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Mountain Life & Work vol. 07 no. 2 July, 1931 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv7n20731 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 07 no. 2 July, 1931 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky July, 1931 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. Volume V11 JULY, 1931 Number II Adult Education and World Problems -John D. Willard 2 Adjustment of the Elementary Curriculum to the Schools of Extremely Isolated Areas -Fannie W. Dunn 8 Cooperation and Progress Berea's Student Labor Program How We Do It at Madison A Religious Basis for the Modern Country Church Gospel Objectives and Progress of the Economic and Social Survey of the Southern Appalachians -Herrnarrn N. Morse -Albert G. Weidler 19 14 -Floyd Bralliar 26 -C. C. Haarn 29 -L. C. Gray 31 Published Quarterly at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFT: AND WORK Mountain Life ~D Work -Volume V11 JULY, 1931 Number 11 Mountain Life and Work Helen H. Dingman _ Dr. William James Hutchins Orrin L. Keener May B. Smith __ Editor Counsellor _ Associate Editor ___Associate Editor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson ___ _ New York City Mrs. John C. Campbell _____ Brasstown, N. C. Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn _______ Atlanta, Ga. Dr. John P. McConnell _ ____East Radford, Va. Dr. Arthur T. McCormack Dr. E. C. Branson ___ Dr. John J. Tigert __._______ ISSUED QUARTERLY-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. _____... Louisville, Ky. __Chapel Hill, N. C. _ __Gainesville, Fla. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter. ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY EDITORIAL As a newcomer to the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, with no practical experience of the work carried on by the majority of the members, I was surprised and pleased to find how much of what went on was not only comprehensible but interesting and arresting to me. Here was no mulling over of individual problems; if they entered into discussions, it was by way of their larger implications. The messages of Dr. Morse, Dr. Willard, and Dr. Dunn were fundamental to all considerations of human education and progress. Dr. Weidler and Mr. Haun dealt ,with more specific questions, educational and re ligious, yet because they brought to the consideration of these questions a new viewpoint and a fresh observation, their messages were stimulating to all who heard them. There was, at the Conference, a spirit of friendliness and cooperation, a fearless way of facing present questions and their implications for the future-as shown in the session at which Dr. Gray and Dr. Morse outlined the projected studies of the Southern Highlands-and an adventurous yet wise weighing of the new, which seemed to promise well for the whole future of mountain work. M. T. From Conference Discussions "Education is coincident with life." "There is a difference between putting it into the course and putting it into the teacher." "The older people of the mountains have a culture, a courtesy that the younger generations lack." "I am quite sure that the minister who does enter into the community work accomplishes more than the minister who goes around and looks pious." "The federated church seems to be the solution of many of the mountain problems connected with religion." Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 ADULT EDUCATION AND WORLD PROBLEMS JOHN D. WILLARD The implication has not infrequently been made that mountain people are essentially different from the rest of the world, and that mountain life is essentially a thing apart from the rest of life. My effort this evening, therefore, will be to show that all the people of the world are sharing in huge common problems, and that the solution of these problems is on lines and' procedures common to all. The discussion will be developed around five dogmatic statements. 1. The nations of the world are today in a situation more critical than any that has existed in recent centuries. 2. Only by the swift success of wisely planned adult education can the present impasse be resolved, and progress toward more wide-spread human welfare be resumed. 3. The present crisis compels us to re-examine all of our philosophies-political, social and economic. 4. The United States of America has opportunity to make a peculiar contribution to the world at this time; and only the rural portion of the United States can furnish some parts of this contribution. 5. Only through adult education can American rural civilization be maintained vigorous and equal to the opportunity. My first thesis is that the nations of the world are today in a situation more critical than any that has existed in recent times. I would even go so far as to say that the present situation is more critical than any that has ever existed in the world's history. Never before has mankind controlled such power, physical and intellectual, for good or ill; never before has human intelligence commanded so many tools of construction or destruction; never before have all parts of the world been in such complete and swift communication, for good or ill. I believe the present crisis is even more perilous than any during the world war. Nations and institutions were then moving under the momentum of former policies and philosophies, and peoples were kept in fair cohesiveness by the consciousness of common p'I; eri but now the steadying restraints and support of older philosophies and beliefs have gone down before a new science, and with philosophies have gone standards. We have cut loose from the old before finding moorings in the new. Our present crisis lies much in the fact that our economic system has worked itself to an impasse. Many go so far as to declare that it has broken down completely. Of this I am by no means convinced. The hopeless pessimism and the shallow optimism whose voices are heard in every land are equally unproductive. May I record myself here as an optimist, but as believing profoundly in the necessity for facing the facts, which are somewhat as follows. The United States, which we may take as illustrating the world's situation, suffers from an over-production of raw materials-ores, fuels, fibres, feeds and food. The nation has much over-developed its producing capacity. Speaking to the World Conference on Adult Education in Cambridge nearly two years ago, Mr. Spencer M'ller, Secretary of the Workers' Education As i sociation of the American Federation of Labor, quoted the Secretary of Labor of the United States to the effect that mechanization has so increased production in the United States that we could make all the steel that is needed in America for a single year in seven and a half months; all of the boots and shoes in about six months; all of the plateglass in seventeen weeks; that we could produce all the textiles that can possibly be used in the United States in a year in six months; and with the present number of men in the coal industry, we could dig all the coal we could use, in six months. As a result of technical efficiency we have had the emergence on a large scale of what is called "technological unemployment." Millions of men must, during their lifetime, find new types of work because their old types of work have gone out of existence. Mr. Miller further said, "A recent report of our Department of Commerce points out the fact that 25 per cent of our present working population are working at jobs which did not exist ten years ago, and that in another two decades perhaps 75 pe. July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LirE AND WORK Page 3 cent will be working at jobs which- did not exist in colonial times. Our census indicates that in less than a hundred years, over three hundred different occupations have been altogether supplanted. They no longer exist." Perhaps the most striking illustrations of this are given by Mr. Stuart Chase in an article published in the January issue of the journal of Adult Education. Mr. Chase says, "Recently I went out to Milwaukee to look at a machine. It filled a whole building, and its function was to engulf raw steel sheets at one end and turn out finished automobile frames at the other. The whole transformation took about an hour. Every eight seconds, ,day and night, a painted, dried, ready-to-ship frame went swinging into the great overhead storage chamber, 10,000 frames a day. This one machine if operated steadily, could supply upward of 3,000,000 frames a year, 'a frame for every motor car manufactured in the United States in 1930. "I went to see it because it is probably the world's foremost exhibit of the automatic function of industry. Hardly a human hand touches the frames as they move from station to station. Two hundred men inspect, repair and control the process, all with independent and interesting jobs. Here the human robot has disappeared-and will continue to disappear as the automatic function grows. This is good. But a terrible specter has taken the robot's place. When these frames were made by the old "hand" process it took 2,000 men to produce 10,000 frames a day. The machine has eliminated 90 per cent of the sometime operating force; one man does now what ten men used to do. As the robot fades, techonological unemployment looms . . . "Here is Section E of the new St. Louis concrete sewer project. Thirty-three machine operators, aided by 37 laborers, are doing the work of 7,000 pick-and-shovel men! Machines and 70 men displace 7,000 . . . The United States Department of Commerce estimates that mechanical combines in one wheat area have cut the force of farm laborers from 50,000 to 20,000." The stark result of this is that the wealthiest nation in the world in point of natural resources and in the development of producing ability, both mechanical and agricultural, has a huge surplus of unsalable raw materials and has at the same time more people out of work than ever before; people eager to work but unable to find opportunity to exchange their work for wages with which to buy the same unsalable surplus that they so much need. Our producing capacity is greater than ever before, yet our factory output is smaller than in any recent years. This is a deadlock which our combined intelligence has not been able to break since the depression settled upon us. Lest I be misunderstood, let me again record my optimistic belief that our intelligence will be able to resolve this deadlock; that we will find a way not only to solve the present dilemma but also to prevent the recurrence of the same kind of problem. Furthermore, it is my personal belief that the solution will not be found through unyielding adherence to the older philosophies of untrammeled competitive capitalism or through precipitate following of the new gods of Communism, but rather in what might be described as a "socialized capitalism." The United States is but one illustration of conditions which are general throughout the world. In England are millions of people who vainly seek to exchange their labors for the wherewithall to buy the necessaries of life. Because of their lack of ability to buy, the wheels of British industry are slowed down and in many cases wholly stopped. Furthermore, because of closerknit communications throughout the world, and because of the progress of other nations, Britain is being compelled to revise many of her older governmental and commercial policies. Not only do the British Commonwealths trade directly with each other rather than through the mother country; their direct trade with other countries becomes an embarrassing competition to that of England. Prance faces a different problem; the problem of readjusting herself to the psychology of peace. While any record of progress is subject to reversal at any moment, it seems to be significant that under the diplomatic pressure of England and the hopeful leadership of M. Briand, France has diminished in some degree her warlike attitude toward Germany, and has reduced by that much one of the continuing perils in our world situation. Germany, whose republican government has now lasted twelve years, is staggering under burdens of debt and disorganization which seem crushing not only to the citizens of the Reich but even to outsiders. Her entire economic structure has been rebuilt in the effort to meet post-war conditions, and has not yet found its adjustment. Switzerland, for the first time in modern history, finds all the markets of the world dead. Austria is reduced to a fragment of her former sell and limited largely to a manufacturing population. Hungary is left almost wholly an agricultural people without urban markets. Both discover that in point of economic life they are worse off than under the dual monarchy. The Page 4 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 recently attempted economic relationships of Germany and Austria are evidence of the effort to make adjustments to new economic conditions. Italy, making material progress under a dictatorship, is attempting to build an economic life against difficult handicaps which lie chiefly in the dearth of native raw materials. Even the Scandinavian countries which have kept their balance through the world turmoil are beginning to feel the constricting effects of world depression. And Russia-who dares talk positively about Russia? This much I feel obliged to say: the real Russian condition is probably much better than that portrayed by the bitter critics, much better for millions of people than it was under the Czars, and very much worse than the idealistic presentations of the propagandists. The Communist experiment is the most sweeping ever undertaken in the world toward the reconstruc. tion of human society, and the most radical in the complete break with traditions of the past. Whether it contains the germ of a better age or the explosive for civilization's destruction, or neither, or both, time alone can tell. It is, however, beyond controversy that the Russian condition is most critical. Turkey has amazed the world by the abandonment of older relationships of religion and state, by the adoption of wholly new governmental organization and legal codes, by the change from Arabic to Occidental alphabet and script, and by the drive for universal literacy.' India has during the past year made more actual progress toward the attainment of self-government than during many preceding decades; yet who would say that India's road is clear? The Chinese republic, less than a generation old, has weathered more internal storms and perils than would have been possible for any of the major nations of Europe; yet China is very, very far from safety with millions on the verge of starvation and communism actively sowing the seeds of destruction. Japan, in spite of its absorption of Korean territory, is feeling the constant pressure of over-population, with no immediate prospect that conditions will change for the better. This is the world as we see it today. More raw materials than the markets will buy, machinery to manufacture these materials, labor eager to put the machinery to work, consumers needing the output; yet industry is in stagnation and people face starvation because of-what? The world is at a crisis because the very success of our economic program has brought new economic and social problems. If the crisis can be met successfully, a new and wonderful chapter in the progress of mankind opens within our life tI if the combined intelligence of the world's mes; 1 1 1 leaders is not equal to the task, it means the loss of much of the accumulated achievement of mankind, a move backward to some sort of barbarism, and then the slow emergence of a new experiment in civilization. My second thesis is that only by the swift success of wisely-planned adult education can the present impasse be resolved, and progress toward more universal human welfare be resumed. May we again travel rapidly the world route which we have just completed? The United States of America is committed to a democratic philosophy of government and social organization whose essence is that democracy succeeds by insuring the maximum development of all the powers of each individual in whatever direction those powers lie, in maximum contribution by each individual to the welfare of the nation, and in maximum participation of intelligent citizens in the processes of government. How far we have fallen short of our own ideals of democracy may be measured in the growth of super-buccaneering which blights the government of our two greatest cities today, and finds a counterpart in apathy, or selfishness, or even misconduct, on almost every governmental level. The only correction for such a situation is in the very great increase in the number of citizens whose minds are capable of constructively critical judgment, and whose wills are strengthened to the point of action in the light of sound judgment. The great majority of American citizens possess neither sufficient ability to form dispassionate critical judgments nor factual information to make such judgments valid. Only by increase in the opportunity for adult education and increase in the desire for intellectual and civic growth can this condition be changed for the better. And in this emergency the vast majority of citizens are unaware of their need, while the great majority of educators are unaware of the nature of their obligation. The fact that England could weather a gen July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page S eral strike by the cooperation of citizens of all classes and conditions is due in no small degree to the effective work which had already been done in adult education, work which had enlisted the more thoughtful minds in labor organizations and in leisure classes alike. That violent explosions produce little except wreckage is recognized among the people of England as never before. Yet England's only hope for the future is in continuing this increase of informed and capable minds by whose activity the economic readjustments can be planned and executed. Such modification as has occured in the French attitude is distinctly the product of steady growth in popular thinking, growth away from the chauvinistic. The trend is good, but the education must proceed much further and faster before safety is reached. Germany is a veritable battle ground of political theories, but with distinct progress in the ability of citizens of the Reich to think constructively and sanely. If the present apparent weakening of the Hitler faction means anything, it probably means that still more German citizens have thought themselves through to the probable outcome of Hitler policy. The central European countries, some newly-emerged, some shorn of former power and resources, have common need for the reconstruction of a new economic and social order. The constant threat or the actual Uilization of dictatorship shows liow little the ti I I I leaders of industry and commerce have been able to achieve the solution. Again the way out is the same; many more trained minds, more adequately supplied with facts. The Italian experiment and the Russian experiment have in common the fact of dictatorship; both have professed belief in the ultimate education of all citizens; both are achieving this by autocratic methods; both are practicing a high degree of indoctrination. Either or both of these experiments may be tremendously destructive, or tremendously constructive in proportion as the rank and file of newly-educated people achieve a measure of intelligent sound judgment. If the present policies result in the closed mind and fanatical action in disregard of essential fact, the disaster will be terrible beyond imagination; if the growing minds take control of the destinies of either or both of these nations and shape them consistently with