a million dollars a year at present. The mountain region is a region of low average production, the average net cash income of the mountain farmer being probably April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 not more than one hundred dollars per year. This creates a general condition that is very discouraging to intellectual and spiritual development. Through organizing market facilities, thereby offering the people an opportunity to help themselves, this income can be greatly increased, and people will put the additional money into better homes, better schools, and better churches. Those behind the Federation movement believe, after these ten years' experience, that permanent agricultural industries can be established which will sustain the kind of civilization and standard of living that all believe in, and that improved marketing facilities will stimulate the spirit of the people, give opportunity to the ambitious, and encourage those who desire to build a better commonwealth. Perhaps these words from the cover sheet of the Tenth Annual Edition of the Farmers Federation News will best give the results of ten years' work (Continued from .Page One) Very plainly did those discussions reveal the group as forward-looking and open-minded, as experienced in constructive undertakings and ready for new construction. From the floor as from the platform came fearlessness in facing facts and readiness for experimentation, whether in education, religion, social undertak "During the past year the Farmers Federation has enjoyed a greater achievement than ever before in every line of endeavor for improved conditions in rural life. Adding to the markets already created for poultry, eggs and vegetables, the Federation has developed a market for forest products, a new and most promising avenue of income for the mountain farmers. Federation warehouses, hatcheries, a canning plant, a sweet-potato curing-house serve this entire section; and Federation trucks can be seen daily on the highways of western North Carolina, a constant reminder of what is being done through progressive farming. "From the active interests and untiring efforts of all movements for continued progress in western North Carolina will come prosperity for all her people. The Federation extends a helping hand to all: to the farmers through the people, and again, to the people through the farmers." ings, or institutional administration. The recent Conference was doubtless the child of those held through preceding years, in that meeting together had bred knowledge of what could be of most value when meeting together. Also the listener felt with certainty that it was the child of practical work and experience, of contact with real situations and of the habits of mind which such contact breeds. UNLESS THERE be economic freedom there can be no other freedom. The right of no individual to subsistence should be at the good will of any other individual. -~E, National Being Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 THE ROAD BUILDERS MARY E. GARNER HOW IS the road?" "Is it open?" "Is it long?" "Is it improved?" Indeed, what of the road? It is safe to say that in this day of speeding cars there is no subject concerning which our American people think and talk more universally than "the road." Indeed it is an age-old subject. When the prophets of old would describe the pressing of humanity Godward they couched their thought in the figure of a road. "Make level in the desert a highway for our God." "And a highway shall be there and a way and it shall be called the way of holiness." Down at Lost Creek, Tennessee, there were some "mighty fine" farms. The creek overflowed its banks every year and land was enriched, crops were improved, and stock was better fed. The place was rightly named Lost Creek, for a stranger had only to follow the stream down its winding course to see it actually drop out of sight. Where its waters reappeared on their journey to the ocean no man had discovered. Fertile farms, rich timber land, homesteads-humble to be sure, but homesteads generations in the making-surely these should have made a happy and prosperous community! But a glimpse of the loneliness and deprivations which surrounded the people on every side will help you understand how useless and futile it must have seemed to spend time and strength, life itself, on a Lost Creek farm. The houses far apart, too far for a man to catch sight of his neighbor, the families scarcely met except at Sunday school in the schoolchurch-house. The monotonous, work-filled days went by in one drab, unending procession. The mail came on mule-back if the carrier could get through. Parcel post? Well, sometimes it had to wait. For the road, gullied by storms, indescribably rocky, filled with mud holes that only a sure-footed mule could pick his way through, so narrow that teams had to plan their meeting places, so steep in spots that to drag a heavy load was well-nigh impossiblesuch a road stretched weary miles from home to home on to the nearest trading center, the county-seat. If Father and Mother wished to THE TWO ROAD 13UILDERS go to the church-house some winter Sunday, the mule was saddled, and if Son had to go to Sparta to "pack in" groceries, it was again the faithful mule. Upon the road to Lost Creek, as to many another mountain settlement, depended the contacts with the outside world, the fellowship of neighbors, the value of the farm products, in short, almost everything that makes life itself worth while. Often the men and women of the community had wished that the county would improve April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 the road, but because of long years of deprivation, of getting along in spite of conditions, the thought had hardly been anything more than a vague wish. Suddenly, her children educated and gone, her heart lonely beyond description, pressed by