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VOLUME VII JANUARY, 1932 Training Leaders of Childhood -Jessie AÃ‚Â»;ell Wcclzcs A Research Approach to the Problems of Appalachia -IV. D. Nicholls Singing Berea The Old Clothes Barrel A Survey of Mountain Schools Building in Stone A Sampling of Ozark Creeds We Thank The Father of All Waters! Building a Rural County Return Editorial Index, Volume VII NUMBER IV -Margret Trotter -Harriette Wood -E. C. Waller -L. F. Deschamps -Paul R. Steuick -Vance Prather -Marshall E. Vaughn -Jesse Stuart 9 12 14 18 20 23 26 29 30 31 Published Quarterly at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual "1 understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Volume VII JANUARY, 1932 Number IV TRAINING LEADERS OF CHILDHOOD JESSIE ANGELL WEEKES Whatever else the students of today may become tomorrow, they are bound to be creators of the next generation. They cannot escape a share in that responsibility, for they will be its teachers, nurses, doctors, social workers, lawmakers, judges, and, parents. If the child is to be treated wisely, he must be understood, especially in his preschool years; yet for the training of those who influence him most, educational systems have offered scant preparation. In preparation for professions other than teaching, the essential nature of the normal child and the scientific technique for handling him have not been viewed as vital matters needing special training. As for the prospective parent, he has been thought endowed by nature for his t a s k and trained by his own home experience for giving the most potent education his child will receive during all his life. The progressive world of education has recently acknowledged that these preparations are perniciously inadequate. The administration of Berea College, in studying the home backgrounds of its students in the still more impressively, its HABITS OF ORDERLINESS towns, villages, and back reaches of the mountain territories of Appalachia, and in studying the efforts of its graduates to meet the needs of childhood in court, mine, school, and home, has set out to insure preparation in the student years for the handling of the little child. For two years the experiment has b e e n progressing; pre-parental education by the laboratory method. The work has b e e n headed up in the H o m e Economics Department, and ably carried on by Miss Anna L. Payne, whose training and experience are from G o u c h e r College, Cornell Universtiy and Mills College. Specialized Classes with laboratory hours have included courses in "Child Nature and Development" and "Child Care and Training," open to upperclassmen with prerequisites in psychology. But the laboratory has proved invaluable also to students in nutrition courses and those in children's clothing, whose members will be teachers in school and leaders in Farm Bureau and ParentEducation groups under Smith-Hughes funds. In practice teaching, Home Economics majors have learned the laboratory practise, taught its prirt Page 2 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1932 ciples to classes in Berea's secondary schools, and brought hundreds of these students to see with their own eyes the lessons of the laboratory. Nurses in the accredited training course in the College Hospital have laboratory studies and practice included as part of their curriculum. Major students in Education have based their independent studies on observations. Arrangements have been completed for students in Psychology to share the use of the laboratory. The experiment, at first a small beginning in a specialized group, has begun to permeate the institution, and its laboratory to serve several college departments. THE STUDENT COOK REPORTS TO THE COOKIE MAKERS Fifteen little children, ranging in age from eighteen months to four years, come every day to the Pre-School to stay from eight-thirty until one o'clock or until their naps are over. They come from homes of the college staff, of business people, of farmers on the edge of town, of the day-laborer. Their parents may be conscientiously following theories of the well-directed studyclub, or may be using common sense and mountain customs in their training. Upon arrival, the children are striking products of their respective types of home. Housed at first in a section of the college Home Management Practice Home, the laboratory soon outgrew in size and importance its small quarters. This year it has attained a commodious building set near the practice school of the Department of Education, facing the lovely mountains beyond the fertile gardens. The house, formerly the old Music Hall, has been remodeled to contain a sunny, spacious place for play, rooms in which to eat, to sleep, to experiment, to live. The sloping locust grove which is the playground, and the well-placed rooms are all equipped with furniture and apparatus conveniently and attractively arranged to suit the little users. College physicians and the staff of the Department of Physical Education insure the health of the group through frequent measurements and examinations. The children as laboratory material are there to play and grow as naturally as they can in an environment as perfectly suited to their needs and tastes as science and interest can produce. There they visibly form habits of obedience and orderliness, of sharing and "taking turns." They eat the food before them, care for their physical needs with independence, and rest as a matter of routine. Their tastes in literature, art, and music have full sway both in appreciation and in creation. Their self-initiated enterprises involve group adjustments and adaptations of materials with surprising range and ingenuity. This is the "set-up." Its use requires genius. Casual guests are likely to exclaim over the "charming little angels so blissfully at play." They rival in thoughtless admiration the proverbial young mother who dandles and coos over her baby at every slightest cry, who sees nothing in his frets but irritating inconvenience or perverseness, who watches his happy play only to admire his cunning ways, and in him sees no virtue clearly and no fault. To lead the students of today to observe the little child with intelligent understanding, to give them some technique by which to gauge his progress and develop his best possibilities is the delicate task of the Laboratory director. A Junior student, chart in hand, unobtrusively watches little John. John cries when Billy takes away his train; she checks the chart. John then runs for fear of a pet dog; another check goes down. By the end of her period, the student has checked his absorption in a picture, his ability to put on his own shoes, to put his wraps in his own locker, to show sympathy for another child. January, 1032 MOUNL'A1N LIvE AND WORK Day after day she checks John's activities on her chart. At the end of the course a graph is made based on her checkings; John's strength and weakness stand revealed objectively, clearly. His graph differs from that made for Harry or Ellen; his two-year-old status is visibly below the threeyear-old range of George. Whether the student teaches children, nurses them, or mothers them, she will know that each child is like no other, nor like himself from year to year. She has a technique for getting his "picture," and an objective attitude that will permit her study. As it begins to rain, Harry begins to cry. A flash of lightning, a distant roll of thunder; he is convulsed with fear. A Senior is assigned a special study. She traces back the history of this fear from parents, relatives, and neighbors. It is associated with a special place, special incidents, and special people. She studies Harry on his happy davs and finds his keenest interests, his greatest joys. Her experiments attempt to balance these. Fear, anger, hate will always, to this young woman, have a cause; she has some idea of how to find a cure. "No, Ma'am! My wife can't feed my baby by a book. My mother jest fed me at the table like the rest, and look at me." Sally had looked at her football husband, and the strength of his muscle no less than the force of his prejudice, was more convincing than school-book theories of babyfeeding. But Home Economics students of these two years at Berea have had more than the book to back their arguments. Two-year-old Mary Jane came to Laboratory from her mountain home, listless, irritable, pale, and underweight. Students from the nutrition class planned, prepared, and served the mid-day meal for Pre-School children. They watched Mary Jane, compared her with the rest, studied carefully her height-weight chart. They saw Marv Jane grow round and rosy, vivacious and good-tempered. Sorghum and hot biscuit may h,.ve been the diet c,f their football husbands, but no child of theirs will be allowed to take the risk. They have seen "the book" come to life in Marv Jane. "A good, sound thrashing" his played a leading part in many a college man's younger life; his boy, he boasts, shall have no less. Shall that idea of discipline color his home, the school he Page 3 teaches, or the court in which he helps to administer the law? Not if he has known the Laboratory with its impartial sifting of the facts and the causes of each trouble, its purposeful balancing of misdeed with treatment aimed to teach impressively the way of doing right. Respect for even little personalities, justice, and guidance are inescapably PreSchool atmosphere. KI.CORDLNG JOHN'S TEMPERAMENT IN A TIGHT PLACE Students in the academic work of the coll;g~ proper are not the only ones who benefit, or who share the privilege of work with the little children. Forty Normal School students in home nursing courses were close co-operators in the Laboratory last year. The nurse who daily inspected the children's health, the supplementary cooks, and the janitor were students from the Academy and Junior High Schools. Students in the Department of Music learned to adapt their choice of music to the little children's tastes, and led their rhythmic play. Student members of the college orchestra brought their instruments that the children might see and hear them near at hand. Berea's Student Industries furnished an inexhaustible source of satisfaction to the childhood Page 4 MOUNTAIN Lot AND WORK ,lauuary, 1932 drive for knowing how all things are made. Student bakers, cabinet-makers, weavers, laundryworkers found with surprise and pleasure how keen could be the interest of the little child in their daily tasks and how simply he is satisfied. The equipment of the Laboratory and most of the toys were made by these same student workmen whose inventive genius under inspiration of the children added many original features to this mountain-serving Laboratory. Two years is but a short experiment, yet more than one hundred college students have had intensive study of little children in that time. Approximately two hundred students have had academic work in child-care vitalized for them. Countless boys and girls have an amazing vision of children with abounding health, keen interests, happy, adjusted social life. They have had opportunities to help make such life come true in working with the groups or making simple things for them to use. They have gone out from the Laboratory to the cities, towns, and farms of Appalachia from which they come. Two young women have won graduate scholarships in the Merrill-Palmer School, looking forward to professional service in the South. One has taken her charm and training to the crippled children's ward of a city hospital. A graduate writes of living in a home that she may study and adjust two problem children. Some are social workers in community centers in the mountain region, definitely helping mothers with their children's care, and organizing groups to study. Many are teaching. Pauline is in a county seat far from a railroad. She says, "Pre-School Laboratory has just saved my life! I could never have understood these children had I not learned to really observe, nor how to handle them if we had not tried the principles on those very little children." The first `educated parent' has had six months of intensive experiment with her own child. Not all alumnae have been visited, nor do they each report just how their Laboratory work has functioned. But, when we ask the teachers, the homedemonstration workers, and brides, of its worth, the unanimous answer comes, "I wouldn't take anything for the work I had in the Pre-School Laboratory." This means that they must be putting its principles to work where they are. There is a beginning, however small, of consciously seeing each child as a person, of getting his picture against his background of parents, customs, and home. There is an attempt to develop his possibilities by wise control of his environment, by understanding guidance, by obedience to physical, intellectual, and social-moral laws. Training for better parenthood has begun. This is in line with the 1930 White House Conference and its ideals. In the Kentucky Division of that Conference, Dr. C. N. McAllister, Professor of Psychology in Berea College, is chairman of the Committee on Family and Parent Education, of which committee Miss Payne is a member. The Berea Department of Home Economics joined in the Kentucky Home Economics Conference in December as it considered "The Place of the Family and Child Development in Relation to the Home Economics Program." Because the value of the Pre-School Laboratory grows in the state and on the campus every year, and because Berea graduates settle far and wide in all parts of the Southern Mountains, it is hoped the life of children within these regions will attain standards set by leaders of the nation, and a level of development worthy of the best of the great pioneers who settled there. January, 1932 MOUNTAIN UT T AND WORK Page S ell 'Research Approach to the Problems o f eAppalachia W. D. NICHOLLS The more than 30 counties which make up the Eastern Kentucky Highlands embrace a territory of major importance in the life of the commonwealth. In recognition of the fact that the conservation and improvement of the land represent the starting point for a program to improve the wellbeing of the people of that section, the College of Agriculture of the University of Kentucky since 1916 has conducted a soil experiment field in Laurel County. These experiments have been of incalculable value to the people of the mountains. They have shown the possibilities and limitations of the land. They have shown