You have found an item located in the Kentuckiana Digital Library.
Mountain Life & Work vol. 08 no. 4 January, 1933 Council of the Southern Mountains 400dpi TIFF G4 page images University of Kentucky, Electronic Information Access & Management Center Lexington, Kentucky 2003 mlwv8n40133 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Mountain Life & Work vol. 08 no. 4 January, 1933 Council of the Southern Mountains Berea College; Council of the Southern Mountains Berea, Kentucky January, 1933 $IMLS This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. VOLUME VIII JANUARY, 1933 NUMBER IV The Middle Class Mountain People Child Health in Mining Camp and Village The Lower Standard of Living Helping Themselves "Bucking" the Depression Summary (poem) The Growth of a Mountain School A-Wishin' (poem) Continuous Grazing on Annual Pastures -Charles D. Lewis 1 -Ira M. Miller -Warren H. Wilson -Giles A. Hubert -L7rther M. Awhrose -Vlrglnfia Casey -Helen W. Lund -Bculah Allyne Bell 21 -Olive D. Cane()hell 20 A Little Tennessee Pair -Dora Read Goodale 27 Published Quarterly at Berea College, Berea, Ky., in the interest of fellowship and mutual understanding between the Appalachian Mountains and the rest of the nation MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME VIII JANUARY, 1933 NUMBER I`' THE MIDDLE CLASS MOUNTAIN PEOPLE Charles D. Lewis A number of years ago a visitor to Berea from the East asked a faculty wife, "What kind of people are the mountaineers?" It so happened that the wife questioned was herself from the mountains of Kentucky, and her reply was, "Just look at me. I am one." The questioner was somewhat taken aback, but it may have given her a point of view that many who are interested in "mountain work" never get. They fail to realize that there is no more a "characteristic mountaineer" than there is a characteristic citizen of the city of New York, or of Boston. As in almost any section of our country, rural or urban, there are in the Southern Appalachians three fairly well defined groups, the upper class, the lower class, and the middle class. The relative proportion of the population that belongs to each of these groups will vary greatly from place to place, but all are usually found if any large amount of territory is included in the consideration. In former articles that have appeared in Mountain Life and Work~the author has discussed the social advantages of rural life, and government forestry as a factor in the solution of the mountain problem. In the present article, as is suggested by the title, he wishes to state the case for the middle class element of the mountain population. The Middle Class mountaineers are found scattered over the more fertile portions of the Cumberland Plateau from the Ohio River to northcentral Alabama, and in the broader valleys of the more deeply dissected parts of the Plateau and of the Mountains proper. The great valley of the Upper Tennessee and its major tributaries is so broad that it almost loses the characteristics of a river valley, but it is essentially one, and included in the above classification. Many of those who would have been counted as of the upper class of the mountain people have gone to better agricultural land in other parts of the country, entered `January and October, 1931. professions, or gone to mountain towns as business men, local officials, or trusted employees of mining or industrial concerns established by out side capital. Many of those with poorer nati i 1 1 ive endowments have been pushed up toward the heads of the hollows, or to the thin-soiled ridges where they face inevitable poverty. Others of this type have gone to mining camps, mill towns, or to agricultural sections where lowclass tenants are in demand for cotton or tobacco raising. This sorting process leaves the better farming lands in possession of a native population almost wholly descendants of stock from the British Isles. They are of a good native intelligence; inclined toward conservatism; strongly individualistic; intensely American; inclined toward deep but narrow religious convictions; thrifty but not grasping; committed, nominally at least, to a rather strict moral code. There are few of the older members of these families who are educated beyond the elementary grades, and but few who are illiterate. The farms occupied by these middle-class families are capable of providing an ample living, if properly cared for, but not able to produce any large amount of cash income, even in normal times. In most cases the average productivity of the soil has been markedly reduced during the years of cultivation. Little marketable timber is to be found to supplement the income derived from farm crops and livestock, as was the case a generation ago, because of a total lack of care for such woodland as remains on the farms. There has, as a rule, been but little attempt to adapt production to soil conditions and market demands, and in most sections almost nothing has been accomplished in the way of the organization of farmers for their own betterment. The middle class homes are simple but not inadequate. The houses are often fairly well built frame structures with from four to eight rooms. PagC 2 MUUN'1'AIN LIIÃ¢â‚¬Â¢'L: AND WORK Heating, lighting and sanitary conveniences are neither modern nor primitive. Furniture and working equipment is usually simple, but substantial. Musical instruments are found rather frequently, radios are becoming more common each year, and phone connections with the out s'de world are found in most comm 1 1 I un t es. Week ly and daily newspapers come to many homes, and farm and home monthlies are often found. Books are conspicuous by their absence, as a rule. Family unity is good, as a usual thing, and dis cipline rather strict in comparison with that of many "modern" homes. The children of the homes under consideration usually have the benefit of fairly good elementary schools of the narrow and formal type, and in a large majority of cases public high schools are available, at least for the more ambitious. Highway construction has progressed rapidly during the past decade, and at this time the tendency is toward slackening the building of the more expensive state-maintained highways and the development of all-year side roads to reach the more remote areas. Because of these improvements in roads, school consolidation has made quite rapid progress in most mountain counties, with consequent improvement in educational opportunities. The churches that serve these better communities of the mountains are probably the weakest, most ineffective factor involved in the situation. Denominational prejudices are strong, and the result is a multiplicity of weak, functionless churches that divide communities and cause an indifference to religious matters if not an actual disrespect for religion, on the part of many young people. Divided communities cannot maintain services calculated to challenge the thinking of young people who are receiving high school education, nor help them make an adjustment in a vital way to the moral and religious problems which they face. The problems of the rural church in the non-mountain areas are serious, but in the mountains which are ultra-rural in all social matters, they are doubly so. Social life is about as insufficient as is religious life for these people. The old-time "party" has about died out, following the death of the "quilting," the "apple-cutting," and such semi-social activities of the past. Dancing and cards are not looked upon with favor, and the church and Sunday School have not, as a general thing, assumed January, 1933 responsibility for any form of social activity. Where roads are good, couples take advantage of the movies in near-by towns; but this is a very poor form of social diversion, and does not begin to meet the needs of young people by nature hungering for group-activity. In communities having consolidated schools, basket-ball and occasional dramatic performances break the monotony, but the social side of these institutions is usually neglected by those in charge of them. The above analysis of the factors that enter into the problem of the middle class people of the mountains leads to the qucstion, what can be done to improve conditions of life for these people, and to make the fine human value they possess of most worth to themselves and to society? An attempt to answer this question calls for comment upon the relation of the present national and world condition to the future of these people. During the past three decades there has been a constantly increasing flow of surplus population from rural communities into urban and industrial centers. Up to 1929 this surplus of rural youth was readily absorbed by the expanding industries of our country. But we have suddenly awakened to the fact that machines and improved productive organizations can no longer take up this rural overflow. A noted student of our economic and industrial situation recently stated that if production should be brought back to the 1929 level, only 55 per cent of the unemployed would be cared for. In other words, a permanent army of unemployed amounting to something like five million would be left, with every need of the employed portion of our population supplied. If the demands of Labor for a thirty-hour week should be secured, the situation would be temporarily relieved, of course, but we can not get away from the fact that industry will never be able to absorb surplus rural population again as it has in the past. A group of "agrarian economists" has been quite active in promoting a general "back to the farm and the good old days" movement as a solution for our economic ills, but this is quite evidently impractical so far as the general agricultural and economic situation is concerned. There may be a suggestion in it for the farmers of our better types of mountain land. Any plan of this nature, however, must find not only a way of feeding and housing people in the country but a way of January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 3 preserving for them the finer things of life without which the value of life itself is questionable. The human stock found among these middle class mountaineers is a priceless asset to our Nation, and any plan that will preserve it for its own and society's benefit must not neglect the cultural and spiritual values of life. The question, where can these values be adequately provided on the basis of agricultural production? will draw a map of the agricultural areas of the mountains as differentiated from what should be forest areas. If the type of agriculture now employed in most mountain sections is followed, and the means for providing the cultural and spiritual elements of life remain unchanged, the land area capable of meeting adequately the demands for a living and a life will be small. But in the possibility of modifying both of these factors lies the problem which will be discussed in some detail in the concluding paragraphs. Another result of the present economic condition deserves a brief discussion. This is the profound change that seems to be taking place in the sense of values on the part of a great number of people. There is at least great encouragement to believe that the attitude of measuring everything in life by its money value may be passing. Money, securities, property, land, seem no longer to be the all-important reality that they have been. They have proven themselves unreliable. If this change is really coming, it may be an easier matter to maintain the high level of human character on the poorer land of the mountains, and this is necessary to retain the value of these regions as reservoirs of surplus population of a superior type. The pull of the outer world upon the youth of the mountain farm may become less as the dollar declines as a measure of all values. There are three phases to the program for solving the problems of the middle class people of the mountains, as the writer understands them. The first is agricultural, the second educational, the third religious. These will be taken up in the order named, though this may not be the order of their importance. The farmers of the mountains must be helped to do four things. These are: To build up worndown soil, and to maintain the fertility of virgin s*I, with the lowest possible cash outlay; to pro ol I duce those crops that draw most lightly upon the fertility of the soil and give the best market re turn; to produce and save for use as nearly everything that the family consumes during the entire year as possible; and to give such forest lands as they own the care that will make them profitable in the highest degree. This part of the program will demand the services of welt trained and specifically trained County Farm Agents and Home Demonstration Agents, supplemented by High School Vocational Agricultural work, and Production Club work among the children of the elementary school. This work may not be pos sible, in certain cases, unless some private agency i I I supplements available public funds; but it would be difficult to think of a form of service that persons of means and public spirit could find that would be of greater value to society. In order to meet the cultural needs of the children of the better mountain regions much more must be done than just to increase the length of the school term, improve buildings, pro vide better teachers, and supply more adequate i teaching equipment. There must be a radical enlargement of the function of the elementary and high schools that serve rural communities. This enlargement must take place along three definite lines. The first of these is the development of Nature instruction in the elementary school and Science instruction in the high school to the point where they will give an appreciative understanding of the rich natural environment of the farm child such as will make this environment a constant source of joy and enrichment of life to those who remain as rural citizens. Rural schools have been, and are, pitifully negligent of this phase of instruction, and to this neglect may be attributed much of the dislike on the part of rural youth for the farm and farm life. This is not an easy matter to correct, for in most cases it will have to start with the training of teachers in teachers colleges, and, wherever possible, with the employment of supervisors thoroughly prepared to make the instruction in this field vital and effective. The children who should succeed their parents as makers of home