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The Southern Workman, November 1926, article p.486, Blue's attendance at ALA noted. American Liberty League. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images Digital Library Services, University of Kentucky Libraries Lexington, Kentucky LFP_rblue_03_05_01 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. The Southern Workman, November 1926, article p.486, Blue's attendance at ALA noted. American Liberty League. unknown unknown 1926-11-01 Is Part of the Reverend Thomas F. Blue Papers, ca. 1905-1935 housed at the Louisville Free Public Library, Louisville, KY. This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. ï»¿NOVEMBER 1926 â–² TlfHATEVER else may be done to bring * * about a better understanding between the races and whatever constructive measures or plans may be considered, it is fundamental necessity that violence, or lawlessness of any kind should be prevented. This is not simply a question that involves Negro race but the entire structure of human society as well. EDWIN MIMS Press of The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute Hampton, Virginia ï»¿The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute II HAMPTON, VIRGINIA JAMES E. GREGG, Principal G. P. PHENIX, Vic* Principal Wkat F. K. ROGERS, Treasurer W. H. SCOVILLE, Secretary 1 normal and industrial founded in 1868 by Samuel Chapman Armstrong for Negro youth. Indians admitted in 1878. Object To train teachers and industrial leaders Equipment Land, 990 acres; buildings 150 (including dwellings) Ortaniiation Collegiate and Secondary Divisions. The Collegiate Division includes the Teachers College (made up of the School of Agriculture, School of Education, School of Home Economics, and the Summer School); the School of Business; the Library School; and the Trade School Builders' Course. The Secondary Division includes the Academy and the Trade School. Enrollment Including practice and summer schools and classes for teachers in service, 2351. Results Graduates, 2788; ex-students, over 8800 Outgrowths: Tuskegee, Calhoun, Mt. Meigs, and many smaller schools for Negroes Needs $100,000 annually above regular income Scholarships Annual Scholarship Endowed Scholarship * 100 2500 Any contribution, however small, will be gratefully received and may be sent to F. K. Rogers, Treasurer, Hampton Institute, Virginia. FORM OF BEQUEST and devise to the trustees of the Hamvton Normal and Aq dollars ï»¿outftern Workman Published monthly by The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute . LV NOVEMBER 1926 NO. 11 A STRONG PRESIDENT ELBERT L. ORR CONFERENCE OF CHURCH WOMEN AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION VIRGINIA STATE ADVISORY BOARD WILLIAM SANDERS SCARBOROUGH THE CHURCH AND RACE RELATIONS A TRIBUTE TO DR. MOTON AND TUSKEGEE . A HELPFUL ROTARY CLUB ...... A PROGRESSIVE COLORED FARMER, Illus. J. P. WALLER FROM SLAVE FARM TO COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL, Illustrated 483 485 486 487 488 489 494 496 497 THE GREAT HUNGER, Illustrated HAMPTON INCIDENTS ALLEN B. DOGGETT, JR. EMORY D. ALVORD GRADUATES AND EX-STUDENTS WHAT OTHERS SAY . 500 509 522 525 527 The Southern Workman was founded by Samuel Chapman Armstrong in 1872, and is iÂ». monthly magazine devoted to the interests of undeveloped races. It contains reports from Negro and Indian populations, with pictures of reservation and plantation life, as well as information concerning Hampton graduates and ex-students. It also provides a forum for the discussion of race problems. Dr. Francis G. Peabody, Plummer Profeseor of Christian Morals, Emeritus, of Harvard University, says: "The Southern Workman is admirable, both in its report of news and in its literary form. It should have a real influence in the 'iducation of public opinion." CONTRIBUTIONS ; The editors do not hold themselves responsible for the opinions expressed in contributed matter. Their aim is simply to place before their readers statements by men and women of ability without regard to the opinions held. Editorial Staff James E. Gregg Wm. Anthony Aery Jane E. Davis W. T. B. Williams Allen B. Doggett, Jr. Term 3: One dollar a year in advance ; ten cents a copy Change of Address: Persons making a change of address should send the old as well as ths new address to THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN, Hampton, Virginia Ente) ed as second-class matter August 13, 1908, in the Post Office at Hampton, Virginia, under the Act of July 16, 1894 Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized on July 3, 1918 ï»¿OUR CONTRIBUTORS EMORY D. ALVORD of Mt. Silinda, South Rhodesia, has recently been appointed by the Government as agricultural specialist in charge of the agricultural education of the natives throughout the whole South Rhodesia. His principal duties will be to organize better the instruction in agriculture in the mission schools and the various native reserves. Mr. : Alvord has been a teacher in the Mt. Silinda School for many years. DR. E. L. ORR of Nashville, Tenn, is a member of the white section of the Tennessee Committee on Interracial Co-operation. His address, reproduced in this issue of the Southern Workman, was given at the annual meeting of the State Conference of Social Work in which the Interracial Committee participated. J. P. WALLER is a member of the American Literary League of Standard, La. ALLEN B. DOGGETT, JR., has for a number of years been teacher of rural sociology in the School of Agriculture, Hampton Institute. This fall he became Publication Secretary of the Institute and managing editor of the Southern Workman. * " BOOTLEGGING TOBACCO " A play, in four acts, of farm life in the tobacco belt of Virginia By DONALD F. FENN NEW HAMPTON LEAFLETS Price twenty-five cents each Materials and Methods*in Reading Games for the Elementary Grades THE PUBLICATION OFFICE HAMPTON INSTITUTE, VIRGINIA ï»¿The Southern Workman VOL. LV NOVEMBER 1926 NO. 11 EDITORIALS 0 Mr. Benjamin F. Hubert, director of Agriculture A Strong and of Vocational Education at Tuskegee Insti-President tute, has been elected president of the Georgia State Industrial College at Savannah. This is an interesting appointment for two reasons. First, from the point of view of the college, a new type of educational leader is appearing. In every State in the South there is an agricultural and mechanical college for Negroes which is the counterpart of the familiar State agricultural colleges all over the United States. In many States of the North and West these have grown, in number of students and in variety of instruction, to universities. The Negro colleges have been handicapped by inadequate funds, scarcity of good teachers, and a lingering feeling,,stronger in some States than in others, of opposition to the higher education of Negroes; and they have been handicapped no less by a feeling among many young colored men and women that a college of liberal arts is the only desirable college to attend. The college presidents have been between the upper and nether millstones. In general their governing boards have been more willing to push the vocational side of their work and furnish money for it, and the prospective student has been more interested in the academic work. The president must be a man of some scholastic attainment. In agriculture, tailoring, or bricklaying, no such men have been available. Consequently, most of the presidents have been and still are men of academic training, with sometimes very little and sometimes a great deal of genuine belief in a vocational instead of "academic" course. Mr. Hubert is not the first agricultural president of an agricultural and industrial college for Negroes, but he is the first who is himself a graduate of a recognized ï»¿484 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN agricultural college, and he holds, in addition to his A.B. from Morehouse College and B.S. from Massachusetts Agricultural College, his M. S. from Minnesota and he is now a candidate for a doctor's degree. Secondly, from the point of view of students, Mr. Hubert's appointment is another reminder to the farm-reared youngster of what can be done, if he sticks to the life he knows and capitalizes his experience on the farm by adding a college education to it. He may never be a college president, nor want to be, but the Georgia State Industrial College should be able to show its graduating students plenty of ways in which they may use their talents and at the same time do a useful work in the world. Negroes own and operate farms in Georgia. The college should be able to show "that, all opinions to the contrary notwithstanding, it can help a farmer to make more income with an education than he could without. There is more demand now for agricultural teachers and county agents than there are men for the positions. With increased and better farming in â– the State, there will be a demand in business for men who understand rural rent and credit, cost accounting, and labor management. Just as in prosperous farming counties and States of the North and West, there will be a demand for scientists who know the fertilizing of land, the feeding of livestock, the fighting of plant pests. There will be a demand for veterinarians who know animal diseases. The recent failure of one of the large co-operative marketing enterprises showed that some of the leaders* were bankers and other city men who did not know the farmer and some were farmers not sufficiently trained in business and economics to handle their own affairs. In all directions the need for well-trained men is more and more keenly felt. The State colleges have the task of showing these needs to promising young men and of fitting the men to meet them. In most of the colleges, there are other vocational courses than agriculture. The arts and sciences must be taught; they are fundamental to any education. In a State like Georgia where the Negroes' chief occupation is agriculture, it is surely not out of place to rejoice that the president of the State Col- ' lege has been trained in that field. Mr. Hubert has had a splendid preparation in his own schooling and in his successful directing of the agricultural departments of Tuskegee and of the South Carolina State College. If given support and a free hand, he should be able to make the Negro land-grant college of Georgia do much for the farming population of the State. ï»¿CONFERENCE OF CHURCH WOMEN 485 Conference of Church Women Two days and nights of friendly living together at the Forest Inn, Eagles Mere, Pa., was the least commented upon, but withal the most significant fact of the first National Interracial Conference of Church Women held September 21-22 under the auspices of the Federal Council of Churches. The sixty-four delegates represented Negro and white groups. Southern white women from a group of States Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Georgia, Florida, both Carolinas, and Virginia with colored and white women from the Northern States, found themselves of one accord in their sincere and determined spirit to end some of the unjust and evil things in present-day race relations and to build for better citizenship in all groups. The comprehensiveness of their thinking and discussion is disclosed by some of the topics in their program: How Can Organizations of Church Women Be Used for Local Interracial Work? Problems of the Negro Mother in Gainful Employment; Concrete Methods of Work in Race Relations; Concrete Interracial Projects for Local Church Women's Groups. Informality, simplicity, and frankness characterized the utterances of the delegates. There was no minimizing of the difficulties already experienced or to be encountered, but there was a consecrated determination to make improvement in relationships. One had a realization of the fact that the problems of the North and South are not in duplicate. Conditions in the South, with its isolation, traditions, customs, and conservatism, are unique in contrast with the Northern situation, where education and sanitation are advanced and where there is the need for holding fast to old privileges as well as for winning new opportunities. Both groups asserted strongly that progress in any section could come only by the members of both races learning to know each other and working together for the general good. Among the nationally known women present were Mrs. Richard W. Westbrook, chairman of the executive committee; Miss Mary Anderson, of the Women's Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor, whose investigations in several States show that Negro women in industry invariably receive an average wage below that given white women similarly employed and sometimes in face of the fact that they are considered to do better work; and Mrs. T. W. Bickett, of North Carolina, a pioneer in interracial activities and a distinguished leader. Mrs. Long, a Jewess, wife of a Wilkes Barre physician, made an inspiring contribution to the conference in her account of the inception and purpose of the Council of Jewish Women. ï»¿486 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN The Federal Council of Churches through its Women's Committee on Interracial Relationships achieved lasting good in calling this conference and providing an opportunity for the manifestation of cordial relations and of the spirit of mutual goodwill which permeated all the proceedings. One does not quickly forget contacts with devoted souls. The American Library Association recently cele-Ubrary" brated its fiftieth anniversary in Atlantic City Association an(* Philadelphia. The association, established during the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, has grown in fifty years to be one of nearly 10,000 members. At this anniversary meeting delegates from Europe, South America, and Asia represented the libraries and library associations of their countries. Among the foreign delegates who spoke were librarians from the national libraries of England, Belgium, France, Prussia, and Japan; the librarian of the University of Oslo, Norway; and the president of the Southern University of Nanking, China. Dr. Henry Guppy of Manchester represented the Library Association of Great Britain, of which he is president, and Lord Elgin, the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, of