the means of fertilization and soil management by which the yields of the land may be increased on a practicable basis. At the time the experiments were started practically no agricultural limestone was being used in Eastern Kentucky. Last year 1153 farmers in Laurel County applied a total of 6560 tons of ground limestone, and in Knox County 627 farmers used 4168 tons, supplementing the limestone with low--cost fertilizer applications recommended by the College of Agriculture. County agricultural agents throughout Eastern Kentucky have carried the new knowledge to farmers by demonstrations in hundreds of local communities, while the new generation of farmers is learning the program of land improvement through the club projects in which many thousands of boys and girls are participating. Barren, Bullied fields all over Eastern Kentucky have been covered with sods of red clover and grass, and their owners have been enabled thereby to increase their incomes several times over. Acknowledgement is made of the cooperation of the following bureaus and divisions of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the studies referred to in this article: the divisions of band Economics, Farm Vtanagcmcnt and Costs, and Farm Population and Rural Life of the Bureau, of Agricultural I:concnnics. The Economics Division of the Bureau of Home 7-;conomics, and the Branch of Research of the Forest Service. These agencies together with the Office of Education of the U. S. Department of the Interior and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and Vest Virginia are also cooperating in a study now in progress embracing the highland regions of six States. The author assumes however, full responsibility for all statements, conclusions, and inferences contained in the present article. Notwithstanding the marked advances which have been made in the knowledge and practice of soil improvement, Eastern Kentucky still presents some difficult economic and community problems. The removal of the forest cover onsteep land and the erosion which followed in a period of many years of continued over-cropping have rendered a considerable amount of land unfit for agricultural use. This condition has been accompanied by the depletion of timber resources which formerly furnished a source of income. In the January, 1931, issue of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, Dr. Charles D. Lewis, who was reared in the mountains of Eastern Kentucky and lived in that section the greater part of his life, presents a thoughtful discussion of conditions in the mountains. Professor Lewis writes particularly about those parts of the mountain region "whose population has pushed into the narrowest valleys, up the mountain sides and along narrow and almost barren ridges where the most abject poverty is inevitable," and refers to these as "situations where human beings should not attempt to live." For these people, says Dr. Lewis, "who have chosen to push into places that will provide them with scarcely an existence . . . life is narrow, hard, joyless, and stifles the higher attainments in children," and he expresses the belief that "possibly the most important problem in the mountains is to get those out of the mountains who are attempting to live an agricultural life in regions entirely unfitted and which offer little, if any, other opportunity for making a living." Dr. Lewis expresses the opinion that "there seems to be but one means by which these unfit regions of the mountains can be cleared of surplus population. That is by converting the territory which they occupy into the one thing for which it is fitted, forests." Dr. W. S. Anderson, who also was reared in the Southern Highland region, writing in the same issue also gives a thoughtful discussion of the same subject and expresses opinions similar to those of Dr. Lewis. To secure data to answer in a scientific way the questions raised by Dr. Lewis and Dr. Anderson Page 6 MouN-I AIN Lmu: AND WORK ,January, 1932 and many other persons interested in improving conditions of life in the mountains, there was inaugurated some three years ago through the efforts of Dean Thomas Cooper of the College of Agriculture, a special project providing for a thoroughgoing study of the rural life problem in that region. The Federal Department of Agriculture furnished the services of members of its staff who worked with the forces of the College of Agriculture.Two counties were selected for study, Laurel and Knott. Within the past year other states adjacent to Kentucky, under Dean Cooper's leadership, have joined in the project which has now been expanded to include the Southern Appalachian Highland region of six States. Several branches of the Federal Government, including the divisions of Land Economics, Home Economics, Farm Management and (COURTESY OF L. A. CRAMER) Costs, Farm Population and Rural Life, and the Forest Service, all of the Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Education of the Department of the Interior are contributing the services of some of their most experienced staff members to the study. One phase of the problem attacked in this research was that of the amount and sources of the income of farm families. In Laurel County data were obtained for all the people living in 8 school districts, for the year 1928. There were 203 families living on farms which averaged 76 acres in size, having 26 acres in crops of which 9 acres were in corn, and ten acres in hay. The farms averaged approximately 2 horses, 3 cows, 1 hog, and 50 chickens. The value of land and building averaged approximately $2300 per farm. Only 90 of the 203 operators depended mainly upon farming for a living. These had a spendable income averaging $339 per family. Forty-one of the farm families got their living chiefly from pensions or financial assistance of children or other persons. These had a spendable income averaging $450. Table 1 shows the kinds and amounts of income and outgo of the 203 farm families classified by the amount of cash income. About half the families had less than $500 cash income each for the year. Out of this had to come an average of $121 pet- family for faun expenses. Sixteen of the 203 families had $1500 or more cash income. Prom this amount was subtracted $683 for farm expenses. The table serves to show the large importance of the family living furnished by the farm in addition to cash income. The large significance of outside work in the economy of this area is shown. The chief kinds of outside work from which part-time farmers derived supplemental incomes were employment in railroad shops, carpentry and painting, coal mining, work as salesmen, work in timber, hauling coal, farm work for others, work on the roads, and blacksmithing. The amount of other income is also significant. Of this kind of income received by the 203 families, pensions furnished 16 families a total of $7,022; earnings of members of the family living at home other than the farm operator, 32 families, a total of $5,796; contributions from relatives not at home, 28 families, a total of $4,461; interest and dividends, 24 families, a total of $1,752; income from other property, 8 families, a total of $888; and other sources, 17 families, a total of $1,090. Knott County is more rugged than Laurel County and until recently was one of the most isolated counties in Kentucky. A detailed study of family incomes in that county was made for the year 1929. A preliminary analysis of the figures for 228 farm families for which complete data for income and outgo were obtained show that only about 15 per cent of the families got 75 per cent or more of their total receipts from farm enterprises. The 228 families operated farms averaging 113 acres, only 13 acres of which were in crops. The total investment averaged $2812; the land and improvements averaged $2432 in value, of which $331 represented the value of the farm dwelling. January, 1932 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 The total receipts of the Knott County farm operators averaged $506, of which $99 was obtained from the sale of crops, $66 from the sale of livestock and livestock products, $39 from standing timber, $77 from farm work and team work done by the operator away from the farm, $47 from oil, gas, and coal leases, and $178 from work done by the operator having no relation to the farm business. The farm expenses averaged $215. The total value of the food, fuel, use of the farm dwelling, and other items of family living furnished by the farm averaged $481. These figures show the relatively great importance of farmfurnished food and other perquisites. They also show the smallness of the net cash income contributed by strictly farming enterprises. The figures do not include the carvings of members of the family other than the farm operator which form an important part of the total income of these families. The Eastern Kentucky study is furnishing light on the question of more profitable farm organization and mangement. Some farmers were found who were utilizing land, labor, and equipment in such a way as to receive a good net return. The most important points in which most successful farmers excelled the least successful were labor efficiency, yields of crops and livestocks, size of business, volume of sales, and the use of limestone, phosphate, and sods. Space does not permit me to give here a detailed discussion of the farm management problem in the mountains. The reader is referred to Kentucky Experiment Station Bulletin 305, "Farm Management and Farm Incomes in Laurel County," by W. D. Nicholls and H. W. Hawthornc. Copies of the bulletin may be had upon request to the Experiment Station. An analysis and discussion of the same problem for the more rugged section of the mountains is now in progress of preparation. A vitally important part of the Eastern Kentucky study is that designed to answer the question: To what extent can forestry be made to contribute to a program of increasing the wellbeing of the people of the mountains? Some of the questions for which answers are being sought are: What length of time is required from planting time for trees to begin returning an income? How long to make saw timber? What yields in board feet are to be expected? What net income will thus be afforded and how will this compare with the net income from crops and pasture? To what extent can existing forests be made to contribute as a source of continuous income on a sustained yield basis? How can the family on an average farm make a living while waiting for the trees to come into a condition for sale? Questions of public ownership and corporation ownership of forests are involved. T-ied up with these questions are such questions as species of trees, degree of slope, altitude, type and condition of soils. Clearly crop and pasture cost accounts are involved as well as timber growing and marketing cost accounts. Mr. R. B. Craig, one of the field men in the Knott County study, estimates as a result of studying borings taken from a large number of trees (COURTESY OF I,. A. CRAMER) that the yellow poplar under favorable conditions grows to an average diameter of 8 inches in 15 years and at the end of 30 years an acre will give a total production of 6450 board feet of timber. Similar computations are being made for other tree species. Such figures will furnish the basis for a better understanding of the economic possibilities of timber as a crop in this region. Other phases of the economic and social problem studied were family expenditures and living standards and the participation of the members of families in neighborhood and community activities. Since income from non-farming sources is so important in the economy of the region, special stress is being placed on appraising the possibilities of income from such sources as coal mining, lumbering and woodworking industries, and other industries for which there are local available resources. What are the op Page 8 MOUNTAIN Ln l: AND WORK January, 1932 portunities for the development of new industries which would furnish employment for surplus labor, and afford local markets for truck, dairy products, and other faun products? Data bearing on these questions are being studied. Upon the completion of the analysis of the data on the varous phases of the problem there will be prepared a proposal for a program for the improvement of economic, home and community conditions in the region. In the meantime, on the basis of tentativ a conclusions of the analysis made thus far, county agents are encouraging farmers to intensify on the limited acreage of land which is not too sloping for safe cultivation, and to make greater use of ground limestone and fertilizing agents on the land. They are stressing the greater use of intensive crops as well as more intensive methods with all crops which arc grown. Much tile drainage is being done on poorly drained bottom lands. Greater stress on the home garden and a fuller provision of other homefurnished comforts for the family, larger crop returns on a smaller .acreage of crop land, the discontinuance of the cultivation of thin hillside land in crops, and the conversion of such land to pasture and the growing of trees are included in the program for improving the conditions of farm families. The willingness of a considerable number of Eastern Kentucky farmers to adopt the results of research work done thus far encourages the expectation that further plans for improvement based on careful research will be welcomed by such farmers and used by them in an effort toward attaining a permanent improvement in well-being for the present and future population of the Mountains. TABLE I. KINDS AND AMOUNTS OF 1NCOM1; AND OUTGO Ol' 203 FARM FAMILII?S IN LAUREL, COUNTY, CLASSIFIED BY AMOUNT OF CASH INCOWE' Number of families Groups By Amount Of Cash Income Undo $500 to $ 1000 to "500 and All $500 5999 51499 over , families i 100 70 17 16 203 Cash income from: The farm $196 i 3472 SG10 $974 $397 Work off the faun 83 I 101 371 1007 186 Other sources 40 141 247 183 103 Total cash income I319 714 1228 2164 676 Cash outgo for: 121 28G 408 683 240 Farm expenses ~i Family being and other purposes ~--217 3 5 8 ,, 414 - 738 323 - , __ Total Cash outgo ~~, 338 G2G ~ 822 1421 ~ 563 Net income from farming 75 204 202 291 I 147 amount available for family living and other purposes 198 446 820 7481 436 Income less outgo Family living from the farm Taken from Kentucky Agricultural I?xpcriment Station Bulletin No. 30S -407 