and community life may need something to attract them to life in the home community other than the relatively meager returns from farm labor. They should not remain on the farm because of inertia, for the inert person is functionless as a community influence. But the really effective rural school will so develop the appreciation of the child for Page 4 MOUN'T'AIN LIFE' AND WORK the nature environment of farm life that he will be led to remain a worker of the soil because of a genuine love for everything that grows from it or lives above it. The second change to be made in the rural school, in order that it may more fully meet the needs of its constituency is the introduction of constructive arts into the curriculum. Since the rural home of the mountains must be, in large measure, independent of standardized factory products for its necessities, comforts, and luxuries, each member should be skilled in some form of hand production and take pleasure and pride in the skill. Carpentry, home decorative arts, drawing, modeling, sewing, cooking, nursing, each should have a place in the rural school system. Here, again, as in Nature instruction, teachers of a superior training must be provided, with some amount at least of skilled supervision. The third change in the work of the schools is in the development of permanent interests in literature and music. The schools today teach children how to read but in the vast majority of cases they do not develop a reading interest such as will make of them permanent and profitable readers. The best of reading matter can be obtained at small cost today, in book form, or in worthwhile periodicals. A very small annual investment in reading matter will supply a family, and this may be decreased by community exchange of books and magazines. City children will not suffer so seriously from poor teaching in this field, because of the multitude of activities that go on about them, but the quiet life of the country home is ideal for the enjoyment of literature in the widest sense of the word as including fiction, poetry, history, biography, science and every field of human experience. Music, the literature of rhythm, melody, and harmony, is almost wholly neglected in rural schools, the one place in our educational system where it should be taught most effectively. In this age of wonders, when the phonograph and radio stand ready to bring the world's best music ~nto every schoolroom and to every fireside, farm life should not be left unblessed by it for the want of teachers who can instruct the children. The story of the FolkSchools of Denmark is eloquent proof of the value of literature and music, for it was by them, literally, that new hope and faith, national solidarity, January, 1933 and a wonderful rural prosperity were brought to the little kingdom of the north. This program, of course, will be expensive, but whatever is invested in it will be in the nature of a "self-liquidating debt." The contentment, the outlook on life, the feeling of self-respect, the sense of equality with the best of people in any section, that would come from the type of education suggested would react in an economic way that would abolish "pauperism" and establish bank accounts. The home, the school, and the church stand in Christian civilization as the triumvirate of power in the building of a worthy citizenship. The rural church is weak because it is divided. Cities may with entire propriety have many denominations within their boundary. There are enough people, and to spare, so that each may draw its own group together without harm to others. But this is not true in a rural community. Often an area that is served effectively by a single consolidated school has within it five or six churches. Infrequent services, poor equipment, and inferior quality of ministry, weak Sunday schools and young people's organizations, inevitably result. It would seem that but one method of procedure can correct this condition. The territory must be divided between denominations by agreement so that there shall not be duplication, waste and inefficiency. This, of course, is a stupendous problem. Prejudices in religion are deep-seated and tenaciously held. Tact, wisdom, cooperation, the real spirit of Jesus, are necessary to solve this problem. But religion is necessary, and what must be done can be done. The leaders of our great denominations must be brought to see this need. They must realize that the finest human ability is in danger of going into the world of social activity without the balancing power of a genuine Christianity, if the rural church is not restored to power in the rural community. The problems that have been stated above, and the methods of solution suggested, demand wisdom, faith, money, and cooperation. The persons, organizations, and institutions that have been working for the betterment of the Southern Mountain people for generations can provide all of these. From the largest college to the smallest community school help can come. From public January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LINE AND WORK Page S resources, supporting public schools and other educative agencies, is coming great help. What is needed is a clear conception of the problems and the steps to be taken in their solution. It should be kept in mind that some in this great Highland region are able to care for themselves. Others are so stranded in unfavorable situations that permanent improvement can only come through securing their removal from inhospitable surroundings. A large number, those considered in this article, are strong and capable but not able to solve their problems alone. They should remain where they are, and the best blood of the next generation should take the places left vacant as this generation passes on. With this type of mountain population is the great opportunity for service. To these we owe the greatest debt. May it be paid in full. Child Health In Mining Camp And Village Iva M. Miller In April of this year the Save the Children Fund of America asked me to make a survey of the situation as regards children's health in Harlan County, Kentucky, one of the most populous of the Southern Appalachian coal mining counties, where unemployment has rendered a difficult hygienic and sanitary situation even more difficult. To study the problem of children's health meant that a general survey of the whole community's health and environment should be made. Beginning with reports of the Census Bureau and the State Board of Health, and aided by the various physicians in the county, city and county officials, educators, missionaries, pastors, business men, the State Health Officer and his colleagues, and the Harlan County Save the Children Fund Committee, with Rev. C. 1u. Vogel, pastor of the Harlan Methodist Church, as Chairman, I proceeded to study Harlan County Among the significant facts which I discovered was this hint of the development of Harlan's coal mining activities, as seen in the growth of the county's population: Census 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 Population 6,197 9,838 10,566 31,546 64,557 The increase of 198 per cent in population between 1910 and 1920 is an index of the amazing -and as we see it now, the appalling-inflation of the coal industry during the World War. Some of the horde of new miners came from outside, but many came from neighboring mountain counties. During the next ten years the population more than doubled again, partly due to incoming migration, but also in considerable degree to the high birth rate, which in 1931 was reduced to a few points above that of the state of Kentucky as a whole. The rapid increase of population greatly complicated the problems of sanitation and health. When a community thus greatly enlarged was stricken by a decline in the prosperity of the coal industry, throwing thousands of men out of work, and necessarily making the living conditions of their families worse, the results were disastrous. The preponderance of mine employees in the county is shown by the population distribution in 1930, which is given as, urban 6,596; farm 4,623; and rural non-farm, mostly miners and their families in small camps, 52,968. In every community, it is possible to obtain a few relevant facts which are indices of the health of the community. Among these is the rate of infant mortality. If this is higher than that of an adjacent community or state, one or more of several facts may bear part of the responsibility; either the drinking water is unsafe, sewage disposal is unsatisfactory, grade A milk is not available, or the child's food is not being selected, prepared or administered according to the best ideas of hygiene and sanitation. The water supply of the city of Harlan was found to be excellent, but that of the rest of the county more or less questionable; mostly wells and springs, and except in a few mining camps, uncontrolled. The county, like many another in Page 6 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 the United States, discharges its sewage into the natural streams, all of which are therefore more or less polluted. Two large mining towns have modern plants; but many others are not so happy. On the positive side, I found the County Medical Society, with fifty members, a strong influence for health. The physicians of the county are unusually well trained, and some are especially skilled in surgery. Their monthly meetings are well attended, and the programs presented are of a type which few county societies in America can surpass in quality. My report and recommendations-considerably more searching and voluminous than these few hints indicate-seemed to win the full approval of the State Board of Health and the organization which sent me to Kentucky. Realizing that bad health in the majority of cases results not from accident but from negligence or lack of knowledge how to use the means we have for good health, the Save the Children Fund decided to place a Child Health Demonstration in Harlan County, and asked me to serve as its Director. Miss Florence Dunkelberger was engaged as Public Health Nurse, and Mr. W. S. Johnson as Sanitary Inspectorboth experienced workers in Kentucky. The work was begun in August. Outside of the city of Harlan, eight Child Health Centers for demonstration work were o p e n e d-i n churches at Evarts, Cumberland, Black Mountain, Benito, Wallins Creek, Alva, Loyall, and Sunshine. Around these Centers, committees of local women under Miss Dunkelberger's direction made contact with most of the mothers in the community and took a census of the children under six years of age. Periodically every four to six weeks these centers are opened for conferences to examine children and to instruct the mothers. Just prior to the conference, a post card is mailed to each mother, suggesting that she bring Johnny and Mary and Susan and perhaps Ann to the church on the appointed day. And when fifty or seventyfive mothers show up, with from one to three or four children apiece, it means a busy day for the staff, even when, as in several cases, local physicians have generously aided the Director in giving the health examinations. Attitudes as well as numbers make conference days difficult. The greatest stumbling block to progress is fear-fear not primarily in the mind of the child, but in the mind of the parent, from whom it is communicated to the child. The babies who have barely reached the point of elementary thinking have imbibed this traditional fear of doctors, and evidently suspect that the examination is going to be some sort of fearful ordeal. The result is that many of them yell, squirm and kick like mule colts, and doctor and nurse get pretty well pommeled before the seance is over. But when they grow a little older, the behavior of some of them is in striking contrast. There was Mary lean, for example, a modest child whose THESE CHILDREN GET ONLY BUTTERMILK TO DRINK most serious objection to the examination was that she had to be stripped of her clothes. She was greatly relieved to have the "angels' wings" to cover her. It required no great while to discover that she was almost a perfect specimen physically, and so presently I said, "All right, Mary jean; you may go now." She looked up in surprise. "Why, Mamma," she expostulated, "you said the doctor was going to 'Zamlne me." She, too, had evidently expected some sort of surgical operation, and was really disappointed to find that it was not as thrilling as she had hoped. As an indication of the unfavorable conditions which we found among the first 400 children, all of pre-school age, which we examined, I may mention that we discovered that 93 per cent of January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 7 them needed immunization against smallpox, 90 per cent needed such protection against diphtheria, 84 per cent needed cod liver oil, 68 per cent were receiving less than their necessary quota of milk, 37 per cent needed treatment for worms, not to mention several other items. For those requiring cod liver oil-not a medicine for tubercular cases only, but a necessary food for a child from birth until he is six years of age save during the summer when he can take sun baths-we gave to such parents as were unable to purchase it, sample bottles to last until our supply should arrive. A few days ago two tins of five gallons each came to Harlan as a gift for use among our neediest. A generous druggist is having it bottled for us and will aid in distributing it among those who can come to Harlan. The mothers are instructed as to health care and habits of the children, and those youngsters having physical defects are referred to their family physicians for correction. As soon as all physical corrections are made and the diet and health habits adjusted, so that they have no health liabilities, only health assets, these boys and girls whom we have examined are written off as Blue Ribbon children. They do not come to the conferences again save to be checked up before being reported. In this way we eliminate numbers. When all become Blue Ribboners, our work will be completed-or rather, it would be, save that new births will extend it a while longer. Now that the mothers are learning the nature of our work, they are responding more heartily to the calls. Some bring boys and girls well along in their teens and beg to have them examined. Some bring children already ill, or ask me to come to see them. In one camp I was called out twice by a heart-broken couple to see a dying child, the overworked