which he is chairman. This fund is used to aid in the development of libraries in the United Kingdom, thus paralleling in many ways the assistance given by the Carnegie Corporation in this country. Two Scottish delegates and the director of the Institute for Library Science, Moscow, Russia, addressed the association. The Collis P. Huntington Library at Hampton was represented by the librarian, Miss Dorothy Bemis, and the Library School by Miss Florence R. Curtis, the director, and Miss Elizabeth E. Wilson. Miss Curtis read a paper before the Professional Training Section, on "The Contribution of the Library School to Negro Education"; it was reviewed by Miss Jennie Flexner of the Louisville Free Library. Miss Flex-ner said that the establishment of the Hampton Institute Library School, with its opportunities for wide service, was an outstanding event in the last twenty-five years of the American Library Association. The meeting was attended by Mr. Thomas F. Blue, Hampton '88, head of the Colored Department of the Louisville Free Library, and his assistant, Mrs. Rachel D. Harris, in charge of children's work. Mrs. Harris has organized many public-library brances, among them the colored branches of Lynchburg and Roanoke, Virginia. The exhibit of the American Library Association at the ï»¿VIRGINIA STATE ADVISORY BOARD 487 Sesqui-centennial is worthy of special mention. A large electric sign showed the development of county libraries in California, while on the exhibition frames and the tables were posters and pictures showing all phases of library activity. Book lists of many types were distributed, many of them printed on a special press, loaned and set up for the occasion. Virginia With the formation of the State Advisory Board State of Virginia, a crucial step in the machinery of Advisory the Extension Service has been taken. Seventy-Board njne men an(j women delegates from twenty-eight county advisory boards met at Powhatan Court House recently under the leadership of Field Agent J. B. Pierce, U. S. Department of Agriculture, charged with the work done by the district and county farm- and home-demonstration agents in nine Southern States, to complete the organization of farmers and their families who are being directly reached by the farm- and home-demonstration agents. It is significant that these delegates represented 23,248 farm families and that the delegates alone own 11,495 acres of land with a total valuation inclding buildings, livestock, and machinery of over half a million dollars. The newly formed organization parallels the State Advisory Council of the white farmers of Virginia with which the â€¢ Board will co-operate to bring about better farming conditions in the State. It will hold an annual conferenc, some of its objects being, in the words of Field Agent Pierce, "to help farmers own their farms, to make them economically productive, and to establish real country homes." The shell of this organization might have been set up at a much earlier time. That it has been delayed until the rural people of the State were ready for it is but another instance of the thoroughness and soundness of the work of the Extension Service. It is so easy to allow the leaders to get out of sight of the followers that a restraining hand is often necessary. Here is an instance where the eventual necessity for a State-wide federation of the County Advisory Boards has been held in mind for a period of years, and the work of federating delayed until, through process of education in the smaller, more local, county boards, the need for the final body should impress itself upon the people who are The formation of the State Advisory Board is an advance in co-ordinating the forces of the State working for the improvement of rural conditions. The means now exists for discussion of, and action upon, the common problems of ï»¿488 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN rural Virginia by both white and Negro groups State-wide in their representation. The Negro race sustained a great loss in the death William on geptember 9, of the well-known Greek scholar an ers educator, and an ex-president of Wilberforce Scarborough University, Dr. William S. Scarborough. For forty-three years Dr. Scarborough was connected with Wilberforce University, and was its president from 1908 to 1920. giving it a lifetime of faithful service. His "First Lessons in Greek," published in 1881, is said to be the only Greek book ever written by a Negro. He belonged to the American Philological Society and was the author of many articles and pamphlets on a wide variety of classical and scientific subjects written for that and other learned societies to which he belonged. He delivered many addresses before important bodies, to which he was a delegate, both in this country and abroad, a notable one being that before the Philological Society at the University of Virginia. During the war he was a member of the Food Commission for the State of Ohio and was also appointed by the Governor as a member of the National Council of Defense. He was an outstanding figure in Ohio politics and after his retirement from Wilberforce was appointed by President Harding as an assistant in Farm Studies in the United States Department of Agriculture. Dr. Scarborough was a warm friend of Hampton Institute, which he visited many times. He was a courteous, kindly gentleman, interested in all things tending to advance his race or humanity in general; and he will be much missed by a host of students whose lives he influenced and by the many friends who enjoyed his ripe scholarship and his genial optimism. 'TPHE interracial commissions, it is generally agreed, have been of great importance in the past few years in promoting better understanding and relations between the white and colored people. This example has been an inspiration to students of the problem of race relations in all parts of the world. Calvin Coolidge ï»¿THE CHURCH AND RACE RELATIONS* BY ELBERT L. ORR nr\HE Church cannot escape responsibility for a large share in the prevailing unfortunate situation in regard to general race relations. That these relations are often far from being ideal the Church has been all too slow to admit, and much less has the situation been frankly faced and dealt with. In fact, in some very serious respects, the Church has made a contribution to the present complex situation among the races and has succeeded in some instances in more firmly establishing customs and attitudes by giving them ecclesiastical sanction. In the face of the fact that there are more things in common among races than there are differences, that "beneath and above all the races is the one human race, one in origin and one in essential naturfc," the Church has sometimes added her seal and sanction to race discrimination and prejudice in a very striking and deplorable way. Instead of seizing upon the points of unity, as she should have done, she has often helped all the other divisive forces to widen the breach of discrimination among the races. At the National Interracial Conference held in Cincinnati, March 25-27, 1926, a committee composed largely of students and teachers submitted the following statements: 1 That the causes of racial antagonism arise fundamentally from social conditions; and that as such they are remediable through social changes. 2 That the major factor to be utilized in bringing about social changes, as in any other realm of life, is education. 3 That the educational institutions of this country constitute the strategic centers of approach in developing constructive interracial attitudes. This is placing responsibility on our educational institutions, and they should share it. But it must always be kept in mind that social conditions and educational programs are vitally concerned with religion, represented by the Church, and the closest co-operation of all religious agencies must be sought if progress is to be made toward solving the problems of race. * Address delivered before the joint Interracial Conference held at Jackson, Tenn., 1926 ï»¿490 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN If attitudes are bred and born in religion, nurtured by the Church, and sealed with the sanction of a deity, a price is to pay before they can be even modified, much less changed altogether. When we consider the Church, we think primarily of the Christian Church. We discard pagan religions as being entirely inadequate to meet the demands of a world program. Most of them have been provincial, national, or racial. But Christianity has been from the first a universal religion, embracing all classes, colors, languages, nationalities, races. It offered to the world universal brotherhood; it presumed that "God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth," (Acts 17: 26) and upon that presumption proceeded to embrace all people upon an absolute equal basis. Upon this basis the Church was founded and proceeded to undertake the fulfillment of Christ's command to go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature. But the Church has suffered failure in some fundamental respects. It has not always laid out its program upon the broad basis of universal Christian brotherhood. It has in theory accepted the idealism of Christ but in practice has sometimes insisted that special priviliges belong to preferred classes. Its ideals of Christian brotherhood have often been smothered by race prejudices which have hushed the voice of protest against certain practices definitely anti-Christian and inhuman. If these practices have not been actively indulged in by the Church, they have at least often been sanctioned by silence. The Church has not hitherto frankly faced problems of race and sought a practical solution of them. By this time attitudes have become almost impregnably fortified by custom and tradition. The Church has declared its fear of these fortifications and yielded to inactivity. To undertake to revolutionize these attitudes now means an attack also upon kindred social and political fortifications which help to protect racial prejudice, and that means a tremendous undertaking. The warfare must be waged, not upon outside agencies, but within the Church itself. The Church has long been busy with a sort of preferred provincialism, within which revolved a superior constituency, demanding and deserving special treatment and privileges, rather than accepting the sweeping challenge of a world program. Scientists have claimed, and practically proven that there is no such thing as inherent racial superiority; but the Church apparently does not believe it. And, what is more, the Church seems in no mood to be convinced. It does not propose to believe it. So, lured by the enchantment of distance ï»¿THE CHURCH AND RACE RELATIONS 491 and the glamor of situations far removed from our doors, we have developed a fiery missionary zeal which seeks to help our inferior (?) brother across the sea. However, this is too often on the basis of the superior condescending to assist the inferior. This attitude is being bitterly resented just now in both China and Japan, because the student movement in these empires is rapidly developing a sense of superiority of race, and they are believing that really they ought now to begin to teach us. Japanese on the Pacific coast have now arranged to send one student each year from America to Japan! Here is a definite case of the superiority complex in religion proving to be a boomerang, flying back into the face of the race that presumes to use it. Prejudice born out of these attitudes, has developed a difficult religious situation. Racial differentiation amounts almost to religious antagonism and breeds an attitude which practically inhibits mutual approach on the basis of Christian brotherhood. The trouble is that a man cannot summarily dismiss his attitudes, because they come to be a constituent part of his mental being. Attitudes are not inherent, but they may have developed unconsciously. Training and environment determine the mental drift of most of us before we are con-scious of it. So even a wrong attitude may continue to be dominant, as dominant as nature. New attitudes come as a result of revolutionary processes; they have to be developed, evolved. This is the reason our work is now so slow. We are trying to sweep back tides set in motion through the centuries of the past. But if the Church breaks down in the effort to secure racial approach, it means that it is not yet motivated by the spirit of Christ. The Church must succeed in this or else be guilty of repudiating its Lord; or, what is worse, if possible, be repudiated by Him. The ideal of Christ was crystal clear on this. Note His classic illustration of the Good Samaritan who applied the principle of Christian brotherhood in the face of racial prejudice and oppression. The Church must determine to develop a Christian attitude among the races. Frankly confessing its part in establishing racial attitudes unworthy of the God who is our common Creator and Father, it should declare the principle of worldwide brotherhood. This does not mean that the Church must pass upon, or even seriously consider, the question of the superiority or inferiority of races, but that it should regard the spirit and teaching of our Lord as bringing the highest blessings to any and all races, whether commingled among the moving throngs of the world, or living in comparative seclusion and isolation. ï»¿492 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN If the Church does not undertake to develop this attitude, who will? It alone among extant organizations should be able to show an unselfish and unhesitant approach. Business organizations might be accused of seeking commercial advantage; political organizations might be accused of exploting for political power; but the Church, surely the Church, can undertake the task of developing a Christian attitude among the races, ^|fepÂ§t -':':-^'^^y^'r\v. /; p v. : i The Church must condemn the spirit of injustice. This is a tremendous task. Justice, in the minds of most people, is a relative virtue. Standards of justice are tempered by many considerations. Ignorance, environment, heredity, state of mind, may declare mitigating circumstances; or the contrary conditions may clothe justice writh severity. Likewise