fact, the contribution to human welfare may well outrun anything which we have imagined. Turkey has staked its all on the principle of universal education; in fact, on the success of educating the present generation of adults to life under new laws, new economic organization, and new contact with the entire world. Moreover the results to date have astonished Turkey's well-wishers. Yet the greater task in adult education still lies ahead. Present indications are that India will be given more opportunity for self-direction than under any previous regime. The peril lies in India's 89 per cent illiteracy; the hope lies in sufficiently educating the intelligent of this illiterate group to enable them to participate constructively in the functions of government. The miracle of modern adult education which is being daily performed in China by the so-called thousand-character alphabet-a movement which has carried from sheer illiteracy to functional literacy within the last ten years a population larger than that of the Scandinavian countries combined -is the one greatest hope for aligning the Chinese people toward self-help in matters of government, of industry, and of life itself. In fact, China is one of the major battle fields of the world in the struggle between the destructive methods of communism in its worst forms, and constructive measures for the correction of agelong disabilities. And similarly through the rest of the world a more complex and richer life requires a more highly-developed and a better-informed intelligence if the gains of human experience are to be preserved for the welfare of humanity. My third thesis is that the present crisis compels us to re-examine all of our philosophiespolitical, social and economic. In point of physical comforts, in point of the banishment of older fears, in point of material enrichment of life, the people of the United States have achieved a position never before known. Equipment which was possessed only by the wealthy of a generation ago, and was non-existent a century ago, is within the reach of nearly all today. Fears of eidemic have been all but banished. Supersti pi I Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 tious fears have been much reduced, though far be it from us to believe that we are emancipated from superstition. Yet are the people happier than they were? In the midst of achievement in things material, this question is raised more insistently than ever. The sinister fear of unemployment, the fear of pauperism (particularly in the cities), and the fear of lonely old age are increasing rather than diminishing. As American civilization has come to depend more and more on purchased satisfactions, it has lost much of its resourcefulness and still more of the subjective and contemplative enjoyments in life. The social and economic structure suited to the needs of an agricultural people numbering four millions, and the governmental structure developed by people in post-revolutionary times, creak dismally under the needs of one hundred and twenty millions, the major part of whom are urban. Even in the realm of religion, those beliefs which comforted, sustained, guided and controlled our forefathers are insufficient for the same functions today. Thoughtful men and women are seeking ways in which to recover the religious values which contributed to the happiness of earlier generations-and to do this without causing the return of those particular elements of peril and unhappiness which the present generation have been spared. Moreover not a single realm of knowledge has escaped change within the last decade; chemistry, physics, even mathematics, which stood as our most unchanging field of knowledge, have seen radical modification. In this change a new emphasis appears. All the philosophies, and in particular those that relate directly to mankind, are being appraised again in the light of their effect on man's social welfare and happiness. Although many of us are unwilling to abandon our old philosophies of government, economics, sociology and religion, we are no longer content to accept them through mere reverence for antiquity; we seek to find their elements of weakness or positive harmfulness that have permitted us to drift into our present condition, and at the same time we seek to strengthen those elements which have proven good in order that mankind may achieve still finer happiness, not only now but for generations to come. Christian leaders in particular accept more seriously than ever before the wider implications in the saying of Jesus that the Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath. Millions of our people are now engaged in the appraisal of older beliefs and valuations, determined to be fearless in revising and even in discarding where necessary. My fourth thesis is that the United States of America has the opportunity to make a peculiar contribution to the world at this time, and that only the rural portion of the United States can furnish some parts of this contribution. I make this assertion in humility rather than in boastfulness. As our wealth and influence are greater than ever before, so also is our responsibility proportionately greater. The many unintelligent failures of our democracy to see the present world situation and to take constructive leadership in crucial moments have created a distrust toward the United States which one can sense in the mind of almost any alien. Nevertheless the opportunity for positive leadership is open to us. As the United States is blamed-wrongly in all probability-for the entire world stagnation of the present time, so, if the United States can lead the movement toward social and economic readjustment that will start the wheels of industry, restore opportunity for employment to all people who really wish to work, achieve more equitable division of the proceeds of industry and commerce, and re-establish security of livelihood for the mass of the American people, the effect on the world condition will be immediate and profound. Perhaps for us the most important part of my fourth thesis is that rural America can make a particularly important contribution. The interests of life change less rapidly in rural America, individual thinking is more tenaciously held, social institutions are more stable, and panics get under way with greater difficulty. The rural American is conservative, because his chief activities are concerned with forces of nature, and because the intelligence on which he must depend for success is chiefly his own. Urban Americans are dependent upon adjustments with their fellow men for any opportunity to work at all; they work upon materials which they do not own, but which are provided by some one else. Rural individual self-reliance is the foundation of social conservatism. It may become stubbornness July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 or even inertia in its less desirable forms, but in the aggregate is an invaluable national asset for the present crisis. Not only does the very nature of rural occupation promote individual self-reliance; rural environment, by the constant offering of the phenomena of nature to the eye and ear, strengthens the philosophical poise which the city tends to destroy. Touching but little that man has made, and being always under the pressure of the elements, the countryman seldom reaches the delusion that man is his own creator and wholly selfsufficient. Still further, rural life offers charm and satisfaction to those who are educated to appreciate its contribution. The sacrifice and struggle of millions of people to find opportunity to bring up their children under rural conditions is evidence that these values are appreciated in the city as well. The child who grows up in the city has almost no opportunity for the carrying of responsibility; in most country life the child can hardly escape the carrying of responsibility, and nowhere in rural life is it impossible to give some responsibility to children. The contribution which rural America alone can make in this crisis is the preservation of a philosophical balance which retains the good in personal self-reliance, in family solidarity, and in tested social organizations and institutions, while the new order is emerging. Fifty millions of rural Americans form a respectable nucleus of stability. Even though rural America is weak in social cooperation and in the consciousness of need for integrated social action, it is making great strides. As between the need for clear thinking and the need for organized action, clear thinking is, of the two, more important. If the thinking be sound, the action will follow. If precipitate action precedes clear thought, the price is often disaster. Another element of strength in the life of rural America is related to the need for self-reliance and for carrying responsibility. Rural Americans, both men and women, must be craftsmen to some degree. They can feel the satisfaction of creative effort. They can look on their work and say, "I made this." Many country men never feel this; but the way is open to them, and many millions do feel it. By contrast, the city dweller deals increasingly with automatic machines which relieve him of both need and op portunity for craftsmanship; he lives in ever-increasing numbers in rented houses which he has little incentive to repair and which seldom give him opportunity to use the gardening inclination -one of the most primitive and most healthful of urges. After seeing the truly wonderful beauty of the handicrafts here and in North Carolina, I am more than ever convinced of their service in exemplifying the possibility of excellence. I do not believe that a person can have awareness and keen appreciation of excellence in one field, and not be a more critical person in his demands for excellence in other fields. And I believe that the products of craftsmanship which are to be found all through rural America have, in thousands of lives, been the principal stimulus toward preserving a discriminating sense of values and a respect for excellence. My fifth thesis is that only through adult education can American rural civilization be maintained vigorous and equal to its opportunity. Rural Americans possess keen analytical ability. The rural American has beauty for appreciation and vastness for contemplation. It is in the heritage of human culture that rural America has been starved. , Our task is to open the channels so that the wisdom which mankind has been storing up for ages can be as truly accessible to the country man as to the city man. Our task is to organize the utilities of adult education by which men and women of rural America can continue to grow through their own effort. It it not our task to set a stereotyped pattern, or through propaganda to force the minds of rural America to particular patterns. Such a course of action is in order only toward those adults of deficient intellect or perverted desires, if at all; that is not the way in which a democracy is built. I look to the time when the public library as the fundamental agency of adult education, the extension service in agriculture and home economics as the particular educational` agency of rural adults, anca the public school as the most widely disseminated of educational utilities, will be provided for all of rural America, and will cooperatively make the leadership in adult education. In the meantime, our task is to provide the materials for growth to those whose urge is so strong that they overcome the deficit in educational equipment. Page H MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 It is a civic misfortune that the public agencies have so long delayed the provision of adequate educational opportunity for all the people of the mountains, and that private schools have been left to carry the load. It will be a continuing misfortune if private schools, by the continuance of a successful service to a part of the Mountain people, are made to serve as a continuing excuse in the hands of the public agencies, which thereby delay assuming their normal burden. The policy for this group of educators seems to me clear. I believe that every effort should be made to transfer the normal educational program to the public school system just as fast as the public school system can do the work adequately. I am delighted to find that this is the sentiment of leaders whom I have met in the group of mountain school workers. But even with the very fastest progress that the public school system can make in assuming more of the task, a tremendous amount will still remain for the private agencies. It will not be continuingly the same kind of service that is now being performed; it may be in wholly different educational fields. The complete enrichment of life in the cities and in non-mountain rural America is requiring and will require the best efforts of a host of private agencies; we would probably be wrong in assuming a different outcome in the mountains. As the public agencies take over that which has been successful in your work, you will unquestionably be drawn into new fields, and to the development of new types of educational service. You will continue to be pioneers. And it seems to me that a most urgent task and a continuing task for this particular group is the stimulation of public interest to the extent that the public representatives of the people make provision through public funds for those agencies of adult education without which democracy cannot achieve its best success. ADJUSTMENT OF THE ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM TO THE SCHOOLS OF EXTREMELY ISOLATED AREAS FANNIE W. DUNN My subject might better have been stated as construction rather than adjustment of curriculum. As it is now expressed, it implies the existence of a clearly defined elementary curriculum generally accepted in other than isolated areas, and this is not the truth. There is no such thing as a universally accepted elementary school program in the United States. There is not a single grade in which any one subject, even reading, is offered in 100 per cent of elementary schools or, to put it differently, there is not one subject that is offered 100 per cent in any one grade the nation over. Of 303 school systems studied in 1924, American history was taught in fifty-nine combinations of grades one to eight, hygiene in sixty-two different combinations, civics in fortysix, and geography in twenty-eight. Time distributions are different in city and country, in consolidated and one-teacher schools, and from city to city, county to county, and state to state; and the selections of topics within subjects is equally varied. The whole field of curriculum today is in a state of flux, and the most conspicuous movement for the past five years in the elementary school has been curriculum construction or reconstruction. Our problem, then, is not to take a ready made and modish garment and by a little letting out here, letting down there, or taking up of seams somewhere else, make it fit our special wearer; but rather to take the measures of our situation and make a garment to fit, perhaps of an entirely new design. The traditional curriculum is generally recognized to be far from fitting today even the typical schools for which it has been developed, and the amount of adjusting and modifying necessary to make it over for the very different condition with which we are concerned is sure to be costly of time, and result in a botched job at the end. This is not to say that we will discard all the products of past experience. Far from it. It is only to say that we will rid ourselves July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page of the bondage of any preconceived plan or organization, and be free to take or to reject as we see fit. On what basis, however, shall we take or reject? How are we, without following the traditional pattern, to determine what is to constitute this curriculum of ours? It is evident that we have to get down to some fundamental considerations. The first of these, as I see it, is the question: What do we conceive that education, and in our discussion today, particularly elementary education, should do for the children who are to be educated? Secondly, what is there in the nature or cipzcities of these children which in any respect conditions or determines our educational offering;? Thirdly, what contributions do the homes and the environment of these children. make or fail to make to the education that is desired? For the school is not the only educational institution. It is essentially supplementary, and its outstanding duty is to supply not only the functions ordinarily assigned to it in a normal civilized society, but also to provide for deficiencies in the home's contribution to the desired educational total. Fourthly, what is there in the home and the community which offers the children opportunities for educational experiences which the school may utilize in its work, and how may these resources be incorporated into the curriculum? Fifthly, what is our conception of the nature and means of education? The first of these questions may be answered very briefly, the function of education is the improvement of living. It is life more abundant, richer, fuller, happier, worthier living, for each and for all, that we seek. It is an active and dynamic thing, involving real knowledge, not merely absorption of information; and involving also tendencies to act and behave, to use knowledge in worthier ways; tendencies to be interested in, to seek and desire higher life satisfactions; and, because they are needed in dynamic living, involving also certain skills, such skills as are required for achieving desired and desirable ends. In order that we may not overlook or underemphasize any field of living, it may be well to consider what these fields are. Bonser has stated them in fewer terms than has any other educational theorist: "l. Maintaining and pre:.erving life and health through the use of the material necessities of life and the appropriate care of the body; " 2. Producing the necessities and luxuries for which man feels need and making these available through exchange. "3 Cooperating with others in maintaining the protective and regulative uCaSUCes for the common good, the institutions of life-the family, the state, the vocation, the school and the church; "4. Occupying leisure in pursuits engaged in for the enjoyment which they yield." Activities for the maintenance and preservation of life through the use of material necessities and proper care of the body involve knowledge and behavior in the fields of health and the proper choice and use of food, clothing, and shelter necessary for physical well-being. Whoever we are, wherever we live. whatever our work, this is an essential phase of living for all of us. Production and exchange of goods is the field of vocations, of one's life work. This also is an essential phase, but it differs from the former in that different types of work characterize different types of individuals and different sitLILtions. The former is common to all, this latter leads us along divergent paths. Cooperation, the civic, moral, or social phase of living, also is common. Each one, from the youngest child to the oldest man, has a share in the common well-being of some social group,family, playfellows, school, church, club, business organization, neighborhood, county, state, nation, or world. The wise use of leisure is an increasing need of our civilization. A period of tremendous adjustment is even now upon us. In preparation for leisure perhaps more than in any other respect lies the need of a changed education for a changing civilization. Leisure there has been, for as long a period as history records, but it has been heretofore the lot of a privileged few, and for them it has been earned by the unremitting toil of the