camp doctor being busy at the time with another child in a serious condition. One child found dying was the third in the family to pass away, a hint that one mother was ignorant of the simplest rules of child care. One thought on which we are hammering, and which, if we put it over, will be one of the best effects of our work, is that of the value of the careful, unhurried examination made by the public health doctor when the child is apparently SUBSISTENCE GARDENING IN OUR MINING CAMPS Page 8 MouN raiN LIFE AND WORK January, 193 3 well, in contrast to the panicky, hurried and difficult examination of a child who has shown warning signs of illness for days and perhaps weeks. Milk is a commodity which cannot be obtained in sufficient quantities in Harlan County. In 1920 the county had no dairies at all. This year there were twenty-four, owning some 500 cows, while 3,500 more cows are privately owned. But still the milk supply is far below what is needed. There are 12,000 children under six years of age in the county and 23,000 under twenty-one, that is, still in the growing period. To supply adults with their needed one pint a day and each child with a quart would require some 50,000 quartsand the supply is fully 30,000 quarts short of that. It is therefore planned to introduce milk goats into the mountain regions to supply families where there are small schildren. It is planned to loan one or more goats to a family until the members are financially able to take them as their own. A good milk goat should produce one gallon per day. Goat milk is rich in iron and some salts not found in cow's milk, and the cost of keeping a goat is very little, even in winter. It is hoped that a goat farm may soon be started at one of the settlement schools in the mountains where goats will be bred to supply the needs in several counties. Mr. Johnson, our sanitary inspector, has been an assiduous worker in inspecting dairies, wells and springs, food shops and public and private sewage disposal plants. More than 300 samples of water have been analyzed; and when one is reported as polluted, the sanitary inspector chlorinates the source of supply and instructs the owner to con tinue the process if he wishes to preserve the health of his family. Mr. Johnson has aided, instructed, and encouraged the dairymen in the county until now one-third of them are producing grade A milk and the others are striving to reach that standard. The improvement in the milk supply has been as great in four months as might ordinarily be expected in three years. The sewage disposal problem is now under attack. In three camps the sanitary inspector is supervising the building of some three hundred sanitary toilets to replace the insanitary ones long in use. The Harlan Relief Association supplies the free labor for this work. In sanitation, we do not work "from the ground up," but begin below the ground and work upward. Here in the mountains we are working among a people who have always been noted for their pride and self-reliance, who still shrink from the thought of charity or outside aid. But in this muddled economic situation of ours, when mankind seems to have lost its grasp on the machinery of civilization, about nine-tenths of us are in more or less straitened circumstances. When even great nations are defaulting in their debts, the times have eidently become so starkly strenuous that no invi dividual, no community, need be ashamed of receiving help; nay, we must even pocket our pride and ask for it. It is hoped that those who have more than they need may be willing to share with these children and grandchildren of our early pioneers, and have a part in the "Save the Children" campaign now being carried on in Harlan County. January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LtrL AND WORK Page 9 THE LOWER STANDARD Warren H. One of the embarrassments of this year is the change from a so-called high standard of living. The ordinary salaried person or wage-earner has had indoor water-supply for his wife, a motor car for himself, and high school for his children. These were luxuries such as his father would not have dreamed of possessing. To the son of that father, they are necessities, more important for him to possess, and for his family to enjoy, than religion. He would not mourn so much the closing of his church as he would mourn the dropping of the high school. He may not have a savings account, but he has had an automobile. He may not have owned his house, but the house he has lived in is provided with modern plumbing. His younger children know no other way of thought and life, and these things appear to him like "standard equipment"; this is the way life ought to be. The students who go to the Appalachian or Cumberland Mountains find it difficult to understand the people there because they do not have these facilities. There is something wrong about them which ought to be altered. One learned professor pondering this matter decided that they should be moved out of some mountain areas by the imperious decree from state or national government. These students cannot see how anyone can live except by this standard of living with which they are obsessed. It would not do to say that they are accustomed to it, because all the elements peculiar to this standard of living have been added to the customary mode of American rural life within twenty years, and these students are some of them as old as forty. But what they have learned to use in the past two decades is more vital to them than the older customs of life which they share with the mountain people. To many of the workers and residents in the mountains there is nothing to be done about mountain life except to alter it. The people who live there must enjoy "progress." The invasion of the mountains by mines, railroad projects, and roadbuilding enterprises was welcomed because they dispensed cash among the people who had lived for generations without it. The result was OF LIVING Wilson seen in the high-heeled shoes, the smart dresses, the imitation Paris hats of the women in the mining towns, and the cheap automobiles acquired by their husbands. I remember seeing my first city in Asia. I had walked through the poorest streets and observed the luxurious ease of the people there, relaxing at the noon hour. When I went back on my ship the Englishman at my table began at once to discuss "these miserable people." I was shocked, because to me their attitude was not that of misery and famine, but of ease and enjoyment of the sun. Their glance at me was not envious, but impatient and a little hostile. Livings as they did on a "low standard," they saw no good in my apparent enjoyment of that "high standard" so necessary to my existence. I have wondered many times since if the corresponding classes in this country are as miserable as they are said to be. I wonder if the rural people are as discontented and rebellious as politicians declare and as school teachers think them to be. My disposition, however, is not to assert that the poorer you are the happier you may be,though a case might be made for that proposition. Jean-Jacques Rousseau pleaded the case of the happy savage, and Fenimore Cooper argued for the noble red man. Their views had an immense influence in the world, but now they are out of date. We would not care to be backwoodsmen except in connection with a summer camp, with good cooking not far away; and we have no illusions about "the simple life." However, we are reopening the convictions we had about the finality of our own standard of living. It has been lacking in many cases; it certainly has not brought contentment. In the roaring days of prosperity, so-called, we had more discontent among country people that we have now. If the letters and the words of country ministers are a measure, then the rural people are now much more content than they were three years ago. They have no money, but they have food. The three factors I have mentioned in the high standard of living have all been questioned, none of them so much as the high school factor. One I'agc 10 MOUNTAIN Lu a AND WORK January, 1933 reads with amusement the questions raised by educators themselves as to the value of high school education. It is not necessary to recite these doubts of theirs. They are interested in learning and in the proper objects of education, and they find the high school deficient. So far as the other two are concerned, ministers are debating the value to them of the automobile. Could there be a more surprising heresy? For five or ten years the automobile has been more necessary than the Bible in many rural parishes, and far more expensive. It seems to me that the mountain people should be studied to see if there is any way of living except by "wants." The schools of home economics weigh everything in the scale of wants. Although they agree that wants are multiplied indefinitely as fast as they are enjoyed, like the contents of Pandora's box which expanded and multiplied in the open air, yet they weigh the good life in terms of wants. Now the people far back in the mountains do not. They weigh the good life in terms of restraints; their life is austere. They are true country people in their obedience to the formula of the Harvard professor, "The good farmer produces much and consumes little." The mountain farmer cannot produce much, but he consumes less. He thinks this the ideal way of life, because it is the necessary way for himself. Could not the students of home economics in the mountains base a standard of living on "necessities" rather than "wants"? Towns are built on consuming goods. Every town and city is a conflagration; values are being burned up, goods are being "destroyed to make pleasure." The business of the town is to make things over into other things that are wanted. Towns are supposed to be luxurious; the people there live on what they could get along without. Life in a town is not supposed to be concerned with necessities so much as with the satisfaction of wants-the wants of the townsmen and of other people. The towns have charity and social welfare and social service, all well organized, because the town people are interested in the wants and the welfare of others. Country people live by production; they have to be careful lest the weather destroy the crop, or the season be unproductive, or the market refuse their products. Thus the tiller of the soil must be cautious and thrifty, and the mountain people on a poor soil have to be more than economical. They have to be meager, and by that curious way in which the mind works they are constrained to believe in their meagerness. Indeed they idealize their parsimony more than townsmen their luxury. It follows that the mountain population increases, while the population of the people in the valleys who live by "the higher standard of living" diminishes. The farm communities on the black land have been losing population for years, but the population of the knobs and the mountains has increased, or only slowly decreased. The goodness of the mountain way of living is seen in the return of so many to mountain homes, from the desolated towns where the depression rules. Contrast these farms with the mining towns in which the unemployed sit idle. One town in Indiana has all the families of a population of 2,000 miners still in the streets, though they have had no work or pay for two years. These people sought the higher standard of living; they have store clothes and no others. They have indoor plumbing. Probably the town has a high school supported by the state. But there is nothing behind it. The areas from which they came in the mountains are getting along on the lower standard without these things, but their necessities are provided by their labor. I think we must study the way of life of those who live by necessity and not by want. Nobody knows what a want is. I admit that it will be equally difficult to define a necessity, but the bare facilities for shelter, warmth, clothing, food, and tolerable health are pretty well known, and the difference between necessities and wants is that necessities do not breed and multiply as wants do. All people on the land who must raise their food live out of their own resources. All my life I have known the people who are able only to marry, to have children, to eat, drink, and be warm. They live a life as happy as the others. They have attained. They are wise. They pray. They understand God. They know the great thoughts; in fact their way of thinking is the more dignified because it concerns itself less with trifles. There is less of disguise and hypocrisy in their life. I think therefore that we should today regard the mountain people with a new respect, because theirs is the true standard of life. It is a standard we can study because it stays. Our education should be scaled to that standard, not because it January, 1933 NIOUN'I'AIN LIFE AND WORK Page 11 is low, and therefore desirable, and certainly not because it is high, but because it is human and real. To preserve it is worth the endeavor of all who love to serve mankind. The real goods of life cannot be bought with money. They can be improved by means of money, but the supreme joys of life that are satisfying are a good meal, a good bed to sleep in, a family to be .supported by and to support, children and parents, friends, barter of goods, and travel. These are the ends of human desire. They are not originally to be bought with money. Some of them have been priced and thereafter the value of them has been quoted only in terms of that price, but their value is beyond price. These things poor people have. They are possessed by peasants and the possession of them makes life to have joy, if its joy is unspoiled by the affronts of those who live the more unsatisfying life where everything is priced. However, the attack upon the life-by-necessities is very powerful and is made by well-paid advocates. Advertising and propaganda heavily subsidized plead for a life in obedience to wants, and discontinuance of a life by which people live by necessities. The economists rationalize this high standard of living, and politicians take for granted that any other living than a satisfying of wants is unendurable. It is a dangerous situation: but the present is a time in which the values of necessity are in evidence and the satisfaction of many wants is for the time impossible. It is a good time, therefore, for the students of mountain work and the friends of mountain people to re-study the situation and