our ideas of racial standing may modify our standards of justice. Superior capacity demands one standard of justice; inferiority must be, and is, satisfied with a lower level of justice. Herein lies one of our intricate racial problems. If one race claims su-periority and is enabled to enforce its claims, it can easily interpret justice in its own favor while compelling the inferior and subjugated race to be content with a different interpretation of justice. The Church, accepting the principle of universal brotherhood, is forced to the basis of equal justice to all, and it cannot deviate from this standing without losing its power and eventually its life. Again, there is no other organization so well situated to demand justice among the races. In fact, in this respect, the Church must unhesitatingly lead the way. By no other means can anything be accomplished. Realizing that injustice is frequently the child of prejudice, that the Church has often instilled and fostered prejudice, it has much to repent of in this respect. If the Church has justly been reproached, it is only the Church that can take away that reproach; if it has by its attitudes and actions jeopardized its good reputation it must now regain that reputation at whatever cost. All churches of all races must lend a helping hand of cooperation. Uniformity of principle and attitude is much more important than uniformity of organizaton. Whenever, and so long as, it is expedient and necessary for races to support separate and distinct religious organizations, there should be the closest possible co-operation among them, as being the only available institutions which can freely and unselfishly foster the best interests of all races. Ministers and other religious leaders should sit down together and consult each other in a frank facing of facts and situations; a spirit of mutual respect and confidence should be cultivated, mutual standards of procedure should be sent up and adhered to, the jingo press should ï»¿THE CHURCH AND RACE RELATIONS 493 be condemned without fear, corrupt courts, designing politicians, labor exploiters, discriminating and oppressing employees and corporations, agitators disguised in the cloak of religion, all these should be condemned and suppressed uni-f ormly|8^ :7;. Such a program of Christian service would not be wrought out in the interest of any race particularly, unless some particular race were an immediate victim of wrong, but in the interest of all classes and all races indiscriminately, as being the outstanding and universal demand of our religion. Probably the greatest, the most powerful, single group of men in America is the group dedicated to the Christian ministry. They have access to the ears and hearts of the most powerful and influential nuclei of men and women in our land the church people, whom they lead with more or less of ecclesiastical authority. It is stimulating to contemplate the tremendous results which would come from their aggressive leadership if only they launched a united, consistent program in the interest of racial justice and welfare. God grant that such a program may be launched. This would mean the utilization of every means at hand, educational, religious, social, commercial. The people must be taught. Trained people are the hope of advancement toward correct attitudes. Ignorance and superstition are breeders of prejudice. We are dependent upon the best elements in all races to give drift to sentiment and to ascertain how far and how rapidly steps consistent with expediency can be taken. Deeming the end sought worthy of the most judicious effort, leaders in all races will have regard for the virtue of expediency. Traditional and hereditary conditions must be recognized ; present needs in any race must be frankly considered, sentiments and surroundings must be weighed. Always and everywhere the rule must apply that men have to be taken as they are and not as we think they ought to be. Then let patience have her perfect work. Many things may need to be righted, but steps toward that end need to be cautiously advanced in the interest of expediency. Progress is always desirable, but is often slow. Let us also remember that haste often makes waste. Frequently leaders are compelled to wait until their constituency can overtake them. Momentum can be secured only as rapidly as people can be induced to advance. Sometimes it has been discovered that "even when Christian leaders were in full agreement and had promoted their social teaching by every available method of educational propaganda, they had failed to carry public opinion with them to the extent ï»¿494 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN of producing fundamental changes in conduct or the adoption of effective reforms. Apparently the people, while they respected these leaders, did not or could not go with them all the way because they had not had part in the thought and study through which the conclusion presented to them had been arrived at." There is great hope in humanity and in the progress now being made toward standardization of ideals for the races. But progress can be made only as we adhere strictly to the sound principle of human brotherhood. "The race problem is a human problem. Until we think of all citizens as human beings, with human rights, human interest, and human possibilities; until we insist on equality of opportunity, equality before the law, equal sanitary provisions, equal protection of person and property; until we become conscious of a common brotherhood and cease to exploit the weak, we are not even in sight of the goal." A TRIBUTE TO DR. MOTON AND TUSKEGEE 'TPHE following letter was written to Dr. Moton by Miss Ma- bel Shaw, a missionary under the London Missionary Society to primitive tribes in the heart of Africa, in Northern Rhodesia. It is reprinted from the Southern Letter published at Tuskegee Institute. "My dear Dr. Moton: "I am leaving for Penn School early in the morning. I may not see you and am therefore writing my thanks to you for all that these days at Tuskegee have meant to me. "Before I left England I was not very eager to come to America to see your schools. My heart was just aflame with desire to get back to my little forest school in Africa. All my years in England little hands have been beckoning and children's voices calling. I have been restless to get back to them all the time, and the. thought of still further delaying my return for a six weeks' visit to America was not altogether a happy one. "But all of these days at Tuskegee I have been giving thanks; here I have been looking, not so much at the things seen and temporal, as at those unseen things which are eternal. I have been seeing Africa anew seeing God in Africa as never before and I am now facing all the years ahead with a more glorious hope, my feet standing upon a rock which can never be shaken. Here I have not only "touched and handled things unseen" but I carry them forever in my heart to be strength, ï»¿A TRIBUTE TO DR. MOTON 495 courage, patience, and hope through all the rest of life that God gives me in Africa. "Will you forgive me if I speak personally? That which will stand out forever most vividly is my first Sunday-evening service in the chapel. You spoke to us of uprightness and honesty and made goodness and truth so attractive, so gloriously worth while that I think not one of us who was listening could have failed to reach out lovingly after these things. As you spoke I was conscious of the meanness of my own thoughts, .dishonesty of purpose, and little insincerities and I felt burdened with shame. But as I listened to you I forgot myself and my shame. I became a child again in the Father's presence; I was by His side being forgiven, made clean and sweet again with His blessing and made strong to conquer all that was untrue within me. It seemed to me there that we were all children and you were interpreting to us and making real to us the Fatherhood of God and His way with us. "I think that every student who goes forth from this place, goes forth rich in many things but richest of all in that he has seen a picture of that great Fatherhood. I saw it last Sunday night and I shall never, never forget. I saw it again in the chapel Saturday night under qaiite different circumstances. There was restlessness, a little excitement and disorder, and you spoke sternly as God does to us at times and there was quietness at once and control and a sense of peace and security and utter safety. These two pictures will live forever. "There are times in Africa when danger comes very near lions are around my camp and my men look to me. If I show fear they are panic-stricken and things happen in the school; the children lose control and I have to steady them and at times there is panic in my own heart, I am afraid. It is at such times that the memory of that night at Tuskegee will come to steady me and with it will come the quiet, the security, the peace, and the sense of safety. "These are the greatest things that Tuskegee has given me and there are many other things, so many that I can't begin to tell you of them. And words are too small, too inadequate to express my thankfulness for these things; only my life can ever express the gratitude I feel. "I shall think of Tuskegee often, with thought that is always prayer, and sometimes when in chapel you remember all your own and others who, in Africa and elsewhere, are striving to make known the kingdom of God as it is being made known here at Tuskegee, perhaps I may be one of all those you pray for." T EADERS of the Negro race ought to impress upon the Negro youth and adults the optimistic, hopeful side of life. They should keep in mind not the bad but the good, not the hopeless but the hopeful, not what Negroes cannot do but what they can do. Robert R. Moton ï»¿A HELPFUL ROTARY CLUB (Reprinted from the "Survey") HE Rotarians of Athens, Georgia, have been hauling brick A this summer to build a Negro school. Twenty years ago Mrs. Judia C. Jackson Harris, the â€¢ colored principal of a school in the city, began to show Negroes of the neighboring farmland how by putting their meager buying power together in land clubs they could gradually achieved ownership of the soil on which their existence depended. Share by share, with payments of as little as ten or fifteen cents a month, the club built up its capital until it could begin renting out the purchased land to its members. Mrs. Harris tells in the Athens Banner-Herald how, on the night when the first bale of cotton was ready for delivery as rent for the first allotment of land, "The moon was very bright........The men made a touching picture as they sat on this cotton bale out in the yard. One man remarked, 'Did we ever think we could be taking in cotton rent?' At this meeting the men and women sat up all night, singing and praying and weeping over this one bale of cotton." On part of the land a school was built: the Teacher Training and Industrial Institute. Athens is a university town, and the school had from the beginning the support of responsible white citizens. But out in the county there was hard going for a Negro school which sponsored land ownership; Mrs. Harris's home was shot into at midnight; a dog with its throat cut was left on the school porch; a man passing the school in the afternoon fired point blank into the door, where the scar of the bullet remained for years. Mrs. Harris held the fort; the disorderly neighbors became peaceful ; the school has grown and sent its graduates up and down the country to fill useful roles. Last November the main school building burned. An interracial committee went before the local board of commissioners and secured an appropriation from public funds toward the expense of rebuilding. A white clergyman interested the Rotary Club in hauling building materials. Prominent members helped to load the trucks. The white women of Athens are replacing the library which burned with the school building. This educational adventure, a school established and run by Negroes for Negroes, has been a focal point of interracial goodwill in Georgia. ï»¿A PROGRESSIVE COLORED FARMER BY J. P. WALLER NE of the most successful farmers I know is Phillip Barnes of Standard, Louisiana. His annual income is approximately $1750; his assets $6491. He owns 45 acres of land valued at $3000, which is improved as follows: residence $1700, three-quarters of a mile of wire fencing $179, one-quarter of a mile of miscellaneous fence $50, and miscellaneous buildings $250. He has steel fencing, brick, and other material for future improvement worth $50, farm implements, wagons, etc., valued at $200, and livestock worth $375. Although he bought the place only four years ago a dense mass of saplings, briars, and vines today he has a modern farm with seventeen acres of cleared land growing excellent crops of peanuts, potatoes, cane, corn, and cotton, and about one-fourth of an acre in garden, most of which is fenced with hog- and cattle-wire with enough on hand to replace all wooden structure. Nevertheless his barns and other auxiliary buildings do not conform to the atmosphere of the farm, but his plans for their immediate replacement are well under way. His orchard, an excellent young one, consists of thirty-five trees apple, peach, and pear to which he is expecting to add at least thirty trees this fall. ï»¿498 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN He has enough cows, hogs, poultry, and other farm animals to meet the requiremnets of the family, with other products, such as eggs, chickens, butter, and milk, to spare, and sufficient garden for immediate and canning needs. His farm, well kept, impresses one with the importance of diligent cultivation. His house (not painted, however) is a modern cottage well built and furnished. His living-room contains fine old colonial furniture worth at least $800. In addition there is a valuable library, which the entire family enjoys. "My success is due largely to our make-it-at-home program," he said, "not to my efforts alone, but also to those of my family; not to receipts from general field crops, such as oats, corn, and cotton, but to subsidiaries as well. From my potatoes, peanuts, peas, cane, garden truck, poultry, hogs, and cows I obtain the major portion of our food, as well as considerable