great majority. The leisure class and the laboring class have been complementary. The laboring class has had use for only the simplest education, outside of preparation for its labors, since the long working day left little time for the satisfaction of any but the fundamental wants of the body. The leisure class, on the other hand, has been given a so-called cultural educa Page 10 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 19.31 tion, designed to promote and minister to a higher level of living, the life of the mind and the spirit. Today, with a rapidity that confounds and terrifies us, we are approaching a life of comparative leisure for all. What else can be the meaning of this era of overproduction and unemployment, but that the machine has so multiplied the potential outcome of each individual as to make available, with a few hours' daily labor from all, more wealth than all can consume in twenty-four hours. The adjustment to a very short working day has to be faced as surely as Canute had to yield to the on-coming tide. And the inevitable corollary is leisure for millions who do not know what to do with it, because they have had no opportunity or need to learn. Each of these four aspects of living must be improved by education, and they are all with which education is concerned: health, the vocation, cooperative endeavor for the benefit of one's group, and leisure time activities. And of these it is commonly agreed today that the second, the vocation, has no place in the elementary school, understanding elementary school to mean the first six grades and a school population up to and including twelve years of age. This accepted idea is based upon several sound reasons. First, a successful society depends upon likemindedness and common knowledge and ideas at least as much as upon the differentiated contributions of individuals, and there are more than enough experiences anal ideas of common value to occupy the first six years of school life. Secondly, the child before the end of the twelfth year is a very different being from the adolescent. His experiences are so limited, his very interests and capacities so undeveloped that it is impossible to forecast his future adequately to help him select the life work for which he is to prepare. And thirdly, any vocation for which he could make preparation in these early years is so simple as to be quickly learned when the time comes, if it ever does, for it to be undertaken. A substantial general foundation in the fields of health, social qualities, and leisure interests and occupations is better preparation for any vocation than premature vocational training could give. The improvement of living through better health, through developed ability in adjustment to one's group, and through worthier use of leisurethis is the end to be served by the elementary school in isolated areas, and in all others as well. But what of the three R's? Some have thought of these as the chief field of elementary education. Nor are they omitted in the type of elementary curriculum we are concerned with. They are a very important part of it, but they are after all only means of education, not its ends. Within the fundamental fields of health, social adjustments, and leisure we aim during the elementary period to develop a wide range of functioning ideas, attitudes, and skills. Among these skills are the three R's, which are to be developed as tools throughout the period, but they are to be developed because they are needed for present life purposes, and not with the storage idea of preparation for some vague future. Far more reading than ever was included in a formalized course will be included, because it functions in promoting the understandings and developing the interests contingent upon genuine improvement in healthful, socialized, avocationalized living. It may not be equally evident that this is true also with respect to arithmetic, spelling, English usage, and penmanship. Will you, however, turn over in your mind the idea that all of these tools which we can with any assurance predict as useful in the lives of us all will be needed in the adequately developed experiencing of a child during his elementary school life? This is not to say that reading, arithmetic, spelling, writing, and English usage in the reconstructed curriculum for this region will be merely incidental, left to the teacher's appreciation of the need of the moment to provide. They will be organized, but organized in relation to demonstrable need for their use, and they will waste no time on merely traditional materialsarithmetical processes or difficulties beyond the common social and business uses of our day, spelling words that are not required for something that is needing to be written, or learning grammatical definitions or rules that do not function in actually helping better to "speak and write the English language." Geography in our new curriculum will include July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 far fewer locations and unrelated items of fact, but will help the children of the mountains to understand the natural forces which have moulded their forefathers' lives, to find ways to control those forces in making their own lives better, and to Lomprehend the reasons for difherent ways of living in other regions than their own. It will remove the barriers of distance, of mountain and ocean, and extend their horizons into lands far beyond the reach of the eye to see, where "foreigners" and "heathen" will prop a to be after all only people like themselves, living under different conditions. In a third grade where geography was so taught a little girl refused to accept "it is just the custom" as an explanation of a certain strange mode of living. Said she, "There is always a reason for customs." The world will be far along toward human brotherhood when all of us have learned as much geography as that eight year old child. History is "bunk" when it is only a long account of wars and battles, out of which then never comes a glimmering of the idea that wars have never settled anything. But history that is real will help the mountain children to pick up their past when time began to stand still for their forefathers, to envision the stirring onward march of the human race that has taken place since then, and to understand something of the struggles toward universal human happiness that have been going on through the ages and arc still going on today, so that they may become intelligent members of and worthy participants in this changing civilization that is the twentieth century. History and geography may lose their sharp separateness in this new curriculum, and bÃ‚Â°come community study or social studies, but all thvalues they have ever had will be retained and increased through an organization that starts with the children as and where they are, and aims t1) promote the enrichment and improvemÃ‚Â°nt of their living now and hereafter. To our first question, then, what cdw-ation should do for th ne mountain children, the answer is, as I see it, that education should improve their lives, their present lives. It should extend their mental horiJons and give them, each day they live, life more abundant. It should m-kthem healthier, more social, more enrichingly and happily and worthily employed in all their waking hours, and their sleep more refreshing and renewing. Our second question deals with the nature of the children themselves. Are they capable of this rich and worthy living we have envisioned for them, or are they bound by the limitations of their own minds to poorer, narrower, meaner lives? Some of them, yes, as it is true of some children everywhere. For all of them, we do not know. We have no adequate data upon which to base a conclusion. It is a general fact that where mental and educational tests have been applied, rural children in general and mountain children in particular have fallen distinctly below national averages or norms, and some psychologists have been led by this to conclude that these children are inferior, the fruit of a stock that has been drained of its best by the pull of the cities. But this is by no means necessarily true. Many of us today believe it is not true. The "measures" of htIman ability are still very crude and imperfect. We have no way of directly measuring a person's mind, as we can measure his height, his weight or his blood pressure. We can only sample what he knows or what he can do, and these are the product of two factors, his native ability, that with which he was born, and the experiences or learning opportunities life has brought him. No matter if native ability is as good as generally found, where the other factor, exeprience, has been limited or poor the product in learning, knowledge, or present ability of any kind is correspondingly limited or low. I do not need to tell this group that the experiences of the the mountain child have been extremely limited. Recent studies, however, tend to indicate that it is poverty of environment, rather than poverty of native endowment, that accounts for the low status of rural children on mental as well as educational tests. Not until a generation of mountain children have grown to maturity with the developmental opportunities of an enriched environment shall we be able to tell, in measuring their children, whether there is an innate limitation within themselves. The safest attitude for us is one of hope. "What we are now we know, but it doth not yet appear what we shall be." Let us, at each level of his Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ,July, 1931 advancement, provide for every child a variety of enriching experiences congenial to his needs and interests on that level. Let us organize offerings and requirements so that each child may grow at his own rate, knowing constantly the joy and stimulation of success from his worthy efforts, and being spared the discouragement and check to growth that comes from failure due to tasks beyond his present ability to perform. Neither in content nor in gradation is the traditional elementary school curriculum suited to these mountain children. They must have genuine food for mental growth; and time in which to grow from where they are, at the rate which characterizes them because of their past experiences as well as of their native capacities. My third question who can answer as well as you, who live among these people and minister to them? What have their homes and environment done for these children and what needs of normal child life and development have gone unmet? Do these children have the health care that good homes afford? What habits, hygienic or unhealthful, what superstitions, what understandings and what misapprehensions are theirs because of the environment their homes provide? What are their social attitudes, their fears, their prejudices, their hatreds, their loyalties? What are their habits of work, their interests, their plays? What do they think about? Or is their thought inhibited and bound by poverty of language? For vocabulary is both a measure of mental range and a limitation of mental activity. And vocabulary grows by use of language in sharing experiences and thoughts with others. Human communication, too, is a source of mental satisfactions of high order. Are these children, as a result of their environment, inarticulate? Do they need to be stimulated to talk as one means of intellectual and social development? Studies of rural children indicate that language deficiency is indeed a common, even a characteristic, condition among them. The limited contacts and social stimuli of the rural environment have failed to effect normal language development. If this is-and I am practically sure it is-a condition you find among the children of your schools, it points to a definite emphasis needed in your curriculum. The children must be encouraged and stimulated to language express ion, oral and written. Remove the ban from speech. Set up a school organization that pro vides for much communication among pupils ill I b place of the silence enforced in the traditional school. This is but a type of the adjustments needed to meet special community lacks. Similar adjustments are to be made wherever such lacks are found. My fourth question, as to the educational potentialities which the home and community offer, can be answered only after my fifth, What i; the nature and means of education? Education is to be conceived as making changes in the mental make-up of the person being educated,-the changing of his habits for the better or developing desirable habits additional to those he already possesses; changing or developing his attitudes and ideals, refining and increasing his knowledge and understanding of his world. All these changes are in the present, in each day's living as it comes. The best assurance we can have of high living in the future is higher and higher living each day that goes by. Education, then, is the progressive improvement of daily living. The means of education is experiencing. Fundamental to all learning is first-hand experience, actually seeing, feeling, doing. It is in this way that children educate themselves, alone or with help, before they ever enter school. The old Jesuits were wise when they said, "Give us a child for his first seven years, and you may have him for the rest of his life." For the meanings, the ideas, the attitudes that come from first-hand experiences are fundamental to all learning. How is a child to conceive of the ocean who has had no experience of water, of expanse, of vastness? How is be to imagine a land he has never seen, except through the elementary ideas of surface, vegetation, houses, people, and living in the land he knows by primary, experience? A mountain boy after his first visit to the city told of his astonishment. " I thought it would be just hundreds of little log houses," he said. He had done as much as he could, unaided, in creating the unseen and unknown out of his first-hand experience, though the school, through pictures, discussion, and objective representation, could have helped him build a better idea. To return to my fourth question, then, what July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 13 is there in the home and the community that offers the children opportunities for educational experiences which the school may utilize in its work, and how may these resources be incorpor ated into the curriculum? At first it may appear that the resources are narrow indeed, but look again. What are the great institutions of human society? The home and family, the school, the church, government. Every one of these is to be found in simple form in every one of your com munities. In each case, the child needs to be you seen the morning star?"Moonlight, the helped to see understandingly whatever aspects great constellations, the northern lights, because of these are available for his first-hand experi- . encing, and to use these as means of grasping the she has for them the seeing eye, bring beauty into idea of these as they exist in the world beyond her life. I have heard of a mother who has taught his actual touch. The fundamental occupations her children to look each day for three beauti are almost all represented-agriculture, manufac- ful things. Could you help your children to see ture, mining, commerce, transportation, commu- some beauty daily, as the Bov Scouts try each nication; the doctor, the nurse, the teacher, the day to do one good turn? Let us surely try to storekeeper, perhaps the lawyer. In the rest of the world the same occupations serve human bring libraries to the mountain people, that their needs, with differences due to differing conditions, horizons may continually be widened, but since yet with fundamental identity. The needs of all these children have mountain sides, and many food, clothing, shelter; the raw materials by have no books, let us make doubly sure that every which these needs are supplied; the processes and one develops the seeing eye, the hearing ear, and human agents that supply them, all appear in the the understanding heart by means of which h-, environment about the mountain child, perhaps may be able to read a mountain side. In a very in much more concrete form than in the city literal sense each mountain child ought to be able child's life and surroundings. Reading will extend his understanding, but only if the words which are read have meaning to the reader, and fundamentally the meanings of words must be the outgrowth of first-hand experience. Habits and ideals of honesty, cleanliness, courtesy, law-abidingness, or any other virtue, also have their roots in living, in behaving, in conduct. What opportunities does the environment afford for experience along desired lines of health and social conduct? Whatever they may be, it is they which must be used in the child's education. Regulating the temperature of the schoolroom, practicing courtesies of speech and manner, respecting the rights of playmates and fellow workers, acting in accord with laws the social purpose and justice of which are understood, cooperating with others in enterprises for the common good, keeping one's person and surroundings clean-it is by these activities, these experiences, that the health and civic ends of education are served. And what of leisure? What in the environment will promote worthy use of free time? There is nothing to see-nothing but the sky and the trees, the mountain flowers and birds, the story written in the rocks. There is everything to see, to hear, to wonder about, by and by to understand. A mountain woman I know, in a poor and squalid environment, calls a neighbor up by telephone before the sun rises to ask: "Have to say, "I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my strength." Other potentialities for leisure activities are to be found in ballads, in folk games, in mountain crafts, but time forbids the elaboration of these ideas. The whole question of curriculum mak ing in the light of the needs and conditions of the mountain children is so stimulating to con structive thought that we might go on much longer than prosaic physical endurance would permit. Briefly to summarize our topic: 1. Education is concerned with the improvement of living. 2. It is present living which is to be improved, and through progressive improvement of present living, future living is to be lifted to a higher plane. 3. The means of education is active experiencing. Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ,Judy, 1931 4. The fundamental experiences are those which are potential in the present environment, here and now. Vicarious experiencing, through language and books, is possible only as first-hand experience has filled words with meaning. To improve the life of the mountain child her; and now, to realize the potential experiences of his environment and through the meanings thin developed to extend his horizons and realize for him an ever fuller and richer living-this is the aim and this the means of education for him. COOPERATION AND PROGRESS HERMANN N. MORSE Unless sympathetic interest in a problem and in the efforts to achieve its solution may be counted as a qualification, I am, I regret to say, in no sense qualified to discuss authoritatively the present situation in the Southern Mountains. It seems clear enough that that situation shares the general characteristics of the rural situation elsewhere. The distinction between the mountain problem and the general rural problem is, as the Executive Secretary of this Conference has pointed out, one of degree rather than of kind. Yet in a very real sense there is no such thing as a general rural problem. Here and elsewhere the situation is dominated by local factors, the importance of which cannot be minimized. Topography and natural resources are controlling features which we cannot change, although we may better adapt ourselves to their limitations. The effects of racial and cultural history we may more easily modify, yet they too are stubborn facts which must be taken into account. As regards the mountains there are many here who know these things far better than I and could discuss them with more profit to us all. I say this that you may hear me with no expectation that I will contribute to your knowledge of the special characteristics of the mountain area. Presumably I owe this opportunity to my connection with the North American Home Mission Congress held in Washington, I). C., in December. That Congress I regard as one of the most significant religious gatherings held in America in recent years. It is not my purpose to discuss the Congress in detail but rather to consider some of its implications for rural progress. However, a word as to its inception and character may be in order. Three years ago the Home Missions Council, the Council of Women for Home Missions, and the Federal Council of Churches united in holding in Cleveland, Ohio, a National Church Comity Conference. The most concrete result of this Conference was the launching, under the auspices of these same three agencies, of a Five Year Program of Survey and Adjustment. This program had as its objectives, first, an analysis of the present status of religious work in America with particular reference to the adequacy of our present church establishment; second, the development in the various states or other areas of functioning interdenominational organizations competent to deal with our common problems of church maintenance and extension; third, the follow-up of such surveys as should be made to secure the necessary adjustments in existing work and extensions of work into unserved areas; fourth, the holding of a Home Missions Congress which should re-appraise the whole Home Mission enterprise in the light of existing conditions. The preparations for this Congress engaged the attention of a very large group of men and women for more than two years. Three commissions with many sub-committecs assembled materials and analyzed programs and problems on every phase of American church life. The substance of these studies was published in two volumes as the Data Book of the Congress. The Congress itself was composed of eight hundred carefully selected delegates representing thirty denominations and various allied organizations. The composition of the Congress was most significant. It included representatives of every interested type of personnel and of every phase and type of mission work being prose July, 1931 MOUNTAIN Lire AND WORK Page 15 cuted in Home Mission territory. It was drawn from every part of the United States, Canada and the West Indies, and included outstanding representatives of the various areas and peoples which historically had been of the greatest Home Mission concern. The Congress was characterized throughout by a fine spirit of comity, friendliness, and openmindedness. It came to grips with the most fundamental questions, considered them dispassionately, and worked out its conclusions. For two days the work of the Congress was done through thirteen discussion groups dealing with the various major aspects of the task. These groups then reported to a general session after which a Findings Committee prepared the final report of the Congress. The two volumes of the Data Book and the subsequently published volume in which are included the reports of the Commissions, the text of addresses delivered, and the report of the Findings Committee, together constitute a comprehensive survey of the whole field of current Home Mission operation. In retrospect, one is preplexed by the baffling variety of topics dealt with. Passing, however, from its many specific and important recommendations concerning particular situations and problems to the broader implications of such a gathering as this, it seems to me that we may summarize in a few general conceptions the chief significance of the discussions. 1. With all the breadth and variety of interests comprehended, this was primarily a Congress on religious work. And religious work, however much one emphasizes its concern with economic, or social, or education issues, is fundamentally religious work. Fundamental then to all of the discussions was the insistence on the primacy of the religious motive. Basic to all questions of institutions and methods and at the heart of any program for social betterment, is the necessity of caring for "the development of the personal religiou life and personal discipleship as a prelude to the uniting of disciples in fellowship and worship and service." Christian attitudes, Christian standards, and Christian ideals are our practical objectives. 2. Coupled with this insistence was the equally strong conviction that we can no longer be content with a narrowly individualistic conception of Christian experience. We believe that Chris tianity must be, and is to an equal degree, a sufficient solution of all the problems of collective life. The traditional missionary program must therefore be greatly enriched and must be coordinated so as to make it bear upon the fundamental realities of daily living. The Home Mission enterprise broadly conceived has an inescapable responsibility in relation to the application of Christianity to current life problems. Very definitely we must take the leadership in summoning the Christian forces to shape the economic and social structure of American life in accordance with Christian ideals and to guarantee to all our people an opportunity to achieve a Christian standard of living. 3. It is unmistakable that Christian work in our day has largely passed over into a new phase quite far removed from what chiefly engaged our effort for a century past. We might describe it as a transition from the day of the physical frontier to the day of the spiritual frontier. Physical isolation is rapidly being banished from American life. Spiritual isolation is increasing. The physical barriers, which once seemed such serious handicaps to progress, our inventive ingenuity has largely overcome. The spiritual barriers which retard the development of a national spiritual unity arc, if anything, more formidable today than ever. There has never been a time when we have had so sharply drawn the distinction between race and race, between color and color, between class and class, between section' and section. Our spiritual predecessors paid for their service in physical courage and hardihood far beyond anything we are called upon to contribute. But the distances which they traversed are those which could be measured in statute miles, and the difficulties they encountered are of the sort that could be reduced to programs and techniques, if so be one had the patience and the fortitude. Such distances and difficulties we can cope with, but the distances and difficulties which are wholly in the spiritual realm-these are more baffling, and these are the characteristics of our present problem. 4. For a century and a half the church moved forward on the tide of our national development. Enlarging territory, expanding populations, and a steadily widening intellectual horizon created in the church the inescapable conviction of the Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 necessity of constantly extending its own work. To a degree we seem to have lost that sense of imperative need, and yet from every angle it is borne in upon us that not the church alone but the whole Christian conception of life faces today a more searching challenge than ever before. But the form of it is changed. 5. While the program of the church was primarily one of addition and extension, motivated by a not too restrained denominational zeal, a policy of opportunism largely sufficed for strategy. Now, it is recognized, we must pass from opportunism to statesmanlike planning documented by sI *fic research. One of the striking things c enti about the church today is the outward homage, at least, which it pays to the impartial survey and to scientific inquiry. There is, it is true, a greater readiness to face the facts than to be gided by them. Nevertheless, increasingly it is ul I I I I I recognized that both our ideas and our programs must be more flexible. Here in the Southern Mountains, where we anticipate the making dur ing the next few years of two thorough-going ~Ilrveys which between them will cover the whole scope of those interests with which our religious and educational programs must be concerned, we have an opportunity to illustrate how scientific research may actually be used to direct a mis sionary program to its logical and necessary ob jective. 6. In their relations with dependent or handicapped peoples, missions, like charity, have a history in which a patronizing paternalism has played a large part. Amiable and unselfish motives are to be cherished, but alone they will not suffice to build a social order. With increasing clearness we are seeing that this paternalistic attitude must be displaced by a practicing belief in the capacity of the people whom and with whom we serve. The development of local initiative, local leadership, and local management is fundamental to success. 7. Finally, one would regard with thanksgiving the many evidences of growth in the spirit of comity and the practice of cooperation. In the Home Missions Congress we confessed with Humility our sins against the spirit of unity. One does not undo in a day what others were a century in doing. For a century we were frankly competitive, denomination against denomination and institution against institution. For a quarter of a century we have been passing resolutions, loudly calling upon ourselves to displace competition with cooperation. We have not done it yet. But the Congress recorded in unmistakable terms its belief that the time has come to pass from the resolution stage to the action stage by an aggressive movement of concerted effort. The important consideration here is not one of organization or of technique, which we have or can easily develop. It is a question of attitude and spirit. With this resume of the Congress as a background, may I say briefly what is in my mind as to cooperation and progress. George Russell, that famous Irish economist and poet, known the world over as AE, once published a little book under the title of "Cooperation and Nationality" which he described as "a guide for reformers from this to the next generation." In it he pleads for a unified and glorified Ireland which shall be brought to pass through cooperation, mutual respect, and equality of opportunity for all. He is concerned for the Irish peasant, immersed in a slough of poverty and ignorance. He paints a sombre picture of the plight of rural Ireland, a house divided against itself and exploited by all without its walls. Its plight, he feels, will become worse instead of better unless a miracle can be wrought. Can the miracle be wrought? That "miracle" is the creation of a rural civilization, of a social order that shall make fruitful in daily living our noblest ideals and aspirations. Within the setting of the peculiar problems of one nation's life he pleads for that which constitutes a world-wide problem of rural people. Rural people everywhere have somewhat similar handicaps and aspirations, greater or less in degree as their opportunities vary. It is a problem, it seems to me, compounded fundamentally of these elements: first, it is a question of their gaining possession of those resources in land, in means of production, in capital, and in vocational skill which, with the intelligent cooperation of governmental and business agencies, will suffice to produce a profit adequate for a reasonable standard of living. Second, it is a question of being able to protect themselves against selfish exploitation for the profit of others. They have a right to what is their own and to a share in a common July, 1931 national heritage. Third, it is a question of finding the means to develop a social order which will guarantee those privileges which are fundamental to a Christian standard of living as we understand it today. One does not need to be much of a social philosopher to realize that progress to be real and lasting must be social progress. That is, it must be a progress of the mass, a progress which will raise the minimum level of the whole of society. In ignoring this is the fatal fallacy of our old exclusive theory of individual salvation and of building society on the basis of what the "best people" think and achieve. Progress will come neither by snatching individual brands from the burning, nor by emphasizing the elect, but by elevating the whole level of our social order. Our missionary program has one thing at least everlastingly to its credit and that is its primary concern for the "last" man and the "last" community, not always protected by democracy. The cult of progress has too often been ruthless in its attitude toward the laggards. The drastic experiences of this past year should have taught us a lesson, if we needed to learn it, that we will not soon forget. It should have taught us how many there are of marginal people balanced precariously on the very brink of the abyss. Self-interest, if there be no nobler motive, must teach us that these to whom the common blessings of our vaunted civilization are but illusory phantoms, must be brought to share in a full measure of our social progress. How shall social progress be achieved? That for us, as representatives of religious and educational and social agencies, is the critical question. All experience, I think, points to the inescapable answer. Fundamentally, social progress will be achieved only through social action. This is, of course, no denial of the necessity of leadership, which is as essential to democratic as to autocratic action. It simply means that social and spiritual values cannot be created for any people by anyone else. They must be wrought out in our own experience. In missionary and philanthropic programs we have not always given full value to this elemental need. In a way it is a contrast between, on the one side, the idea of the dole, and, on the other, an open door, a straight path, and encouragement to work out our own destiny. In prac MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 tical terms it means that any missionary program worthy the name must aim primarily to develop the native capacities of the group with which it is concerned, must push them out into the arena of achievement, and must progressively eliminate itself as rapidly as that is possible. To call for social action is one thing and to secure it is another. Social action means selfdiscipline, and that basically roots in social ideals. There is a deal of truth in the old scripture text, that when a people have no vision, they cast off restraint. It follows that what we most need is what AE pleaded for, a social order created and maintained by the united action of all. No people since the world began ever had a social order or a culture handed to them ready made. Here is the universal problem in mission work: first, to provide enough leadership, but not too much-just enough, so to speak, to prime the pump without checking initiative; and second, to provide enough of that cultural interchange and cultural outlook which will replace that spiritual inbreeding which isolation occasions, without destroying what is fine and of permanent value in the local culture. We are all aware of the challenge of change in the mountains today. We are aware of it for that matter, in every area of our nation's life. Because we are in the midst of change, we perhaps cannot see so clearly to what it is tending. We have seen the progressive banishment of isolation, the lengthening of the tether of the average human life, the increased mobility of our population which must break down our provincial conservatism, the new educational and cultural opportunities, the new social standards, the altered economic conditions and problems-these things are the commonplaces of our daily life. We need not wonder too much if our religious and educational institutions are halting in adjusting themselves to these profoundly significant changes. Equally halting and uneven has been the adjustment of our civil and political machinery and of business to these same changes and emergencies. But we cannot escape the necessity of restudying our whole missionary program and courageously tackling the alterations in objective and emphasis which are indicated. In the mountains our mission program has changed, but not, as it seems to me, quickly enough or far enough. Page 18 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 I would not profess to know without peradventure just what form our further adjustment should take, but certain things seem to me to be clear enough. In our educational program we must recognize that the mission agencies are rapidly passing out of the earliest phase of their activity entirely. The mission school came into the mountains because there was there no school worthy of the name. In this we did what in America we believe the state should do, but we did it from a conviction that education is fundamental to progress. That work was well done, but it is done, or nearly so. Our educational program must now justify itself on the basis of the distinctive contribution which it is able to make in those fields which the state is not able as yet to enter. We have a service still to perform in the field of vocational training, with all that that implies, of ability to earn a living and live a life. We have an important opportunity of service in the field of adult education. Nowadays education has given a new meaning to the old proverb "It is never too late to learn." We have also an opportunity in the development of creative leadership in distinctly social, cultural, and religious fields. Our educational enterprise will justify itself not on the basis of doing better what the state should do, but on the basis of supplementing what the state should do in these other essential fields. Progressive leaders in the mountains are now insisting that the mission agencies, in the same spirit in which they once pioneered in education, must pioneer in the development of those other not less important interests, public health, social welfare, and economic welfare. Significant beginnings have been made in extending our interests. Here we must resolve from the outset to keep the program flexible, and to make one of our definite objectives the development of those public agencies which in due time will displace these efforts as they have displaced our efforts in the elementary school. In our distinctively religious program, it seems to me that there are three outstanding needs. The first of these is to build the church as a functioning organization. The mountain church is too often not an organization in any strict sense. It may be and usually is a genuine expression of group interest, but it lacks every characteristic of a continuing and permanent organization. Second, we must relate the program of the church more directly to the basic needs of its community. This program must include all-year provision for religious education and for the pastoral ministry. It must include, too, a concern for common social and economic needs. Such an emphasis need not lessen its evangelistic zeal but will rather harness its spiritual energies for constructive achievements. Third, we must develop the spirit and practice of cooperation in every aspect of our church work. The pioneer spirit of church extension is understandable enough as we look back upon it. The church was not more competitive than the lodge or the corner grocery. But what we have now is a hang-over of that pioneer attitude. And it cannot cope with the problems of this