see if there is not an order of life in the mountains that should be continued. HELPING THEMSELVES Giles A. Hubert Let me tell a story-a story of inspiration, progress, achievement. In these days of turmoil, uncertainty and desperation it is reassuring, to say the least, to meet with an example of steady, subtantial progress in the ways of life. More than this it is a delightful experience to find the spirit of unselfish cooperation that must underlie community development and sound economic progress. Brasstown, in the hills of the Blue Ridge of western North Carolina, was settled early in the nineteenth century by immigrants from the Yadkin River ' alley. Of Irish and Scotch stock, most of the older families trace themselves back to Pennsylvania. The community, about twelve miles south-east of Murphy, depends entirely upon agriculture for sustenance. Farmers plant a general rotation of corn, wheat, and rye in irregular fields between the hills wherever the soil and topography permit. Land transfers have been scarce and the only papers now existing on many farm holdings are papers of sale from the Indians. But, let us get on with our story. In 1926 the Superintendent of Savings and Loan Associations of the State of North Carolina, Miss Harriet M. Berry, accompanied by other interested persons, visited the Brasstown community and suggested the organization of a credit union in the community. The farmers of Brasstown were told how, by marshalling their small savings and by cooperation, they could provide a source from which deserving farmers who enjoyed the confidence of their neighbors could secure loans for "productive and provident" purposes at reasonable rate of interest. After thinking the matter over the farmers and community leaders felt there was need for such organization. The nearest bank was twelve miles distant and many of the farmers of the community were not able to secure funds needed. The cost of merchant credit was a considerable factor. They had experienced how, through a little cooperation, they had been able to build a rural telephone system (begun in 1925) connecting them with the outside world at little expense. So the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association was organized as provided under the North Carolina Credit Union Law. Page 12 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 Upon receipt of their charter shares were sold, and members as well as non-members were asked to make deposits of their savings with the association. The school, the farmer's organization, the churches and other local organizations gave their support to the new association. A junior department was organized and children were taught habits of saving and valuable lessons in business practice. KEEPING THE BOOKS OF THE ASSOCIATION In the Brasstown Association shares are sold to farmers, junior members, and organizations within a four-mile radius of the Fred O. Scroggs Store. As in other unions shares are of small denominations and subscriptions can be paid for in installments. Deposits are received from members, junior members, and non-members. Clubs and societies leave their surplus funds on deposit with the association. Savings are encouraged and 4 per cent interest is paid on all desposits. Loans are made only to members (the local cooperative creamery and the Brasstown Farmers' Association are members). The policy of the association has been to loan to members for productive purposes and for other purposes thought by the loan committee to be just and good, and when there was no question as to the character and the ability of the borrower and the endorsers. Table 1 shows the purposes for which loans were granted, the amount and average amount granted for each purpose, and the total amount and average size of all loans granted from January 1, 1927 to October 20, 1932. A regular rate of 6 per cent is charged on all loans. At one time a service charge was placed on all loans but this was dispensed with when it became obvious that the need for such had passed. Loans may be renewed, but it is required that a percentage of the loan be paid before the renewal is granted. Table 1--Purposes and amount for each purpose of loans by the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association Purpose I No. ~ Amount .. .. -~- Supplies, Feed & Fertiliser S 8 155.00 Buy cows ------ - --- 4 Building & repairs -9 Buy land -- 3 Creamery (Op. capital) 8 Household equipment -- 2 Education ---2 Hospital bill Total Unlike some of the other unions in the State, the Brasstown association has not been troubled with high seasonality in its loans. This is an important factor if the credit union is to have a heavy demand-deposit business and meet promptly the withdrawals. Table 2 shows the amount of loans made and repaid by months for the period 1927-1931. Table 2-Loans made and loam repaid by months for the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association, 1927-1931 Loans rnade Percent Loans repaid Percent during month _Iduring month _ - yS.00 3.13 $ 135 33 1 6O1 285.00 9.39 135.00 4.45 320.00 10.54 575.00 19.95 185.00 6.10 3 20.00 305.00 175.00 180.00 160.00 SOS.00 90.00 1230.00 R 5.00 2 5.00 S 5.00 34 $2305.00 30.00 40.00 56.11 30.00 153.75 42.50 12.50 55.00 67.79Av. Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total 10.54 10.05 5.77 5.93 300.00 9.88 160.00 5.27 $ 3035.00 100.00 390.00 18.72 20.00 .9G 21.00 ~1.01 200.00 9.60 170.00 8.16 G19.00 ~29.68 52.87 2.54 31.00 ~1.49 57.00 2.73 239.93 11.51 159.10 7.59 8 2083.23 I 100.00 The connection of the savings and loan association with the Mountain Valley Creamery Association is interesting. The creamery is also a cooperative enterprise. Its purpose is not to make profits for its stockholders but to market the products of its farmer members in the form, and at the place, that will bring highest market January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK prices. The Mountain Valley Creamery Association is a member and regular client, borrowing its operating capital from the the credit association. In this way the credit union keeps more than $150 of its funds busy. This service of the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association has been a factor of importance in the success of the creamery. The Brasstown association enjoyed a constant growth deep into the present depression period. The high-point in its business was reached in December 1930. Since then, as a natural result of a decrease in community surplus, deposits and shareholdings have fallen off, and likewise, the loan business of the association. On the other hand the surplus and guaranty fund of the association has increased since that time. This brings out one of the essential characteristics of the credit union organization. There is very little expense connected with its operations. No office building is necessary in small unions, very few fixtures and supplies, and the service of its officers is largely gratuitous. When the Secretary-Treasurer is paid it is generally a small part-time salary. Since profit-making is not an object and service to its members is paramount, a not too grave retrenchment in its operations does not upset the stability of this little Spartan of credit institutions. Lt is the spirit which makes the union. Although the association recently lost $126 left on deposit with a bank that failed, it had reserve funds sufficient to absorb this shock and is now still operating on a firm and stable basis. Another significant fact is that the Brasstown association has operated entirely within its own resources and has refrained from borrowing. Table 3 pictures the progress of the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association. Page 13 Table 3-Shares, deposits loans outstanding and guaranty fund and surplus of the Brasstown Savings and Loan Association, 1927-1932 As of Shares Deposits Loans j Guaranty Fund Dec.31 `Outstanding] and- _Surplus 1927 $ 488.29 $ 173.80 $ 682.60 $ 20.90 1928 682.24 238.31 959.10 55.86 1929 687.37 771.67 1511.10 82.62 1262.27 1986.84 100.48 851.45 1433.54 [ 2t5.36 660.37 1263.72 215.36 1930 I 645.11 1931 532.58 1932" 494.93 r1932 figure for July. Most significant is the part the credit union has played in the general development of the spirit of cooperation and progressiveness within the Brasstown community. Besides its direct services it has been a vital instrument of helpfulness in cooperative marketing and cooperative purchasing as well as other group activities. The following is an interesting chronology of prominent events in the Brasstown version of cooperative progress: 1925-Cooperative Rural Telephone System started 1926-Brasstown Savings and Loan Association organized 1927-Cooperative lime crusher began operating 1929--Cooperative Creamery Association organized This is our story-an inspiration to those communities which, instead of dejectedly waiting for better times and outside paternalism, are interested in helping themselves and thus leading the way to a more satisfying rural life. Page 14 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 ~4B U C K I_ N Cg" A few weeks ago I took an automobile trip through Bell, Harlan, and Perry Counties, Kentucky, and had a glimpse of the mining sections of the state and the homes of the miners. On my return, finding on my table the October issue of Mountain Life and Work, I read with a new understanding the articles by Malcolm Ross and Ruth Louise Parker. Then with my sympathies aroused, I determined to make an effort to bring to pass a dream-a day dream, fabricated from scientific information, years of experience, and a love for the mountains and the mountain people. So in a few hours I wrote several letters, one of which resulted in the request for this article. What was the dream? As we sped through mining towns, past mines, tipples, and coal cars, my eyes saw not only the signs of the industrial invasion of the mountains with its present sordid poverty, but also the glorious beauty of the mountains above. I knew of the suffering in many of the homes-children without sufficient clothes or food, especially milk. Then, aided by imagination, I saw on the mountain slopes and in the abandoned fields herds of beautiful deerlike goats feeding on the sassafras sprouts and underbrush, turning waste into milk for the starving children. I could hear the tinkle of little bells as the goats zig-zagged down the hills at milking time, each goat going to a miner's cottage to receive a handful of grain in exchange for a quart or more of milk. I saw the milk goat of Switzerland transplanted into the highlands of Kentucky and the South. I am fully cognizant of the fact that there are many obstacles-chiefly prejudices-to be overcome before this dream can come true. My friends have kindly suggested them to me when I have dared to become enthusiastic. (1) "Would folks want to have them around, let alone drink their milk?" (2) "Doesn't the milk have a strong taste?" (3) "Can a person really drink it?" (4) "Will goats live on tin cans?" (5) "Don't all goats have an unpleasant ordor?" (6) "Do they give enough milk to pay for their keep?" (7) "Can they be kept in by ordinary fencing?" And so forth. THE DEPRESSION Luther M. Ambrose My hope in writing this article is to answer these and other questions and to present the cause of the milk goat so that others who are in closer touch with the industrial centers of our mountains may join in the campaign to introduce this new source of food. Why do I believe in goats? First, I was convinced by a study of the chemical analysis of goat milk as compared with other milks that it contained more minerals and more nearly approached the composition of mother's milk-and should therefore be better for babies. I learned that a large maternity hospital in New York paid as Courtesy of The Goat World A TOGGE NBURG high as one dollar a quart for goat milk to feed the babies. Then I saw a statement that due to the smaller fat globules in goat milk it was more e'ly digested than cow's milk. I looked at the asi I two under the microscope and it was so. I had an invalid mother and I wanted her to live. I had a baby girl and I wanted her to grow. I bought a goat. That was eight years ago, and, except for a few weeks, I have never been without goat milk since. The goat was one of the first animals domesticated by man. It was used for its skin, its meat, and its milk before the dawn of written history. Mention of the goat and its importance is found in the earliest writings of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Bible makes repeated references to the use of goats for milk, for meat, and for sacrifice. Jacob, when he wished to deceive his old father, knew how easily Isaac would mistake the meat January, 1933 MOUNTAIN Lira AND WORK Page 15 of a kid for venison. Goat milk was considered of high value by the writer of Proverbs XXVII: "Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flock, And look well to thy herds! For riches are not forever; And doth the crown endure to all generations? The hay is carried and the tender grass showeth itself, And the herbs of the mountains are gathered in. The lambs are for thy clothing, And the goats are the price of the field; And there will be goats' milk enough for thy food and for the food of thy household; And maintenance for thy maidens." Goats are used most extensively at the two extreme stages of agricultural progress, the primitive nomadic stage and the final, crowded, intensive stage. Goats fit into the range-feeding, unsettled type of agriculture such as is found in the desert borders of Africa, Arabia, and Persia. They also are Courtesy of The Goat World A SAANFN well adapted to secure a living from land too rough and steep to support the heavier milk animals. Such conditions exist in Switzerland, in the German, French, and Italian Alps, in the Himalayan Mountains of Asia, also in Spain. The adaptability of the goat to the later crowded period of civilization accounts for its popularity in the rest of Europe. Being small and clean, goats can be kept in a small back yard or tethered out along the roadside and with a minimum of attention will supply a surprising quantity of milk. It is the middie stage of agricultural development in which the goat cannot compete well with the cow as a milk producer. In this stage there is abundant rich farm land to supply pasture and feed for the larger animal. The cow producing the larger quantity of milk also makes the production of mill: in commercial quantities more