revenue. Aside from these I get some money from wood and other timber products which I market occasionally. â€¢ * "At present there are upon our storeroom shelves one hundred cans of vegetables such as beans, beets, and peas, and ample home-made jellies, jams, and preserves to tide us over the slack season. To these we are expecting to add a large quantity of lima beans and okra. In this we owe our success to the untiring efforts of our colored home-demonstration agent, Miss Stazia Hutson. ï»¿"Although we have an abundance of canned foods I invariably try to have a supply of green vegetables on the farm and am now preparing the land for an immediate planting of fall potatoes and turnips. My cows have proved the most profitable of all my farm animals, but my chickens also pay well. "Although I am doing fairly well, and so are a number of my colored friends hereabouts, I am of the opinion that what we colored folk need most is better educational facilities and the co-operative assistance of the white race." In addition to what I have already said, let me add that Mr. Barnes has a nice little bank account and a farm clear of incumbrances. He is also widely known and respected as a preacher by both whites and blacks throughout north central Louisiana. ^"HEN every farmer in the South shall eat bread from his own fields and meat from his own pastures; and, disturbed by no creditor and enslaved by no debt, shall sit amid his teeming gardens, and orchards, and vineyards, and dairies, and barnyards, planting his crops in his own wisdom and growing them in independence, then shall be breaking the fullness of our day. Henry W. Grady ï»¿FROM SLAVE FARM TO COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL i it, the Dixon Plantation, or, as it was later called, the Robbins Farm, with its hundred slaves, its "Big House," and six hundred acres of level land, occupied a conspicuous place under the antebellum regime in the life of the lower end of Gloucester County, Virginia. Today the entire six-hundred-acre holding, with the exception of twenty-three acres deeded to the State for a county training school and some thirty-five including the Robbins grist mill, is owned by colored people, some of them descendants of slaves on the old plantation. And the "Big House," where, tradition has it, the two house servants were the only Negroes who were given any instruction in reading on the farm, has now become a dormitory which houses teachers and those pupils who, coming from distant parts of the county, are unable to return to their homes at the close of each school day. Where sixty years ago ignorance and indifference were the common lot, the same land and the remaining physical property are today being used to develop the capacities of a race. But this transformation has not come without effort. Determined leadership has been constantly behind the project of developing the Gloucester County Training School. To Tom Walker, or Lawyer Walker, or T. C. Walker, as he is variously called at home, or abroad in his native State, where his activities constantly call him in the fields of education and child welfare, belongs the credit for furnishing the dynamic energy and continuous interest necessary to push a school from one room and teacher to a plant of seven buildings and eight teachers. When T. C. Walker returned to his home county after graduating from Hampton Institute in the early eighties, the one-room log cabins, the lack of schools, the rented land, the empty home life, gave the young man the cue for the great interest and passion for better schools which has gripped him ever since, and he at once hired out as a teacher in the largest one-room school in the county for $22.50 per month. Into this little building the zeal and personality of its teacher BY ALLEN B. DOGGETT, JR. back but that the oldest residents may recall ï»¿FROM SLAVE FARM TO COUNTY SCHOOL 501 soon attracted a class of 125 pupils. This group was the beginning of what is now called the Gloucester County Training School, which carries its pupils through the third year of high school and sends many of them on to professional careers. How the county school board at the persistent solicitation of the young teacher promised to furnish another teacher for MR. THOMAS C. WALKER THE FIRST TWO BUILDINGS OF THE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL the overcrowded schoolhouse if the patrons of the school would add another room, how the room was added, and, that building in turn becoming overcrowded, how the local board ï»¿502 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN finally agreed some sixteen years later to match dollar for dollar in the erection of a four-room schoolhouse, is a story of triumph in teaching an entire county the value of education and in ability to secure the maximum from the county authorities. MR. WALKER'S BIRTHPLACE WHERE HE WENT TO SCHOOL WHERE HIS CHILDREN WENT TO SCHOOL To see the school plant today is to think of it as always having been there, but no doubt there are still those who as they attend the entertainments, the school closings, or the farmers' conferences, recall the fields, where now stand the school buildings, and the old mansion house, when they were put to far different uses. Despite all the changes that have been made in this property the leader in the great transformation is still not content with his work. He must needs improve his equipment, secure higher salaries so that he can retain his best teachers, paint the buildings, improve and beautify the ï»¿FROM SLAVE FARM TO COUNTY SCHOOL 503 grounds. The work will never be done so long as T. C. Walker ranges the offices of school boards, the centres of philanthropy, and the farms and homes of Gloucester County to gather in the support for his work of transforming a county with the help of a school. Mr. Walker, between the time he gave up active teaching six years after his first experience in the one-room school and his agitation for an adequate four-room building, had been doing many interesting things for himself and his people. For instance, he had passed the bar examinations of his State and had been practicing law for some years, using his talents in THE FIRST BUILDING OF THE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL WHICH HE HAS BUILT FOR HIS NEIGHBORS' CHILDREN the court room where the need for them was great. Then, too, he had been pushing a county-wide home-owning movement by founding and directing the Gloucester County Land and Brick Company, which by its signal success in financing and directing the building operations of the new landowners, had shown the way to others interested in purchasing on the group plan large tracts of land for home purposes. It so happened that a large share of the Robbins Farm was bought by a group under his direction, enabling those to own land and homes who as individuals would not have been able to do so. The colored population had thus thrown its anchor overboard in Gloucester County and its transient, roving quality disappeared with each purchase of land and the erection of each home. There was now something to build upon. Fresh from these successes, he formed an Educational Association which was to help in raising money for the four-room schoolhouse to meet the dollar-for-dollar condition ï»¿A MEETING OF THE GLOUCESTER EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION posed by the county school board. This was the first organization of its kind among colored people of Virginia and was the forerunner of the Patrons' Leagues which are behind so many similar projects today. With the erection of the four-room building at a cost of $6000 four teachers were secured and the first public, graded school in the county for Negroes began its work. It was a big step from one room, one teacher, and one hundred and twenty-five pupils. But there was no satisfying this vigorous leader. The school term was only five months long. Too short! The pupils should have another month of schooling. So Lawyer Walker left the county for a few days and returned with money sufficient to pay his THE SECOND SCHOOL BUILDING ï»¿FROM SLAVE FARM TO COUNTY SCHOOL 505 teachers another month, and the school term in the graded school became six months long. School terms have been slowly-lengthening all over the State, however, and since 1924 the teachers in this same building are paid by the county for eight months' teaching, although it has been necessary to supplement this remuneration with funds raised elsewhere in order to keep the type of teacher which meets the standard set for the county training school. Meanwhile children were coming to the school some of whom walked a distance of five miles night and morning to take advantage of the graded school. They were ready, some of them, to stay on in school beyond the seventh grade. Those who wished to go on to higher schools must be prepared at home. Something had to be done to meet this need for classes on the high-school level. So Mr. Walker went to the school board and told of his need. But, it seemed, there was no money. Nothing could be done about it at the time. Could Tom Walker have permission to put up another building? He could if he found the money. Simple permission was enough and a year later the lumber was piled near the site selected and the second school building was erected with the help of the Rosenwald and Jeanes Funds, from each of which Mr. Walker succeeded in securing $600. It contains two large classrooms and two small rooms used, before the purchase of the old Robbins plantation house, for domestic-science practice. Throughout the evolution of the training school the idea of some teaching of domestic arts and agriculture had been held to, for, almost from the first, at least one-half day a week had been devoted to practical instruction in these subjects. In 1921 the Smith-Hughes Bill made it possible to secure a qualified teacher of agriculture, with salary paid by the State and Federal Governments, who could devote all his time to the teaching of agriculture, farm shop work, and the strengthening of the farming practices of the school community through part-time classes for adults. This opportunity was seized upon at once and the teacher of agriculture came, making five teachers. At about the same time the Jeanes Fund offered to pay one-half the salary of an instructor in domestic science, and a teacher with Hampton training was secured to develop this end of the work. Just where the other half of her salary was to come from was at the time not known. The point was that the school needed the teacher and the expense was justified. The money would be secured from somewhere. It was, and still is. Anticipating the time when the training school would be doing more than one year of work on the high-school level, ï»¿506 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN and realizing the distances some of the girls were traveling in some cases fifteen and sixteen miles T. C. Walker began agitation for the purchase of the old Robbins house and its adjoining forty-three acres, which would be useful in connection with the agricultural work. First he went as usual to the school board. Now T. C. Walker is an orator. His eye fires when he pleads for one more step in the development of education in his home county. He had known the characteristics of the members of the board, with one exception, since childhood. He went before them and, no doubt, warmed to his subject. The answer came. They were not in a position to help. But the words of the board only increased Walker's determination to complete the facilities of the school. The date for the sale it was to be sold by the county for cash was fast approaching. There was little time to get in touch with and interest private sources of help. The location of the old "Big House" and the land in relation to the school buildings already erected was ideal. The chance must be taken advantage of and the property secured for the colored people. The day of the sale came and, without a dollar to pay for it, Lawyer Walker bid in the property. That night he left the county. Meanwhile the county officials were looking for the cash, with the deed in their hands. It was during this enforced trip that, while walking across the Hampton campus, he ran into the late Dr. Buttrick. Friends that the two were, they exchanged greetings. But the school was always on the mind of the black man. His geniality suddenly broke and he said, "Dr. Buttrick, I'm in trouble." Then he told his story. The upshot of this chance meeting was that the General Education Board sent through Mr. Jackson Davis a check for $1000. This was immediately paid over and good intentions established, but the unpaid balance still jeopardized the entire project. Later on $800 came from the same source and with $600 borrowed on his personal note, using twenty acres of the farm as collateral, Mr. Walker finally secured the property. He then presented the county with the deed for twenty-three acres of land and the house and barns upon it and was ready for the next step; renovating and adding to the structure, providing for heat and light, installing the equipment for domestic-science work and for the dormitory for both teachers and students. Hard work, single-handed work, was ahead. It would have been much simpler to practice law or meet his many calls for educational addresses throughout the State with talk alone. However, strange to say, word leaked out of the county that help was ï»¿THE ROBBINS HOMESTEAD, NOW THE TEACHERS' HOME OF THE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL t needed in building a home for the teachers of the training school. The Rosenwald Fund heard of it, considered it essential in the development of this plant, sent $1000 for the teachers' home and an addition was built. Equipment throughout the enlarged and renovated building was, in the main, donated by friends in the North. The kitchen equipment came through a special fund of the General Education Board. And so, from one source and another, necessities were obtained until today the old place takes care comfortably and safely of teachers and girls and provides a sewing room, a kitchen, and a dining-room all of which are used in the domestic-science training. While all this was going on it became necessary for the school to