day. These practical objectives of cooperation we can set ourselves, and if we be reasonable men we can achieve them. We can discontinue all competition between denominations which limits and retards our religious work. We can set ourselves to extend the ministry of the church to all unserved communities and all neglected peoples. We can build up and strengthen each local church which has a reasonable opportunity for servic: We can develop those forms of joint service which represent the aspects of our task which we can best perform unitedly, and we can develop that spirit of comity and cooperation which will carry over into every field of social effort. Finally it seems to me that we are confronted with the necessity of more thoroughly coordinating the efforts of all agencies interested in the development of the mountains. These include the mission Boards, the independent foundations concerned in the development of particular institutions, various national agencies dealing with aspects of social welfare, local, state and county agencies, and various institutions of higher education. These all strain to lift the load as they can get a hold upon it. But a completely coordinated program of all these agencies is yet to be realized. It is here perhaps that this Conference will in the long run make its greatest contribution. In an English university the subject of a student debate was, "Resolved, that we should pity our grandchildren." It is a subject that give July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFT. AND WORK Page 19 free play to one's imagination. We cherish the memories of those fine values which belonged to the community life that is past. We believe that we are on the way to achieve for ourselves and for our children values which are even finer but we cannot be sure. But we do know that the programs and the efforts to which we give ourselves will have a distinct bearing upon the answer to the question as to whether our grandchildren in these mountains, could we see them now, should be objects of pity or of envy. In this formative period we are determining the direction of future progress. Like AE, I would say, "I would like to exile the man who would set limits to what we could do; who would take the crown and sceptre from the human will and say, marking out some petty enterprise as the limit, `thus far can we go and no further and here shall life be stayed."' Intelligently directed cooperation will assure progress. BEREA'S STUDENT LABOR PROGRAM ALBERT We are met here this afternoon to evaluate the student labor idea in education. Each of us has the background of his experience with student labor in the particular mountain schools with which he has been associated. Perhaps it may help us to consider for a while the idea at work in Berea College. When Berea was founded many academies and colleges of like nature were being established with a then popular feature in education called "manual labor." The following from Berea's original constitution (Article Il) is typical of most college constitutions drawn up in the forties and fifties, "Its obiect shall be to furnish the opportunity for a thorough education to all persons of good moral character at the least possible expense. To secure this end all possible facilities and inducements for manual labor shall be offered its students." This movement was an endeavor to find a method of taking higher education to the common people, and of maintaining it among them. Many of these institutions have passed out of existence. Some have discarded both the original constitutional provision and the ideal it embodied and have gone the way of those universities which are modelled after the English type of education for the cultured and wealthy. Berea has continued her attempt. Have the results justified her in doing so? She has been enabled to meet the test of survival where competition has been terrific and where most religious, nonsectarian, privatelycontrolled colleges have succumbed. It is the judgment of many that had she deserted her labor ideal she could not have secured the moral and financial support which has made her continuous G. WEIDLER existence possible. The existence of student labor has attracted to her the attention of many who would not otherwise have been interested, and their investigations have revealed to them the unique intellectual, cultural, and moral training associated with the student labor idea. Long before standardizing agencies were in existence, Berea was enabled by this ideal to give a standard college education to the underprivileged, making it possible for her young men and young women to enter the highest graduate and professional schools on a par with the students from more privileged sections. There has been a tendency in some quarters to feel that "labor and learning" is of value only for the students who wear overalls and gingham dresses. I wish to emphasize at the very outset the validity of the student labor idea for all schools and all localities. If it is of value at all, it is good for rich and poor alike. "Plain living and high thinking" should be the opportunity of all. This ideal has made it possible for Berea to send into the mountains of our Southland a constant stream of consecrated and educated citizens to live a balanced life. The students coming to her do not come to get away from life and its work, but to continue living and working at a higher level. Probably education has lost contact with life less here than in any other college, since there is less of a break with normal living. Everyone works whether he needs to or not. For generations statesmen have been trying to solve the problem of training youth to serve the state in peaceful pursuits similar to the soldier's Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 service in time of war. Bulgaria has tried compulsory labor among her youth. George Russell, Ireland's leading poet, philosopher, and economist, more familiarly known at AE, discusses in "The National Being" the possibility of industrial conscription for Ireland. He says: "Let us suppose that Ireland had through industrial conscription about fifty thousand young men every year at its disposal under the national works department. What could be done? First of all it would mean that every young man in the country would have received an industrial training of some kind. The work of technical instruction could be largely carried on ill connection with this industrial army. People talk of the benefit of discipline and obedience secured by military service. This and much more could be secured by a labor conscription. Parents should welcome the training and discipline for their children, and certificates of character and intelligence given by the department of national works should open up prospects of rapid employment in the ordinary industrial life of the country when the period of public service was closed. For those engaged there would be a true comradeship in labor, and the phrase, "the dignity of labor," about which so much cant has been written, would have a real significance where young men were working together for the public benefit with the knowledge that any completed work would add to the health, beauty, dignity and prosperity of the State. In return for this labor, the State should feed and clothe its industrial army, educate them, and familiarize them with some branch of employment, and make then, more competent after this period of service was over to engage in private enterprise. Two years of such training would dissipate all the slackness, lack of precision, and laziness which are so often apparent in young men who have never had any strict discipline in their homes, and whom parental weakness has rendered unfit for the hard business of life . . . "This may appear a fantastic program, but I would like to see it argued out. It would create a real brotherhood in work, just as the army created in its own way a brotherhood between men in the same regiments. The nation adopting civil conscription could clean itself up in a coupte of generations, so that in respect of public services it would be incomparable." This is what Berea has attempted to do with her labor program. No, AE, it is not a fantastic program. It is a practical one. It has worked in the smaller community of the school where the youth belong. Furthermore, it is voluntary. Thousands of young men and women are clamoring to get into a school with a program of this sort, as witnessed by the hundreds unable to get into Berea each year. The student labor plan has bridged the chasm between work and school, which even the splendid Danish folk schools have only partly done. In Denmark the young people finishing the elementary school go to work for a few years and later go back to school. The American plan originated in the forties and fifties keeps them in school. Dr. John Finley in an editorial in the New York Times makes this comment, "With a somewhat different division of time between labor and learning (in after years), Berea's schedule might well be not for the period of college training but for life." The training in school in the care of institutional property is not the least of the contributions to citizenship. Where student labor is consistently employed, the buildings and grounds are cared for by students under supervision, and not by hired janitors and caretakers. While earning a living they are forming excellent habits and ideals of neatness, cleanliness and respect for communal property. Such habits, because they are incidental and occur in the ordinary course of student life, are the more permanent. Several students of educational policies, after inspecting the Berea campus, have commented favorably on the condition of its buildings in contrast with those where students do not care for the buildings and grounds. This cleanliness may in part be due to the "New England conscience" of the Berea faculty, but is in no smal: part due to the interest of the student himself. Doing the work, he feels that the campus is peculiarly his. A loyalty to the school and a pride in the appearance of its properties are inculcated. We tend to become a part of that which we create. Student-labor schools are usually in rural or semi-rural surroundings, because an institutional school provides for its own sustenance in whole or in part, and to do so it must be located on, or contiguous to, a farm of some sort. This makes possible a contact with rural civilization for those who would not otherwise have such a privilege, and teaches the farm boy or girl the value of his home life. To preserve American civilization we must preserve our rural culture. We can not all live in the country, but all of us should have close contact with rural life during our student days. A citybred man myself, I can testify to the inestimable value of farm experience which my parents were wise enough to give me during formative years. No child should be deprived of this experience. A part of the American ideal promulgated three-quarters of a century ago has persisted in the modern movement for vocational education and vocational guidance. Out of the manual labor movement grew the "manual training" movement; then, in turn, vocational guidance grew out of the manual training movement. Unfortunately vocational guidance is rarely such an integral part of the educational process as it is in student labor institutions. In the latter each July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 21 student is faced with a choice of some part of the work of the institution. In most cases he selects the school because it gives him the opportunity of earning his own way. Usually he has already learned of the variety of tasks to be done. Probably for the first time in his life he has been forced to consider what work he should do. This is a natural way to approach the problem of vocational guidance. He must hunt his job and thereby get experience in interviewing friendly, not hostile, employers. He has a chance to see and make exploration among a great variety of the world's tasks-not playthings merely, but essential parts of a community-and is engaged in making a product or rendering a service which will be put to the acid test of use by his fellow students. How much superior this is to the usual haphazard industrial method or the artificial trade school plan! He must make good on the job or else lose it and be compelled to get another. He soon learns the value of a labor record in securing a new place and is on the alert to make good so as to get an opportunity to do something else which he may now prefer. Thus his whole vocational experience is real and at the same time under the most favorable circumstances of friendly, not commercial, guidance. Though he look upon his school labor as a means to self-support only, the student may gain a valuable vocational education in a particular line. He may have come to school to get an academic foundation for some profession, but in the course of self-support learn a valuable manual trade in the time which he otherwise might have wasted. He leaves school with a standard education and a lucrative trade. A large number of student workers later follow the trade which they learned incidentally in school. A greater number have through labor found themselves and their life work. For instance one lad, choosing work in the office of the school physician without any thought of following medicine as a life work, upon graduation found for a certainty that he was called to this profession. A recent valedictorian of Berea, majoring in chemistry, earned his way through college by working in our bakery and was surprised to find that he had incidentally become a skilled baker. He is a better food chemist because of his bakery experience and is a better baker by being a chemist. Not all stu dents select the work that so complements their specialty, but they gain valuable knowledge and experience in some vocational or trade line to which they may have to fall back sometime. It must be made clear, however, that studentlabor schools are not primarily vocational. They are primarily cultural. Twenty years' experience in these schools in administrative work, always with a heavy teaching load and with supervision of student labor, has convinced me that the prosecution of the academic work by the student is in no way interfered with by the labor prograin. In addition to labor and regular studies, students may take different vocational subjects in class. There is a clear distinction made between work done for pay, which may be more or less vocational, and vocational class work for credit, which may be more or less educational. Thus the student-labor school not only avoids the narrowing unscholarly atmosphere of the trade school, but gains all the intellectual and moral values of the manual training school. Another gain to the student worker is the commendable pride which he feels in being an integral and necessary part of a growing institution. This is quite essential in making a good citizen. The contribution he makes is often a permanent part in the life of his college. What satisfaction a returned student finds in pointing out the part of the brick wall of the chapel which he built as a student, or the beautiful woodwork of the c'ling which he turned in the wood shop! Hi el 1 1 is fellow students and possibly his teachers are gone, but his workmanship is there. Such pride is the more easily transferred to community life. A student labor program enables the school to safeguard the health and morals of its selfsupporting students. It is the glory of many American colleges that they have a large proportion of self-supporting students, but at what a cost do some of these purchase an education! In schools without a labor program there can be but loose direction and safeguarding of such students. In a student-labor school, labor is an essential and planned part of the schedule, a matter of careful record and directly under the supervision of the advising officers of the institution. The student is not left unprotected from the ex Page 22 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 ploiter of labor, because the school is his employer and seeks to guard his money, his time, and his health. Student labor is incompatible with certain extraneous features of school life. Where it flourishes there is an absence of class distinction, of social fraternities and sororities, of needlessly extravagant functions. There is little or no emphasis placed upon the intercollegiate activities that are so prodigal of time, money, health, and morals. The time that is ordinarily wasted on the non-essentials is saved not only for self-support and vocational experience but for extra reading and study which enable the student to take the standard schedule and to do more thorough work. Thus labor consistently promotes a more sound and normal school life. Student labor also affords an excellent and indirect method of character training. It has all the character-training values of manual training and more. As work is more natural than study, we show our true worth more while at work than at study. Through student labor we are enabled the more quickly to recognize and detect weak points that should be remedied and strong ones that may be encouraged. The person supervising the student's work is usually the first to get an intimate knowledge of his personality. I know of no more splendid way to gain in "nurture and admonition" than for a student to work under the supervision of a kindly, sympathetic, Christian craftsman. Each student in this type of institution has such privileges, since few organizations attract as high a type of real craftsman as do student labor schools. We have traced some of the outstanding accomplishments of the student labor idea which Berea has maintained for three-quarters of a century. How has she been able to continue and enlarge this policy? In the main because she has definitely and consistently made this a fundamental principle. It has been her glory and her crown. Each president has taken his stand on this fundamental principle and has, in the words of President Hutchins, pledged himself to "keep open the path from the cabin to the college," by carrying out the promise in Berea's constitution to provide "opportunities for manual labor as assistance in self-support." Her time-honored method has been to organize the work of the institution as far as possible so that it might offer the opportunity for self-support. Students must be fed, housed, served, and kept in health. Instead of employing outsiders, the college organizes the students to do the work which they make necessary. Berea's oldest utility adjunct, the Wood Work Department, has all features of construction and repair from the lumber in the tree to the finished building, together with the allied trades of smithing, tinning, plumbing, painting, and so on. While this department has from the beginning been a consistently large employer of labor yet it has failed to employ as much student labor as it could have done had there been planning over a longer period for new construction. All wood furniture of our new dormitories and other buildings is now made in the school. In fact, we have been able to design and make a more satisfactory dresser and student's table than we can purchase. In the housing and shelter field of service we have the additional departments of janitors and Monitors (all students), Laundry, Grounds, Clothing, Heat and Power, Blacksmithing. These together furnish over twenty-four per cent of our student labor. Next in importance are the food departments, which provide for the largest amount of student labor. Our Boarding Hall, the largest single employer of labor, is supplemented by the Bakery and Cooperative Store. The Dairy, Garden, Cannery, Farm, and P.)ultry departments supply us with