attractive. The early settlers in this country brought goats with them. Goats were included in the shipments of animals brought over by Captain John Smith and Lord Delaware. In 1620 there was recorded a contract for the shipment of 400 choice milk goats from Wales to Virginia. With this auspicious beginning the milk goat might have had a different history in the United States had not agricultural conditions cast themselves in such a large-scale mold, but the settlers found the conditions favorable for the dairy cow, and, as a result, the milk goat practically disappeared in America except for the few of inferior breeding owned by the Irish and Southern European immigrants of the poorer classes in the back alleys and slums of our industrial cities. These goats had to seek out a precarious existence from garbage cans, weeds, and dump piles; and so the tin can myth developed. The goat became an object of scorn and derision. In Mexico and Southwestern United States the goat had a different history. The early Spanish explorers and settlers brought with them into the new world their little friend the milk goatfor then, as now, goats supplied most of the milk in Spain. In the new desert country the goat was Courtesy of The Goat World GOAT 'MILKING BFNCri Page 16 MOUNTAIN LIFT. AND WORK January, 1933 at home, and soon great herds of goats developed. They were not improved by selection, but deteriorated on the range; so they became of little value except for meat and hides. However they did serve later as a foundation for breeding up a supply of good milk goats by using imported milk-goat bucks. Thirty years or more ago some of the tural leaders of our country saw that in Courtesy of The Goat World A NUBIAN agriculparts of our country conditions were developing similar to those in Europe under which the dairy goat became the superior of the dairy cow. Under these crowded conditions the well-bred goat proves her worth by producing milk at a smaller cost per gallon than the cow, and being a smaller unit she fits better into the family economy. Since 1898 the Department of Agriculture has been spreading information about milk goats, encouraging importations of new blood from Switzerland, and actually conducting breeding experiments with goats to show the possibilities of producing heavy milkers by selective breeding and the use of pure-bred sires. During the last thirty years this new type goat has won many friends. Four or five pure breeds subject to register in the United States have been developed, and these are as distinct in marking and characteristics as are the jerseys, Holsteins, Ayrshires, and Guernseys among the dairy cattle. The Saanens and Toggenburgs came from the valleys of Switzerland bearing those names. The Alpines came from the French Alps and the Nubians were developed in England from the native goats of the island and imported goats from North Africa. There have been few importations in recent years. The Saancns are largest of the Swiss breeds, the mature doe weighting a hundred and thirty-five pounds or more. They are pure white and usually hornless. They arc the heaviest milkers, and, as one would expect, average less in butter fat. They are hardy, well adapted to any climate, and do equally well on range or as a stall-fed animal with a small run. A Saanen, Panama Louise, gave more than twenty pounds of milk in one day, almost two and one-half gallons. The Toggenburgs are the smallest of the Swiss goats, mature does weighing from a hundred to a hundred and twentyfive pounds. They arc the most numerous in this country and are very popular. They are brown in color, ranging from light fawn to a dark chocolate, with a light stripe down each side of the face. The legs are white from knees and hocks to hoofs and they have a triangle of white on either side of the tail. Their bearing is alert and graceful, reminding one of the wild deer. They are heavy milkers, one of the breed holding a record of 4,250 pounds of milk and 138.56 pounds of butter fat in twelve months. This is an average of five quarts a day for the year, better than the average production for cows in Kentucky. The Alpine is the newest of the breeds in America but the oldest and largest breed in Europe. It Courtesy of The Goat World AN ALPINE is a native of the highest Alps and because of its d being ors and range among the cliffs and crags it escaped driven down by the soldiers in Europe's w has thus maintained its purity as a breed. The mature doe weighs from a hundred and fifty-four to a hundred and ninety-eight pounds. The color is variable and multiple-American breeders have shown some preference for the Cou Blanc or white neck variety. Mrs. Mary E. Rock has January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 17 developed in California a strain known as the "Rock Alpine" which has been admitted for registry as a pure breed. Alpines seem to offer great promise as a dairy goat adapted to our conditions. The Anglo-Nubian or Nubian breed was developed in England by crossing bucks of Egyptian or Indian origin (source not certain) upon the common short-haired goat of England. The breed is now well established and characteristics quite definite. They are large rangy goats with short sleek hair, rich black and tan or red or spotted in color, and have long drooping ears. Their milk tests highest of the breeds in butter fat. The rapid increase in popularity of goat milk in the United States has come about because of feeding babies on goat milk in the Florence Crittendon Home. He also speaks of their economical production of milk.', The reasons for the popularity among the medical profession are these. The goat is a very healthy domestic animal, practically immune to tuberculosis. Babies have been found to make better growth on goat milk than on any other food except their mother's milk. Invalids suffering from digestive disturbances and even stomach ulcers have been able to digest goat milk and regain normal health. The analysis of the milk reveals the reason for these remarkable results. The fat globules of goat milk are much smaller than those in cow's milk and remain emulsified much longer; in fact the cream does not rise on Courtesy of The Goat World HEAVY PRODUCING the recognition of its healthful qualities. The largest users are hospitals and children's homes, and thousands of patients who are using it on prescription of their physicians. In the October issue of the Dairy Goat Journal I note that the North Dakota Tubercular Sanitorium keeps thirty-six goats and at present is getting thirtyfour gallons of milk per day. In the November issue of The Goat World it is stated that Dr. P. B. Brockway, of Toledo, Ohio, has just bought twenty goats to supply milk for the Lucas County Children's Home. In the June issue of The Goat World Dr. Dandridge P. West, of Norfolk, Virginia, tells of the excellent results obtained in MILK GOATS goat milk nearly so quickly as on cow's milk. The curd which is formed in the stomach is soft and flocculent, never tough and rubbery. Also the mineral content is higher than in any other commonly used milk. Goat milk is white and the cream is white. The taste is smooth and rich but nine people out of ten never notice that it is not cow's milk-I have served it to many of my friends who liked it without knowing it was goat milk. The milk doe does not have as much odor as a milk cow. The buck has a disagreeable odor during the breed "'A limited number of reprints of this article arc available free from MOUNTAIN LIF1: AND WORK. MOUNTAIN LIFE ing season only and should be kept at some distance from the milk does except when actually breeding. Goats thrive best under kind treatment. They are very sensitive and intelligent. 'they are the cleanest of our domesticated animals. They refuse dirty food, preferring leaves anti twigs to grass. Their droppings are hard and round like those of a sheep and therefore do not soil their hair. The gestation period is five months. Does are usually bred from August to February and freshen from January to July, averaging two kids. They do well in herds on open range or large fields, and thrive equally well in a back lot if fed properly or tethered out on the lawn or along the roadside. A quart of milk a day will pay for keep; two quarts a day is more common than one or four. As with other stock, the better producers cost more to begin with but produce more economically. 1 am interested in introducing goats into the mining camps because I know that they can be kept under the conditions extant there, either as a dry-lot, dry-feed animal, or as a range goat browsing on the hills and fed just enough dry feed to insure their coming home at night. The conditions are ideal. But someone in each community must become sold on the idea and begin the breeding of dairy goats, someone with land and an interest in seeing good milk stock introduced. It is not necessary to begin with expensive registered animals, which would probably be beyond the means of the people who need the milk. AND WORK January, 19 3 3 There are fortunately many high producing grade goats. These goats have been obtained by crossing pure bred bucks of the various milk breeds upon the common does and by selecting those which showed the characteristics of heavy milk production. Such animals may be bought now at prices so low that the milk they produce in two or three months would pay for them. One of the surest and quickest methods of securing an adequate supply of milk goats for a given community, at the same time getting the people accustomed to them, would be for some farmer who has a field which needs to be cleaned of sprouts and bushes to buy a herd of grade does and place with them bucks from a good dairy breed. Within two years the herd should more than double in number and produce a high percentage of good milkers. The buck kids could be used for meat, called chevon. The herd would pay for itself in clearing land, for they prefer blackberry briars and sassafras to clover and bluegrass. Many of the doe kids after the second year would be profitable to introduce into homes as milk producers. By selection and breeding the brush eaters could come to do double duty-clear the land and produce milk. The milk goat is adapted to mountain range conditions and also to crowded industrial conditions. When we find these two conditions combined as they are in our mining regions, the milk goat should certainly make friends, produce milk and meat, and improve the living conditions for those who are now in great need. January, 1933 MOUNTAIN Lit E: AND WORK Page 19 S U M M A R Y Virginia Casey I have had time To grow from gangling girl Who pried and found A way through Nature's puzzles Into a woman. "Pretty like," they said; "Though some'at slim, Yet soft and pleasin'." Time enough I've had To love a man and wed him, Cherish him for sixty years, With faith unswerved-rewarded; . . . . . . And time To see him buried, To see the gash his grave made smoothed by grasses. I have had time To bear eight sons, Clothe them, feed then, love them; And send them out to distant parts, Not fearless wholly-but brave with hope. 1 have had time To kindle fires and cover ashes; Time to hate and hunger, Dance and dream; Time to walk where tall corn grows, Time to look up at steady stars And down at passing waters. I have had time To sit quiet before the fire And gather my life about me, Time to look over my life And say to myself, "It is good." I have had time-enough. Page 20 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 THE gROW7H OF A MOUNTAIN SCHOOL Helen W. Lund On the day after Christmas, 1909, the Rev. William A. Worthington and his bride drove over the rough trail across Laurel Fork in Jackson County, past Pine Flats, to the shores of Pond Creek, where the Women's Board of Domestic Missions of the Reformed Church in America had purchased a seventy-five-acre worn-out farm. The farm, one of the oldest on Pond Creek, was in OUR MOUNTAIN YOUNG PEOPLE sedge grass. In a log house, Mr. and Mrs. Worthington set up housekeeping, stabling faithful Bess in the barn in the rear of the house. The house, partly of logs and partly frame, stood near the roadway; and the open well, the only water supply, was within ten feet of the road. For two years, Mr. and Mrs. Worthington made their home in this cabin, gradually working their way into the lives and hearts of the mountain people, proving to them by daily contacts their kindly intentions, strengthening friendships, assisting those in trouble, advising those who sought help. Lincoln Hall, the first school building of Annville Institute, was built. The scholastic standards of this sixth grade school with an enrollment of fifty pupils were higher than those in the district schools, and the Institute became known as "the college." Thus began the work in Annville, Kentucky. How different is the Annville Institute of today! Here stands Lincoln Hall surrounded by three dormitories, an Executive Building, Hospital, Tanis Chapel, Teachers' Cottage, the Manse, the Community Hall, and the barn. Each building is lighted by electricity, and has running water and modern plumbing. Lights across the campus and on the village street are a silent testimony to the efficiency of Mr. Worthington, who saw the pos sibility of using the power generated by the engine as it pumped the water from the dam to the reservoir on the highest hill. By 1920 Annville Institute had the standing of a junior high school, and today, with the last two years of high school added, it is accredited by the State University and other colleges. The enrollment is about 300. Twenty years ago the original plan to place an industrial school at Annville was changed, as the great need for more intelligent and bettertrained teachers in the county was realized. Now with two-thirds of the teachers in the county trained in Ann,~ille Institute, the original plan of industrial work has been resumed. Domestic science and manual training departments have been included in the curriculum. Nursing, with practical experience in the clinic and school hospital, has been given a place in the schedule. Carpentry, farming, printing and weaving have become subjects of study. The changed schedule allows students practically to earn their way in the departments of vocational training. The influence of the Annville Institute farm in growing alfalfa, sweet clover, lespedeza, soy beans, REVIVING AN OLD HANDICRAFT-WEAVING January, 1933 MOUNTAIN Liar AND WORK Page 21 and other legumes for the improvement of the soil is being