meet the requirement for a separate building to house the farm shop work, and Mr. Walker made a trip to Philadelphia to enlist the interest of the Negroes of that city in his project. He spoke at the church of Rev. W. F. Graham, in one night raising $400 for the teaching of carpentry in the training school. Other talks to colored audiences in the same city brought in more money. The building was put up and now houses the classes in agriculture and the work with tools. But despite these efforts no help came from the county and there is still $400 owing on this building. The heating and lighting equipment was for a time a formidable obstacle to be overcome. Small wood stoves would increase the fire hazard as would also kerosene lamps. But out of a clear sky a well-known friend of Negro education ï»¿farm gave $2400 with which a heating and lighting plant was installed. Now electricity lights the schoolrooms, the agricultural shop, the the dormitory, and the four-room house used by the men teachers. This last-mentioned building, by the way, was an old farm structure out of which, by judicious use of laths, plaster, paint, and clapboards, a comfortable place has been made for the men teachers and the young men students. The renovating of the building for the men made a total of six buildings now used for educational and housing purposes. No use is at present made of the big barn which, as it now stands, was a part of the original purchase, but the plan is to have a couple of cows mr. walker at the door 0fan(j some hens when funds and the power plant organization make it possible. Mr. Walker gives one-half of his time to the school when he is in the county, and the school board has appointed him principal, to serve without pay. As he visits the eight classrooms, notes the calibre of the teaching, and supervises each detail in the school experience of the three hundred pupils who daily attend the training school, which now carries its pupils up to the fourth year of high school, satisfaction in his building must surely outweigh the trials of campaigning for funds, rebuffs from those in authority, and misunderstandings on the part of the patrons themselves. Take Tom Walker, and the work he has accomplished, out of Gloucester County, and many of its splendid qualities would shrink. But most of all his interests his work with the Gloucester County Training School reveals a leader, a man of vision, and one who gets things done. T HE question with the Negroes is not one of special proficiency, of success in one direction the pursuit of knowledge but of success all around- It is one of morals, industry, self-restraint; of power to organize society, to draw social lines between the decent and indecent, to form public sentiment that shall support pure morals, and to show common sense in the relations of life. Armstrong ï»¿THE GREAT HUNGER BY EMORY D. ALVORD IT WAS late in January and the middle of the growing season, yet for twenty-three days there had been no rain. No one who has not been there can know what this would mean in Gazaland where, during the months from November to March, the tropical sun is directly overhead. Day after day it had blazed down unmercifully from a clear sky. Long ago the grass had shriveled up and turned yellow. Even the leaves of deep-rooted trees had curled up and turned black. Along a path ankle deep in burning hot dust Prince Hefazi and his younger brothers, Jobo and Mafuta, were returning from a visit to the Wizard Musikavantu, who was known to the six tribes of the Shangaan nation as the Great Rainmaker. He was Keeper of the Great Spirit Tree at Chikore. The Chikore tree is a landmark for many miles around, the largest of its kind in all Gazaland. The old men could tell many a tale of the days before the coming of the white men. In those days the ground under the Chikore tree was continually wet with the blood of human sacrifices to the vadzimu. The three boys had remembered those stories as they stood under the broad-spreading branches of the massive tree. On the homeward journey they passed the time reviewing those tales. The picture displayed to their eyes as they turned off the trail at King Pandi's kraal differed vastly from that of five months earlier. Then Mufundis, the white teacher of farming at the Mt. Silinda School, had joined them in an antelope hunt and for weeks afterwards they had feasted on the abundance of meat he had shot for them. Now there could be no feasting. There was nothing to eat. Long ago that meat was used up. There was no grain left. During the digging season, according to custom, they had turned all the grain into beer and consumed it as they danced night after night to the ancestral spirits. They had kept some grain to tide them over until the early crops would be ripe. But now there were no crops even though they had done everything they knew to appease the anger of the spirits. Last November they had paid Gudza, the witch-doctor, the customary fee for rain and the rain had fallen in torrents. But the ground, having been baked hard and dry by the hot sun during the long dry season, most of that first rain had run away into the rivers and was lost. Only the top inch or two â™¦"The Great Hunper" is Chapter XI of Mr. Alford's forthcoming book "Prince Jobo: A Breath of Wild Africa." ï»¿of the soil was softened. Then they danced and stock of had and dug wasted their grain in beer-making, and with the soil in a very poor condition they had planted the seed and trusted to the rain-doctors, and the vadzimu to bring them a good crop. But the spirits and the rain-doctors had betrayed their trust. There just enough the was moisture to sprout seeds. When no more rain fell, those tender seedlings were scorched to death by the hot sun. Frantically the people appealed to the witch-doctors. Gudza had reaped a rich harvest in the form of gold and gifts. Once more they danced to the spirits and consumed the little keep Late grain remaining to them from starvation, in December the rain came but it was a month too late. The best planting time was past. But quickly they prepared the soil and planted the little seed they had saved up. The seed germinated well and the whole country became a verdant green. Then came the dry spell in January just when the delayed corn was about two feet tall and needed moisture most. Twenty-three days and not a drop of rain! Gudza, the rainmaker, after trying every charm he knew without results, Certain spirits were angry because no a witch-doctor began to make excuses, beer-drink had been made in their honor. Hastily the people somehow got together enough grain for a beer-drink and dance. But no rain came. Next Gudza claimed that the graves of the ancestors had not been properly cared for. Faint with hunger, man, woman, and child had labored to fix up the graves. ï»¿THE MT. SILINDA SCHOOL Still there was no rain. Then Gudza said it was because Majulani, whom he had smelled out at a witch-dance as a murderer, had not been punished. Men sought Majulani but he had gone away to work in the mines at Johannesburg. Many knew that Gudza had a quarrel with Majulani because the latter had refused to sell him his beautiful daughter. So they began to talk about it and gradually the people lost faith in Gudza. Led by the king they compelled him to return the money they had paid him for rain. This amount, together with an additional contribution from all of Pandi's people, had been put into a monkey-skin pouch and Pandi's heir apparent, Hefazi, accompanied by Prince Jobo and Maf uta, had been commissioned to go to the Great Musikavantu and buy rain. They felt that their last hope lay in the Great Rain-maker. A CORNER OF THE MT. SILINDA FARM ï»¿THE ABOVE PICTURES SHOW HOW MUCH GREATER THE YIELD OF CORN IS WHEN CULTIVATED BY SCIENTIFIC METHODS, THE PLOT ON THE EXTREME LEFT YIELDING ELEVEN AND FIVE-TENTHS BUSHELS PER ACRE AND THE ONE ON THE EXTREME RIGHT, ONE HUNDRED AND SIX. As the three young men entered the home kraal they saw King Pandi busy at work under the ancestral spirit tree. With smiling faces they appproached him. "Tamuona, baba."(Greetings, father!) they said in unison. "Yea-bo!" acknowledged Pandi. "Why are you so happy? Have you good news?" "Yes, father," replied Hafazi, "we have indeed good news. The Great Rain-maker was very pleased with our gift and has promised us much rain. And as we returned in the path we met four sons of the big King of the Mashanga. They had come from down by the ocean, a six-days' march, and they carried much gold for Musikavantu. When the Great Rainmaker receives that gift he will surely make rain." "Well, I hope he does." Pandi's faith had weakened. "Remember, my sons, the Great Hunger when you were very young. Then even the Great Rain-maker failed." "What! can Musikavantu fail?" The boys were thunderstruck. "He did fail once. We can only wait; he is now our only hope." ï»¿THE GREAT HUNGER 513 "What are you making, father?" asked Jobo, greatly interested. "I am trying to make a trap for antelope," replied Pandi. "But, father, the antelope have all fled to the high veld." "Are there none left, my son?" "There are very few, father." Prince Jobo, who although young, was acknowledged an authority on hunting lore. "The grass is all dead here. The low veld belongs now to the lions, jackals, and wild dogs." "That last is quite true," agreed Pandi. "While you were away the lions came in the night and killed three of our best cattle. And yesterday a pack of wild dogs got among the sheep and goats. Those three over there by that anthill are all that are left of the herd." "I hope the lions do not become man-eaters because of the scarcity of game." said Hefazi. Just then the woods down by the river echoed to the thundering roar of a male lion, and near-by from a thicket came the ghastly, mad cackle of the laughing hyena. "Wow!" exclaimed Jobo. "Never before have I heard them so close to the kraal." "Nor have I," said the king. "Last night the hyenas and jackals made the night hideous with their awful howls." "Let us hope they do not howl over our bleached bones before the year is over," said Maufuta. "Where are all the women and children?" inquired Hef azi. "The women are out in the veld gathering wild roots and bark to eat, all except Favase, your mother, and the children are .with them. Favase is in her hut sick from eating wild roots that were not properly soaked and the poison washed out." "Is there no meal for her?" "None. The meal is all gone and the mutendeni roots of the veld are almost finished. If rain does not come within two weeks, then well" Pandi waved his arms in a way that indicated that it would not matter by then what happened. .1' p'^^^y. ?T^T . :.,.. - They were interrupted by the arrival of strangers a man, two women, and three children. All were badly emaciated from starvation, barely able to walk. Their bones stuck out in ridges through the dry, wrinkled skin. The children had the usual large, distended stomachs caused by eating the unpalatable roots and bark. After greetings were exchanged the man made himself known. "I am Kubuya," he said, "son of your brother Bongani. ï»¿- 514 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN These are my wives and children. We are from the Sabi Valley, three days' journey to the south. We have fled the Great Hunger. We throw ourselves upon your mercy." So saying he prostrated himself before the king. The women and children did likewise. "You are welcome to share all we have," said Pandi. "A relative is never refused shelter and food among the Shangaan." "Thank you, our father!" Kubuya's entire family showed their gratitude. "You are all welcome," said the king. "How is the hun-ger in the low country?" "You see us; we came from there. We are more fortunate than many," replied Kubuya. "Many people have gone to join the ancestral spirits. The veld is scattered with their bones and it is nothing but holes where the edible wild roots have been dug." "It will soon be that way here," said Pandi. "Already our crops have been burned up by the sun. But if rain comes soon we may yet get our living from the veld." "I have heard," remarked Kubuya, "that Mufundis, the white teacher of farming at Silinda, has a very large field of corn just now in tassel." "Yes, I too have heard that story," replied the king. ""It is all over the low country. But I do not believe it. It is not possible that one new to the country should have such corn as the story credits him with when we who have always lived here have nothing but scorched and withered plants in our gardens. I do not believe it." "But, father, it is true!" exclaimed the king's three sons in unison. "With our own eyes we saw it. It is true." "When did you see it? What is it like?" The king was greatly interested. "We saw it when we returned from Chikore," explained Hefazi. "It is a very great field and the corn is much higher than our heads with big, broad, green leaves." "It must be good corn." "It is. It is better than we ourselves can grow in ordinary years." "If you have seen it then it must be true." But Pandi was still doubtful. "Mufundis must be a very great witchdoctor. How otherwise could he have such corn when there has been no rain?" "How indeed!" exclaimed Prince Hefazi and Kubuya. "Mufundis is not a witch-doctor," insisted Jobo. ï»¿THE GREAT HUNGER 515 "But he is very wise." added Mafuta, "and he uses his head." Not long after that King Pandi saw the corn at Mt. Silinda and heard the explanation of why it grew so well. It was early in February. Mufundis, "the teacher," as the Shangaan called him, was much worried. He had taken great pride in the fifty-acre field of corn that the school boys had planted under his supervision. He knew that with the abundance of moisture stored up in the soil there would be no more danger from drought. Besides, at Silinda, he took care of the weather-recording instruments for the Rhodesian Government and these told him that a good rain was due in a few days. He was not worried about the lack of rain. His worry was for another reason. He had followed scientific methods of farming with the corn. But he was now confronted with a problem that the textbooks of the best agricultural schools in America had not taught him to solve. He was face to face with Africa Africa with its great variety of wild life. He had heard how the natives