much food. Though these departments fur= n1sh over twentyses en per cent of our student! labor, we expect to be able to increase still further the amount of food and service they supply. Next in importance are the administrative and; general service departments including the Offices, Library, Industrial Arts, Music and Printing. (We print all our catalogs and literature.) These furnish sixteen per cent of the total student labor. If Berea had not persisted in planning to keeF student labor, the work just outlined would have been done by others than students. In order to help us grasp the full significance of the situation, I have devised a student labor index, by dividing the total hours all the students have worked by the number of hours a full time worker would be employed to do the same amount of work. In the four main groups of July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK institutional labor, namely, Food, Housing, Service and Health, the student labor index is 328. In other words, our students do the work which otherwise would have given work to 328 outside workers. Should we suddenly deprive the students of this institutional labor, we would have to go into the labor market and employ that many workers to serve the student body. In addition to introducing a disturbing element into the life of the school, we would not reasonably expect the same work to be done as cheaply by them as by our students. Our students, having few if any dependents, can work at a more reasonable wage. By doing the work themselves at a reasonable rate they thereby reduce the cost of room and board. The students gain in two ways. They get a cheaper living and an opportunity to earn this liv ing. The school gains by securing a more loyal and interested working force, by making it possible to reduce the cost of living, and by furnishing work for students. In addition to the student labor index we have the student wage index. To get the latter we divide the total earnings of the students by the labor index. This shows the average amount each one of these 328 non-student workers would ri if we paid them only what we pay our eceive 1 1 students in the aggregate. This student wage index for last year was found to be $367. This, you will understand, is not the average amount paid each student but it is what student labor costs us in terms of a person working the whole school year on the full time basis. If we had to hire these full time workers in place of the stu dents whom we employ, it is quite unlikely that we could secure them at this rate. In fact, the average wage of the full time emergency workers we did employ last year was $1007, nearly three times the student rate. The four or five stu dents who in shifts do the labor of a full time worker can afford to do it for a total of $367 and are glad to do so. They also take into con sideration the fact that they are securing many other benefits from the school, such as tuition, which much more than compensate for the work they have done. Our system makes it possible to furnish good table board at less than fifteen cents a meal and a good room with steam heat, electric light, shower bath, linen furnished and laundered, for sixty-five cents per week, thus reducing the charge for education to a hundred and fifty dollars per year. In order to provide work for her students, Berea has through all these years invested thousands of dollars in buildings, machinery and other equipment necessary to develop and maintain these campus industries. To man them she has had to search the country for consecrated Christian men and women, experts in their vocations, who could be leaders of youth and who were willing to live on a missionary salary. She has had to arrange schedules in such a way as to enable all student workers to be at their assigned labor without interfering with their class work. Each student is assigned his work on the same schedule and at the same time he is assigned to class work. Unless he has irregular work, such as janitor or waiter, he is assigned a labor period which consists of the same two consecutive class-hours each day in a nineclass-hour schedule. The usual student carries a full schedule and also has time to work. A long-time observer of Berea's labor program testifies as follows:-"Dr. William James Hutchins, the president, is not more prompt at chapel or at the march on baccalaureate day than are the girls who wash dishes after meals or the boys who go to the Bakery and make bread for the whole institution and for much of the town. Promptness, dependability, efficiency in doing the task are cardinal virtues on the campus, and clean overalls and gingham work-dresses are badges of respectability. There is nothing far-fetched about the program, it works . . . Years of patient effort and experiment have resulted in the labor program as it now is, and the fact that the program involving more than fifty payrolls and over two thousand tasks functions with almost no creaking of the machinery is ample evidence of its efficiency." One of the most difficult problems in all industry is that of surplus labor, and we are seeing the disastrous effect of the lack of a national policy with reference to this very necessary reserve. This constitutes a problem in a school labor system also, but we plan for it and take care of it, instead of letting it shift for itself as industry does. We employ this labor either as substitutes in our regular departments, or as workers in what we call stabilizing industries. As each de Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 partment needs a reserve for unexpected vacancies, we assign as substitutes for a definite limited period, never longer than a semester, a few students who need temporary respite for various valid reasons, or those who though willing do not need the work. Each department is encouraged to plan definitely for a few of these substitutes, just enough to take up the slack. As all students are benefiting by the work of all, thus securing a low rate of living for each, each student is under obligation to make his contribution to the lower cost of living. The student who needs the money makes his contribution by regular labor and is paid for it; while the very few students who do not need the money contribute their share by losing their time in reporting at regular intervals to be on hand when needed. Any work done by a substitute is paid for at the prevailing rate. We encourage departments to plan their labor force for the peak of the load, so that they will not be forced to overwork students at a time of emergency. With an adequate force rightly planned, we can avoid overwork entirely and can even plan to lighten the student's work at his time of stress, for example, after convalescence, when the student is making up class work missed during illness. Substitute labor is inadequate in times of emergency such as an epidemic. We then have not only the problem of vacancies due to sick workers but the need of extra workers to take care of the sick. We thus face the problem of planning other industries not necessarily essential to the institutional program, namely, the stabilizing industries. Their purpose is to take up the surplus, especially the unskilled labor often sorely needed to keep our organization intact. We have seen that the four great groups of institutional student industries employ seventy-six per cent, or the bulk of our student labor. Every successful effort to enlarge these necessary industries reduces by that much the problem of stabilizing industries; but in any event there is a residue of workers for which we must make provision. In Berea we have turned to the craftsman type of labor for this purpose. Of these the first organized was the Fireside Industries, which not only gave our girls employment but stimulated the revival of the old time craft of hand weaving in our section. The Broom Industry for men followed, and more recently the Mountain Weav er Boys and the Gift Shop. There is also our school hotel, which is hard to classify, being neither a stabilizing nor a necessary institutional industry, but joining with the stabilizing industries in providing a worth while type of labor and at the same time serving our guests and donors. We feel that we have a large field for expansion in these craft industries. By proper experimentation we can ascertain suitable and salable products which we can produce when we have surplus labor. The products are non-perishable, and so we do not hesitate to accumulate stock for which at present we have no orders. This type of labor has been found useful in so many ways that some of our regular departments are making craft articles as a sideline, providing stabilization within the department. As examples, we have the Christmas cakes and decorated sugar cubes of our Bakery, and the colonial furniture of the Wood Work. The latter has developed almost to the proportions of another industry. We plan later to introduce book-binding, art printing, leather work and other crafts as we have time and money to develop them and can find the personnel necessary. These craft or cultural industries by featuring an art product of student labor have the further effect of winning friends and donors for our school. This is an accomplishment of student labor we have not stressed, but which is increasingly looming large in Berea's program. The visitor attracted to our school because of the labor program may purchase for his home a sample of student work. The gift shop and the display rooms of the different departments are aids in selling products and gaining friends as well as in feeling out the public as to the type of craft products which are salable. It is my judgment that if student labor did not pay its way financially, the gaining of friends through the sale of student products would justify the retention of student labor. Since 1922 our industries as a whole have been entirely self-supporting, the gains in the old carrying the losses on the new, the net gain rising and falling with the years. While the student may use our labor system as a vocational laboratory by changing his job at least twice each year, for the sake of efficiency we encourage the student to choose some task July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page ZS upon which he may spend enough time to secure some degree of proficiency. This is not compulsory, since the student is perfectly free at the beginning of each semester to change his work, but he must get experience in making the change by securing the job himself. To reward consistent and faithful work a labor award is given for two or more years' continuous and satisfactory work in the same or related departments. On this certificate both the superintendent and the dean of labor certify to the student's fidelity and to his skill and efficiency in a particular line of work. These certificates are useful as recommendations in securing positions in the competitiva world. To promote the idea of student labor and magnify it among our students, faculty, and friends, we hold annually what for lack of a better name we call "Labor Day." This is to labor what commencement is to the academic life. It is held two weeks before commencement, and is one of Berea's most significant days. There is a self-reviewing procession in which all departments are represented, the students in each department being dressed in the appropriate costumes of their labor or carrying convenient implements of their trade. At Main Chapel there is an address on some phase of labor by a prominent speaker, and labor awards are given for continuous service of from two to eight or ten years in one department. In the afternoon there is a culmination of the activities of the year in the contests within departments, between the most proficient workers, for which certificates and prizes are given. The most recent development in stimulating thoughtful student work consists in the "Creative Effort Prizes" offered by our trustee, Mr. William Danforth. Four gold prizes are offered each semester for the best suggestions for improvement in labor, method, or material in connection with the student labor of the institution. The first prize in the first award was a plan for the complete reorganization of the Bakery, which was immediately put into operation. A prize was given for a simple arrangement for the protection of our sidewalks during the construction and repair of buildings. Another prize=winning idea was a plan for the glazing of doughnuts, submitted in time to save the Bakery considerable expense in experimentation. These suggestions show that our students have been encouraged to consider the problems of their work and to devise solutions for them. They also show the interest and loyalty in the protection of the institution and its property which it is possible to secure among student workers. We have mentioned a few of the constructive methods of supervision we have found stimulating to good work. Nothing, however, can take the place of a sympathetic skilled foreman or superintendent. It is just as necessary to have a good foreman as it is to have a good teacher. Without the right kind of teacher the school fails; without the right kind of teacher-foreman student labor fails. The success student labor schools have met in drawing into their service a splendid type of student labor leadership is to me an evidence of the genuineness and permanence of the student labor idea. May I be permitted to coin a word to express this idea? In a community of scholars the financial help given is dignified by the term "scholarship," and when, in the brotherhood of work, scholars support themselves, may not their labor just as properly be dignified by the term of "schollabor"? Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 The Nashville Agricultural Normal Institute, now twenty-seven years old, was founded by a number of teachers who left a northern college, bought 238 acres of land near Madison, Tennessee, and started the type of school they thought most valuable to the average student. They began by making it a rule that all students should earn their own expenses, not because they were poor but because by so doing they would get a more valuable education. There were twelve or fifteen people in attendance that first year. Since then the number has greatly increased. This year the enrollment totalled something like four hundred-and half the applications had to be rejected. As the school has grown it has been necessary to increase the acreage, until now the Institute owns something over nine hundred acres of land. We allow all our students to earn their way through school, if they are physically able to do so. In fact, we do not allow students to pay their way. 1f they are able to do that, they must go somewhere else. When I say students pay their way by labor, I do not mean that their tuition is paid by someone else, through scholarships, and that they work a little. They actually do enough profitable work to pay for their room, board, laundry, books, and often their clothes as well. Frankly, we do not want to have students of wealth enter and feel that they arc above the rest. Our school program is so arranged that any student who is reasonably industrious can do a year's school work in a year. Our pay schedule is based on the expenses of the institution; it makes no difference in what department the student works, or if the student is a man or a woman. For years all students were paid the same rate per hour. You may say that it was not fair for a student who did good work to receive no better wage than one who did poor work, and this is true. At present we have a basic rate of ten cents an hour. People who do especially fine work get more. If a worker is very poor, he gets less. At the end of every month a report comes in from the head of every department giving an estimate of the quality of work every student in his department has done, and on this is based I-SOW WE DO IT AT MADISON FLOYD BRALLIAR the wage rate. If a student finds that he is falling down in his work he has a chance to do better next month. The institution has no endowment of any sort, either for the support of students or teachers. The entire salary of the faculty as well as the expenses of the student body must be earned on the place. If any of you doubt that it is a real man-sized job to keep such an institution running, just give it a try-out. Although the total body of students and faculty together number fully 450, we are absolutely self-supporting. With us the great difficulty is, not in finding enough work for the students to do, but in finding enough students to do the necessary work. In order to make the institution a success, naturally a great deal of work must be done. First, we construct the necessary buildings, to give us more room as the work expands, with our own labor. There was a time when we hired two or three men to work for the Institute at least half of the time; now we manage without any such workers. We are changing from a junior college to a senior college: this means the construction of new buildings, and we are now erecting the largest building on the campus to date. The plans for this building were drawn on the campus. Part of the lumber necessary for its construction was sawed directly from the logs in our saw mill. At present, there are perhaps a hundred unsawed logs in our mill yard that will be sawed into lumber some time soon. We havo a re-sawing mill which makes it possible for us to buy rough lumber from the mountain mills and put in it condition for first-class building work. At prcsent we have two or three carloads of such lumber that is being re-sawed. We also have a planing mill and mills for making all sorts of finished lumber. We make our sashes, doors, screens, etc., in our own shop. Our boys do our carpenter work as a part of their training, and earn their expenses while doing it. We do not hire steam fitters, plumbers, clectricians, painters. This work is all done by our own students. Of course the cost is much less. Dr. Weidler's estimate of the difference in rates between student labor and outside labor at Berea July, 1931 MOUN FAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 is about the same as ours at Madison. It costs us only from one-third to one-half as much to do building with our own students as it would cost to construct the same building with regular workmen. But there is another important feature to putting up the buildings with student labor. We avoid the shoddy work so often done by contractors who are hoping thereby to make a greater profit out of their contract. As vet we do not make all our own furniture. For a. number of years we have been making a part of it, and some of the things we have constructed are unusually fine. We hope that as soon as we complete the present building program we shall be able to begin making furniture on a larger scale. On our farm we do project work such as is done in the regular Smith-Hughes high schools. A boy is rented land on which to carry on his project; he does his own planting, cultivating, and marketing just as he would if he were living on his father's farm. Among the projects carried on last year were poultry, corn, sweet potatoes, cabbage, carrots. You might be interested to know that we have had but one student who did not make more profit out of his project than he would have made had he been doing the work for the institution and receiving the usual wages pid for labor. Last year one of our boys planted al a crop of late cabbages which were retarded by the drought. However, the mild weather has allowed these cabbages to grow slowly through the winter, and he has harvested a few cabbages every week, just about enough to supply the school tables; so the project is going to turn out all right after all. We have boys who grow tomatoes on the