felt in the surrounding country. harms utterly worn out are being re-conditioned. The fine herd of registered Jersey and Guernsey cattle has developed a more productive family cow gradually replacing the scrub cattle. ANNVILLI: BASEBALL TEAM The erection of a simple covered basketball court has opened a new world to the students and the people of the community and has developed a new feeling of local pride in the Institute. The athletic director, a former graduate, believes that "there is much greater possibility for effective and permanent character development A-WISHIN' Beulah Allyne Bell Take a heart is kinda warm, Springy-like an' mellaLove comes in too easy, seems, Comes an' hurts a fella. Wisht I had a heart a stone Wouldn't feel things so, When love comes in an' sets awhile, 'N says it has t'go. in the trying moments of a closely contested game than in the passive atmosphere of the classroom. Obedience to the rules in athletic contests and proper regard for the opponent make for respect for the rules governing the game of life and for more sympathetic consideration of others." In the early days of Annville Institute, when a student graduated he had been trained in the fundamentals of educationgeography, history and the three R's. Now the students not only learn all these studies thoroughly, but the girls have learned homemaking in all its branches-sewing, cooking, laundering, nursing. The boys are taking back to their farms in the hills new knowledge of the cultivation of the soil, rotation of crops, breeding of cattle, carpentry, sanitation, road building. Graduates are establishing homes where the standard of living will be higher than before and the farms more profitable; as teachers they are passing on their knowledge to the children in the isolated mountain villages. But above all, as Christians they are showing that the religion of Jesus Christ is an active force toward clean living and high thinking. "Man," said Marcus Aurelius, "must be arched and buttressed from within, else the temple wavers to the dust." Page 22 MouN CAIN Lii V AND WORK ,January, 1933 Continuous Grazing on annual 'Pastures Olive D. Many of the readers of Mountain Life and Work will recognize Hugh MacRae as a North Carolinian deeply concerned over the agricultural development of the South, lowland and highland, and the founder of several foreign-born colonies on coastal lands near his home in Wilmington. Among his many activities he is Chairman of the Southeastern Council, which is a fusion of the Southeastern Committee on Rural Settlement and Farm Rehabilitation and the Southeastern Economic Council. We at the John C. Campbell Folk School are proud to claim Mr. MacRae on our Advisory Committee. I myself, however, was surprised to find that he had been carrying on for some years an important experiment in continuous grazing on annual pastures at his own farm, Invershiel, in Pender County, North Carolina. We drove down to visit him last spring. I shall never forget our feeling of profound discouragement as we left behind the beauty of the mountains and the prosperity of the Piedmont, and passed through those stark, cut-over, swampy lands of the southeastern corner of our state. What hope was there? What could Mr. MacRae show us? Then we turned through a heavily-wooded lane and came to a stop at the Invershiel farmhouse. Before us, enclosed by a wide circle of hugÃ‚Â°_ willow-oaks, lay level fields of tall grain and vetch, acre on acre, almost ready for the harp est. The rich tranquillity and beauty of the scene were heightened by a herd of over a hundred Guernseys which were taking their leisurely way toward the milking barn. The picture was unbelievable, unforgettable. Yet, a few years ago, this farm was a worn-out plantation like those which still border on it. One had only to step through the hedge of trees to see the old hopeless desolation. Our enthusiasm resulted in Mr. MacRae's receiving shortly six other visitors, four men from Brasstown, Georg Bidstrup, Quay Ketner, Fred O. Scroggs, and J. O. Penland, and two from Gatlinburg, O. J. Mattil, and Don Smith. The harvest had been gathered, but they arrived in season to find the cows grazing almost hidden in fields of Campbell Biloxi soy beans; Sudan grass furnished the night pasture. Examining and questioning critically, they returned convinced that much of Mr. MacRae's program could be worked out to our great advantage here in our mountain section, even under the different conditions existing. This belief justifies the printing in full of Mr. MacRae's address to the North Carolina Dairyman's Association last spring. Much of the subject matter is technical, but it is hard to do justice to his plan without printing it all. "Mr. Chairman, members of the North Carolina Dairyman's .Association: "I am glad to be with you today and feel complimented by Mr. Arey's invitation to speak to you on the subject of Continuous Grazing on Annual Pastures, a method of feeding dairy cattle which has been practiced in the course of development at Invershiel for several years, and for the past two years has been used as a substitute for the practice of feeding hay, ensilage, and grain in connection with permanent pastures. "The plan of making use of a succession of annual pastures to provide twelve month's grazing has proven to be an economical method of feeding dairy cows. This I am ready to stand back of as `an open gateway to prosperity.' "It is a slow process changing the agricultural system of a country, and there have been serious handicaps to the introduction of animal husbandry in the Southeastern States. Those who have been pioneers in dairying have had to meet many obstacles, but with the help of the Exten1ion Service and the agricultural colleges, splendid progress has been made. "Suddenly, however, we are confronted with a new set of conditions due to the economic crisis which has affected all industries, including agriculture, and has reduced the purchasing power of the entire population of the country and consequently the prices of farm commodities. "The dairy farmer is faced with market conditions which in many sections will not permit him to get back his feed costs from the sale of his milk. It will require the use of the best discoverable ,lanuary, 1933 N2uuN rwIN Lie AND WORK Page 23 methods in order to secure a reasonable wage return above the cost of feeding. "The diary farmer of North Carolina and the Southeast finds his difficulty increased by the fact that the large dairy corporations and manufacturers of milk products can obtain these products at surplus prices from the Middle West and deliver them to all points in the South at or below the present cost of production under the usual dairy practicc. "We must successfully meet the efficient methods of these large corporations, and to do this we must realize: "1. That the low cost of producing milk in the western states is made possible by a farm and dairy practice adapted particularly to that region; "2. That there is room for improvement in southern methods if full advantage is taken of climatic and soil conditions. "In giving consideration to item Number 1, we are safe in reaching the conclusion that the South can not compete with the Middle West if we are to follow their farm and dairy practice, if we play the game under their rules, and thereby fail to take advantage of our distinctly superior conditions. "The Middle West is handicapped by short growing seasons in the summer and long and severe winters. Due to these facts they must feed dairy cows from eight to ten months in the year on ensilage and hay, supplemented with grainthe grain being necessary in order to keep up the vitality of the cows. "Throughout most of North Carolina and the states further south, because of open winters, it is unnecessary to keep dairy cows in a close barn from six to eight months in the year. The cows keep in better condition when they are much of the time out in the sunshine. It has been scientifically proven that under these conditions they produce milk of decidedly better quality. "The question then-of importance to us is how to take advantage of our natural conditions so that we can produce at a lower cost than can be done in the western states under their method. This question is as important to the farmer who raises beef cattle, hogs, or sheep, as it is to the dairy farmer; and this is emphasized at the present time because it is evident that the South must introduce animal husbandry into its agricultural prac tice if it is to save its economic system and thereby its civilization. "As the results obtained at Invershiel Farm have proven that milk of the best quality can be produced at a lower feed cost by using a system of continuous grazing on annual pastures than can be done by following those methods which are particularly adapted to northern and western farm practice and are used by those who make the Chicago prices for butter fat, I shall refer to these in some detail. "The thought conveyed by the term, `permanent pasture' is a pasture which furnishes a considerable amount of feed, at least for a short period in the summer, during the late spring and early fall months. From experience, however, we know that a drought sometimes threatens loss and even ruin. "The usual permanent pasture can be greatly improved through the use of vetch and sweet clover for the spring and lespedeza for the fall grazing, and under certain favorable conditions and good practice, alfalfa and kudzu prove highly valuable for summer grazing. Most grasses, however, have, as shown by Government research, a period of maximum growth of about sixty days, and when this fact is taken into consideration, with the danger of droughts, we recognize that the usual permanent pasture is a source of uncertainty. "We have found no serious obstacles to the development and adoption, under southern conditions, of a system of continuous grazing on annual pastures. There are an unlimited number of modifications which each farmer can make to fit a plan of this kind to his local conditions. "The system herein recommended, however, has been assembled from many different sources, both in this country and abroad, and has been worked into a successful routine by the process of trial and error. We must realize that although a crop in itself is good, it may be quite undesirable in the system for continuous grazing in a particular locality. The most important features to be considered are: "1-. The proper distribution of labor throughout the year and the elimination of unnecessary work; "2. The reduction of the amount of grain required in feeding; Page 24 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 "3. The continuous use of the land, getting two crops per year and thereby receiving the maximum advantage from our mild, open winters; "4. Providing the cows with a balanced ration every month in the year and allowing them to do the harvesting night and day, except when the weather is severe. "In arriving at this result we have found it desirable to reduce acreages of corn, velvet beans, and other crops which must occupy the land for long periods in order to mature, substituting for these small grain and annual legumes and grasses which mature within six months. This does not apply of course to crops like rye and rape, which make good growth during the warm periods of the winter months. It is desirable to have these carry through until late in the spring. "In opening a gateway to prosperity, the main idea is to use the South's mild winters to good advantage. At the same time, of course, the long growing seasons of spring, summer, and fall should be made full use of. "The exact method now followed at Invershiel, where one hundred and twenty dairy cows are fed, is to sow with a grain drill on or before the first of April, forty acres of Biloxi soy beans, which are ready for grazing on the first of June and carry the cows until the first of August. This acreage is grazed in five-acre fields which are cut off in succession with fences made of two or three strands of smooth wire, the fences being moved by the diary hands when the foliage is eaten from each five acres. "When the soy beans are knee high, five acres will carry one hundred cows for five days. The cows, which are moved in succession to the other fields, may be brought back in twenty days to the first field. As each field may be grazed three times, an acre will furnish the equivalent of three hundred grazing days for one cow. Assuming that the cow gives an average of two gallons of milk, this means six hundred gallons of milk from one acre of land during the summer season. "On the first of June the second tract of forty acres of Biloxi soy beans is planted in twentyfour inch rows. These are ready for grazing by the first of August and will carry the cows until the middle of October. A similar area planted the middle of July to the first of August will be ready for grazing the middle of September and will feed the cows until frost, which is about the middle of November. l "One hundred and twenty acres of beans can be relied on to feed one hundred and twenty cows for a period of six months. In favorable seasons eighty acres will probably be ample. The estimated cost of the beans is $8.50 per acre, but a part of this sum should be credited to the crop for its fertilizing value when the stubble is plowed under. It may be found that the fertilizing value will be equal to the cost of the crop. "The acreage first grazed off is plowed and disked during August so that it can be sown to rye and other small grain with vetch, crimson clover, and rape during September and October in preparation for continuous grazing from the period of first frost and continuing through the winter and spring months. "On other fields not used in the intensive grazing program, we sow wheat, barley, and forage oats with vetch and yellow annual sweet clover. On some of the small grain in spring are sown Korean or Kobe lespedeza. "To supplement the summer grazing on soy beans we sow in May forty acres of Sudan grass, and during the summer make additional plantings, bringing the acreage up to sixty acres. This is divided into four or more fields which are used in rotation for night grazing. Fields of Kobe lespedeza are held in reserve either for grazing or hay. "The secret of success of a winter grazing program for the first year, and until the soil is built up to high productivity, is to use an ample amount of fertilizer, so that the crop will develop a strong root system before cold