the sheer necessity of her soul, one woman thought out a possible solution of their problem. With the thought hardly more than a wild day-dream, she went to a neighbor woman. What could a mountain woman, two mountain women, do! A woman had her own work to do, her household to care for, the garden to make, the caws to milk, mayhap the kindling to split. One might hear of the woman who, offered a nice gift by her husband after he had made a "right smart" of money, deliberated long and finally chose a new axe. But to think of rebuilding a road, surely it would be out of place for a woman to dream of such a thing. However, these two road-builders put their heads together. First they made a list of everybody who lived or had lived at Lost Creek within their memory. Dividing the list of one hundred and twenty-five names, these two women undertook the seemingly stupendous task of writing to every person, describing the need of a new road and asking for pledges of money or labor to help build it. Their appeal must have been eloquent, for from the first enthusiasm was aroused. Sons who had gone out into the world sent back such modest gifts as they were able. Families pledged both money and labor. Presently the news reached the ears of White County officials, and when the request came to the county for help, the men who had not before dreamed of a Lost Creek highway project were moved to answer yes. They had heard that two women were wantin' a road, and they'd be blamed if they didn't help 'em! Through three summers the work went forward. As soon as the crops were in, men and teams turned out in volunteer labor. One family alone contributed in one year more than eighty hours of work by men and team. Fully fifty families shared in the work. The farmers have established their own roadway and done their own grading; the county has followed, putting in the bridges and culverts and surfacing the road with crushed stone. The cost has been about equally divided between the county and the community, and the county is pledged to keep the road in repair. And so the five miles which used to consume hours of time for every trip are now but SUCH A ROAD STRETCHED WEARY MILES as a step. The more than seven thousand dollars of money and labor spent have yielded rich fruits for many lonely homes. No man can say how far-reaching will be the results in bettered living conditions, in homes made happier, in the adding of new and worthy citizens to the community, and in the upbuilding of both -the school and the church. The blessings of the whcle country-side be on the two road builders, women who dared to wish, to dream, to plan and to do! Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 THE TRAINING OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN A. H. MEESE N THIS article I shall present some aspects I of the problems connected with the educa tion and training of mentally retarded children. It is not possible, within the limits of the space at my command, to go very deeply into the details of this work, and I shall, therefore, devote myself mainly to the consideration of the best method of handling this great problem. At the very beginning the question arises, "What is a mentally retarded child?" To answer this question we must turn to the field of psychology. Modern science has attempted many bold tasks and among them few are bolder than the effort to measure human mentality; to manufacture a yard-stick or footrule, as it were, by which this elusive, intangible thing that we call the human mind may be limited and measured. I am aware of the fact that in some quarters there is a tendency to discount and to discredit the modern mental or psychological test, but on the basis of many years of experience with the results of these tests, I am prepared to say that they do actually give us a very workable basis for dealing with the human mind in an educational way. If we accept the results of mental tests we find that there is a very large group of people who test normal or average. The psychologist calls these people normal. There is a much smaller group that test somewhat higher than normal and these the psychologist calls "superior." There is a group still smaller in numbers ranging above the superior who are labeled "very superior." There is a much smaller group still higher on the mental scale who are called "genius." In passing, let me say that, from the viewpoint of the educator, the proper education and training of the very superior, and especially the genius group, constitutes an even more difficult and serious problem than the education and training of the various types of mentality at the lower end of the scale. Going down from the so-called normal group, we have first a group that cannot quite come up to the normal, labeled "dull normal." Next below the dull normal is a group that is called "borderline"; in their mental reactions and responses they lie between the group that we call dull normal and the definitely feebleminded level. Those who are at the upper end of the feebleminded group are called "morons"; those next below the morons are called "imbeciles"; and those below imbeciles, constituting the lowest group of all, are called "idiots." The morons are in turn divided into high grade, middle grade, and low grade. Imbeciles and idiots are classified in the same manner. Thus when we come to the low grade idiot we have a type of mentality that ranges from the mind of a threeyear-old normal child down to such a low point that it almost vanishes. Each of these groups below normal gets smaller and smaller in numbers as we approach the low idiot class. I need not discuss the why of these lower mentalities. In many cases they are due to a prenatal condition or an accident at birth. Whatever the cause may have been originally, we know that in a great many cases feeblemindedness or mental retardation is transmitted from parent