had to watch their fields day and night to keep away the animal pests. Now that problem was his. Since there was nothing in the native fields for these pests it seemed to the white man that all the four-legged field robbers in Gazaland had concentrated on his beautiful fifty-acre field of corn. In the daytime came the baboons, monkeys, guinea fowl, and various kinds of birds. At night came the wild pigs, wrarthogs, porcupines, jackals, and a dozen species of antelope. He had hired boys to guard the field by day and men to watch by night, but every day the farm foreman reported more corn destroyed. The wild pigs were the worst. If the reader wants to get an idea of what the wild pigs can do let him turn a herd of the tame variety into a field of corn, then multiply the damage they do by ten to make up for the wildness of the African variety. Mufundis was driven to distraction. Finally he and the farm foreman hit upon a plan. They decided to arrange a native hunt. Since so many of the animal pests were together in one place it would be a good time to take toll among them. It would also afford a chance for a great many hungry natives to get a good supply of meat. Accordingly Mufundis announced that on the following Tuesday they would meet at noon under a cluster of big trees which stood near one side of the corn field. There they would organize an afternoon game hunt in the tall grass and thicket adjacent, where they knew that most of the wild pigs, antelope, and other pests would be hidden. All the natives of the surrounding country were invited to attend. The news spread far and wide like wildfire. ï»¿516 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN King Pandi's country was about twenty miles from Mt. Silinda and the news reached even there. Sunday afternoons passers-by happened to mention the coming hunt. Prince Jobo and Mafuta were wild with enthusiasm to go. "Let us go, father," implored Jobo. "Think of the chance to kill meat for the little children and our sick mother." "And think of the chance you will have to see the great corn field," chimed in Mafuta. "All right, we will go," agreed Pandi, "but on one condition. You two boys must go up and down the valley and call all the strongest hunters. We must make it worth while. Tell them to bring food. We will meet here and travel tomorrow, sleeping on the path. We must be fresh and strong for the hunt. I have spoken." King Pandi and his men arrived at the meeting place for the hunt a little after noon. There they found many other hunters. All of them had heard of the fabulous corn. Now they saw it in reality. The hunt was to begin at two o'clock. While waiting, several of them climbed into the trees to get a better view of the field. They looked and marveled at the acres and acres of ripening grain, and shouted exaggerated statements to those below. The average size of a native's field is about two acres. This field contained fifty acres. It was much larger than anything they had ever imagined. Gradually the crowd grew. Men and boys came trailing in from all directions. The hunters naturally divided themselves into two parties. In one party were the vatendi, or "believers," as the Shangaan had called those who had taken up with the white man's teaching. They were most of them dressed in tough khaki shirts and trousers. Some had hats and shoes. A few had guns. In marked contrast to these were the spirt-worshipers, almost naked and bristling with spears and bows and arrows. As they waited an animated argument arose. They were arguing about the field of corn. The spirit-worshipers contended that Mufundis was a great witch-doctor or rain-maker and that he had made rain for his own field while their fields had perished in the hot sun. One witchdoctor who was present insisted that the white man was angry with them for not becomnig believers and had cast a spell upon their crops. For was it not true that many of the believers had fairly good corn also? The believers insisted that the white man was not a witch-doctor or rain-maker. They tried to explain why some of their crops and especially this crop grew so well. Everybody was talking at once and the argument grew more and ï»¿THE GREAT HUNGER 517 more heated. Just at this point Mufundis arrived. He thought that a war was about to break out between the believers and the spirit-worshipers. When he understood what the argument was about he called for attention. Everyone became quiet and he spoke. "Listen, my friends," began the white man, "I have heard some of your talk just now. I know you would all like to be able to grow corn like this. Shall I tell you the secret of this field of corn?" "E-ya! Yea-bo! Yes, Mufundis!" thundered the multitude, "That is good. I will tell it to you. Just follow me." He led them to a near-by ox-yard where the work oxen had been penned during the plowing season. This ox-yard had not been used for several months and there was a dry litter of straw and rubbish scattered all over it. When the natives had all grouped themselves about the fence, the white man, who stood in the center, called for attention. "Will all of the kings and chiefs please come forward?" he asked. About a dozen or so men stepped inside the fence and approached. Foremost and most dignified among them was King Pandi. "Now," continued the white man, "I want you kings and chiefs to listen attentively. You are leaders among your people because you are the wisest among them. They will not understand what I am about to tell you, but if you open your eyes and ears and think clearly you will understand. I want you to learn well the secret of this corn that you may teach it to your people. Then never again will there be a Great Hunger in Gazaland. Do you hear?" "Yes, Mufundis, we hear." They were all listening attentively. "It is good. Then just do as I say and listen well and you will learn the secret. First I want you to take your spears and rake off the loose straw and rubbish from over the ground where you stand." The kings and chiefs obeyed. "What do you see?" asked the white man. "The ground is all wet!" two or three shouted. They all looked at each other understandingly. "It is here that Mufundis makes his rain clouds," asserted one. "No, you are wrong," Mufundis smiled. "That ground is wet from last year's rains and the heavy rains of November." "But why has it not dried away?" asked King Pandi. "That is a very sensible question. It is because the dry loose rubbish on top kept the hot sun from shining upon it ï»¿518 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN and drinking up the moisture, and so the moisture stayed in the ground. But this wet ground has nothing to do with the field of corn. I am showing it to you only as an illustration. Now come with me to the corn field." The white man led the way, followed by the kings and chiefs. In the rear came the wondering multitude. Mufundis led them some distance into the field that they might be thoroughly impressed with its size. Then he halted and called the kings and chiefs together. "Now, listen to me carefully while I tell you the secret of this wonderful corn. First look carefully at the surface of the soil. What is it like?" "It is dry and very loose," said one. "It is dry dust only," said another. "Yes, it is dry and loose," agreed Mufundis, "just like the rubbish in the ox-yard. Now stick your toes down into the loose soil and scoop it away with your feet." They wonderingly obeyed. "What is the soil like beneath?" asked the white teacher. "A! Mai, wail Mother of mine! It is wet! The soil is full of moisture!" exclaimed the awestruck natives. Here indeed was witchcraft. The soil in their own fields was hard and bone dry. They looked at each other nodding their heads and murmuring understandingly. "How do you think that moisture got there?" the white man smiled. He knew their answer. "Mtakati! Witchcraft! The wizardry of the white man!" exclaimed several. "Mufundis is a great rain-maker," asserted others. Everybody was talking. The white man motioned for silence. "No! You are wrong. There was no witchcraft here. I did not make rain. I only followed the simple rules of farming that you in your ignorance have not learned. This is the same lesson I tried to show you at the ox-yard. This loose dry soil here serves just as the loose dry rubbish in the ox-yard. It keeps the hot sun from drinking up the moisture in the ground beneath it." "But how did that moisture get there?" asked King Pandi. "You have questioned well. That moisture is from last year's rainy season and from the rains of November and December. Now listen. I will tell you just how that moisture was kept there. We all harvest our crops in April and May. Don't we?" - ï»¿THE GREAT HUNGER 519 "Yes, Mufundis, it is so." They were all attention. "The rains are over in April. Then comes the long dry-season. You people do not dig your fields until the rains come in November. Is it not true?" "Yes," Mufundis, it is true." "Before that November rain the ground becomes very hard and dry because all the moisture of the last rainy season has been devoured by the hot sun. Do I speak true words?" ".y "You indeed speak true words, Mufundis." "Then listen here is the great secret I plough my fields in May and June soon after the crops are harvested. At that time the soil is full of moisture. I plough well and I plough deep. During the long dry season I take my harrows and my thornbush drag and I keep the ground loose and dry on top just as you see it now. Then the sun cannot drink up the moisture. When seed time comes, I plant. I do not need to wait for the rains. There is moisture already in the soil from last year's rain. Then when the first rain comes the water is not lost by running away to the rivers as in your gardens, for this loose open soil drinks up the rain like a sponge. That is why this field of corn grew so well. It is not witchcraft. It is just knowing how." "Then Mufundis is not a witch-doctor or rain-maker?" asked someone. "Of course not!" Mufundis was disgusted. A question like that after he had explained it all so carefully! "There is one only, the God of the universe. He only can make rain. There is no man who can really make rain." "Oh, but, Mufundis, there are many rain-makers," objected someone. Mufundis was exasperated. "They called themselves rainmakers. But they are all deceivers," he shouted. "Tell me this. Where are your rain-makers now? Where is your grain? You drank it all up as beer at the command of the witch-doctor. Where is your gold? It is all in the bags of the rain-makers. Where is the rain they made? Tell me that. Where is the rain?" he paused. "We have seen no rain!" shouted several. "Of course you have seen no rain. They have deceived you. They cannot make rain." Mufundis was growing eloquent. "God only can make rain," he shouted. "Now listen to me! I will speak for God. Day after tomorrow or the next day, it will begin to rain and the drought will be broken for good. The true God of all mankind will make it rain. I have spoken." ï»¿520 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN A tense silence fell upon the multitude. It was broken with a clatter when a hunter dropped spear and shield. "The time is passing," said the white man. "Let us organize for the hunt. There are several kings and chiefs present. Let each be over his own men. The believers will hunt as one group under the farm foreman. I will hunt with my gun. This is the plan for the hunt. We will surround that tall grass and dense thicket where the game is hidden. At a signal we will close in. You men are all hunters. You know what to do better than I can tell you. After the hunt the different groups will pile up their kill separately to see which group makes the greatest kill. As a prize I will give all that I kill with my gun to the winning group. Do you leaders understand?" "Yea-bo, Mufundis, we understand." "All right, let's go!" and they were off. What followed cannot be described in words. It was a great experience for the white man. Pandemonium had broken loose in a veritable jumble of noises. There was the shouting of the hunters, the squealing of wild pigs, the rasping bark of baboons, the excited clamor of birds, the death scream of antelope pierced through with spear or arrow all growing more intensified as the closing circle grew smaller. Several months before this the white man had experienced a native hunt and had shot antelope as they broke out of the distant wall of tall grass at King Pandi's big hunt. But this was different. Now he was right in the middle of the tall grass, and he seldom saw the game until it was almost on top of him. Then there was little time to shoot. He had fired several times with his repeating shotgun loaded with buckshot, but he did not seem to hit anything. He heard a roar as a wild boar charged directly at him. He barely had time to poke his gun against its forehead and pull the trigger. Then he found himself bowled over and sprawling on the ground. Quickly he scrambled to his feet to find that the boar had dropped dead a few feet away. Once a big bushbuck ram leaped high over his head. As the sharp hoofs caved in his pith helmet he rammed the muzzle of his gun against its stomach and pulled the trigger. The stately antelope did not hesitate in its flight. Soon it was out of sight in the tall grass. Before the white man could realize it the hunt was over and the shouting hunters were collecting the spoils of the chase. Wet with perspiration he dragged the wild boar by one hind leg to the spot where they were collecting so that he could determine which group was the winner. He was greatly chagrined when he saw the growing ï»¿THE GREAT HUNGER 521 heaps of game. Was it possible that these naked natives with their crude weapons had killed more than he with his gun? And he was to furnish and award, the prize. As he looked at his one shaggy wild boar he felt like going off and hiding somewhere. Just then four natives came swinging along with a big bushbuck ram trussed with bark fiber to a long pole, two at each end of the pole. They were Prince Jobo, Mafuta, Hefazi, and another. Laughing, they dumped the bushbuck at the white man's feet. "What is this?" asked the surprised hunter. "It is your buck," explained the smiling Jobo. "I happened to see it stagger as it ran away. So I followed after. It