436 494 36S Page 8 MOUNTAIN Ln l: AND WORK January, 1932 portunities for the development of new industries which would furnish employment for surplus labor, and afford local markets for truck, dairy products, and other faun products? Data bearing on these questions are being studied. Upon the completion of the analysis of the data on the varous phases of the problem there will be prepared a proposal for a program for the improvement of economic, home and community conditions in the region. In the meantime, on the basis of tentativ a conclusions of the analysis made thus far, county agents are encouraging farmers to intensify on the limited acreage of land which is not too sloping for safe cultivation, and to make greater use of ground limestone and fertilizing agents on the land. They are stressing the greater use of intensive crops as well as more intensive methods with all crops which arc grown. Much tile drainage is being done on poorly drained bottom lands. Greater stress on the home garden and a fuller provision of other homefurnished comforts for the family, larger crop returns on a smaller .acreage of crop land, the discontinuance of the cultivation of thin hillside land in crops, and the conversion of such land to pasture and the growing of trees are included in the program for improving the conditions of farm families. The willingness of a considerable number of Eastern Kentucky farmers to adopt the results of research work done thus far encourages the expectation that further plans for improvement based on careful research will be welcomed by such farmers and used by them in an effort toward attaining a permanent improvement in well-being for the present and future population of the Mountains. TABLE I. KINDS AND AMOUNTS OF 1NCOM1; AND OUTGO Ol' 203 FARM FAMILII?S IN LAUREL, COUNTY, CLASSIFIED BY AMOUNT OF CASH INCOWE' Number of families Groups By Amount Of Cash Income Undo $500 to $ 1000 to "500 and All $500 5999 51499 over , families i 100 70 17 16 203 Cash income from: The farm $196 i 3472 SG10 $974 $397 Work off the faun 83 I 101 371 1007 186 Other sources 40 141 247 183 103 Total cash income I319 714 1228 2164 676 Cash outgo for: 121 28G 408 683 240 Farm expenses ~i Family being and other purposes ~--217 3 5 8 ,, 414 - 738 323 - , __ Total Cash outgo ~~, 338 G2G ~ 822 1421 ~ 563 Net income from farming 75 204 202 291 I 147 amount available for family living and other purposes 198 446 820 7481 436 Income less outgo Family living from the farm Taken from Kentucky Agricultural I?xpcriment Station Bulletin No. 30S -407 436 494 36S MOUNTAIN Lii.,I-. AND WORK ment music. For it was the custom at this great gathering every year for the Harmonic Society to sing the Hallelujah Chorus when the commencement addresses had been delivered, and it was at Berea that thousands from neighboring counties heard for the first time a trained group of choral singers. It is perhaps unfortunate that with the growth of Berea the commencement inevitably lost some of its social and local significance. Yet, with the yearly renditions of "The Messiah," instituted by Professor Rigby, and later with the bringing in of noted soloists to sing with the Harmonic Society, Berea was gaining a wider reputation as a music center. The music department had long outgrown its two rooms, when, in the winter of 1913-1914, the title of Music Hall was more appropriately transferred to the old Congregational Church building, where three entire floors were given over to music. There were as yet no regularly organized glee clubs. In 1920 Miss Irma Forman (Mrs. Bradley Kin Cid), during the first year she was at Berea, organ at 1 1 ized the first Girls' Glee Club whose concert, in May, 1921, proved such a historic event. For the double quartette which formed the club, members were chosen from the entire student body, although college girls predominated. It is interesting to find on the first program such old songs as "I Gave My Love a Cherry," The Two Sisters," and "In Some Lonesome Valley," together with more ambitious songs. Yet were not the girls more ambitious, after all, to sing the songs which many of them had known from childhood? This was their own music, and they could have sought no more sincere musical expression. Their singing of old songs won for them an invitation to Lexington, where their singing of ballads and old-time hymns won the hearts of their listeners in a play, presented by the University of Kentucky. In the same year the Boys' Glee Club, directed by Professor Rigby, gave a concert with the orchestra, and at commencement time the girls sang again. By 1923 their Glee Club had been increased to sixteen voices, singing four-part music, and a cup had come to them in the state contest at Louis January, 1932 vine. Other leaders took over the work which Miss Forman had begun, and glee clubs began to spring up in the different schools of Berea. This movement has grown until there are now nine student choral organizations on the campus. Invitations have come to Berea from cities as far distant as Chicago, where eight members of the College Girls' Glee Club gave eight concerts during Christmas week in 1930. Two of these were broadcast. 1 his was not the first time Berea singers had been heard on the air. Bradley Kincaid, a member of the first Boys' Glee Club, had for some time been singing ballads and old songs which were part of his Kentucky heritage, from WLS, in Chicago. In 1930 the College Men's Glee Club also gave a program over the radio from Louisville. Another group of Berea singers pid a visit to Lexington that same winter, when at 1 1 1 , the Academy Boys' and Girls' Glee Clubs entered the Stare High School Contest, and brought back two cups. In December, 1930, the Harmonic So ciety gave The Messiah for the twenty-fifth time, and the final achievement of this year came with the great chorus, representing the nine combined glee clubs of Berea, which sang at the Seventy Fifth Anniversary Pageant in May. The finest as pect of these ten years of achievement has been, not that caps have been won, or that Berea sing ers have been heard in Chicago, but that many of them have been heard in their own communi ties after leaving school or college. The educational value of music is hard to estimate. Although it has always played an important part in Berea's organized extension work, workers of recent years have found no subject of greater importance in creating a spirit of understanding and sympathy in a community. "The Opportunity School group includes young and old, those who sing and those who say they cannot," says Miss Gladys Jameson, the leader of Opportunity School music. "The time is very short, so `What shall we do?' is a question which calls for great discrimination. The best hours we have ever had with any group are those spent just singing-singing everything we ever knew or heard of, and many songs that we lad never known or heard before. Most groups love to sing the old hymns, "On Jordan's Stormy Banks," and January, 1932 MOUNTAIN DUE AND WORK Page il "How Firm a Foundation" with the tunes which really belong to them. It will be a sad day when these old songs are faded out of the hearts of the hills." Miss Jameson likes to tell of one Extension Opportunity School in Knott County, Kentucky, where she went to the home of one of the members of the group to hear some of the old hymns and songs, hoping to take some of them down in notes and so preserve them correctly. "We sat before the fireplace," she said," exchanging tunes and finding variants of the songs we both knew, and as my hostess sang, I tried to write down the fine old tunes she knew. But notes fail miserably in transcribing the swoops and swirls and quartersteps and ancient minors which make the singing of those old songs an art in itself, so I finally let the hope of noting them slip away, and I just sat listening by the fire. Were they echoes of ancient chants, of chorales, of Palestrina? Or were they the real expression of a virile people, molded by environment and by their heritage into a strong race? Such music does not come from a life of ease, from copying others. Before I rose to go, she said, `I think music is the most beautifullest thing in the worldalmost. We ought to sing every night before we sleep. We ought not forget how. It is good for our souls.' "No one can come away from such an experience and not ponder deeply on the relationship of musical Berea and the singing mountains. What can Berea do for the people of the hills who `think music is the most beautifullest thing in the world?' There are two dangers. We can become ballad faddists, and consciously accentuate the peculiarities of old-time music in order to catch popular favor, or we can become extreme standardizers, and shut out every musical tradition existing in the hills. My own ideals are these: First, that we shall discover and help preserve the finest musical traditions of the mountains. Second, that we shall sift the music of all ages and all peoples, to bring to the hills the simplest, richest, most lasting treasures of musical art. Third, that the study of music in Berea shall not center about a thrilling performance, but about the real message of the music, what it can speak to the human heart. Music in Berea must, in sincerity and in truth, continue to be `good for our souls'.' With Presser Hall, a new and splendidly-equipped music building completed in 1931, and after ten such recent years of achievement and service, it is not too much to hope that such ideals may be realized. Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1932 THE OLD The great majority of mountain schools of the mission type include in their program of activities some form of traffic in second-hand clothing. The sources of supply are, of course, church missionary societies and other organizations interested in mountain work as well as individuals who find it convenient to combine the yearly clearance of their closets with expression of their sentiments for the mountains by sending their discarded garments to these schools rather than to the usual city charities. There is much evidence that this form of philanthropy is by no means an unmixed blessing either to the schools acting as the medium of distribution or to the people who are the final recipients. Practically every school handling secondhand clothing has expressed doubt as to the final benefits of the practice, and feels confusion as to the school's own objectives and ideals in the matter. There is a strong conviction among mountain workers that typically under-privileged mountain people, like corresponding groups elsewhere, are easily "pauperized," and there is a good deal of evidence to support this view. The recipients of ,gifts of clothing continually return asking for I I I I more, and immediately after the news has spread that a family has been supplied with articles gratis, there are many requests from others for similar donations. Where the clothes arc given, a common form of petition has become, "Ye gave so-and-so some things; seems like ye ought to have somethin' fen me." It has become usual, therefore, for the schools to place a very small price upon second-hand articles and to have stated times during the week when they are sold. One well-known school, concluding that the evils overbalanced the good in this enterprise, gave it up entirely some years ago. Many still maintain a `store" or "clothing bureau," however, usually in charge of one or more staff members who devote a good deal of time to sorting out and pricing articles, in addition to holding sales. This system has the advantage to the school of becoming a source of income. One school visited counts upon between seven and eight thousand dollars of its yearly CL 0 T HE S HARRIETTE WOOD BARREL budget of fifty thousand from the sale of clothing donated by church missionary societies. The school store is open every day and makes a fulltime job for a salaried worker. Another exchanges clothing for eggs and poultry and by this means is able to supply the school with a chicken dinner twice a week. An especially undesirable by-product of the traffic in clothing has been its exploitation by native men with a gift for bargaining and moneygetting. It is not uncommon for one man to buy for a small sum all of the unassorted articles he can pack upon a mule, dealing them out in terms of barter or cash in the homes along lonely trails and in the back hollows. In a school handling second-hand clothing by allowing a local store-kcepcr a percentage on a weekly sale which he conducts for the school, the writer saw an instance of the sort of things just described. A man bought a bundle of miscellaneous clothing lumped off to him by the merchant for $3.50. As he departed on muleback leading a pack mule laden with his investment, the merchant remarked, "That man will make twenty-five dollars before he gets home." Another undesirable effect of the second-hand clothing business, which assumes rather imposing proportions when visualized in terms of the whole Appalachian region and the number of schools engaged in it, is what Or. Arthur H. Estabrook calls the "old-clothes psychology"-the development of a mental attitude in the mountain people of being satisfied with second-hand, ill-fitting, or inappropriate garments. To a large degree, the natural desire for new clothing is inhibited, the mentally bracing effect of new clothing is denied them, and any discrimination, taste, and sense of values coming from the experience of selecting and purchasing new garments at market prices are stultified. Another count against the sale of clothing has been that of unfair competition with the local stores. One of the schools recognizing this aspect makes a point of pricing really excellent articles on a scale comparable with prices charged for new goods sold in the,local store. In January, 1)32 MOUNTAIN Ltru AND WORK Page 13 a few instances schools having good home economics departments are attempting to avoid this attitude of satisfaction with old clothes as they are, by the careful selection, refitting, and making over of garments supplied to or purchased by the girls, giving in the process knowledge of materials and their values, and developing taste as to color, line and appropriateness. A;number reported that it is often difficult to make the groups who supply them with secondhand clothing realize that it is better for the school to sell the articles at a nominal price than to give them away. Instances were cited of letters of protest from donors who had heard that the school was selling the clothing they had sent to be given away to "those poor mountain people with so many little children." It should be said in this connection that nearly all schools make an exception of cases of unusual destitution, giving clothing away when it is a matter of preventing real discomfort or hardships. During the past year some schools have had their donations to destitute families distributed by the Red Cross. Another difficulty experienced by schools is the pouring in on them of articles that arc not needed in their local situation, which they cannot dispose of and which take up much needed space. One school had as many as fifty excellent coats for women left over after the neighborhood had been supplied, and could not even dis pose of them at fifty cents each. SUMMARY 3. The usual method of disposing of the clothing was found to be (a) the operation of a store or a clothing bureau in which sales were conducted, on certain days of the week. (b) One school only of those visited conducts no sales but gives away everything, supplying pupils first. (c) A few schools turn their second-hand goods over to the. local country store keeper, giving him a commission on sales. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The favorable aspects of the traffic in second-hand clothing engaged in by mountain schools are: (a) having on hand supplies for needy pupils and for neighborhood charities in cases of unusual destitution, and (b) the income, from the sale of clothing, to the school. 2. The unfavorable aspects are: (a) the creating of the pauper attitude of mind, if not a permanent old-clothes psychology; (b) exploitation by mountain men using the traffic to their own financial advantage; (c) competition with local stores. 1. That schools weigh the question very carefully and then define to themselves and their supporters their policy in the handling of clothing, deciding what kinds of articles best serve their local needs, and asking their contributors to restrict their gifts to those articles. This would avoid accumulation of articles for which the school has no need. 2. That home economics courses be given more generally in the remodeling and care of clothing, using the resources of the second-hand clothing supply. With a small amount of equipment it would be possible to develop such practical courses as dressmaking and remodeling, dry cleaning, fine laundering, and simple tailoring, and thus not only give training for the practical matters of home life, but provide vocational try-outs as well. 3. Whenever possible classes in remodeling and care of clothing should be offered by the school to local women as well as pupils. Such courses would do much to prevent the development of the pauper attitude and an old-clothes psychology. 4. That schools oiler for exchange to schools needing them such articles as they have accumulated but cannot use, some suitable person or organization acting as contact agent for these exchanges. (Needs and desires might be made known through the columns of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK). Such a plan would make it possible to deflect such accumulations as the excess supply of women's coats mentioned to places where there is need for them. Page 14 MOUNTAIN Ltrr: AND WORK January, 1932 &4 SURVEY OF cnVIOUNTAIN SCHOOLS E. C. WALLER During recent months it has been my privilege to make a survey of sixty-seven church and inde pendent schools and colleges of the Southern Ap palachians. The states in which these institutions are located and the number in each state are as follows: Alabama, 2; Georgia, 4; Kentucky, 15; North Carolina, 16; Tennessee, 19; Virginia, 9; and West Virginia, 2. The schools tinder Boards controlled by or affiliated with some denomina tion number 58. The remaining 9 arc independ ent of church control. The denominations with the number of schools under each are: Northern Baptist, 1; Southern Baptist, 8; Disciples of Christ, 1; Evangelical, 1; Lutheran, 1; Methodist I?piscopal, 5; Methodist Episcopal South, 7; Presbyterian, United, 6; Presbyterian in U. S., 7; Presbyterian in U. S. A., 5; Protestant Episcopal, 4; Reformed Church, 2; Seventh-Day Adventist, 6; Seventh-Day Baptist, 1; Considered from the standpoint of the grades of work offered, the sixty-s:ven schools are grouped as follows: Iaementary schools, 9; secondary schools, 43; col leges, junior and senior, 15. With a few exceptions, the schools surveyed were those listed in a bulle tin of the Russell Sage Foundation, "Southern Mountain Schools Maintained by Denominational and Independent Agencies." The questionnaire respects. method was used in securing data for this study. In the matter of equipment, several of the ele At the request of the author, about fifty school mentary schools lack various types of equipment officials suggested one or more topics for the ques- needed for satisfactory classroom work. The ele tionnaire which, when completed, contained some mentary departments of the secondary schools two hundred and fifty questions. generally are better equipped than those schools From the data presented, one fact stands out in carrying only elementary grades. Seventy-three bold relief, namely that mountain schools are pre- per cent of the secondary schools have laboratory dominantly rural schools. The fact that the equipment for teaching three or more sciences median distance from a railroad is 4.25 miles, or vocational subjects, while all the preparatory from a paved highway, 2.12 miles, and from : departments of the colleges seem to have adequate market and shopping center, 19.67 miles, indicates laboratory facilities. It is interesting to note that a rural environment. More directly to the point twice as many secondary schools and high school is the fact that 79 per cent of the schools are lo- departments of colleges provide for the teaching cated either in villages or in open country. Farm- of general science as for biology. More of the see ing and allied occupations are reported as making ondary schools have equipment for teaching up 65 per cent of all the occupations and Indus- physics than for chemistry, but the reverse is true tries listed. The rural location of the schools is in the college preparatory departments. The most further shown by the fact that 56.4 per cent of popular vocational subject as indicated by facili the nearest public elementary schools are one or ties for teaching is home economics. two-teacher schools. The median number of teach- The median number of volumes in the libraries ers in the nearest public high school is 6, and these schools are located at a median distance of 4.87 miles from the nearest church or independent school. A majority of the elementary and secondary schools provide fairly sufficient acreage for agricultural purposes. The colleges, on the other hand, show a very wide range in the amount of farm land employed-from none to 544 acres. Six of the colleges devote all their acreage to campus use. Practically four-fifths of all the buildings in the three classes of schools are constructed of wood. None of the elementary schools have fire-proof buildings, the percentage of fire-proof buildings in secondary schools is 5 per cent, while 13.4 per cent of college buildings are of fire-proof construction. The colleges generally arc well supplied with firefighting equipment and facilities, the secondary schools are fairly well provided for, while the elementary schools have little or none. The data furnished show that in their heating, lighting, water supply, and sanitary provisions, elementary schools have rather primitive and meager facilities. The colleges generally have quite modern conveniences, and the secondary schools are about midway between the other two in these January, 1932 MOUNTAIN Ln r: AND WORK Page 15 of the different classes of schools is: Elementary, 369; secondary, 2133; college, 6250. As a total annual circulation in the school community is reported to be only seventeen thousand volumes, it is evident that the libraries are used chiefly by students. Contrary to what might naturally be supposed, mountain schools and colleges secure many more of their teachers from state colleges and universities than from denominational colleges. Only 36 per cent of the teachers in elementary schools have bachelors' degrees, while 58 per cent of the teachers in secondary schools hold such degrees. Twenty-nine per cent of the elementary teachers hold no certificates and 14 per cent of the secondary teachers are uncertified. Thirty-one per cent of the college teachers hold only bachelor's degrees while 56 per cent hold master's degrees. Salaries of teachers range from none to four hundred dollars per month. The elementary schools and the elementary departments of the secondary schools and colleges are relatively small, the median enrollment of each being 43, 75, and 64 pupils, respectively. Considering only the enrollment of the secondary schools and of the college preparatory departments, we find this number likewise small, the median of the former being 53 students, and that of the latter 59. As a class, both the junior and senior colleges may be regarded as small colleges. The median enrollment is 210, and the greatest number in any college is 482 students. On the whole, mountain schools may be classed as boarding schools. Practically 60 per cent of the students are boarding students. They are drawn from a territory within a mean radius of 92.5 miles of the school. In the main, the enrollment of the elementary schools is decreasing, while that of the other two classes of schools is increasing. The percentage of increase in the colleges is slighty greater than in the secondary schools. Standards set up by the various accrediting agencies exert a greater influence on the construction of the course of study in the mountain schools than do the needs of the individual student, the church, or the community. A substantial majority of the schools give credit toward graduation for Bible courses. Where less credit in Bible is allowed than formerly, this condition is chiefly due to the influence of the state courses of study and the demands of accrediting agencies. Almost two-thirds of the schools are placing increasing emphasis on the teaching of vocational subjects. The principle objective of these courses is to teach students of both sexes how to meet the exigencies of mountain life. Although more than 60 per cent of the school officials state that their schools are not educating mountain boys and girls away from the mountains, yet a substantial majority believe that it is advisable to give them an education that will prepare them for greater opportunities and a broader life outside their native environment. It is difficult to understand how teachers with this belief can direct students back to their home communities, or to work or service of a satisfying nature elsewhere in the mountain territory. In practically all schools the head of the school supervises the classroom instruction. There is no uiformity in the frequency or length of the su ni 1 1 per,visory visit. County or state officials or a rep resentative of a regional association do approxi mately two-thirds of the work of inspection. Practically all the inspecting of the elementary schools is done by church representatives, where as there is little inspection by .them in the colleges. Almost three-fourths of the secondary schools are accredited by the state, and about one-fifth are members of the Southern Association of Colleges and SÃ‚Â°condary Schools. Practically 60 per cent of the colleges are members of the above-named as sociation. A large majority of the unaccredited schools are working for accreditation either by the state or by a regional association. The school officials generally believe that mountain schools should not continue to operate indefinitely with out attempting to become accredited. Physical examinations are given in almost threefourths of the schools. They are conducted more frequently by the school physician than by either local physicians or state and county health officers. The examinations are generally given annually, and follow-up work of various types is done in slightly more than one-half of the institutions. Eight kinds of clinics are conducted at 35 schools. Practically one-third of these clinics are in charge of county or state health officials. Dental and tonsil clinics are most frequently mentioned in the reports. Slightly more than one-half of the school communities have adequate medical service outside of that provided by the institutions. In addition to the health work for their students, al Page 16 MUUN'rAIN LINE AND WORK most one-half of the schools have a wide field for medical service in their communities. The schools as a whole provide ample acreage for playgrounds or athletic fields. The equipment is rather meager in many schools. As might be expected, the colleges have the best facilities for athletics. Basketball is the most popular game among the elementary and secondary schools. Baseball is the next in popularity in the secondary schools; football and tennis receive scant attention. Baseball, basketball, and football are equally popular so far as the number of colleges providing for them is concerned. Considering the provisions made for night football, this game is probably the most popular in some of the colleges. A majority of the students in secondary schools and in nearly all of the colleges take part in athletics or receive some other kind of physical education. Modern dancing in mountain schools is conspicuous by its absence. Five elementary pupils, 1,585 secondary school pupils, and 996 college students were reported as earning part or all of their expenses, by working at the institutions which they attend. Of the total, 2,606 working students, 30.85 per cent earned all their expenses, 19.68 per cent earned half or more of their expenses, and 49.47 per cent earned less than half. Of the schools and colleges having both athletics and industries, 13 report that the former interfere with the profitable operation of the latter; while 19 experience no difficulty in this respect. Only 5 secondary schools and 2 colleges, out of a total of 40 reporting, believe that it is impossible to supply self-help to students and at the same time meet accrediting standards. Four secondary schools and 4 colleges which are supplying self-help to a substantial number of their students are state