project basis. One lad is putting out an acre of strawberries this spring. Another hopes to pay his way through school this coming year by growing and selling vegetable plants. The dairy and apiary, a shoe-cobbling shop, a t*lor shop, and rug weaving are some of our al industries. Then there is the poultry plant, with about three thousand laying hens. We of course have our own laundry. In our print shop we arc just beginning to do job work: in the past we have not been able to do very much more than the printing that is necessary for the institution. In our flour mill we grind several carloads of wheat every year. We make not only the flour necessary for the bread used by the students, but that used in the bakery where we prepare foods of various kinds to sell. At present, we have four trucks running regularly in Nashville, selling our bakery products. We grow about sixty acres of garden, and not only use the products in their fresh state but can everything we need for the winter. In fact, we always plan to can enough fruit and vegetables to carry us a year even though we should have a complete crop failure. This seems to us to be a necessary insurance against hard times. We are setting out new orchards this spring, although we now have sufficient orchards to produce several carloads of fruit each year. After we have canned all of our cull apples and sold the surplus, we plan to place two carloads in cold storage each year. We still have a good supply in storage at the present time (late March). We grow peaches, pears, and grapes on about the same scale. We have the second largest vineyard in the state of Tennessee, and we find that we secure a better yield than the average in the best grape-growing districts of Michigan and New York. A nice vegetarian cafeteria in Nashville is operated by the Institute. The students from our domestic science courses are receiving a special training there. We are able to convert a large amount of labor into cash in this way, as we grow on our own farms much of the food that is served there. One of our largest means of converting student labor into cash is our sanitarium, where the nurses get their training. This institution is located on the same campus as the school. We have room for the accomodation of one hundred patients and are thoroughly equipped in every respect. Someone, in giving a report, voiced the hope that the institution would have a real baby on its campus next year, to be cared for by the domestic science class. For the past two years we have had on our campus twelve or fourteen bab.iqs from an asylum in town. Our nurses' classes have the full care of these, even including the making of their menus and preparing the food; and you will not find healthier, happier babies anywhere. Our nurses' training course, as well as the other departments of the institution, is fully accredited Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK by the regular accrediting agencies; and our students, on finishing, are allowed to sit for examination before the state boards of any of the states where they may choose to register. Aside from our regular accredited nurses' course, we also allow a limited number of people to take a special nurses' training to prepare them for practical nursing. These people can never be rated as professional nurses; but often the training that they receive enables them to do more valuable work than is done by the regular professional nurses. In expanding to a senior college, of course it is necessary for us not only to build new buildings but to put in much new equipment for our science courses. We are planting an arboretum and botanical garden as a part of this equipment. Our nurserymen friends have been very liberal in helping us in this. Up to date we have secured and planted almost a thousand varieties of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Among these is a beautiful orchard of Japanese flowering cherries and a hundred and fifty lilacs in fifty different varieties. These, with the sixty flowering crabs and hundreds of other flowering trees and shrubs, will naturally add greatly to the beauty and usefulness of the campus. I must explain to you that all of the teachers, unless they are too busy with their regular school work to do anything else, have regular duties outside of the usual teaching activity. Each teacher is supposed to supervise the work in some department that he is capable of teaching properly. July, 1931 Salaries are relative. Many things beside money enter into our consideration of salary. Many of us board at the school dining room at the cheap rate which it offers. There are many other things which come to us at very low prices. When I consider the cost of living away from our campus, and when I think of what it costs the average man to get along, I often wonder how we manage it as teachers and families; but we have plenty to eat, plenty to wear, and perhaps live as happily as any of you. One of the inspectors of the Southern Association went over the records with us to see what our teachers receive, and he says that we actually receive as much value as do you who get regular stipulated salaries. This I know, that I have raised a family of six children on the campus and have managed to give all of them that are old enough to take it (five of them) a regular college education. I have nothing at the end. From what most of you tell me, you who are teaching on regular salaries are in exactly the same fix. I wish to apologize to you for having to appear instead of Dr. Sutherland, and to make these random remarks extemporaneously. Had I known I was to appear on the program I would have been able to organize my talk in such a way as to give you more valuable information. In closing I wish to extend a most cordial invitation to any or all of you to visit our institution and become acquainted at first hand with the way we carry on our work. July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 A RELIGIOUS BASIS FOR THE MODERN COUNTRY CHURCH GOSPEL During the past several decades the church has been embracing the ideal of a social ministry. Leaders and prophets in the church have stirred the emotion of pity through the appeal of hungry people, crippled children, and diseased, ignorant country folks. Justice has been called upon in conflicts between laborers and their employers, The prohibition of liquor, war, and the profiteer has been sought for the social good. Honesty, justice, purity, and the care of the needy burn in the hearts of our modern messengers from Tekoa. The church has come to accept this social gospel, but it has not translated it into the terms of activity and program. The main difficulty has not come to the conscious attention of the great majority of our church leaders. They are trying to hold to creeds, baptism, and types of church organization as the major concerns, while on the surface they admit that the gospel of Jesus means every-day living, that baptism of the spirit is more important than the quantity of water, and that all Christians are brothers. Church leaders profess but do not practice this modern interpretation. Now I want to propose that we go back to the Bible and challenge them on their original ground. We will take the ministry and teaching of Jesus (interpreted literally at many points) as the ideal for our modern church gospel. The Ministry of Jesus Jesus knew that the months which would be given to his ministry would of necessity be very short, but he had time to heal the bodies of people in the neighborhoods on his circuit. He spent much time in this activity. Jesus healed folks on the Sabbath, which brought down upon him the wrath of the most religious, who said, "You must do your work on work days!" The church, today, which opens its doors to Well Baby Clinics, to inoculation services, or other health activities will meet the same criticism that Jesus did. The Gospels have a hundred times more to HAUN say about healing than they do about baptism. They record the work of Jesus in healing blind men, lepers, demoniacs, the withered hand, the issue of blood, the fever, and that he raised the dead, restored the servant's ear and relieved those afflicted with palsy. Jesus not only healed but he sent out the twelve and the seventy, and commands his disciples today, to heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, and cast out devils in his name. There are more than thirty scripture sections in the New Testament, many in the Old Testament, and a multitude of texts for the church today on a healing ministry. Our ministers should know them and use them effectively until their people feel that it is more religious to help make a man's body whole than it is to baptise him by a certain mode. Jesus Fed the Hungry Jesus fed the hungry, so say the scriptures. There may have been other additional reasons, but the record says that Jesus had compassion because they had nothing to eat. He provided food lest they should faint by the wayside. Our country churches must be active in helping to improve the economic life of their communities. You would be interested in some of the sermons which our rural ministers with the Jesus ideal have been preaching on such subjects as: "Purebreds," "Better Breeding," "Improving Kids and Kine," and on the texts, "He that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with bread," and "Speak to the earth and it shall teach thee." In Deuteronomy 11:12 is the text "A land for which He careth." This has been used effectively in preaching God's care for the land. It is sinful to allow a field to wash into gullies. We are missing the mark and failing to carry our share in God's plan when the field that could have produced sixty bushels of corn per acre produces only twenty. If people felt it to be their religious duty to help God make perfect crops in their fields, the Kingdom of God would come more speedily than it does for those Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK ,July, 1931 who spend hours arguing over whether faith or works comes first. Jesus Developed Minds "What think ye," said Jesus, as he called upon those around him to think through vital problems confronting them. Political, social, religious, and moral problems were presented by Jesus, who himself possessed the keenest intellect, and under his leadership the people thought their way through to right conclusions. Jesus dealt with the intellectual problems of his day; and our country church needs the best trained ministers face the problems their young people and adults. Man is a Social Being Jesus, unlike other prophets, entered the social life of his day; and our church should feel that it is religious to provide wholesome social life for its people, and sinful to turn this over to the world, the flesh, and the devil. John the Baptist was an ascetic apart from the world, but Jesus came "eating and drinking." He attended the marriage feast, which was the biggest social event in the East. He dined in the home of the Pharisee. He banqueted with Matthew, the publican. Jesus was the friendly companion of his disciples and visited in their homes. People crowded to him because of his gracious words. He sat with others in the public place watching people place their offerings in the to being raised in the lives of temple box. There is strong indication that he played with little children. Jesus broke the barriers between the cliques and classes of publicans, Pharisees, Samaritans, Gentiles, and Jews, and lived as he taught, that "All men are brothers." He wept with friends anti led them in humility, meekness, patience, and fair-play as they lived with their neighbors. People of our churches today need to have this Jesus presented until he is accepted. Jesus is for Everyone in the Neighborhood Jesus led the people in vital worship. The temple and the synagogue with their pious membership were no longer the bounds of worship. Jesus revealed the way to worship the Father in spirit and in truth, out on the highway, on the mountain side, down by the sea, in the work of healing the sick, in lifting up the broken-hearted, and even while giving a drink of water in his name. When the country church adopts the gospel of Jesus, then crowds will flock to it as they did to him in Galilee ages ago. When the church has served the vital needs of its people they have flocked to it, but when it has got out of touch with life the people have become indifferent to it. The full gospel of Jesus is religious; we need not fear to preach it and to insist upon our church members, up to the highest officials, living it literally. July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 OBJECTIVES AND PROGRESS OF THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS L. C. GRAY I am talking to a group of people who are on the firing line of social service in the Southern Highland region. You are grappling at first hand with the enemy in his various manifestationsignorance, prejudice, poverty, inadequate natural resources, inefficiency, malnutrition, inadequate housing, nearly impassable roads. You are acutely aware of pressing needs in the communities with which you are intimately acquainted-needs for better school buildings, a more competent type of instruction, more adequate food and clothing for children and adults, and additional health facilities. It is natural that with your acute consciousness of immediate and unfulfilled needs, with your background of poignant human experiences, and with your vital interest in the advancement of helpful enterprises near to your hearts, a proposal for a comprehensive survey of the Highland region may appear somewhat far removed from the immediate problems with which you are grappling. No doubt you may have somewhat the same feeling toward such an undertal~ing that doughboy in the trenches, standing, eating, and sleeping in mud and water, with uncertain and unpalatable food, and menaced continually by machine-gun bullets, shells, and air raids, might have toward a plan of campaign devised by a general staff, a plan comprising voluminous maps, endless statistics, wearisome details of troop movements and supplies-and all of it "on paper." No doubt, too, you may have toward the Director and Associate Director, and those affiliated with them in this undertaking some of the same feeling that the doughboy has when he sees staff officers, trained at West Point, ride by in highpowered cars. Unlike most of you, neither Mr. Clayton nor myself has lived or worked for long in the mountains. We do not speak the mountain language, and certainly we are not as fully acquainted as you are with mountain psychology. It would not be quite fair to the important undertaking for which we are responsible, however, to have you believe that we have had no first-hand contact as research workers with the mountain problems. In 1926 the Bureau of Agricultural Economics made a farm-organization and standard-of-living study in the Eastern Ohio foothills. In 1927 we carried on a study in two mountain counties of West Virginia, the following year in Laurel County, Kentucky, and last summer in Knott County, Kentucky. The last three surveys have covered in a very detailed manner conditions of land utilization, farm organization, the mode of living of the families, and changes in composition of population. More or less attention has been given to the character and adequacy of community institutions. All of these surveys have been in cooperation with the experiment stations of the respective states. Mr. Clayton has been in immediate charge of the last two surveys. We have come out of these surveys with a very definite picture of the characteristics of mountain life in the comparatively limited regions that we have studied. Let me compare notes with you to see how the conditions we found resemble those with which you are acquainted. Whereas your impressions may consist mainly of individual observations, ours take the form largely of statistical groupings that make available a quantitative portrayal of conditions. Time will permit me to give you only a few glimpses of the extensive results of these local studies. First, with regard to the relationship of the mountain people to the natural conditions and resources in the areas in which they live. An area of less than half a county, which was the basis of our Laurel County study, contains very varied conditions affecting materially the ability of the people to maintain an adequate livelihood. Mr. Clayton made a careful of the characteristics of the fields and the methods of using them in upwards of fifty farms. Over 40 per cent of the area in crops and pasture had a slope of 20 per cent or more. Approximately one-third of the entire area of crop and pasture land was classed as overcropped and badly eroded, most of it Page 32 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 land with slopes of 20 per cent or more. Over 12 per cent of the entire area was land of between 10 and 20 per cent slope which was also overcropped and eroded. Fifteen per cent was wet and swampy or low with wet spots. Of the total area, only about 23 per cent was land with slope under 10 per cent and in good or fair physical condition. In other words, more than threefourths of the area in crops and pasture was land severely handicapped by steep slopes, erosion, wetness or the presence of stumps, sprouts, and other "filth." The wet lands are largely used for hay and the lands with gentle slopes are predominantly employed for small grain and hay. This throws the cultivation of corn, the principal crop, mainly to the steep slopes, with the result that erosion is extremely rapid. In general, on these steep slopes there prevails a well-recognized sequence of utilization. Lands are newly cleared at heavy cost, and corn is grown for three or four years in the midst of the stumps. By that time erosion has advanced so far that yields are seriously reduced, and the land then becomes "pasture." Every few years it is necessary to clear away the sprouts that spring up. Finally erosion and exhaustion advance to the point where the field is necessarily abandoned and slowly grows up again to forests. The clearing is done largely without the use of stump pullers and dynamite, at a heavy expenditure of human and horse labor. As erosion proceeds and yields decline, the net return from crops rapidly decreases. After deducting only the principal direct costs together with costs of clearing, it was found that two of the ten classes of fields showed an actual net loss, and the remaining classes an average net return per acre of only $1.94. This wasteful sequence of utilization is made necessary by the limited land resources and the small area of available crop and pasture land per farm. Of the 202 farms surveyed, 19.7 per cent had less than 15 acres of crop land, 42.4 per cent had 16 to 30 acres, 25.6 per cent had 31 to 45 acres, and only 12.3 percent had over 45 acres. As land becomes badly eroded and returns to forest, the aggregate crop acreage available per farm gradually shrinks, and necessarily the tendency to overcropping or the use of land ill-adapted to cropping is increased. It is frequently of little use to tell these people that they should have larger farms in order to obtain better incomes. In a large proportion of cases the size of the area available for cropping and pasture in particular farms is severely limited by unfavorable physical conditions, even if the limitation imposed by population density were less severe. Many of the farms are remote from markets by reason of distance or poor roads, or both. This handicap is especially serious in the marketing of woodlot products. As a result of these conditions, Mr. Clayton points out, "It has happened again and again that the son began, not where the father left off, not even where the father began, but actually under a greater handicap through the