to child and in turn from that child to the grandchild. Mental retardation is limited to no country, to no state, to no local community, to no race, and to no economic or social condition. Numbers are all too large, and the question that society has to face is, "What shall we do with these children?" They are a burden on family and community. They do not respond to the education and training given to normal and super-normal children. They are, for the most part, useless in the home and in school. They constitute an immense drain on the the time and energy of the teacher. Two or three of these children in a regular school class occupy an inordinate amount of the teacher's time; after the school has finished with them, they may be, in many respects, worse off than when they first started school, for they have learned little that is good and have acquired habits of April, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 idleness, uselessness, discouragement, and failure. Keep in mind that these subnormal boys and girls are simply children who have never grown up mentally. They may be perfect specimens physically. Naturally they have many fine qualities. They are childlike, trusting, faithful, appreciative, and lovable. If they could be set apart from those conditions where they are spoiled and where they seem to pick up bad habits easily, we might go a long way toward keeping them happy and contented, and we might make them useful people who would perform their share of the world's work. The pity of it is that we herd them together with children who are far beyond them in general ability, under conditions where they are misunderstood, driven to attempt things far beyond them, pushed aside, ridiculed. Thus they develop all sorts of anti-social traits, and in due time a considerable percentage of them become positive menaces to themselves, their community, and society in general. We find a large percentage of subnormal mentalities in our penitentiaries, jails, and reform schools. Most of us will accept without debate the proposition that every child, no matter what his handicap, has an inherent right to the fullest development of which his personality is capable. When we think of the type of education best suited to the subnormal child we must bear in mind that he simply cannot fit into our existing regular school system. Shall he then be kept at home? This is the least expensive way of taking care of the child, especially at the beginning. The difficulty with it is that "ew parents have the insight and the ability to train these children. Facilities are lacking; and the isolated child lacks the inspiration and competition that arise from daily and hourly contact with others of his own kind. I know case after case where the family has been wrecked or nearly wrecked because of the presence of such a child in the home. A second possibility of education and training lies in the special classes some school systems have organized. These special classes when properly organized under trained and capable teachers and supervisors, have been able to take care of the needs of many chil dren, especially those in the upper levels of the subnormal group. However, they minister only to the upper levels; in the scond place, only the larger and wealthier places feel they have enough money to organize those classes. Again, many of these classes that I have seen and know about personally are composed of bad discipline cases rather than the mentally retarded. When a tractable, well behaved mentally retarded child is placed among a group of those who are disciplinary problems he is worse off than before, because the mentally retarded child seems to be peculiarly susceptible to the bad influence of such a group. Furthermore, no ordinary special class can have the variety of equipment and other opportunities that he needs. In a typical group of fifteen children in a special class, there will be so many different types and ages that they simply cannot secure the maximum benefit from the class instruction. Many of these children need more than five hours of formal school each day. The benefits of five hours in school are frequently lost because of the wrong influences outside of school to which they are subjected several hours each day, to say nothing of the entire day on Saturdays and Sundays. In short, a special class is much limited in usefulness. My years of experience in public school work, my knowledge of psychology, my knowledge of state schools for the mentally defective, together with my five years of experience as a boy in a state institution, all convince me that by far the best method of educating and training the subnormal lies in a state school organized for this particular purpose, and it is to this idea that I shall devote the rest of this article. If Kentucky wishes to do the right thing by her mentally handicapped children she should consider very seriously the building of such a school. Perhaps no city or even county in the state is rich enough to build and maintain the right kind of institution, but the state can do it. I am convinced that such a school, properly conducted, would bring back large returns to the people. One after another, every state that has seriously considered the question has adopted this solution. If this is true, what are the practical steps to be taken? In the first Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 place a small committee of experts should be appointed by the proper authority, presumably the governor, to make a careful survey. of thc: facts which can be secured through the local public school authorities. As a result of this, survey the scope of the school could be determined, tl-a probable growth, and also the location. Such a state school should not be isolated but should be as accessible as possible to different sections of the state. It should be on a main highway but the