accredited. The principal source of support of the elementary and secondary schools is the mission board appropriations. Pupils in the elementary schools pay slightly more than one-third, and secondary students contribute slightly more than onehalf as much as is received from the mission boards. Student receipts in colleges are considerably more than three times as much as the mission board appropriations. Endowments, though small, contribute more than industries to the support of the colleges. Taking the schools as a whole, we find that students furnish less than 40 per cent of the total receipts. Practically one-half of the disburse January, 1932 menu of all the schools reporting are for salaries. About one-seventh of the total expenditures is for administration. It is evident that no extensive building program is in operation in view of the fact that only slightly more than 6 per cent of the expenditures are for building purposes. If their financial condition may be judged by the gains or losses, the secondary schools' standing is less satisfactory than that of the colleges. Appropriations by mission boards to the elementary schools show the largest decrease, and those to the colleges show the largest increase, when the number of schools showing increases and decreases in appropriations is considered. The higher grades of work taught in the secondary schools and the more advanced courses in the colleges appear to constitute the chief financial problem in each type of school. Approximately 75 per cent of the schools and colleges are centers for community activities. The elementary schools lead in this respect. A wide participation on the part of the schools in the social life of the communities is indicated by the total of 167 activities listed by 41 schools, which is an average of slightly more than four activities per school. When community organizations or unorganized efforts outside of the schools are considered, there is found a larger participation in activities of a religious character and a smaller sharing in those of a social nature. The schools furnish leadership for 70 per cent of the community activities in which they participate. In practically all schools the teachers are active in religious work, the Sunday school being the organization most frequently mentioned as a place of their endeavors. In all schools, students of any denomination or no denomination are equally welcome. In giving financial assistance, however, preference is sometimes shown to those students who are connected with the denomination which operates the institution. Only 10 per cent of the officials believe that they compete with the public schools. Ninety per cent say that they cooperate in various ways. Bible and religious training, vocational courses, industrial work, and home life are the principal offerings of mountain schools which arc not duplicated by the public schools. According to estimates given, 69 elementary pupils, 636 secondary students, and 467 college students, a total of 1,352, could not attend public schools or state colleges. January, 193? MOUNTAIN LirE AND WORK Page 17 To the question, "Should a mountain school like yours continue to operate where good public schools are being conducted?" 34 affirmative and 15 negative replies were giv en. A summary of the officials' predictions for the future of their school or college is given below: and one college do not have them. Several of these secondary schools believe that their financial needs will be adequately provided for without endowments. From the data and opinions submitted, it seems proper to conclude that there are reasonably good prospects, financial and otherwise, for the SUMMARY OF OFFICIALS' OPINIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF THE SCHOOLS Decided expansion Moderate operatio Continued operation on present basis Continued operation on reduced basis Consolidation with another mountain school Total Reporting One elementary school and 7 secondary schools report doubtful or difficult future financial prospects. None of the colleges rates its prospects as poor. The elementary schools generally do not have endowment funds. Eight secondary schools Elementary secondary College None 4 None 3 13 4 I 1 None I None I 7 35 12 future success of 85 to 90 per cent of the schools and colleges surveyed. The future of the secondary schools is more secure than that of the elementary schools, but less assured than that of the colleges. Page 13 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND aroitx January, 1932 We often hesitate to build with stones on the assumption that it costs too much, or that the material at hand is not suitable. Perhaps also CLOSE-UP OF BARN there are no men who can do the work, or, if they can do the work, their price is too high. Then we have recourse to concrete, which lacks beauty unless finished at great expense. When we started building at the John C. Campbell Folk School at Brasstown, North Carolina, we wanted very much to build for permanence, but also with an eye to beauty. Skilled stone masons were expensive. Still, we wanted to build with stones. It was then that I remembered reading some years past about the famous American architect, Flagg, who advocated a method by which beautiful stone work could be executed by unskilled la BUILDING IN STONE L. F. DESCHAMPS bor and with the use of field stones. We started at once using that idea. It was something new, and the comments of the men helping with the work were rather discouraging. It would fall no doubt; when the form was removed we would find only a crumbled wall. But we kept on, until the day came when the form was removed. There the wall stood! It is still standing, supporting a large building. Since then, over five years ago, much has been built by the same methodchimneys, fire-places, retaining walls, foundation walls, a two-story mill house, arches, and steps. The method, in short, is a follows: a form is built on the order of that built for concrete, although it does not need to be so tight. The rocks, fairly smooth faced and well washed, are placed against the form and a shovelful of concrete placed back of each rock to hold it in place. Smaller clean rocks are then embedded in the concrete, care being exercised that there be at least an inch of concrete between them. The corners require MILL HOUSE, January, 1932 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 19 special attention. There the stones must be placed dovetail fashion in order to obtain a good bond. The material for this type of work is plentiful in most places. Kentucky sandstones of different colors, white, grey, pink, brown, and its limestones of different types offer a wonderful combination of hues. Here, in North Carolina, we have used sandstones, quartzites, flints, slate (as thin as one inch thick, and with very good results), granite, and, in one case, even soapstone -for the arch of a large fireplace. The combination is important. It takes little time, adds a cheery note in winter, and affords greater pleasure to the builder. The form can be removed in from twenty-four to seventy-two hours, depending on the time of the year and on atmospheric conditions. The wall, however, must be kept damp for two weeks to prevent too rapid drying. As soon as the form is removed the process of cleaning the wall begins. The stones are washed and all mortar removed from between them. Small holes are filled with a fairly rich mortar (one part cement to three of sand.) Then the finishing process is on. Either the wall is pointed, or the exposed concrete between the rocks is painted with a cement paint made by mixing cement with water to the consistency of cream. If a touch of color is wanted, the following ,:an be used. For blue: Prussian Blue Gray or slate shades: Lampblack Green: Chromium Oxide Red or pink: Red Oxide of Iron The amount to use depends on taste. All materials should be carefully measured. An important item is the cost. Of course it will depend on the locality, owing to the differences in price of labor and materials. We have just completed a barn, thirty-six by seventy feet, the whole first story of stones. Costs were as follows: Labor erecting form-$25.25 (one man $3.50 per day, one man $2.00 per day) Labor tearing down form-$19.00 (Labor at $1.75 per day) (Including pulling all nails and stacking lumber) Average cost labor to build one cubic yard of masonry (includes mixing concrete, washing and placing rocks and concrctc) SPRING HOUSE Page 20 MOUNTAIN Lire AND WORK January, 1932 Average output per hour with a crew of seven men (four at $2.00, two at $1.50, one at $1.75) ______________ 1.17 cubic yards SAMPLING OF In an attempt to find what the average person in the region was thinking on matters of religion, the writer secured expressions from 190 people, residents of what is known as the Northwest Gateway to the Ozarks, only a few miles from the line where the Ozark highland merges into the Kansas prairies. In order to make the sample representative of the population as a whole, care was taken to enlist the help of people from all sections of the region; from a large variety of occupations; from every type of community, including open country and abandoned mining center and city; from a wide range of educational attainment, including some that had gone only as far as the fourth grade and a few who had university training; from 18 of the 30 religious denominations active in the region, and from a few people who had no church connection; from a variety of ages, the youngest 17 and the oldest 55. By getting the expressions in homes or in places of work the writer sought to overcome the effect of a crowd on each person's opinions, and to make it possible for all the "voters" to vote exactly as they believed. The ballot each was asked to mark contained fifty-five statements on religious belief drawn from a wide range of sources, liberal and conservative, fundamentalist and modernist. The statements were arranged thus: T t ? f F God is revealed in Jesus The "voter" was directed to put a circle around the "T" before the statement if he was sure it was true; a circle around the "t" if he though it was true, but could not be certain; around the "?" if he had no opinion; around the "f" if he believed the statement was false, but was not Average cost cleaning wall ___ (labor at $2.00 per day) Average cost marking wall __ (labor at $2.00 per day) _ lc per sq. ft. 1.2c per sq. ft. OAR K CREEDS PAUL R. STEVICK sure; and around the "IÃ¢â‚¬Â¢" if he was sure it was false. In the following paragraphs the results of the. ballot on three or four main topics will be corded. The vote on the statement "God is all-powerful was T 168 t 19 ? 1 f 0 F 2 Only three did not believe, and one of them was merely in doubt. The great majority accepted the truth of the sentence. On the statements (1) "God is revealed in Nature (the universe)," (2) "God is revealed in Jesus," (3) "God is revealed in the Church on earth," the vote ran re T 147 t 28 T 145 t 30 T 111 t 55 ? 13 f 0 F 2 ? 12 f 2 F 1 ? 17 f 3 P 2 The numbers who believed that Go is revealed in Nature and in Jesus were almost the same, and sill an overwhelming majority. Not quite so ti I many were sure about God's revelation through the Church on earth, although nearly as many held it to be true. Regarding the statement "The one true God is the Supreme Person" the response was T 143 t 25 ? 16 f 1 F 5 Again, it was only a very small minority who disbelieved. If these five items give an index of the total beliefs about God and His revelation to humanity, those who voted registered themselves as pretty solidly orthodox. Statements on the nature and the character of Jesus were, "God is the only actual father of Je January, 1932 M OUNTAIN LINE AND WORK Page 21 suss" "Jesus united in himself two natures, the human and the divine;" and "Jesus consciously did wrong." The vote on these three propositions was T 134 T 126 T 6 t 25 ? 13 f 5 F 13 t 37 ? 19 f 4 F 4 t 11 ? 32 f 20 F 121 While the majority was not quite so strong as in the articles of belief about God, the numbers who held to the divine fatherhood of Jesus, to his hu man-and-divine nature, and to his sinlessness were still overwhelmingly large. The number who had no opinion either way remained about the same as on the questions of the nature of God. To the statements, "The miracles of Jesus are without foundation in historic fact" and "Jesus will return to earth in a material body," the responses were considerably scattered. T 20 t 19 ? 25 f 33 F 91 T 58 t 27 ? 52 f 21 F 32 Regarding the return of Jesus in a material body more than one-fourth registered "No opinion," and another one-fourth were not sure about the opinion they expressed. While nearly one-half registered a belief that the miracles of Jesus do have a foundation in historic fact, and were sure about it, more than one-fifth of the total number of voters doubted the historicity of the miracles. That is, several who believed in the divine nature of Jesus and in his sinlessness did not think that these beliefs necessarily implied the historicity of the miracle-stories in the Gospels, nor that they implied the necessity of a belief in the material return of ,Jesus. On the proposition "Jesus literally rose from the dead," the vote was much closer to the vote on statements dealing with the nature and character of Jesus T 126 t 34 ? 12 f 9 F 9 The number who voted it "true" and were sure (T), was exactly the same as on the proposition that Jesus united in himself the human and divine natures. It is worthy of notice that only a few who apparently denied the literal resurrection still registered a belief in the unique nature of Jesus. Still more interesting was the vote on the items concerning the significance of the death of Jesus. One read thus, "If Jesus had not died on the cross no one could be forgiven for his sins." The other stated "The death of Jesus was one of the most significant events, if not THE most significant event, in all history." The vote stood T 108 t 28 ? 27 f 8 F 19 T 138 t 23 ? 