dropped after a short distance and no wonder. Look at the hole your gun made in its stomach, and look at the size Mufundis, greatly pleased, looked. It was indeed the biggest bushbuck he had ever seen. After checking over the kills of the various groups it was decided that Pandi's men were the winners. Although greatly outnumbered by several groups they had beaten the believers by one little grey monkey. Mufundis, with a smile, presented the wild boar and the big bushbuck ram to the grinning king. "You are great hunters," he said. "I am glad that you won. For I have never forgotten the great hunt you treated me to in the vlei at Gungunyana's old kraal site. May you have a most happy journey homeward." It was indeed a happy journey. They had more game than they could carry. Pandi induced several less fortunate hunters to accompany them and carry game. This they were glad to do, for he promised them a portion of the meat. When they completed their journey next day there was great rejoicing among the starving relatives who had remained at home. The women and children stood around open mouthed as the hunters related the story of the hunt and told about the wonderful corn. But when they told them of the white man's promise that his God would send rain the old women shook their heads dubiously. How could the white man's God make rain when the ancestral spirits and the rain-makers had failed to do so? So on the second morning they were greatly amazed to see the sky overcast with a blanket of grey clouds. A south wind fluttered the dead leaves in the striken Ispirit-tree. Soon came the rumble of thunder, heralding the rescue of a famine-cursed land. Down came the cleansing flood. Wildly they ran about bareheaded and naked in the drenching deluge, blessing and praising the white man's God who had sent them rain. The Great Hunger was at an end. ï»¿HAMPTON INCIDENTS OPENING OF SCHOOL rpHE Institute recorded this fall the largest total enrollment in its history 1017. Of this number 411 (161 men and 250 women) are in the Collegiate Division as against 305 last year. The Library School established a year ago has 10 students; the School of Home Economics, 75; and the School of Agriculture, 33. In the Secondary Division, including the Trade School and the Academy, there are 451 young men and 155 young women, the majority of the former being in the Trade School. Beginning this fall Mr. J. L. B. Buck assumed the directorship of the Academy, thus relieving Mr. Aery who will give his whole time to directing the School of Education. Mr. Fenn, who has been acting director of the School of Agriculture, has been made director. NEW WORKERS A MONG the new teachers at Hampton this fall are Mr. Richard G. Abell of Swarthmore College; Miss Willie Louise Barbour of the Sargent School for Physical Education; Mrs. Iola Blaisdell of the Bay Path Institute, Springfield, Mass.; Miss Elfie Brown of the University of Manitoba and Columbia University; Miss Hazel L. Chichester of Barnard College; Mr. George L. DeFoe of the University of Michigan; Miss Hilda M. Fife of Colby College; Miss Florence S. Jenkins, Teachers College, Columbia; Mr. George R. Lawrence of Yale University; Mr. Oscar R. LeBeau of Kent State College, Ohio; Mr. Lester T. Perisho of Penn College, Iowa; Mrs. L. Elaine Rising of Teachers Training School, Elmira, N. Y. and Teachers College, Columbia University; Mr. Frank S. Rizzo of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Miss Alice H. Russell, Bates College and Teachers College, Columbia; Mr. Daniel S. Sanford, Jr., of Yale University; Mr. Richard Sears of Harvard University; Miss F. Elizabeth Sinkford of Oberlin; and Miss Ellen D. Yerzley of the New York Training School and Teachers College, Columbia. â– rpHE new Y. W. C. A. secretary is Miss Susie E. Bailey of Oberlin who also teaches music; and the acting secretary of the Y. M. C. A. this year is Captain George A. Holland who has been one of the instructors in the R. 0. T. C. for several years. Besides his duties at Clarke Hall, Captain Holland will be military instructor of the newly organized battalion. rpWO new matrons have joined the A staff this fall Mrs. Edith F. Coolidge of Concord, Mass., and Mrs. Pauline B. Wallis of Cambridge, Mass. Miss Ethel Wain-wright, an ex-student of Hampton, is in charge of the diet kitchen. A MONG the new office workers are Mrs. Frances M. Evans of Boston and Miss Alexandrine Guiot of Maiden, Mass., assistants in the Principal's Office; Miss Lynnia W. Gilkes of Reading, England, secretary for the School of Education and the Library School; Miss Carolyn M. Tilley of Areata, Calif., graduate of the University of California, assistant in the Publication Office; and Miss Marion C. Deane, of the Business College and Columbia Methodist College, New Westminster, British Columbia, secretary in the Record Office. J^ORMER members of the staff who returned to work at Hampton this fall are Miss Velmer Prince, ï»¿HAMPTON INCIDENTS 523 teacher in the School of Business; and Mr. Francis R. Jenkins, who, besides teaching in the Academy, will have charge of the extension work of the Institute. After leaving Hampton Mr. Jenkins was for a time principal of Southland Institute, Arkansas. ARMSTRONG LEAGUE rpHE first meeting of the year of the Armstrong League of Hampton Workers was, as usual, a get-together social in the Museum where all had an opportunity to meet Dr. and Mrs. Gregg and to get better acquainted with each other. During the evening Dr. Gregg showed a most interesting set of pictures, covering his recent trip, of scenes in California, Hawaii, the Canadian Rockies, and on the ocean voyages. Of special interest to the Hampton family were the pictures connected with the life of General Armstrong, whom Dr. Gregg found is still held in affectionate remembrance in the Hawaiian Islands. He showed a number of pictures of his birthplace on the island of Maui; his school, Punahou, now called Oahu College, where in the gymnasium named in his honor hangs a fine portrait of him as he looked after his war service ; and of the largest native church in the Islands, built by the General's father. Dr. Gregg also told reminiscences of General Armstrong given by his old school friend, Mr. Joseph Emerson, and described the Mission House in Honolulu built for the first missionary party of 1819, which is now preserved as a memorial to missionary work in the Islands. f\N the following evening a moving-picture entertainment "The Lost World" was given under the auspices of the League in Ogden Hall for the purpose of raising funds for the League's treasury. HAMPTON WORKERS ^EMBERS of the teaching staff who are taking this year for further study are Miss Helen V. Wilson who is at Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn.; Miss Wilhelmina B. Patterson at Oberlin; Miss Bess L. Crofoot at Teachers College, Columbia; and Mr. Collis H. Davis at Harvard University. A FTER nearly a year away from the school on account of illness, Mr. Allen B. Doggett, Jr., returned this fall, greatly improved in health, to assume the duties of Publication Secretary. "VTEWS has been received of the marriage of a former Hampton worker, Miss Bernice W. Hooper, to Dr. Sydney S. Jacquelin of Los Angeles, California. T^OR many years Mrs. H. J. De- Yarmett has given valuable service in the Campaign Office. She is retiring from active work this fall and her place will be taken by Miss Florence Ogden who has been for a number of years an assistant in the Principal's Office. rpHIS summer Mrs. Blanche W. Rollinson, director of the School of Home Economics, received her master's degree from Columbia University. TTER friends will be pleased to know that Miss Charlotte L. Thorn, founder and principal of the Calhoun School, is taking a well-earned vacation in Europe, after many years of devotion to her work in spite of serious ill health and other handicaps. OBITUARY Tl/TANY of the students of former summer sessions of the Institute will remember with gratitude Miss Caroline W. Hotchkiss who taught for several years in the Summer ï»¿524 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN School. Miss Hotchkiss passed away on April 13, 1926, in the midst of her duties in the Horace Mann School, New York City, where she has been an instructor for the past thirty years. She never lost her interest in Hampton and was the founder of the Sarah J. Walter Scholarship. In her will she requested that her annual contribution to the scholarship be paid from the receipts of her book, "Representatives Cities of the United States." FOOTBALL â– rpHE first Hampton football game of the season was played on Armstrong Field, on Saturday, October 9, with Virginia Seminary and College of Lynchburg, resulting in a 3-3 score. It was a fast game, but as in many early-season contests there were costly fumbles and bad breaks. There were spectacular plays as well, making the game interesting and exciting to the spectators until the very finish. Hampton's schedule for the remaining season is as follows: On October 16, Durham State College at Hampton; October 23, Virginia Normal at Petersburg; October 30, St. Paul at Lawrenceville; November 6, Shaw University at Hampton; November 13, A. and T. College at ber 13, A. and T. College at Greens-Greensboro; November 20, Johnson C. Smith University at Hampton; and on Thanksgiving Day, Union University at Hampton. rpHE Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association, of which Hampton is a member, published an especially attractive issue of its annual Bulletin this fall, illustrated with pictures of most of the football, basketball, baseball, track, and tennis teams of the Association, as well as individual portraits of the mythical all-star eleven selected by the coaches from the players of 1925. The Bulletin also contains the pro- ceedings of the fifteenth annual meeting of the Association; excellent addresses made at the meeting by the coaches and others showing the fine spirit of sportsmanship these men are inspiring in the youth of their colleges; and the records of the 1925-26 season. The Bulletin is in the form of a magazine and is well worth the twenty-five cents charged for it at all the games of the Association where it is on sale.* The work was done by the Hampton Institute Press. "HAMPTONIAN PRINCESS" QHE is a rather bedraggled and ruffled Plymouth Rock, yet she is the claimant of the world's record in# egg-laying for her class, having to her credit 329 eggs in one year. Mr. F. S. Gammack, Hampton's specialist in poultry, presented her to the assembled staff at their first general assembly of the school year, and though she was far from being as beautiful as another member of her family shown who had not laid an egg in several months, she was greeted with great respect. The mother of "Hamptonian Princess," Mr. Gammack explained, laid 262 eggs in a year, and her father was a direct descendant of "Hampton Belle" and "Queen of Hampton" who in their day laid 276 and 274 eggs respectively. According to Mr. Gammack, "Hamptonian Princess," though a hard worker, has put on weight during her performance and "sings" at her task. Her fame has been spread abroad, but the real credit belongs to the man under whose efficient and watchful care the Hampton poultry plant prospers. â– VISITORS ^^MONG recent visitors were Professor Guy B. Johnson of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, who came to Hampton to make a study of Negro voices; Mr. Charles ï»¿GRADUATES AND EX-STUDENTS 525 H. Evans, Hampton '96, who is in charge of carpentry at Tuskegee Institute; and Miss Edith Wales, a former worker at Hampton and sister of Mrs. Proudman. i T7ISITORS from foreign countries who have not been mentioned before are Mr. H. Stover Kulp, Nigeria, West Africa; Rev. Harry L. Marshall, principal of the Karen Theological Seminary at Insein, Burma, India, visiting Dr. and Mrs. Phenix with Mrs. Marshall; Miss Ivy E. Craig and Rev. and Mrs. Samuel J. Curtis, of Mt. Silinda, South Rhodesia, Africa; and Hon. Hannibal Price, minister from Haiti to the United States. GRADUATES AND EX-STUDENTS A FTER teaching home economics for some years in the high school at Norfolk, Va., Lillian S. Brosier, '21, has accepted a similar position this year at Claflin University, Orangeburg, S. C. She writes: "There has been no domestic science taught in this school since 1924 and I see a great opportunity for serv- ice. A NOTHER teacher of home eco-nomics is Miss S. Alice Mullen, '26, a graduate of the college two-year course, who is teaching in the high school at Goldsboro, N. C. Miss Mullen took an active part in the school music at Hampton and has a fine voice. She is to have charge of the special music in the Goldsboro school. The supervising principal of the colored schools in Goldsboro is Hugh V. Brown, who received his B. A. in education at Hampton in '24. rpHE principal of the rural high school in Upper Marlboro, Md., is Wesley D. Elam, B. S. in education '26. The school is seventeen miles from Washington and the children come from all parts of the county. Mr. Elam is teaching English, civics, and economics, and has seven teachers under him. The supervisor of Prince George's County in which Upper Marlboro is situated is Doswell E. Brooks, '21, and Mr. Elam reports that he is doing an efficient piece of work. TN the Eastman School, Ringwood, 1 N. C, Charles H. McLeod, B. S. in agriculture '26, is instructor in vocational agriculture. The school is located on a farm belonging to Mr. George Eastman who gave half of the money for the erection of the school and all the equipment and supplies. Mr. McLeod writes that the vocational building was destroyed by fire last April so that he is actually building up a new department. He adds that he finds the people good to work with and that he likes the place very much. ^MONG the students of last year's graduating classes who are studying elsewhere are Thomas W. Young, a student in the Business School at Washington Square College, New York University; Oscar A. Pindle, of the School of Business, studying at the School of Commerce, Accounts, and Finance of New York University, where another Hampton man, Alfred McNichols, '24, is also studying; and Lionel B. Frazier, B. S. in education, in the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. ^NOTHER graduate of last June, Victor