progressive soil-`mining' to which the land has been subjected." After careful study he concludes that on a conservative basis of estimate over 43 per cent of the farms should be classed "as submarginal under the most favorable plan of farm organization and management that could be devised." These limited natural and unfavorable economic conditions do not admit very adequate incomes. The 203 farms classified by size show the following farm incomes, allowing for increases or decreases in inventory: 40 86 52 25 203 LESS INCOME FROM THE WORK OF THE FARM OPERATOR OFF THE FARMS SIZE OF FARM INCOME FARM 15 acres and under 16 to 30 acres 31 to 45 acres Over 45 acres All groups $3 52 262 327 552 332 $-1S 123 157 362 Included in farm income is any income obtained by the farm operator working in outside employment. In addition to these net cash incomes the family incomes are supplemented by what is consumed direct from the farm itself, by income from miscellaneous sources such as pensions and gifts from relatives, and by whatever wages earned by other members of the family are contributed to household expenses. The value of the family living of all the farm families, obtained from the various sources mentioned, averaged $689, of which $365 consisted of goods furnished by the farm direct, including food valued at $308, use of dwelling $45, and fuel about $11. Of course, it is possible to un July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 33 der-estimate from these figures the well-being of these families as compared with that of farm families in other areas or as compared with the poorer classes of city families. These Kentucky mountain families used fuel valued at only $11, yet presumably had all they needed. While the rental value of their homes was only $44, and represented in general a very poor class of houses, 97.5 per cent having no modern conveniences, nevertheless, this item costs the city dweller a much larger sum that must be deducted from cash income. Finally, the $308 worth of food supplied by the farm was valued at local farm prices, and would doubtless cost nearly double that amount if purchased in cities. Nevertheless, the mode of living of these mountain families was on a low level. Granting that they had their dwellings, food, and fuel, they had only $210 to spend for all other purposes, of which $94 went for clothing. They spent on an average only $30 per family for so-called advancement goods. Morever, the total value of food purchased was only $114, less than $10 per month. Since the larger incomes count more heavily in the average than the lower incomes, we may assume that considerably more than half the families were getting along with incomes lower than the averages described. These Kentucky farmers are not paupers. Ninety per cent of the farmers of the county own their own homes. They are probably as a whole no more discontented with their lot than those of us who live in cities, if as much so. In this particular county there has been no widespread tendency toward depopulation. In spite of the fact that small farms and inadequate farm incomes are due in part to overpopulation, the number of people increased nearly 7 per cent from 1918 to 1928, and there was an increase in numher of houses. While there is a considerable emigration from the county, it is offset by a high natural rate of increase combined with some immigration. The conditions in this county, however, raise a number of questions which, I imagine, are sig nificant for many other parts of the Southern Highland region. How long will these people continue satisfied to maintain the present mode of living with its extremely limited money income in this age when food, shelter, and warmth have come to be a so much smaller part than formerly of the ends and aims of life? How long can such a region maintain its existing population even in accordance with present modes of living as soil resources become further depleted by overcropping and erosion, and timber resources become less adequate as a source of money income? If a smaller population becomes inevitable in such an area, what will be the effect of the change on the problem of maintaining schools and roads and on the proper distribution of these facilities? What kinds of readjustments would be called for in size of farm and in methods of farming? In what ways can the mountain people use their existing resources more wisely, so that they may enjoy a better quality of food, more convenient and sanitary homes, a richer community life? Will the apparently inevitable decrease in population be postponed or avoided in some areas by the development of mining or the introduction of local industries other than farming? In the long run, is it worth while to encourage the continuance of population in some of the areas where natural conditions permit only a restricted mode of livelihood? Are the physical and mental advantages to the nation sufficient to justify the provision of facilities for supplementing this meager life beyond what the communities may maintain for themselves? On what scale and in what form should these outside contributions be made, and how should they be distributed throughout the extensive territory included in the Southern Highlands? I am sure you will agree with me that if we knew the answer to these questions, they would be different for various parts of the Southern Highlands. There has always been more diversity in economic and social conditions in the mountains than most people imagined. There have been valley farmers and hill farmers; people living in limestone areas and others on poor soils. There have always been great differences in accessibility and degree of isolation. For a century the Southern Highland region as a whole experienced comparatively little change in mode of life. But the penetration of railways and highways, the coming in of mines and factories here and there, the exhaustion of timber and the depletion of soils, the establishment of schools and Page 34 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 the increase in literacy, and the inevitable penetration of new standards of living which require money for their satisfaction-such conditions are responsible for rapid changes in different parts of the region. Perhaps each of you could answer for some small part of this great territory at least some of the questions I have raised; but none of you can answer them for the whole or describe the wide differences in the answers that would apply to different parts of the whole. Yet, there are reasons why it has become important not only to consider the Appalachians as a whole but also to visualize the difference and contrasts in the various .localities and the changes that are talonplace in different parts of the territory. Many of you are charged with serving only a single locality with which you are intimately acquainted. Others, however, who are here and still others not present have the responsibility of considering what action should be taken for the region as a whole or for extensive portions of it. If I may revert again to the analogy at the beginning of this paper, many of you are engaged in the details of trench warfare. You are concerned with the battle on a narrow front. But there are those who must formulate tactics for a wider front and who must understand the territory as a whole and the diverse conditions of its parts sufficiently to plan the strategy of a campaign possibly extending over a number of years. They include church boards and educational foundations, federal and state school authorities, farm organizations, state legislatures, other public boards and administrative agencies, federal and state directors, philanthropic foundations desirous of being helpful to mountain communities, and research agencies that need to know the contrasts in conditions and tendencies for various parts of the Highland region in order to plan more intelligently the location and character of their research activity. This need for more light on the conditions and tendencies in the Southern Highlands led to meeting in New York City held at the headquarters of the Russell Sage Foundation in November, 1929, including representatives of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, the Home Missions Council, the Council of Women for Home Missions, the Board of National Mis sions of the Presbyterian Church, the National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, American Association for Organizing Family Social Work, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, American Country Life Association, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and various educational institutions interested in the mountains. A comprehensive research project was recommended and a resolution passed requesting the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, of the United States Department of Agriculture, to assume the leadership of the project. The Bureau agreed to accept the responsibility and appointed the present speaker to act as Director. Since then several further conferences have been held including representatives of some of the above organizations, representatives of the Forest Service, the Bureau of Home Economics, the Office of Education of the Department of the interior, and of a number of the Experiment Stations in states containing important portions of the Southern Appalachian Highlands. A comprehensive project was organized and official agencies promised support to the extent of more than $100,000. Owing partly to the short period a'lable for formulation and preparation of th~, v al project, the attempt to raise the necessary additional funds in time to begin work last summer proved unsuccessful. The Committee appointed to guide the course of the project met in Cincinnati last fall and de cided to proceed with such official resources as l might be available. A project was planned for the year beginning next July. It will take the form of the preparation of a series of about 200 maps that will show for the Southern Appalachian region the varied conditions of soil and topography in the different parts of the region; will divide the region into characteristic type areas on the basis of physical characteristics, accessibility, the extent and character of farming, and the presence or absence of other kinds of industries; and finally, will indicate for each type area the conditions and tendencies with regard to such important subjects as land utilization, amount and composition of pcpulation, typÃ‚Â°s of farming, forest industries, other classes of industry, market and transport facilities, health conditions and July, 1931 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 35 agencies, social institutions and organizations, taxation and education. These results will be closely coordinated with the results obtained in the religious survey which is being initiated under the direction of the Institute of Social and Religious Research. Arrangements have been made to tie the two projects closely together. The Economic and Social Survey of the Southern Appalachians is a unique undertaking by reason of the large number of cooperating agencies that have agreed to participate. They include the Division of Land Economics, the Division of Farm Organization and Management, the Division of Farm Population and Rural Life, and the Division of Farm Finance-all of the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics; the Bureau of Home Economics; the Forest Service; the Office of Education, Department of the Interior; and a number of State experiment stations. We should come out of this first year's study with the ability to think of the Southern Appalachians not as a homogeneous region, but as a region of varied and diverse conditions; with the ability to visualize the differences in conditions and tendencies in the various parts of a region that comprises about two hundred counties and an area of nearly one hundred thousand square miles. You may be interested in my naming a few classes of facts that will be shown on maps of the Southern Highlands, both in cross section and in trend. For instance, they will comprise: 1. Physical and economic resources and conditions of the Southern Highlands, such as soils, topography, slope, drainage, roads, market outlets, and the location of mines and factories. These facts constitute the essential foundation for understanding the conditions of life. 2. Opportunities which agriculture as a source of livelihood affords to the people in different parts of the area, as indicated by incomes ob. tained, types of farming practiced, and the extent to which farming is a principal basis of economic life in different parts of the region. 3. Extent and location of forest resources and industries, and where and to what extent these resources have been depleted. 4. Educational and social conditions and facilities in different parts of the region as indicated by location of private and public schools of va rious kinds, library facilities, circulation of periodicals and newspapers, and degree of literacy; prevalence of various diseases, availability of hospitals, physicians, and public health facilities and services; distribution and membership of various classes of economic and social organizations such as churches, farm organizations, and boys' and girls' clubs. Naturally you are asking how all of this will be useful to you people who are trying to help the mountain folk in numerous ways to attain a more abundant life. My reply is, in the same manner that the individual soldier can fight more effectively if those who direct his efforts are thoroughly acquainted with the terrain and in possession of the fullest possible information concerning the numbers, resources, movements, and dispositions of the enemy. Only by gaining the ability to visualize the conditions and tendencies in the various parts of this great region can the a'lable resources be employed most intelligent val 1 ly; only in this manner can the efforts of the various forces working for the betterment of conditions in the Highlands be fully coordinated so as to achieve a maximum result. DR. MORSE OUTLINES THE RELIGIOUS SURVEY Following Dr. Gray, Dr. Hermann N. Morse, of the Board of National Missions, told of the religious study being launched by the Institute of Social and Religious Research. This study will cover approximately the same territory as the Social and Economic Survey, so that, at certain points, as is found convenient, statistics will be carried from one study to the other. From the two, mountain workers will eventually have at their disposal a wealth of facts which many have dreamed of, yet few have ever hoped to realize. The religious study will of necessity include some investigation of economic conditions. As Dr. Morse pointed out, the economic and religious aspects of community life are dependent upon each other; hence where the standard of either is low, the other is affected. This becomes evident when we realize that, though all mountaineers are said to be religious, and though there are in the mountains ample number of religious institutions to serve the people, the average moun Page 36 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK July, 1931 tain church, handicapped by small membership, poor equipment, and, above all, inadequate support, is too weak to be effective. Yet, in the mountain region, in direct contrast to these struggling churches, we find a religious investment which has no parallel in America. Religious institutions, many of them developing mission programs of the various denominations, provide hospitals and clinics for the mountain people, and provide many forms of vocational, general and religious education. Few of th:se enterprises make full use of local resources in leadership and interest. For the sake of the mission as well as the local church, a survey is greatly needed to re-evaluate the religious work done in the Southern Mountains, and to furnish a point of departure for further developments. Dr. Morse summarized briefly the scope of the survey, the type of material to be used, and the objectives. It is planned that the data will be secured for the Institute in its own name, and will coi I uprise all available material throughout the Southern Mountain area. It is planned to use the facts gathered by the United States Religious Census, particularly in Virginia, as special census tabulations have already been made and published for this state. Denominational material from mission boards will add a second body of facts. The Home Missions Council and the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers will aid by giving their cooperation. Much of the data needed can thus be secured from organizations dealing with the mountain work, which have already at their disposal valuable facts and findings which only need to be correlated to be of use to all. From miscellaneous sources, such as correspondence with interested persons, a unique contribution is expected. Field workers under the direction of Miss Elizabeth Hooker, plan to MISPRINT work intensively during the summer to supplement other information already at hand. The field work is planned to cover thirty-two counties in different sections of the mountains. This Institute study of certain type areas, chosen as far as possible to coincide with those picked for the later government study, should prove helpful to workers of the Economic and Social Study when they approach the same areas. All type areas chosen by the Institute will not, however, be identical with type areas for the Social and Economic Survey, as for the religious study it will be necessary to take counties where various types of religious conditions are shown, Dr. Morse explained, whether the county is in good or bad economic condition. Comparable counties in different regions will be studied, and also those of similar topography but differing church programs. An educational consultant will bring technical educational ability into the research and will visit the mission schools, whilthey are in session if possible, so that their work may be studied. The aim of the survey is to assemble the kind of material which will be useful to mountain agencies in building a practical program for the future-concrete related facts upon which the public and the mission boards will base their conclusions. As in every enterprise of this nature, much depends upon the cooperation of agencies and of individuals, upon good will, and upon interest in the work-the sort of active interest which will lead mountain workers to aid by supplying any information not otherwise easily available, and by helping the work of the survey as they alone can do. In return, the study by the Institute promises to be an invaluable aid to all who are interested in the mountain work. We wish to call to the attention of our readers a misprint which occurred in the April issue. The last three lines on page 5, quoted from AE on the subject of the folk school, should read: "not a vocational method, but an evocational impulse." OUR CONTRIBUTORS JOHN D. WILLARD, of Teachers College, Columbia University, a former member of the staff of the American Association for Adult Education, has done research in adult education. FANNIE W. DUNN is a member of the Department of Rural Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. HERMANN N. MORSE is director of surveys for the Home Missions Council, and author of books on rural church work. ALBERT G. WEIDEER is Dean of Labor at Berea College. FLOYD BRALEIAR, of the Nashville Agricultural Normal Institute, is an agricultural expert and naturalist. C. C. HAUN, of the School of Religion, Vanderbilt University, plans to spend the summer in field work with the Institute of Social and Religious Research. L. C. GRAY is in charge of the Division of Land Economics, United States Department of Agriculture.