17 f 4 F 8 Thirty "voters," about one-sixth of the total, who were sure that the death of Jesus had a supreme significance, did not feel sure that the death of Jesus was absolutely essential to the forgiveness of human sin; and at the other extreme, eleven who were sure that the death of Jesus was not an essential to forgiveness failed to register the same sureness that the death of Jesus was not of some kind of supreme significance. There was also a smaller number who were in doubt about the second proposition. There were 163 who voted either "T" or "t" on the question of the human-and-divine nature of Jesus, and 161 who voted the same symbols on the question of the supreme significance of his death. All in all, these two out of the eight items dealing with Jesus drew out the most nearly identical expression. What the people believed on his nature gave an almost certain insight into what they believed about his death. In sharp contrast to the trend toward heavy majorities on items that dealt with God and Jesus was the scattering of the vote on the Church as an institution, church members, and church leadership. Opinion on "The Church is the supernatural body of Christ" ran T 85 t 39 ? 44 On the statement,"Most church people are hypocrites," the vote stood T 16 t 15 ? 26 f 30 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ 103 But on the proposition, "Most pastors are hypocrites," it was T 7 t 6 ? 17 f 32 F 128 That is, the voters had more confidence in the sincerity of pastors than of church members, although the difference was not great. They were far less certain about the nature of the Church institution as the body of its Founder. Again, in response to the statement, "A person can be just as good outside the Church as if he were a church member," the opinions were well scattered: T 58 t 26 ? 9 f 26 F 70 Only a few more than half regarded church affiliation as essential, while not quite half thought church membership not necessarily essential. But there were only a very few who failed to express an opinion either for or against the proposition. Comparing this vote with the vote on the Church as an institution, there were five times as many who registered "I have no opinion" on the latter as on the former. When it is borne in mind that 15 of the 190 voters said they were not themselves affiliated with any organized church, the small number 9, who expressed no opinion as to the essential nature of church membership is remarkable. Of course, none of the 15 may have been in the 9; all of them may have voted in the affirmative, to the effect that church membership is unnecessary to goodness; in any case, the fact that nearly 97 per cent had an opinion one way or another indicates that this question is a live one. I1 statement on the importance of religion itself drew out an expression closely similar to the expression regarding the death of Jesus. The vote on the items "The death of Jesus was one of the most significant events, if not the most significant event, in all history" and "Religion is absolutely necessary to genuine happiness" stood: T 138 t 23 T 143 t 30 ? 17 f 4 F 8 ? 5 f 6 F 6 On both, there were 12 who voted the statements, "false." The numbers who voted them absolutely "true" were close together. The most noteworthy difference was in the smaller number who registered "no opinion" on the second proposition. Nine out of ten voters held that religion is essential to real human happiness. Almost equally strong was the expression on the superiority of the Christian faith. To the MOUNTAIN LIPL'. AND WORK January, 1932 statement, "The Christian religion is the best of all religions," the response ran T 148 t 21 ? 15 f 2 F 4 Again there were about nine in every ten who voted the opinion "true;" only six, or about one in every thirty, voted it "false." On the importance of the Bible and its finality, a statement "The Bible is the sole final authority on matters of Christian faith" was supplemented by (1) "There are other trustworthy sources of religious certainty besides the Bible" and by (2) "Tradition, that is, teaching which Jesus gave his apostles by word of mouth and which they in turn did not commit to writing but handed on by word of mouth, is one of the sources of religious authority, along with the Bible." Since the region where the vote was taken has a number of denominations which officially accept other sources besides the Bible, a difference in expression was normally to be expected. Friends, Roman Catholics, and Latter Day Saints would naturally accept other sources beside the Bible, and "voters" from some independent congregations might agree with one or another of the three organized bodies mentioned. The vote on the three propositions actually stood: T 128 t 28 T 47 t 32 T 66 t 51 ? 10 f 7 F 17 ? 21 f 25 F 65 ? 38 f 14 F 21 The greatest degree of agreement was on the finality of the Bible. Almost as many thought there were other sources of religious certainty than the Bible as thought the Bible was the sole source as well as the final source. Since they were not asked to say what they thought the other sources were, the writer does not know definitely what they had in mind. That at least 38 would not have included tradition among the other sources is indicated by the difference between the number who voted the third statement "true" and the number who voted the second "true." However scattered the division on the finality of the Bible, opinion was remarkably solid on the statement, "The Biblereading habit is a sheer waste of time." T 5 t 2 ? 9 f 18 F 56 January, 1932 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 23 The number who were sure of their belief on this point was greater than on any item mentioned in this article except that on God's omnipotence. Only one in thirty of the total number of voters considered Bible reading an actual waste of time. A clear nine out of ten believed it is not a waste of time. In a period when some preachers insist that old-time religious beliefs are no longer held by the rising generation, and when others are equal ly emphatic that the essential beliefs still stand, the results of this ballot are enlightening. Taken not in a revival meeting, nor in any sort of con vention, but individually and in the quiet of familiar surroundings; taken not from one class of people, but from many classes in a varied population; taken not from one religious body, but from members of the Baptist and Congregationalist, Lutheran and Methodist, Apostolic Faith and Roman Catholic, Christian Scientist and Latter Day Saint, and ten other churches and from non-members-the results showed that the people of one corner of the Ozark highland still cling to some of the historic beliefs of the Christianity of the centuries, and that on a number of points usually regarded as more fundamental, the majority are pretty sure of themselves. WE THANK THE BATHER OF ALL TVA TERS VANCE PRATHER CUMBERLAND FALLS needs no attorney to plead its cause. It merely needs a messenger to bear the news of its existence, of its grandeur, and its value. This joy spot in Nature's unfettered wildness calls one back to the period of unreckoned time. It seems to be the connecting link between this and other ages. . . '. . Cumberland Falls must have messengers to warn the world of its threatened destruction. All Nature lovers and true sportsmen must come to its rescue." This was the foreword of Marshall E. Vaughn' then Editor of MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK, to an article by the author entitled, "Shall We Save Cumberland Falls?", appearing in the October number six years ago. Today the thing we had all been hoping for since 1923 has become an accomplished fact--not without some fears, and prayers, and tearsand in response to the present editor's request we are able to give the story of the preservation of Cumberland Falls. As suggested above, one of the first appeals to be broadcast for the perpetual preservation of this glorious waterfall appeared in MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK. We had talked the program over with President Hutchins, with Mr. Vaughn, then a member of the General Assembly at Frankfort, and others of Berea College. We had taken our appeal to Dr. Frank L. McVey, at the University of Kentucky; to Dr. M. B. Adams, then President of Georgetown College; to Dr. Will Campbell, then President of Kentucky Wesleyan, at Winchester (now the pastor of the Highland Methodist Church in my own city of Fort Thomas); to Dr. J. C. Hanley, then President of Lees Collegiate Institute, at Jackson, Kentucky; to Dr. R. Ames Montgomery, then President of Center College, Danville; and to virtually every outstanding editor in the State who would give us a hearing. We went to the Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs, the Kentucky League of Women Voters, the Kentucky Audubon Society, the State Historical Society, the Izaak Walton League, the Wild Flower Preservation Society, to the official boards of every large automobile club in the state, garden clubs without end, and to members of the General Assembly before they were elected and after they took their seats. In short, we never gave up hope that one day this gem of Kentucky's wild life would belong to the state in perpetuity. In 1926 the General Assembly at Frankfort wrestled with the problem, but in the end the measure providing for this safeguard was sidetracked in the House, and lost in the Senate by a few votes. In 1928 a similar bill, introduced in both bodies, after a long hearing in the chamber of the Court of Appeals was defeated in the Senate by a single vote. Between the Assemblies of 1928 arid 1930and just when the clouds hung darkest over our hopes-the Hon. T. Coleman du Port, of Wil Page 24 MOUNTAIN Lll'L AND WORK January, 1932 January, 1932 MOUNTAIN Ln r: AND WORK Page 25 mington, Delaware, native Kentuckian and former United States Senator, came forward with an offer of money sufficient to buy that part of the Falls area held by the Brunson heirs (H. C. Brunson, of Burnside, Kentucky), and to turn it over to the State of Kentucky, through the Attorney General, Hon. J. W. Cammack, for use as a State Park and shrine, in which tired humanity, in the language of the late Director of National Parks, Hon. Stephen T. Mather, "can forget the cares and sounds of the cities for a few days." Mr. Mather, who was my guest at the Falls in May, 1926, said, just before his death: "The parks are more than the storehouses of Nature's rarest treasures. They are the playlands of the people, wonderlands easily accessible to the rich and poor alike. The serenity of the mountains and the forests is contagious. It has been one of the pleasures of my work as Director of the National Park Service to tell the people about their parks, to urge them to see their wonders, and to find new and easy ways for visitors to reach the parks." In the lifetime of the Federal Power Commission as headed by the late Hon. James W. Good, later Secretary of War, Mr. Good had visited the Falls in company with his colleagues, Hon. Ray Lyman Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior, and Hon. Arthur Hyde, Secretary of Agriculture. The Regional Conference on State Parks (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and West Virginia) held its final session at the Brunson Inn, at the Falls, in October, 1926. Besides the local and state conferences, which were almost endless, the National Conference on State Parks, of which I was a Kentucky member, threshed out the fate of the Falls at Skyland, Virginia, in 1925; at Hot Springs, Arkansas, 1926; at Clifty Falls, Indiana (Regional Conference, in October 1925, and National Conference, in June, 1928.) At Linville, North Carolina, in June, 1930, at its tenth annual meeting, the National Conference on State Parks indulged in a session of rejoicing that the legislation which at least provided for the safeguarding of the Falls had been enacted by the Kentucky General Assembly. The majority of those debates were highly animated, as you may well imagine, with the proponents of power on the one hand, and the friends of conservation on the other. The expenditure of vast sums of money had been contemplated by the power promoters, while we had little or none to spend for any purpose; each friend of the Falls bore his or her own expense. When the offer came from the du Pont family to provide the sum needed to buy that part of the Falls area needed as the nucleus for the State Park development, Senator du font lay on his deathbed, "a great giant," as one of our most intimate friends told us, "wishing that he could be well, and up on his feet, leading the forces of conservation instead of merely providing the financial sinews with which to buy the land." The du Pont family contemplated an expenditure of approximately $230,000. This sum was deposited in a bank in Louisville and was placed at the disposal of the State of Kentucky, through Mr. John W. Barr, Jr., of Louisville, the personal representative of the du Pont interests in Kentucky. After Senator du Pont's death, controversy again arose, particularly in McCreary and Whitley counties, where the court's appraisers demanded a higher sum for the power company's holdings than could be covered by Senator du Pont's gift. The power of condemnation, voted by the 1930 Assembly at Frankfort-which also voted to accept the du Pont offer to buy the Falls-was held by Attorney General Cammack to be binding in all disputed lands; the litigation promised to go on to the Kentucky Court of Appeals and possibly to the Supreme Court at Washington, and then an offer of compromise, stipulating settlement at $400,000, was made by the power company's representatives in surrender of all its rights and holdings in the region of the Falls. Our friends of conservation had felt all along that because of Senator du Pont's desire to aid his native state, his widow and family would do a fine thing in providing the sum necessary to carry out his wishes after his death. Senator du Pont barely had been laid to his rest when his widow and family came forward with the gift of $170,000, and this, plus the original check written by Senator du Pont, completed the purchase price of the Cumberland Falls tract, $400,000. That is a staggering sum to invest in one of Nature's gems, but it will repay itself with interest in the renewed health, rest, recreation, relaxation, and genuine enjoyment of countless thousands and millions of tired human beings in the years to come. When, in 1924, we began the job officially by legislative enactment, we designated Mammoth Page 26 MOUNTAIN LrrL AND WORK January, 1932 Cave, Cumberland Falls, Natural Bridge, and Harrodsburg, among others, for State Parks and shrines. Mammoth Cave now has the status and dignity of a National Park. Natural Bridge is a State Park-137 acres as originally presented by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and to this original area I