weather. "It is desirable to sow the crops as early in September as they will be free from danger of the injurious effect of hot rains. "For grazing it is desirable to sow at least twice as much rye per acre as is used when sowing it for grain. "The fall and winter grazing will be dependent largely on rye and rape; but in the spring crimson clover and vetch supply more nutritious food than any other crop except giant Essex rape. During the spring months the acreage required for grazing is less than one-half of that required during the winter, and the crops on the acreage not needed can be used for making hay and grain. January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 25 "Vetch can be useful in three ways-for grazing, for hay, and for seed. "It has been found desirable to plant two kinds of crimson clover. The white variety matures two weeks later than the other, and extends the grazing season at the critical time of the spring. "Rape has a long growing season, and will carry the cows until the soy beans are ready for use in June. "As to the cost of the continuous grazing system, we have found that it effects a saving in labor and makes a distribution throughout the year. It permits of the saving of part of the grain during the winter months, and all of it during the summer months. In the winter it saves, except during bad weather, ensilage and hay. "As any of the small grain crops can be grazed until the first of March and will then make a full crop of hay or grain, it is estimated that the cost of these crops is carried by the value of the hay or grain harvested. Where crimson clover is used it is said that the stubble turned under has a fertilizing value equal to two-thirds of the value of the entire crop. "The cheapest crop for winter feeding is giant Essex rape, the only additional cost to that of the grain crop being seeding the rape-which will not exceed seventy-five cents an acre. The tonnage produced by rape will probably run from fifteen to twenty-five tons per acre. "If our belief is correct that the cost of producing milk under the method of continuous grazing on annual pastures does not exceed onehalf of the present average cost where ensilage, grain and permanent pastures are used, you will see that the program will place the southern farmer in a position to control southern markets, not only for milk but for beef and other packinghouse products as against present successful competitors. "There are a number of advantages which this system offers which there is not time to refer to in this brief statement. Among the principal of these, aside from that of economy, are "a: Avoiding any large measure of disaster as a consequence of drought, and "b: Eliminating much of the danger of parasitic disease. "In this connection I have a letter from which I shall quote: "`The lambs carried on annual pastures make about 25 per cent better gains and are much more hearty and thrifty in appearance than lambs carried on permanent pastures and drenched for internal parasites every two weeks. Am thinking more and more of your plan for carrying livestock on annual pastures. `Signed, L. 1. Case, Agent in Animal Husbandry.' " In conclusion 1 shall say that this program has been approached slowly over a period of fifteen years of experimentation with sixty-five to seventy different crops and with the benefit of the advice of experts like the late Dr. C. V. Piper of the Department of Agriculture. The plan worked out and as followed is simple. It is adapted to the use of the average farmer, whether he has one cow or more than one hundred. "It is hoped that those who are interested in animal husbandry in North Carolina and throughout the South can get through the adoption of a continuous grazing program the full benefit which it offers. "If this is the gateway to prosperity, the more who enter-and the sooner-the better. "Hugh MacRae" It may be interesting to the agriculturallyminded to know how we have so far acted on the impetus received from our visits to Invershiel in June and July. It will be understood that our fields-and I assume I am speaking for Gatlinburg as well as Brasstown, were already in rotation and our system of ensilage, grain and hay established. We could utilize only certain unplanted areas, and we could not afford to fence all of these. We have no convincing figures over a period of time. We merely present our first steps for what they are worth. Mr. Mattil summarizes as follows what he and Don Smith have done at the Pi Beta Phi School: "We are giving the winter pasture a good tryout and have come to quite definite conclusions as to its value. We have made four sowings, September 16th, and 24th, October 10th and 15th. We used mixtures of winter oats, barley, vetch, and Austrian peas and rape in one planting. For our mountain conditions here we believe that the barley is our best grain. We began pasturing the last week in October and have continued to pas Page 26 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 ture except when the weather conditions did not permit. This pasture is carrying approximately two cows to the acre and is holding up well. "To return to the sowing-on October 21st, the week before we started pasturing, the first sowing was five inches high, second four, third two, and fourth one inch. This year's experiment leads us to the conclusion that seedings later than the 20th of September are not practical for winter pasture under our conditions. These later seedings will probably make early spring pasture. The results in our milk production are quite conclusive. Our average production from five cows is 110 pounds of milk per day. It was better than this before the extremely cold weather came. We are feeding full grain rations, but we notice that the pasture saves in the amount of hay we have to feed. If weather does not permit pasturing for three or four days there is a decided drop in the milk flow." At Brasstown, Georg Bidstrup reports that toward the end of June, after the first visit to Mr. MacRae's farm, we sowed Biloxi soy beans in rows. Even with such late planting, fourteen cows grazed a half acre plot three times, a week at the first stretch, five days at the second, and a little less on the third, or in other words, one half acre carried fourteen cows a little o` er two weeks. When Mr. McRae came up in September we were able to show him our herd almost concealed, like his, in the beans they were grazing. He was surprised and delighted at the growth of the beans -much better, he said, than he could get in Pender County. He thought this might be due to our cooler nights, but felt in any case that the development of such possibilities would make the fortune of this section. For winter grazing and cover crop, or hay, we sowed mixtures of oats, vetch, wheat, rye, and clover-barley in some areas. One of these mix tures was planted in the bean field at its last working. When the cows were grazing the beans for the third time they were able to pick at the oats. Unfortunately, giant Essex rape seed from England was not received in time to plant before the middle of October. It is making a good showing, but will, of course, give no winter pasture. It remains to be seen how it stands our mountain winter, and what it will do in the spring. One four-acre field of oats was planted and heavily fertilized about the middle of September. Eight bushels of seed were used. Fifteen head of cattle began grazing this around the last week ill October and have continued to graze itgetting all they care to eat of it once a day as the weather has permitted, which has been fairly regularly this fall. As a result they do not eat much silage or hay, and we have been able to cut on grain feed substantially, while getting at the same time, increased milk production. Whenever grazing has not been possible the flow of milk has diminished appreciably. With Mr. Mattil, Georg Bidstrup feels that early seeding is imperative if this system is to be used satisfactorily. On the other hand, the system in itself will help to control the danger of spring freezing. Furthermore, while hills are comparatiN ely easy to seed, animals can harvest them much more economically than man. We do not yet venture to go so far as Mr. MacRae when he says that the South would be better off if it had never seen corn, but we are satisfied at the Folk School that homegrown barley, oats, wheat, and rye are cheaper grain food than the corn we raise. In e-~idence, our entire farmland under the plough-some eighty acres, stands green today, the first of December. Next year we shall be better able to present conclusions, although we realize that it will take many years to perfect the system. January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 27 A LITTLE TENNESSEE FAIR Dora Read Goodale Reprinted from THE RURAL NEW YORKE& Won't you come to our fair? It isn't big or imposing, but it has plenty of local color to give it character. And it represents a community effort on the part of a people distinctly not community-minded-scattered folk, isolated for generations by narrow means, by rude mountain trails, and by a sturdily self-sufficient, if not fiercely independent, spirit. This is our Community House: unfinished and barn-like, it seems to you, but we love it, because we have worked so hard for it! And doesn't it look pretty today with the tall stems of corn and cane, and bunches of soy beans and other field crops masking the walls, and that long table banked with flowers in front of the great stone fireplace? You can't travel far in the Cumberlands without noticing how the dooryards, even the poorest of them, dance and ripple and glow with flowers; how every porch has its lacy vines, its cherished fairy lilies or elephant-ears; every cabin its windowful of fondly-tended house plants in winter. "I sure do love flowers,"-how often those words are heard here, not from the lips of schoolgirls, but from careworn mothers and gaunt-framed, rugged mountain men! So you won't be surprised by our present displaythese luxuriant sultanas, and white and coral begonias, and high-bred fuschsias, all spangled with blossoms and gloriously indifferent to the fact that they are rooted in tin pails or old saucepan instead of in conventional flowerpots. A row of handsome cut flowers is ranged above, on the mantel-piece. Because the live-at-home program is of such vital interest hereabout, we are particularly concerned with the kitchen garden exhibit. Vegetables, including the green and leafy ones in such high favor nowadays, are well-represented. There is a poor showing of fruit. Grapes and peaches are mostly gone by in our neighborhood, and the late spring frosts make fruit growing on the plateau very much of a gamble. A few fine sample apples promise well for winter evenings, however, and the nearby stand of canned fruits and vegetables, glowing against a sunshiny window, does credit to the 4-H club and to the teaching of our Home Demonstrator. Our little village is blessed with a hospital; that of course explains the large, well-appointed restroom where minor hurts can be treated and where tired mothers leave their babies in the care of a pretty student-nurse. There are Red Cross posters, too, and gay health slogans, and in another department an object lesson in dietetics which is both entertaining and impressive. Dainty baskets and embroidered buffet sets, done by convalescents, are other hospital exhibits of interest. Hand-weaving has never been a lost art in the mountains, and of late years it has been revived and has become quite a flourishing industry, along with the making of hooked rugs and pillow-tops and pieced quilts. Old, traditional patterns and a lovely blending of colors make some of these pieces quite unusual. And here is the school artcraft exhibit-yes, we have a live, forward-looking school for mountain girls and boys, and the wood-working department is fast developing into a valuable feature. Notice the designs on the book-ends and boxes: oak trees, squirrels, a startled rabbit, a "razor-back" nosing for acorns. Don't these smack of the soil? And these off-hand bits of carving-the dozing, curled-up cat, and the old man with a wooden leg and a wallet, all showing the strokes of the knife in the modern manner -aren't they really delightful? And don't overlook the beautiful ruddy cedar bowls; and papercutters of holly wood, as fine-grained as ivory; or the foot-rest whose firm, springy covering is of strands of braided corn shucks. I know what shop I shall come to for Christmas presents! Yes, the native sense of beauty and feeling for artistic expression is strong-all that it needs is direction and guidance through vocational training. "Old-Timey Things" is the placard over this doorway. Inside, another fireplace, and beside it, a flax-wheel; and a woman of near eighty, with the wisdom and rich experience of a long life written into her fine face, has seated herself in a splint-seat chair to try the familiar treadle. The walls are curtained with quilts and bedspreads, the long table draped with a cover taken from the backs of our mountain sheep and corded, spun, dyed and woven by mountain women. Note the pattern, and the handsome blending of blue, Page 28 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK January, 1933 white, and orchid-a color that grandma, perhaps, would call purple or "laylock." Here are homespun linens, both coarse and fine; and baby clothes!