buildings should not be visible from the highway itself. The next step, in my opinion would be the selection of a high class superintendent, an educator, who already has an expert knowledge of education and training of the mentally retarded in institutions. I say educator, because from my point of view the problem is one of education and training, and distinctly is not a medical problem primarily, as might be deduced from the fact that most institutions have physicians as superintendents. It is not necessary to experiment in this field of endeavor as the combined experience of many other states can be secured quite easily. Kentucky can, if she goes about it in the right manner, avold the mistake that other states have made and borrow only their successes. In due time a good board of managers of the institution should be selected and appointed. This board should preferably consist of five or seven members and should hold monthly meetings. Next an architect should be chosen who with the superintendent should visit certain selected institutions in order to determine the plan of buildings and grounds and the type of buildings to be erected. A general plan will be laid out, extending several years into the future, so that the institution can develop year after year. Also it should not be difficult to have a small advisory committee of experts who could bring to this new school, very quickly, the best experiences of other states. It may be interesting to consider the list of buildings that would, in the course of time be erected. Each of these might be a single building or two or more buildings could be combined under one roof. They would be: administrative and business office, at first probably located in some other building, and later in a special building erected for this purpose; a power plant; a central dining hall with kitchen, and dining rooms for pupils, officers, and other members of the staff; a power laundry unit, which is necessary and which can be used for trade purposes; cottages for housing pupils; staff quarters, either a separate building or additional rooms in some of the other buildings; a good school building to which certain shops could be added; farm buildings such as a dairy barn, piggery, and poultry house. There will be a residence for the superintendent and his family, and if the institution is large enough there will be residence for certain other institutional officials such as the resdent physician and the business manager. All this seems to call for the expenditure of much money, but naturally this entire plan does not need to be carried out at one time. Furthermore, it must be remembered that in schools of this sort a great share of the work of the institution is done by the boys and girls, who in this manner are kept busy and happy and are learning trades and securing general training at the same time. In developing such a school it should be kept in mind constantly that the purpose is highly specialized education and training. Again lack of space prohibits my going into the question of methods to any considerable extent. The results secured would depend upon having a trained and understanding staff and group of teachers. It is not possible to pick up a trained personnel easily; some can be secured from other institutions of like nature, but for the most part experience has demonstrated chat it will be necessary to employ people who do not have much scientific training for such situations. Thus it will be important to secure high-class people for supervisors and department leads, who will need to hold regular training classes among their staff people. Teachers who have secured their training in the regular normal schools can, with supervision, learn to adapt their training to the instruction of boys and girls of the type we are discussing. Some children will be so low mentally or will have such personality difficulties that it will never be possible to return them to the April, 1931 .MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 outside world. It should be kept in mind, however, that wherever possible the boys and girls will be returned to society under proper supervision. The kind of training will include formal academic work, of such type and nature as the child will need and will be able to do. In most state schools the minimum essentials include the ability to read, to write, and to do such ordinary figuring as the mentally retarded will find necessary. For the most part, their writing will be limited to letter writing, the reading of signs, and newspapers; their number work to handling money and making change. I am here talking about the minimum that we should try to teach each boy and girl; it should also be true that each child is carried along in regular school work as far as he or she can go. There are many trades that can be taught in such a school: the selection of a trade will depend upon the physical and mental ability of each child, his preference, and the possibilities in the community to which the child is Ã‚Â±o return; for example, a boy who will be sure .o return to his parents in a large city should not be taught any branch of farming as a trade although he may of course work on the farm for a while for his health, his general training, as an institutional asejgnment, or because there is in charge of that department a man who, it is felt, can exert a special influence over the boy's character. It may be well here to list a few of the trades that I know some institutions are teaching: general farming; animal husbandry, including hogs and poultry; dairying; fruit-growing; cobbling; carpentry; plumbing; brick-laying; assisting a florist; cane-seating; various phases of loom work; gardening; power laundry; rug-making. For girls may be listed all phases of housework including cleaning and cooking; hand and machine sewing; power sewing; care of children; loom work; power