added 940 adjoining acres for a game preserve just before I left the service of the state. Pioneer Memorial Fort and Stockade, at Harrodsburg, is a state shrine to which thousands of visitors, from all the states in the Union and some from foreign lands, come each year in increasing numbers. Cumberland Falls, the undoubted gem of all the states' natural possessions, and the mightiest cataract east of the Mississippi save alone Niagara, is an already designated state area of 593 acres, with many more acres to be added in the years to come. The Falls tract became the property of the state on January 30, 1931. It is worth all the effort, time, energy, money, and sleepless nights and restless days I have spent since I began this job, in June, 1923, to be able to write its final accomplishment. It is finishedand, in the language of the text, "we thank the Father of All Waters" for this generous gift, first from His hands, passed on through those of men and women like the du Ponts, thousands of faithful Kentuckians, and men and women without the state who made our cause and our banner glorious. "It shall not be despoiled." I know the youth of Kentucky will carry on. I want earnestly that they shall know and feel and enjoy Nature in far more enlightened degree than I ever have known it. I wish earnestly they might preserve some of the beauty spots we have tried modestly and reverently to carve out for them in the Kentucky wilderness. I want them now and always to help make the Great Outdoors a little more beautiful (if that is humanly possible); to spare the birds and wild flowers; when picnicking, to put out their fires; and to think, like true conservationists, of those that come after them. BUILDING fl AURAL MARSHALL Every student of American history recalls the famous town hall, the church, and the school house that laid the foundation of New England. These three centers made New England the economic, the educational, and the religious leader of the nation for a century. In fact that cold coastal region got such a start in these three essential fields that it has never been overtaken in all of them by regions far more favored by every known natural condition. Corporate action was born out of necessity for self-preservation and the perpetuation of ideals that must not be permitted to die in this new land. The town hall became the open forum for the people. Sometimes its leaders became so puritanical in their views that liberal minds and heretics received rough treatment, but the unity of action gave strength. The South was rural from the beginning. It was agricultural because of the wonderful climate and its adaptation to crops that were needed to feed and clothe the people. Country life became CO UNT Y E. VAUGHN the center of interest, and neighborhood festivals were the great social agency. Neighbors built each other's homes after clearing each other's land, and, in a press, gathered each other's corn. It was the custom for the whole community to see that everybody was up with his work when winter set in. Their problems were different from those of the New England town communities, but it was corporate action of whole communities that molded the sentiment of the South and built a solidarity in thinking that controlled the statecraft of this country for seventy-five years. My point in both examples is that some kind of corporate action of a permanent nature is necessary to keep rural communities going and the blood rich and virile. Society has become urbanized and complicated. Most of the serious troubles of men arc found in the city areas, where people dwell in unnatural and unwholesome environments. The reasons are January, 1932 MouN rmN Lme AND WORK Page 27 the strained life the city leads and the want of something constructive to occupy the minds of the masses of motiveless people. The rural regions have yielded to urban influences and in the process are losing their prestige. Something must be done to save the dignity and the ancient virtues of country communities that will always be country communities. Active and emotional leadership must be brought into operation to restore the vitality that this nation sorely needs to keep in reserve. This leadership must be provided by the educational institutions, both public and private, and by the government itself. Much is being done at present in the way of si ific farming and cooperative marketing. We cienti 1 1 , 1 1 have so much farm land and produce so much of every kind of crop and live stock that the dis position of the output of the farms has become a serious problem. It is conceivable that agricul ture may become so efficient as to destroy itself. When a man with a big farm or plantation piles up his crops in the fields and lets them rot for want of a market he is rapidly approaching the point where he will sacrifice his farm for a filling station. Educational institutions must place a new emphasis in their curricula for farmer students, namely community life. I do not mean an academic study of community life as an appendage to a scientific agricultural program; nor will surveys made by church boards and philanthropic societies do the work. Schools and other agencies must carry to rural counties as a whole the best in the way of ideas and working programs they are capable of producing. The President of the University of Tennessee recently said that the campus of the University of Tennessee was the whole state even down to the smallest community. That is the spirit that should be back of the work of every college in the country that assumes the task for any given territory. Colleges will not increase in number in the future as in the past, nor will they enroll many more students then they have now. They have about reached the saturation point. State institutions are not able to expand for lack of money, and many private schools are facing bankruptcy. When the colleges have admitted all the students they can care for and there are no more schools to be born, what is the next step? My contention is that the next step is to take as much as possible of the culture and knowledge of the college campus into the outer districts of its territory. This is being attempted by many schools with more of less of success. The University of Wisconsin is probably wielding a greater influence over the rural life of Wisconsin than any other state university over its people. The great reach of that institution is explained by its tremendous and constant university extension program. The program of the University of Wisconsin, however, would not fit the needs of the mountains except with radical modifications. What is a problem in the Middle West is not a problem in the Southern Mountains. What to do with a million bushels of wheat or with a million bales of cotton does not concern the mountains. The problem of the educational and social leaders of the mountains is to begin with what they have and then work toward a satisfying end. They must face facts as they are. Conditions in many rural communities of the United States, and in the mountains in particular, have become static. Life has congealed. Normal treatment, such as meets with a ready response in the Blue Grass or the plains, is hardly adequate to meet the situation in the mountains. It is not because the people are less responsive; it is because they are borne down by natural conditions and do not see their way out. The writer has a program to suggest, based on facts and experience, that is in line with many queries that are constantly rising in the minds of educational and social leaders in the mountains. The county is the unit. It is the largest political unit within the state. The leadership of the county centers at the county seat. The seat of government is jealous of its authority. The county leaders are jealous of their authority. No program will succeed in the mountains unless the leadership in taken by the most prominent and influential men and women in the county. Schools may educate individuals and do a great personal service but if they undertake to change the standards of the people without bringing into active service the leaders of the county, they will fail. Let us call the community program Citizenship and Public Relations. It can be an associa Page 28 MOUNTAIN Llrr AND WORK January, 1932 tion or a society so long as it has body and tan ,nible unifying power. I What is there in the make-up of a Kiwanis or a Rotary Club that makes it fundamental to the progress and prosperity of many communities? It is organized coporate action. It is an idea, a motto, an excuse for the members to do something worth while for their community. These clubs have no secret handshakes, no fraternal oaths, nothing that is binding except their inherent love for their community and desire to see it rise in the society of communities. Could you get men to meet as a group, without organization, once a week year after year and promote the same principles and render the same service to their communities? No, it has never been done. A man could live a consistent Christian life without affiliating with the church, if he tried, but communities must have organized churches if they would survive religiously. One person can do what it takes individually to build a community, but no community will be built unless there is a central purpose and a unifying plan to draw all the people together. The city is so highly organized that it requires an astute mind to keep up with the various organizations. In fact the average large city is over-organized. But the rural communities lack organization. Citizenship and Public Relations would bring about the corporate action that every student of economics and sociology knows is essential to modern progress. Citizenship and Public Relations would have no sectarian affiliations, no political aspirations, and no self aggrandizement. It would recognize the need of promoting the highest good of all the people. It would promote good roads, good schools, libraries, health clinics, recreation and religion. It would seek to make all the people selfsupporting. There is something radically wrong with any community where there is an appreciable number of dependent people over long periods. Our Citizenship and Public Relations would bring together all the substantial people of the county who were willing to lend their aid and cooperation to improve every department of life. This organization would not undermine any agency now at work. It would act as does the Com munity Chest in the large city; it would bring all agencies together, eliminate duplication, and fill up the gaps that are not covered by any one. Cooperation with school forces, with the county health department, with the better homes movement, and with law enforcement could be easily carried forward without serious strain on anybody, for our organization would be a large one and would extend down into local communities. Every one of the above interests is a county interest, and should be looked after by the people whom they concern. Citizenship and Public Relations would study the needs of the county and make surveys of the economic and social conditions of the people. Every citizen should be listed and his general situation noted. The organization would not pry into the affairs of people but merely would note their general condition and make special adjustments for those in need of them. For example, a man in a far corner of the county might have produce to sell and not know where to sell it. A bulletin board would be maintained to tell of such produce. Our county organization must be interested in every citizen and his needs. One of the most important phases of this organization would be the building of the cultural life of the people. That can be done even in a remote mountain county. Study groups and reading circles with occasional lecturers from other parts will tone up any community. The greatest cultural asset to a rural county far removed from city influences would be a well-organized county library that would reach every community. The county council must be chosen from among men and women who are body and soul for the movement and will pledge to give unreservedly of their time and thought for one year. This will be the clearance group to receive reports of the various community activities and to give out instructions and information that will aid the locals in carrying on their work. When the work develops far enough and becomes heavy enough the county would find it advantageous to employ a full-time paid executive. Local contests can be inaugurated to stimulate home projects. Slogans can be adopted that will carry a county far in its program. This sounds like a colossal undertaking but it ,lanuary, 1932 MouN rniN Ltnt: nNU Wouh Page 29 is no bigger job than the volunteer committees of welfare organizations in the large cities are doing. It is well in line with the work of many clubs like Kiwanis and Rotary. One reason city organizations get so much work done and cover such large fields of service is because the people have learned to put out effort for civic betterment. With all the fine, sweet things we can say about the country people, we must face the fact that they have yet to learn to work together for the good of their community. Public spirit is yet in its infancy. But interest can be developed, for it has been done where there has been proper leadership. Schools, colleges and universities more than ever before should emphasize and train for community leadership. Many college graduates who go back to small communities or to large rural counties, for that matter, fail to bring their neighbors up to their standards, become discouraged, and quit because they have no support in their efforts. It may not sound good to the average student, but more and more college graduates will be compelled to return to their home com munities for employment, because the markets of the world cannot absorb them all. All schools should offer courses in community building and give all the aid possible to students who are preparing to return home to live. Students of economics and sociology that go back to their home communities will have a background of training that will fit them to enter immediately into the activities of the county organization. There will be an understanding among the schools that have extension departments and cover the same territory as to the responsibility of each. There will be no conflicts and no selfish motives. Extension service will not be a student-gathering agency but a community-building service. A permanent Citizenship and Public Relations movement to cover many counties and eventually many states would furnish tangible means for developing the powers of leadership that arc dormant in every community. It is the task of the schools located in the mountains or whose work covers the mountains to train the leaders and suggest the program. RETURN JESSE STUART I saw Kentucky's windy oak trees weave Thin patterns on a white December sky; And I'd been sick of life and wished to die Until I saw those eastern hills and banks Of reddish sumac clay . . . I yielded thanks For oak trees pattern'd on this winter skyI'd been a fool to ever wish to die. Silly I was in younger days to leave The winding willow lanes, the sky-blue streams, And apple-blossoms gleaming in the sun; And night-time meadow's drowsy, soothing words. But now, I have come back to where all seems A higher world than where mere fancies run, And words are tuneless by the fluting birds. Page 30 MOUNTAIN LuL AND WoKx January, 1932 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Helen Fl. Dirrgman Dr. Williar r janzes Hrrtchirrs Orrin L. Keener May B. Sr ritlz CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson Mrs. John C. Campbell _ Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn Dr. John P. McConnell _ Dr. Arthur T. McCormick Dr. E. C. Branson _ Dr. John J. Tigert Editor Counsellor Associate Editor Associate Editor New York City Brasstown, N. C. Berea, Ky. _ East Radford, Va. Louisville, Ky. Chapel Hill, N. C. Gainesville, Fla. ISSUED QUARTERLY-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Subscription Price .