Cupid, is working for the Chattanooga Publishing Company, Chattanooga, Tenn. ^N active part on the program of the Interracial Conference of Church Women held at the Forest ï»¿526 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN Inn, Eagles Mere, Pa., in September was taken by Dr. Sara W. Brown, '87. A GRADUATE of the two-year course in home economics last June, Melissa R. Stokes, is teacher of clothing in the Teachers College, Winston-Salem, N. C. She writes that the girls seem mature and ready for business. A new cafeteria is being opened and the home-economics teachers are taking charge of it. # rpHE former teacher of home economics in the county training school at Dunn, N. C, Alida P. Banks, '09, is working for the B. S. degree at Teachers College, Win-ston-Salem. INDIAN NOTES A N interesting letter was received recently from Isaac Webster '02, of Oneida, Wis. Mr. Webster is still running his farm and is supervisor of the township in which he lives. Many recall with pleasure his visit to Hampton with his wife (Josephine Hill, '04) to attend the alumni meeting at which he was made a vice president of the association. T^OR several years Henry McL. Owl, '18, taught manual training and agriculture at Bacone College, Okla. Last year he was a student at Lenoir Rhyne College, Hickory, N.C. He wrote that he played on the football team and enjoyed his work at the school very much. A classmate, Eli Bird, is working at his trade in East Akron, Ohio. A N ax-student of the Class of '11, Millie S. Anderson, is doing a useful work among her people. After leaving Hampton she took a course in nurse training at the hospital in Bismarck, N. D., and has been doing devoted missionary work ever since. For some time she was in Los Angeles and last year in Arizona doing community work in the oapacity of nurse among the Navahos. Accompanied by an interpreter she traveled through the State by automobile, camping at night. Last summer she did similar work near her own home in Elbowoods, N. D. She also conducted Bible classes. TN 1924, Elsa B. Pierce, ex-student ,22, completed a high-school course in Watertown, Mass. She began last year a course in nurse training at the Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, Boston. A MONG the Indian ex-students who answered the Christmas letter are the following: Thomas P. Ashley, '89, Cannon Ball, N. D.; Rev. Ben Brave, '85, Fort Lookout, S. D.; Mrs. Margaret Fallis Crazy Bull, '87, Lower Brule, S. D.; Mrs. Rebecca Mazakute Frazier, '88, Little Eagle, S. D.; James Good Road, '83, Fort Lookout, S. D.; Mrs. Julia Kathleen Hayes, '87, Little Eagle, S. D.; Mrs. Margaret Goulet Keith, '83, Brennen, S. D.; Baptiste P. Lambert, '89, Rosebud Reservation Mission, S. D.; Henry-Long Feather, '89, Stephan, S. D., and H. F. Woods, '88, Cheyenne Agency, S. D. DEATHS rpHE death of Evelyn M. Collins, '23, after a brief illness occurred at St. Vincent's Hospital, Norfolk, Va., on September 16. Miss Collins had been a teacher in the city schools of Norfolk since her graduation and in 1925 taught home management in the Booker T. Washington High School. She returned to resume her duties there on September 7, but was taken critically ill and died a few days later. While at Hampton she was a member of the Girls' Glee Club, an active Y. W. C. A. worker, and in her senior year vice president of the Association. She had a host of friends in Nor-folk and among the Hampton graduates, and her memory is cherished by all who knew her. ï»¿WHAT OTHERS SAY 527 VIEWS of the death of James A. Wilson, '93, in August came as a shock to those who knew him. Mr. Wilson died at Tuskegee where he has been the head of the English Department for some time. His training at Hampton was followed by a classical course at the State Normal School, Plattsburg, N. Y., from which he was graduated, and later he completed a college course at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. For several years Mr. Wilson was principal of Clark University, Atlanta, before going to Tuskegee. In 1923 he was president of the Armstrong League of Tuskegee and was always a loyal and devoted alumnus of Hampton. He will be greatly missed by his many friends. ARMSTRONG LEAGUE MEETING "VTOTICE is hereby given of the regular annual meeting of the Armstrong League of Hampton Workers, to be held in the Museum of Hampton Institute on Wednesday, November 10, 1926, at 4:15 p.m. A full attendance of members is earnestly desired. All new workers are most cordially invited to be present. EMILY K. HERRON Recording Secretary WHAT OTHERS SAY MAGAZINE NOTES ACHARMING article by Dr. Fran-cis G. Peabody appeared in The Outlook for September 22. It is entitled "A Modern St. Francis" and is the story of Albino Muretti, the host of the Little House of the Divine Providence in the village of Verrezzo on the Riviera. ARECENT number of the Survey Graphic contains reproductions of pen-and-ink portraits of a Negro woman and two Negro men "Types from the Old South." The^ same issue has an illustrated article on "Slavery in 1926," telling of African villages where slavery still lingers. AN excellent and optimistic account of his first trip South, under the title. "Renaissance in the South," is given in the American Missionary for October by Rev. Harold G. Vincent, one of that Society's assistant secretaries. THE Survey announces twelve lectures on "Race and Culture" by Franz Boas as one of hte courses in the new School of Social Research at 465 West Twenty-third Street, New York. A DEED OF HEROISM DURING the height of the Moore Haven flood a young Negro boy stood on a bridge over a drain- age canal and rescued eight white and twelve Negro children as they were swept along in the flood beneath him. Boston Transcript NEGRO MELODIES IN LONDON A MERICAN Negro melodies have been introduced into the musical program of the old Southwark Cathedral, just across London Bridge on the south side of the Thames. Noonday recitals are given there for the benefit of the porters of the hops market and other workers from near-by establishments. The selections are from the Negro spirituals or plantation hymns and are expected to prove a potent drawing card for luncheon-hour audiences in this busy district. Associated Press NEGRO ENGINEER AFTER returning from World War service Clyde R. Brannon of Howard University resumed his studies and obtained his degree in civil engineering. He received an appointment fcfter competitive examination, with the New York State Highway Commission, with which he has made an enviable record. Columbian Press Bureau ï»¿528 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN NEGRO FRENCH SCHOLAR rpHE head of the French Depart-ment at Johnson C. Smith University, Prof. Phillip Boden, has returned from McGill University, Montreal, Canada, where he was engaged in writing a thesis, in French, on the ''Intellectual Life of the Negro in North Carolina." Professor Boden, who now has a master's degree from McGill University, is also a graduate of the University of France, and has done post-graduate work at the Sorbonne in Paris. He was classed as the best writer of French in his class at McGill. Norfolk Journal and Guide INTERRACIAL RESULTS ENACTMENT of an effective anti-lynching law, provision of a State institution for delinquent colored girls, survey of housing conditions, and the securing for colored people of more adequate educational advantages, better conditions of travel, and justice in the courts, were among the immediate objectives set by the Georgia Committee on Interracial Co-operation at its recent annual meeting. Sixty members of the committee were present from all sections of the State, both races being represented by leading ministers, educators, business and professional men, social workers, and club women. Interracial Press Service THE title of a volume soon to come off the press, containing the biographies of 20,000 Negroes who have achieved distinction in various fields of endeavor in this country is "Notable Negroes of America." The book is edited by John Louis Hill, through the Court Astoria Publishers, New York, and will be distributed through an interracial Board of Council, composed of both white and colored men, who have long felt that the attainment and service of many notable Negro men and women have not been given sufficient national and international publicity. Columbian Press Bureau rpHE people of New Orleans are expressing cordial appreciation of the generous support given the recent Community Chest Campaign by the Negroes of that city who subscribed to the Chest $17,902 in the general campaign and probably as much more in the group canvasses of the big industrial organizations. Gifts of $1000 each were made by several Negro organizations and individual subscriptions of $200 each were made by prominent Negroes. Y. M. C. A. DORMITORY THE 137th Street Branch of the New York Y. M. C. A. has added a new unit to its equipment in the form of a dormitory, the Emma Ransom House, accommodating 154 persons. It is well equipped with assembly rooms, parlors, and rest rooms. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., is responsible for the major portion of the $250,000 which" the building cost. Miss Mae C. Hawes is in charge of the house. The Crisis STUDY OF AFRICAN LANGUAGES AN association for the Study of African Languages is projected according to J. Withers Gill writing in the British Supplement of the Outlook of London. The work of such an association promises to throw light upon African psychology. Mr. Gill writes: "The conditions under which the mind of a typical African Negro works appear to us in a topsy-turvy light. In material matters he is shrewd, sullen, and childish; in spiritual matters he dwells in a state of panic. But sit down in a native court of jurisdiction, where the procedure is in the hands of a tribal chief and his counsellors, where the 'case law' is represented by some oral tradition or more often by some simple folk tale, and you will marvel at the simple practical justice of the verdict, which may frequently be according to what the lion said or the elephant did in some worn-out fable culled from the lure of the folk. How much more genuine and effective is the equity of these judgments than those given under the elaborate procedure of alien courts adapted to a different stage of civilization where a high standard of evidence is imposed! Evidence of this latter character is readily obtained by cajolery or purchase at so much a head. With ease it deceives the European but not the native judge who knows the mentality of his fellowmen. Talk to natives in their own tongue and the keenness of their insight into the mental processes of their fellows will astonish you." ï»¿THE HAMPTON LEAFLETS A charge of one dollar per dozen is made to all applicants for Hampton leaflets. Single copies, ten oents. // is especially requested that the money be sent with the order The rate per hundred will be given on application. ACADEMIC SUBJECTS Elementary School Projects (116) Experiments in Physics (Heat) Experiments in Physics (Water) Games for Elementary Grades (104) Twenty-five cents How to Teach Number Steps to Beginners (117) Proper Use of Certain Words Materials and Methods in Reading (118) Twenty-five cents AGRICULTURE Birds Useful to Southern Farmers Commercial Fertilizers Dairy Cattle Farm Manures Handling Hens for Egg Production (114) Twenty-five cents Horse and Mule on the Farm Injurious Insects Milk and Milk Products Plants Roots Rotation of Crops Sheep: Breeds, Care, Management Soil Moisture and After-Cultivation Swine: Breeds, Care, Management Transplanting Transplanting and Pruning of Trees HEALTH Hookworm Disease Mosquitoes Responsibility of Teachers for the Health of Their Children (111) INDUSTRIAL WORK Approved Methods for Home Laundering Garden Hints; Drying Fruits and Vegetables How to Set up an Exhibit (105) How to Teach Canning and Jelly Making in Rural Schools (103) How to Teach Cooking in Rural Schools (100) How to Teach Cooking in High Schools (108) How to Teach Housekeeping in Rural Schools (101) How to Teach Sewing in Rural Schools How to Teach Clothing in High Schools (110) Manual Training Part I Manual Training Part II (115) Manual Training, Part III School Gardening NATURE STUDY Fruits of Trees How Seeds Travel How to Make Friends with the Birds How to Know the Trees by Their Bark Life History of a Butterfly Meaning of the Flower Nature Study for Primary Grades Spring Blossoms: Shrubs and Trees The Story of Corn The Story of Cotton The Winged Pollen-Carriers PROGRAMS FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS American Authors' Birthdays Arbor Day Suggestions Booker Washington's Birthday Suggestions (109) Thanksgiving Suggestions December Suggestions How to Celebrate Easter in Schools (102) SCHOOL AND HOME IMPROVEMENT Beautifying Schoolhouses and Yards Housekeeping and Sanitation in Rural Schools (112) Home Decoration (107) Home Makers' Clubs Patrons' Leagues on a Business Basis (113) Rural-School Lunches State and Federal Help for Rural Teachers SOUTHERN CROPS AND INDUSTRIES Culture and Marketing of Peanuts Culture and Marketing of Tobacco Oystering in Hampton Roads Virginia's Fishing Industry * Numbers in parenthesis indicate place of leaflrt in new series. Address: Publication Office, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. ï»¿SOME PUBLICATIONS OF The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute Annual Catalogue (Illustrated) Armstrong's Contribution to World Peace Talcott Williams Armstrong's Ideas on Education for Life 10 cents p Armstrong and World Freedom William H. Taft Building a Rural Civilization, Jackson Davis 10 cents Contemporary Poetry of the Negro, Kerlin 10 cents Fifty-six Years'of Negro Progress, Monroe N. Work 10 cents Flag Code Founder's Day Programs (for former students) Frissell, the Builder, R. R. Moton 10 cents Hampton Today (Illustrated) 10 cents Hampton's Work for the Indians, Caroline W. Andrus 6 cents Home Economics at Hampton Institute, Blanche W. Rollinson Life of General Armstrong Lynching, a National Menace, J. E. Gregg Negro Farmers of Virginia, W. A. Aery Negro Migration, Monroe N. Work 10 cents Shaping Courses to Meet Changing Conditions, G. P. Phenix True Religion in Negro Hymns, Edith Armstrong Talbot 10c. 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