laundry; hand laundry; fancy work, including tatting and pillow lace-making; rug-making; work as waitress; beauty parlor work. In dealing with mentally retarded children there is a tendency to think of them only along so-called practical lines; they are thought not capable of doing much more than to learn some trade and to be kept forever at some piece of hand work. I think this is a mistaken idea. The life of the mentally retarded child should be as well rounded as it can possibly be. He should be made happy above all other things. He should receive education and training in character, in religion, and along cultural lines. Training in music, clay modeling, drawing, painting should be given. I have seen some marvelously fine results along cultural lines; in one of our institutions for mentally retarded girls a most excellent band broadcasts over the radio. Man's life does not consist in work alone but in the finer things of life; this holds true with the mentally retarded as with normal people. In summary: it is my belief that, for the development of the mentally retarded child, his usefulness in later life, and for the welfare of the community, the best opportunity is offered by training in a specialized state school. T IS the business of the rural reformer to create the rural community. -~E, National Being Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK April, 1931 BOOKS FOR HOME READING FOR HIGH SCHOOLS. Prepared for the .National Council of Teachers of English by its Committee on Home Reading. Pamphlet. 20 cents each. .In quantities, 15c. The National Council of Teachers of English, 211 West 68th Street, Chicago. MAY B. SMITH This 112-page skilfully classified book list will be welcome to teachers of high school English. To their students also; for the pamphlet is an allurement as well as a guide. The cover design is delightful, and within are numerous illustrations, some in color, from beautifully-illustrated editions of some of the books. A prefatory page is directed definitely to student readers. The classifying headings are informing and serviceable; many of them are interesting and happily struck off: "Famous People in Fiction," "Four Corners of the Earth," "The Younger Set." A helpful detail is the numbering of the titles according to year or years for which they are recommended. There is a list of books especially suited to the first year, in addition to those in the classified lists. An alphabetical index enables one to find any particular book or author included. Especially in the hands of the students, the list would be still more useful if the plan of having brief explanatory notes follow some of the titles had been extended to all of the books whose titles are not self-explanatory. When, in the group "English History in Story," Ivanhoe has a note naming its period, there seems no reason why Henry Esmond should have none. Also, some of the notes are rather inadequate. To call The Light That Failed simply "tragic" does not characterize it very helpfully: The Importance of Being Earnest is much more than "a good farce"; to call Adam Bede, "a study of sturdy manliness" would hardly either win a reader or prepare him for the rich variety of that book. "A boy vagabond and his adventures with the British secret service," on the other hand, will make many students reach for Kim, and is not misleading. In the special list for the first year, it may be said, all of the titles are annotated, and usefully. Since the compilers have used the device of a special check mark for such books as are "a little too hard or too serious for the average student of the graduating year," one wonders if this check would not wisely have been used more freely than it has been. Wisely used as it is, in this reviewer's opinion, for Wnthe)-ing Heights, Tommy and Grizel, and Prometheus Unbound, why not for Faust, Ethan Frome, Philaster, and O Pioneers? The last two, moreover, are recommended for the third as well as the fourth year. Perhaps all that can be said in regard to this question is that opinions will differ. And the same, of course, must be said in regard to the general choice of books for these lists. Every teacher will regret exclusions and wonder at inclusions, while warmly approving on the whole. The list is rich in good romantic material. The present reviewer is glad to see a personal judgment corroborated, in that, although The House of The Seven Gables and The Scarlet Letter are suggested for third or fourth year, the dark and baffling beauty of Hawthorne's remaining novels is left for later reading. A judgment of the compilers, unshared by this reviewer, omits Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, and The Prince and the Pauper. Teachers will still find it good to supplement this list from their own knowledge and experience, and to give guidance where the list does not give it. They can hardly fail to find in it rich resources of which they did not know. It could even be urged upon them as a guide for their own reading. OUR CONTRIBUTORS OLIVE D. CAMPBELL needs no introduction to readers of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. O. LATHAM HATCHER, president of the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance, has written several valuable books on vocational guidance. JAMES R. ROBERTSON is head of the history department of Berea College. W. GORDON Ross writes from an intimate experience in the Ozarks. He is now teaching at Berea College. Amy MAY ROGERS, a teacher in Knoxville, spends her summers in the mountains of Tennessee. VIRGINIA BLUSHER is a teacher in a remote community of Kentucky. JAMES G. K. MCCLURE, JR., started the Farmers Federation which has recently celebrated its tenth birthday. MARY E. GARNER is a member of the staff at Pleasant Hill Academy, Pleasant Hill, Tennessee. A. H. MEESE is superintendent of the North Jersey Training School, Totowa, New Jersey.