$ I.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. I?ntered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter. ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY HARLAN As we go to press, the smoldering fire flames up again in the Harlan coal areas. This situation, like other "mountain problems," is just one aspect of a rather general problem in our national life. The depression hit the bituminous coal miners harder because of the overexpansion of the industry during and following the war. It is estimated that there arc 100,000 miners for whom there will never be any more coal mining. Many one-industry communities have suffered severely, but perhaps none more than mining camps. Miners have the disadvantage often of being in rather isolated communities where it is hard either to find other means of livelihood or to get such unemployment relief as is provided in larger industrial communities with their community chests. Trouble is often found where workers are trying to form unions. In the present situation this is doubtless intensified by failure on the part of some to recognize that the depression is general, also by the spirit of independence of the moun taineer and his readiness to defend "his rights." Perhaps, too, there are those who do not realize what privation and hunger really are. Without condoning lawlessness and the taking of human life, one may ask wether the murder charges against the twenty-seven men for the shootings last summer are an attempt to establish justice or an effort to meet the intimidation of bullets with the intimidation of "the law." RELIEF Relief work in the coal areas is being handled by the American Friends Service Committee, with the cooperation of the Commission on the Church and Social Service of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America. Efficient organization and supervision is guaranteed by the record of previous Quaker relief projects. The terrible need is made clear in the following telegraphic report made December 16 by James Myers, Industrial Secretary of the Federal Council of Churches, who went to the areas to see what conditions were. (Punctuation ours.) "Miss Olive Van Horn Coal Areas Relief Federal Council of Churches 105 East 22 Street "Tour of inspection coal fields West Virginia and Kentucky reveals alarming need. At least twenty-five thousand children no food and warm clothing. Thousands unable attend school. Saw children barefoot in snow. Some evicted families living in tents. Sickness will take toll unless clothes for all ages supplied at once, especially children's clothing and shoes; also warm blankets, quilts. Hot lunches screed by Quakers many schools already show improved health. Thousands of preschool children and babies without milk. Money needed at once as winter weather grips mountain regions. Please send out wide appeal. Urgent. "JAMES MYERS" This situation is one that demands immediate action-relief. It is also one that brings a greater realization of the need for PLANNING versus MUDDLING THROUGH in our social order and industrial life. O.L.K. January, 1932 MOUNTAIN L1PL AND WORK Page 31 INDEX MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME VII An index of articles according to author and title, supplemented by a partial subject index. A Willard, John D. Adult Education and Wo;/,/ Problems V11:2 '3l p 2 AoljrrslÃ‚Â»rrrrt of the I:IrmrÃ‚Â»turp CrrrricÃ‚Â»IÃ‚Â»m to the Schools of July livtrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢nrely Isolated Arms Fannie W. Dunn VI1:2 Jul 'il p 8 ArlÃ‚Â»It Education and World PvoblrÃ‚Â»rs John D. Willard V11:2 ,Jut '31 p 2 l; Brrru's SfÃ‚Â»rlrÃ‚Â»7 Labor PvoLrum Albert G. Wcidlcr VII:2 July '31 p 19 13ralliar, Floyd How lhr Do It al 6furli.ooÃ‚Â» \711:2 Jul '31 p 26 Planting UÃ‚Â»r's TJoor)nrrl V11:3 Oct '31 p 9 Building rr Rural Count) Marshall I? Vaughn VIT:4 Jan '32 p 26 Building in ,StoÃ‚Â»r l.. F. Deschamps \'11:4 .Inn '32 p 18 Butler, Marguerite Drrum Come TrÃ‚Â»r 1'1I:3 Oct '3 L p 1 c Cnlfcc, John F. 7'rchÃ‚Â»iqÃ‚Â»r of ImpvorrÃ‚Â»rrÃ‚Â»t V11:3 Oct '31 p 4 Campbell, Olicc D. (Mrs. John C.) TrstiÃ‚Â»g IIT:'s Philosophy Vll:1 April '31 p 2 CHILDREN Meese, A. II. Training of MrÃ‚Â»fullp Rrtardrrl ChilrlrrÃ‚Â» VIII Apr '31 p 2 8 Slusher, Virginia Proof of the PÃ‚Â»rlrliÃ‚Â»g VII:1 Apr '3l p 22 Weckcs, Jessie Angell TvuiÃ‚Â»iÃ‚Â»g LruJrr.c of childhood V11:4 Jan 32 p l CONFFRI:NCI:S CoÃ‚Â»frrrÃ‚Â»cr of SorrllnrrÃ‚Â» 111oÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»luiÃ‚Â» Work(,;,, March 24-26, 1931 proceedings contained in V11:2 ,lul '31 Grccnway, Charles T. U~rrrk IÃ‚Â»trvrlrÃ‚Â»oÃ‚Â»riÃ‚Â»utiortul CoÃ‚Â»frvrÃ‚Â»rr \'11:3 Oct '3I p I 1 White, Edwin IL. (;errÃ‚Â»brrluÃ‚Â»rl Mountain Community Conferclict, V11:3 Oct '31 p 14 Cooperation rear/ I'rogrrs~ Hermann N, Morse \'11:2 ,[ul 31 p 14 CÃ‚Â»mbrrlaÃ‚Â»rl Mountain CoÃ‚Â»rÃ‚Â»rÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»ily (:oÃ‚Â»frvrÃ‚Â»cr Edwin I?. White V11:3 Oct '31 p 14 D Ucschaml,s, L. P. Building iÃ‚Â» StoÃ‚Â»r VII:4 Jan '32 p 18 DrruÃ‚Â»r Come 7'rÃ‚Â»r Marguerite Butler V11:3 Oct '31 p 1 Du nn, Fannie SX.'. ilrljtrslmrÃ‚Â»t of the ElcnwiitaiT Curriculum to IN Schools of LtlvrÃ‚Â»rrl7 Lcolulrol Arru.c Vll:2 Jul '3l p 8 I? baton, Allen Mountain HomrshrrÃ‚Â» by FrrrÃ‚Â»crs L. Goorlvich (Book Rcciew) V11:3 Oct ")I p 30 I.UUCATION Uunn, Fannic W. AdjÃ‚Â»stÃ‚Â»rrÃ‚Â»t of tlrr lilrntrularlCÃ‚Â»vvicÃ‚Â»lÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»r to lhr Schools of E.vtrrnrrll Isolutrrl //yeas VII:2 Jul '31 p 8 Meese, A. H. Training of MrntalllRrlurrlrrl CbildrrÃ‚Â» VII:1 Apr '31 p 28 Walter, 1?. ;. SÃ‚Â»vtry of Mountain Schools V11:4 Jan '32 p 14 \\'cckcs, Jessie Angell TruiÃ‚Â»iÃ‚Â»g T,rrrrlars of Cbildhoorl VII:4 fan '32 p 1 Ford, Bonnic Willis (Mrs. H. C.) Learning Front a Great Teacher V11:3 Oct '31 p 22 G Garner, Mary E. Road BÃ‚Â»ilrlrr.s V11:1 Apr '31 p 26 Gray, L. C. Ubjrotiurs and Proyvrss of LcnÃ‚Â»oÃ‚Â»ric and Social Surrry of Me Southern Mountains VII:2 Jul '3l p 31 Grcenway, Charles T. Ozark Interdenominational Conference VT1:3 Oct '31 p 11 H HANDICRAFTS Butler, Marguerite DvruÃ‚Â»r Conic True VII:3 Oct '31 p I Baton, Allen htorrÃ‚Â»tu)Ã‚Â» Homespun by FvaÃ‚Â»cr.s L. Goodrich (Boos. Review) V11:3 Oct '31 p 30 Ford, Bonnie Willis (Mrs. H. C.) Learning From a Great Teacher V11:3 Oct '31 p 22 Hatcher, Dr. O. Latham Some GÃ‚Â»irluÃ‚Â»rr Nrrrl.c of MoÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»trriÃ‚Â» Bo~~s and Girls VIII April '31 p 8 Flaun, C. C. RrligioÃ‚Â»s Basis for the MorlrrÃ‚Â» Country Cbui(h Goslml VI1:2 July '31 p 2) Hickman, Thomas S. CoÃ‚Â»flicf and RrhubllitutioÃ‚Â» iÃ‚Â» uÃ‚Â» Ozark CoÃ‚Â»r nrrrnit) V11:3 Oct '31 p 24 How Wr Do It at Madison Floyd 13ralliar V11:2 Jul '3l p 26 1, Learning FroÃ‚Â»r a Grrut 1'rÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rrrhrr Bonnie Willis Ford (Mrs. H. C.) V11:3 Oct '31 p 21 Lewis, Charles D. Rural Life crud Modern Chilizalion V11:3 Oct '31 p 18 M McClure, ./. G. K. TrÃ‚Â» Years of lhr PuvÃ‚Â»rrrs' FrdrrutioÃ‚Â» VII:1 Apr '31 p 23 Meese, A. H. TvuiÃ‚Â»iÃ‚Â»t of MrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rttalh Petarded Children V11:1 Apr '31 p 28 Morse, Hermann N. CoohrratinÃ‚Â» aÃ‚Â»rl Progress V11:2 Jul '31 p 14 MoÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»tuiÃ‚Â» Tlomr.chÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â» b)FvaÃ‚Â»crs L. Goodrich Reviewed by Allen Tnton V11:3 Oct '31 p 30 N Nicholls, W. 1. Rrsrcrvch Ah/rrouc%r to the P)oblcins of Appalachia VI1:4 ,Jan '32 p s O UbjrrlimÃ¢â‚¬Â¢s and Progress of the Economic and Social Srrvcry of the Southern fl/r3ulrrrlaiaÃ‚Â»s I,. C. Gray V11:2 Jul '31 p 31 Old Clothes Buvrrl Harriette Wood X'11:4 Jan '32 p 12 0-ark TÃ‚Â»trÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rrlrÃ‚Â»oÃ‚Â»riÃ‚Â»utioÃ‚Â»ul CoÃ‚Â»frrrÃ‚Â»rr Charles T. Grecnway VII:3 Oct '3 L p I 1 Page 32 MOUNTAIN Lum: AND WORK january, 1932 OZARKS Grcenway, C:harks T. Ozark Inh, rrlrÃ‚Â»omiÃ‚Â»ulioÃ‚Â»rrI CoÃ‚Â»frrrÃ‚Â»rr Vll:3 Oct '31 p 11 Hickman, Thomas S. Conflict aÃ‚Â»J Rehabilitation iÃ‚Â» uÃ‚Â» Ozark ComÃ‚Â»ruÃ‚Â»ity V11:3 Oct 31 p 24 Ross, W. Gordon Ozark Uplift V11:1 Apr '31 p 17 Stcvick, Paul R. Sampling of Ozark Crrrrls VII:4 Jan '32 p 20 Ozark Uplift W. Gordon Ross V11:1 Apr '31 p 17 I' Planting One's Dooryurol Floyd N. Bralliar Oct '3l VI1:3 p 9 POEMS Rogers, Amy May Two Poems V11:1 Apr '31 p 20 Stuart, Jesse Return VI1:4 Jan '32 p 29 West, Don L. Two Portraits VII:3 Oct '31 p 17 Prather, Vance We Thank The Father of All Waters VTI:4 .Jan '32 p 23 Proof of the Pudding Virginia Slushcr VIII Apr '3l p 22 R RELIGION Dr. Morse Outlines the Religious SrrrrrÃ¢â‚¬Â¢i V11:2 Jul '31 p 35 Haun, C. C. Religious Basis for Modern Country Church Gospel VII:2 Jul '31 p 29 Stcvick, Paul R. Sampling of Ozark Creeds V11:2 Jan '32 p 20 Religious Basis for the Modrrrr Conrrh_S ChÃ‚Â»roh Gospel C. C. Haun V11:2 Jul '31 p 29 Rr:rarrh Approach to the Problems pt A(rhulur-hiu W. D. Nicholls V11:4 Jan '32 p 5 Return (Poem) Jesse Stuart VI1:4 Jan '32 p 29 Road BÃ‚Â»ilrlrr.c Mary I:. Garner V11:1 Apr '31 p 26 Robertson, James R. "Srmhrr Librri" VIII Apr '31 p 14 Rogers, Amy May 'I'Ã‚Â»o Porms V11:1 Apr '31 p 20 Ross, W. Gordon Ozark Uplift VIII Apr '31 p 17 IZÃ‚Â»rul Lift, and Modern Cililization Charles D. Lewis V11:3 Oct '31 p 18 SuÃ‚Â»rpliÃ‚Â»;; of Ozark Crrrolc Paul K. Stcvick V11:4 Jan '32 p 20 "SrÃ‚Â»ehrr Librri" fames R. Robertson V11:1 Apr '31 p 14 Singing Berea Margret Trotter VI1:4 Jan '32 p 9 Slusher, Virginia Proof of the Pudding V11:1 Apr '3t p 22 Some GÃ‚Â»ilaÃ‚Â»er Needs of Mountain Bot's and Girls 0. Lathain Hatcher V II:1 Apr '3 I p 8 Stevick, Paul R. Sum/rliÃ‚Â»g of Ozark Crrrol.c V11:4 Jan '32 p 20 Stuart, Jesse IZrtÃ‚Â»rÃ‚Â» (Poem) VII :4 Jan '32 p 29 Suite), of Mountain Schools F.. C. Walter VII:4 Jan '32 p 14 SURVEYS Dr. Morse Outlines the RrligioÃ‚Â»s Strrrry V11:2 Jul '3l p 35 Gray L. C. Ubjrctitrs and Progress of GroÃ‚Â»umic and Social Strrrr)of the Southern Mountains VII:2 Jul '31 p 31 Hatcher, O. Latham Some GÃ‚Â»irluÃ‚Â» or Nerds of Mountain Bops and Girls VII: 1 Apr '31 p 8 Nicholls, \\'. D. Rrsrurrh Ap(rrouc-h to the Problems of Appala'bia V11:4 Jan '32 p 5 Stcvic'c, Paul R. Sampling of Ozark Crrrrls V11:4 Jan '32 p 20 \x'al!er, E. C. SÃ‚Â»rm3 of MoÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»tu7Ã‚Â» Sr/goo/s V11:4 Jan '32 p 14 T TcÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rhrtiyrtr of IÃ‚Â»rprocemrÃ‚Â»7 John E. Calfee VII:3 Oct '3l p 4 Ten Years of fhr Farmers' FrrlrrutioÃ‚Â» J. G. K. McClure VIII Apr '31 p 23 Testing AE's Philosophy Olive D. Campbell VIII Apr '3l p 2 TrrriÃ‚Â»iÃ‚Â»g Leaders of Childhood Jessie Angell Weekes VII:4 Jan '32 F' I Training of Mentally Retarded Children A. H. Meese VII:1 Apr '31 p 28 Trotter, Margret Singing Berea VLI:4 Jan 'i2 p 9 Two Poems Amy May Rogers V11:1 Apr '31 p 20 Tit o Portraits Don L. West VII :3 Oct '31 p 17 \'.:uglm, Marshall E. Brriloliuy a Rural Count), VLI:4 Jan '32 p 26 'Walter E. C. Srrrrr3 of MoÃ‚Â»Ã‚Â»tuiÃ‚Â» Srhoola VII:4 Jan '32 p 14 Wcckcs, Jessie Angell Training Leaders of Childhood VI1:4 Jan '32 p 1 Wcidler, Albert G. Berra's Student Labor Program VII:2 ,Jut '3l p 19 West, Don h. Tito Portraits VI1:3 Oct '31 p 17 We ThrrÃ‚Â»l The Father of AlI Waters Vance Prather VLI:4 Jan '32 p 23 White, Edwin 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢.. Cr!Ã‚Â»rbrrluÃ‚Â»rl Mountain Community Con)'creme V11:3 Oct '31 p 14 Willard, John D. Adult L;rlÃ‚Â»rut:oÃ‚Â» aÃ‚Â»d World Problcnis V11:2 Jul '31 p 2 Wood, Harricetc Old Clothr's Barrel \'I1:4 fun '32 p 12 OUR CONTRIBUTORS Jr.ssn:. A`rcrr_r. Wm=.xrs, mother of three children, is one of the most interested promoters and supporters of the pre-school laboratory on the Berea campus. W. D. Nu:i-ror.r s, head of the Department of Farm Economics in the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, has been actively engaged in the surveys of Laurel and Knott Counties. Mnxcrtr..r TrzorTrx is secretary in the MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Office. HARRIETTE WOOD, who is on the staff of the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance, has been visiting many of the mountain schools in the interest of vocational guidance. E. C. WALLER is president of Pisgah Industrial Institute and Pisgah Sanitarium, Candler, N. C. L,. F. DrscrioMrs is in charge of the building program at the John C. Campbell Folk School PAUL K. SrEVrcx, of Ozark Wesleyan College, Carthage, Missouri, has done research work in the Ozarks. VANCE I'xnrrirvz, former Director of State Parks and first Secretary of the Kentucky State Park Commission, has been most active in the preservation of Cumberland Falls. MARSHALL E. VAUGHN, when Secretary of Berea College, was in charge of a County Achievement contest in Kentucky. JESSE STUART is a student at Vanderbilt University.