-yes, the babies who wore them lived to grow up, though the skirts alone are a full yard long, and stiff with tucks and embroidery. That little round cedar tub with its one high stave for a handle is called a piggin; many a woman after milking her cow has carried the milk home on her 1 1 1 1 1 head in a piggin. The old shovel and tongs are home-forged, the former made front a plowshare. Among the other treasures sent by our neighbors you may see a thick woolen riding-habit, short waisted, long skirted, with a delicious scoop bon mellow-toned guitar. The bright-eyed grandsire who brought in the latter said that he made it just fifty years ago, when he was a boy of sixteen, and all the handsome shell inlay came from mussels that he caught in the river. A "lefthanded" guitar? Just so, as all of the would-be players discovered! Old-timey things! Yes, and the smallest here is undoubtedly also the oldest-a fossil picked up under the cliff, in shape roughly resembling a starfish, and dating back to the days when Tennessee rocks were part of the ocean floor. It is noon now, and the good-humored crowd, carrying scores of baskets and tin pails packed " W'ON'T YOU COME TO OUR FAIR?" net of coffee-colored silk supported by wires. Here are candle-molds, too; and a sand box, that predecessor of blotting paper; and beside this two folios, close to a century old; hand-written with a quill pen and ink homemade from acorns. How black that ink still is, and oh, what magnificent flourishes! No doubt this "key" to somebody's arithmetic with every problem worked out, was kept in strict seclusion-for the scribe was a local school master. The love of music amounts to a passion here, and I warrant that every man and boy visiting the fair has cast an appraising eye on that old red fiddle, and slyly fingered the strings of that with good home-grown eatables, is streaming out into the brilliant September sunshine to enjoy a community dinner, served cafeteria style in the pine grove opposite. Meanwhile the judges are busy awarding red and blue ribbons-the only prizes we can afford. Later there will be a program featuring healthbuilding, folk-dancing, and the concoction of delectable salads (three closely-related topics), followed by games and contests for the younger folk, lasting until it is time to go home and do chores. Can any little farming community of barely two hundred souls report a better fair than ours? ,January, 1933 MOUNtrAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 29 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Hclcu H. Diugruau Editor Dr. William Jauics Hutchins Counsellor Orrin L. Keener Associate Editor May B. Smith __Associate Editor CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Dr. Warren H. Wilson Mrs. John C. Campbell Mr. Marshall E. Vaughn Dr. John P. McConnell Dr. Arthur T. McCormack Dr. E. C. Branson Dr. John Tigert New York City Brasstown, N. C. __ Berea, Ky. East Radford, Va. _ ._ Louisville, Ky. Chapel Hill, N. C. Gainesville, Fla. ISSUED QUARTERLY-JANUARY, APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER Subscription Price $1.00 per year. Single Copy 30c. Entered at the Post Office at Berea, Ky., as second class mail matter. ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK BEREA, KENTUCKY RE-THINKING MOUNTAIN MISSIONS The continued depression resulting in curtailed budgets and staffs is giving many mountain workers real pause. Just what is it going to mean to our mountain schools, churches and centers? Will the work that has been growing during more prosperous years be given up or will its scope be so narrowed that it will lose much of its effectiveness? No doubt there will be great losses. Just as state and county economy programs are ending long years of painstaking progress in health, education and social work, so will much patient effort on the part of mountain workers be interrupted. But perhaps out of our losses can come some real values. Necessity may force us to a closer scrutiny of our whole mountain program than all our efforts at cooperation have thus far achieved. With new courage and insight we will face the questions which have so often been asked. Is there any waste in the expenditure of missionary funds in the mountain field? Do we find competition and overlapping? Can we work out some definite programs of unified effort? These will be the problems which will face us at the annual meeting of the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers at Knoxville, March twenty-eighth to thirtieth. The findings of our two studies-the economic and social survey carried on by government agencies and the religious and educational survey conducted by the Institute of Social and Religious Research-should give us a solid basis upon which to re-think our mountain work. Added to the challenge of rethinking in the terms of changing conditions will be the stern necessity of re-thinking in terms of greater service for less money. This conference will mark the twenty-first time that mountain workers have gathered to discuss their common problems. Slowly and surely through these years have developed bonds of understanding, trust, and friendship. Upon what better foundation can we build a cooperative program? Surely the Kingdom of God will be hastened in our Southern Mountains if we as teachers, ministers and social workers can give a practical demonstration of the Christian cooperation that we daily preach. "MACHINE AGE IN THE HILLS" This book, by Malcolm Ross, will be published by the Macmillan Company about the middle of January. The book describes the impact of the modern age of machinery on those simple people of pioneer habits who were the mountaineers of the Blue Ridge country before the advent of coal mining in their hills persuaded them to dig coal for a living. The effect on the colorful people of the hills appears in the book in intimate descriptions of their personalities and their grievances; but the main thesis of the book poses the important current problem of what to do with workers who are no longer needed in their industries and cannot be absorbed into other ones. The case is studied in the light of the experience in rehabilitation of the American Friends Service Committee. Malcolm Ross, a Yale graduate, was more recently the editor of a standard volume on Scientific Research. He is also the author of three novels and a book on aviation. Four years of newspaper reporting, plus a period when he was himself a miner in the Arizona copper mines, con tibute to his equipment to discuss the Kentucky ri I I I situation, which he viewed at first hand for sev eral months last winter. -"Coal's Children" Page 30 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK INDEX January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK VOLUME VIII An index of articles according to author and title, supplemented by a partial subject index. Ambrose, Luther M. "Bucking" the Depression V11I:4 Jan '33 p 14 A.shecdle Farm School, Pioneers in Educational Method H. S. Randolph VIII:3 Oct '32 p 16 Attacking Adult Illiteracy in the Small community Vida L. Grumman VIII:3 Oct '32 p 11 A-Wishin' (poem) Beulah Allyne Bell VIII:4 Jan '33 p 21 Barker, Tommie Dora Library Facilities in the Southern Appalachians VIII:2 Jul '32 p 14 Bell, Beulah Allyne A-Wishin' (poem) VIII:4 Jan '33 p 21 Books for Everybody Mary U. Rothrock VIII:l Apr '32 p 10 "Bucking" the Depression Luther M. Ambrose VIII :4 Jan '33 p 14 Burt, Marjorie A Horne for Nellie VIII:1 Apr '32 p 16 Burton, James D. Men of the Rail in the Tennessee Mountains VIII:1 Apr '32 p 26 Butler, Marguerite Pulling Together Through Play VIII:1 Apr '32 p 25 Campbell, Olive D. (Mrs. John C.) The Winter Session at the John C. Campbell Folk School VIII:1 Apr '32 p 4 Continuous Grazing on Annual Pastures VIII:4 Jan '33 p 22 Campbell, Ruth E. For Us Who Droell in Mountains (poem) VIII:1 Apr '32 p 13 Casey, Virginia Summary (poem) V111:4 Jan '33 p 19 Child Health in Mining Canrh and Village Iva M. Miller VIII:4 Jan '33 p 5 Church and Modern Industrial Problems, The Spencer Miller, Jr. VIII:2 July '32 p 3 Cobb, Ann Two Poems V111:1 Apr '32 p 19 Two Poems V111:3 Oct '32 p 15 Continuous Grazing on Annual Pastures Olive D. Campbell VIII:4 Jan '33 p 22 Crab Grass by Don L. West Reviewed by May B. Smith VIII:2 Jul '32 p 26 Crimmins, Nora Rural Library Scnice for Hamilton Count), TcnnevscÃ‚Â°e V111:1 Apr '32 p 28 Dix, Everett The Struggle for Independence V111:1 Apr '32 p 14 Douglas, Clementine, reviewed lrarnigrant Gifts to American Life, by Allen Eaton, V111:3 Oct '32 p 30 Dupuy, Mary P. Opportunity School-1932 Vill:] Apr '32 p 6 EDUCATION Asheville Farrn School-Pioneers in Educational Method H. S. Randolph VIII:3 Oct '32 p 16 Attacking Adult Illiteracy in the Sncall Cornnrnnity Vida 1.. Grumman VI11:3 Oct '32 p 11 Opportunity School-1932 Mary P. Dupuy VIII:1 Apr '32 p 6 Winter Session at the John C. Campbell Folk School Olive D. Campbell VIII:1 Apr '32 p 4 Entorf, Mark Mental Hygiene and Work with Individuals VIII:2 Jul '32 p 18 Faith that Mores Mountains Nola Pease Vander Meer V111:1 Apr '32 p 22 For Many Winters to Conic Malcolm Ross VIII:3 Oct '32 p I For Us Who Dwell in Mountains (Poem) Ruth E. Campbell VIII:1 Apr '32 p 13 G Goodale, Dora Read A Little Tennessee Fair VI11:4 Jan '33 p 27 Growth of a Mountain School, The Helen W. Lund VIII:4 Jan '33 p 20 Grumman, Vida L. Attacking Adult Illiteracy in the .Small Cornrnurrity VIII:3 Oct '32 p 11 H Hale, Lula M. Ilomeplace VIII:3 Oct '32 p 13 Harlow, Alvin F. A New Aid in Mountain Work Vlll:3 Oct '32 p 20 Helping Themselves Giles A Hubert VIII:4 Jan '33 p 11 Home for Nellie, A Marjorie Burt. V111:1 Apr '32 p 16 Honzeplace Lula M. Hale VIII:3 Oct '32 p 13 Hubert, Giles A. Helping Thernselr cs VIII:4 Jan '33 p II Immigrant Gifts to Anrerican Life by Allen Eaton Reviewed by Clementine Douglas VIII:3 Oct '32 p 30 I ewis, Ch-rtes D. The Middle Class Mountain People VIII:4 Jan '33 p 1 Library Facilities in the Southern .Appalachians Tommie Dora Barker VIII: 2 Jul '32 p 14 LIBRARY FACILITIES Books for Erer3body Mary U. Rothrock VIII:I Apr '32 p 10 Library Facilities in the yo,rthcrn Appalachians Tommie Dora Barker VIII:2 Jul '32 p 14 Rural Library Scrcice for Flamillon County Tennessee Nora Crimmins VII1:1 Apr '32 p 28 Little Tennessee Fair, A Dora Read Goodale VIII:4 Jan '33 p 27 Living with a Jungle Tribe in India Warren H. Wilson VII1:2 Jul '32 p 22 ,January, 1933 MOUNTAIN LIFE AND WORK Page 31 Lo tccr ,Startrlaril of Liting, The Warren H. Wilson \'111:4 Jan '33 p 9 Lund, Helen \\'. The Gronth of it Mountain School VI11:4 .Ian '33 1Ã¢â‚¬Â¢ 20 Men of the Rail in the Tennessee Mountains James D. Burton VIII:1 Apr '32 p 26 Mental Htgicne and Work with Indh ideals Mark EntorÃ‚Â£ VIII:2 Jul '32 p 18 Middle Clas.c Mountain Pcohlc, The Charles D. Lewis VIII:4 Jan '33 p I Miller, Iva M. Child Health in hurting Carnh and Village VII1:4 Ian '33 p 5 Miller, Spencer Jr. The Church and Modern Industrial Problems VI17:2 Jul '32 p 3 Morris, Homer L. Shall We Use Leisure Titne ConstructitAy? VIII:1 Apr '32 p 20 Mountaineers Underground Malcolm Ross VIII:1 Apr '32 p I Music and Pcohlc A. D. Zaniig VI11:2 Jul '32 p 9 N New Aid in Mountain Work, A Alvin F. Harlow VIII:3 Oct '32 p 20 News Prom Our Economic And Social Study VIII:1 Apr '32 p 30 O Ophortunitl School-1932 Mary P. Dupuy VIII:1 Apr '32 p 6 Parker, Ruth Louise With the Ericnas in the Coal Fields VI77:3 Oct '32 p 3 Procccclings of the Twcnticth Conference of Southern Mountain Workers, March 29-31, 1937 V111:2 Jul '32 Pulling Togcthcr Through Plat Marguerite Butler VIII:1 Apr '32 1, 2 5 Randolph, H. S. The Ashcrillc Farrn School-Pioneers in Educational Method VIII:3 Oct '32 p 16 RELIEF AND CHILD WELFARE Child Health in Mining Canth an:l Village Iva M. Miller VIII:4 Jan '33 p 5 hor Many Winters to Conic Malcolm Ross VIII:3 Oct '32 p 1 Monntairtccrs Unalcrgronnd Malcolm Ross VIII:1 Apr '32 p 1 New Aid In Mountain Work Alvin F. Harlow VIII:3 Oct '32 p 20 Shall We Use Leisure Tinrc Constructively? Homer L. Morris VIII:1 Apr '32 p 20 The Struggle For Independence Everett Dix VIII) Apr '32 p 14 With the Friends in the Coal Fields Ruth Louise Parker V11I:3 Oct '32 p 9 Ross, Malcolm Mountaineers Underground VIII:1 Apr '32, p 1; For Marry Winters to Corne VIII:3 Oct '32 p 1 Rothrock, Mary U. Books for Everybody V111:1 Apr '32 p 10 Rural Library Service for Hamilton County, Tennessee Nora Crim tnins VIII:1 Apr '32 p 28 SCHOOLS AND CENTERS Asheville Farm School-Pioneers in Educational Method H. S. Randolph VIII:3 Oct '32 p 16 Faith that Moves Mountains Nola Pease Vander Meer VIII:1 Apr '32 p 22 Growth of a Mountain School Helen W. Lund VIIIA Jan '33 p 20 Home for Nellie Marjorie Burt VIII:1 Apr '32 p 16 HornePlace Lula M. Hale VIII:3 Oct '32 p 13 Shall We Use Leisure Time Constructively? Homer L. Morris V11I:1 Apr '32 p 20 Smith, May B. reviewed Crab Grass by Don L. West VIII:2 Jul '32 p 26 Struggle for Independence, The Everett Dix V111:1 Apr '32 p 14 Summary (poem) Virginia Casey VIII:4 Jan '33 p 19 T Tu'o Poctn.s Ann Cobb VIJI:3 Apr '32 p 19; Oct '32 p 15 Vander Meer, Nola Pease (Mrs. Samuel) Faith that Moves Monu tairrs VIII:I Apr '32 p 22 Wilson, Warren H. Living with a Jungle, Tribe in India VIII:2 Jul '32 p 22; The Lower Standard of Living VIII:4 Jan '33 p 9 Winter Session at the John C. Campbell Folk. School Olive D. Campbell VIIIA Apr '32 p 4 With the Friends in the Coal Fields Ruth Louise Parker VIJI:3 Oct '32 p 3 Zanzig, A. D. Music and People VI11:2 Jul '32 p 9 FOR FREE LITERATURE Address THE GOAT WORLD Vincennes, Indiana GOAT MILK BEST FOR EVERYONE A trial will convince you. We have good milk goats at reasonable prices. Write for information. BONNIEDEE GOATERY, BURT, IOWA `Pay Tour Milk Bill for the next five or ten years by investing twenty-five to fifty dollars in two of our high grade milk goats. A hundred and fifty fresh in March and April. Swiss Toggenburgs a specialty. I. A. Bruce, Compton, Arkansas AN OPPORTUNITY Berea College owns a herd of crossed Angora and milk goats, which must be sold in order to give the range to sheep. These goats can be bought cheaply, bred to a registered milk goat buck, and would produce good grade milkers. For further information, write H. H. Harrison, Berea College Forester, Berea, Kentucky. OUR CONTRIBUTORS CHARLLS 1). Liwis of the Naiddle Tennessee State Teachers College, Mur fteesboro, hits had long experience as a teacher in the mountains. I VA M. MILIJ.r, a doctor with public health training, is Director of the Harlan County Chi d Health Demonstration under the Save the Children Fund of America and Assistant County Health Officcr. WARREN 1-1. WILSON is Secretary of the Department of Town and Country, Presbyterian Board of National Missions, and has written many books on religious questions. GIL,ES A. HUBLRT, of Atlanta, is one of the leaders in the Association for the Advancement of Negro Country Life. Lutiit:a M. AXIBROSL is a teacher of Science in the Berea Academy. VIRGINIA CASEY is a Berea College student. HELEN W. Lunv is Assistant Secretary of the Women's Board of Domestic Missions of the Reformed Church. BruLnti Al.LYNL BELL is a contributing editor of Poetry World. OLIVE D. CANIT'BLLL has appeared before our readers as one interested in the native culture of the mountains, and as an educator adapting Danish folk school methods to mountain needs. She now tells of the agricultural adaptations which are being tried at Brasstown. DOHA REM) GOODALL is a member of the staff of Uplands Sanitarium, Pleasant Hill, Tenn. Stetdrw.c earoiug all or part of their rspenses rooprratrrl ire brmtmg this nragazirrr at the tirÃ¢â‚¬Â¢rea College Press