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"Work with the Negro Roundtable" article from The Southern Workman American Liberty League. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images Digital Library Services, University of Kentucky Libraries Lexington, Kentucky LFP_rblue_2_01_03 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. "Work with the Negro Roundtable" article from The Southern Workman American Liberty League. unknown unknown 1922-09-01 Is Part of the Reverend Thomas F. Blue Papers, ca. 1905-1935 housed at the Louisville Free Public Library, Louisville, KY. This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. ï»¿SEPTEMBER 1922 ï»¿The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute HAMPTON, VIRGINIA JAMES Â£. GREGG, Principal F. K. ROGERS, Treasurer G. P. PHENIX, Vice Principal W. H. SCOVILLE, Secretary An undenominational industrial school founded in 1868 by Samuel Chapman Armstrong for Negro youth. Indians admitted in 1878 To train teachers and industrial leaders Land, about 1001 acres; buildings, 140 Academic-normal, trade, agriculture, business, home economics What it is Object Equipment Courses Enrollment Including Normal, Practice, and Summer Schools, 1845 Graduates, 2207; ex-students, over 8000 Results Outgrowths: Tuskegee, Calhoun, Mt. Meigs, and many smaller schools for Negroes Needs $135,000 annually above regular income $5,000,000 Endowment Fund Scholarships Annual scholarship.....$100 Endowed scholarship..... 2500 Any contribution, however small, will be gratefully received and may be sent to F. K. Rogers, Treasurer, Hampton, Virginia. FORM OF BEQUEST J give and devise to the trustees of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia, the sum of dollars, payable ï»¿ii txn Workman Published monthly by The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute JAMES E. GREGG W. T. B. WILLIAMS WILLIAM DORY EMMA L. SHIELDS Contents for September 1922 BETTIS ACADEMY MINISTERS' CONFERENCE . INTER-RACIAL CO-OPERATION..... SOCIAL SERVICE A PROFESSION . SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR COLORED TEACHERS . NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS IN COLORED SCHOOLS THE COMMISSION ON INTER-RACIAL CO-OPERATION..... EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG COLORED PEOPLE .... THE MESCALERO APACHES, Illustrated . A HALF-CENTURY IN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY, Illustrated .... DANISH PEOPLE'S HIGH SCHOOLS AND AMERICA..... HAMPTON INCIDENTS .... GRADUATES AND EX-STUDENTS WORK WITH THE NEGRO ROUND TABLE . ALLAHABAD AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE "THE BOOK OF AMERICAN NEGRO POETRY" "INDIAN GAMES AND DANCES WITH NATIVE SONGS" .... "THE STENQUIST MECHANICAL APTITUDE TESTS" ...... "HARLEM SHADOWS"..... "IN THE LAND OF THE HEAD HUNTERS" . "SUGGESTED PROGRAMS FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES"..... WHAT OTHERS SAY .... 398 400 402 403 404 406 409 413 EDWARD F. FRAZIER THOMAS F. BLUE SAM HIGGINBOTTOM EMILY H. WILLIAMS 419 425 430 435 437 438 .439 CAROLINE W. ANDRUS 440 OTTO F. MATHIASON EDITH A. TALBOT CAROLINE W. ANDRUS 440 441 442 ALICE ARNOLD 442 443 Editorial Staff James E. Gkegg Wm. Anthony Akby Jane E. Davis W. T. B. Williams Caroline W. Andrus Terms : One dollar a year in advance; ten cents a copy Change of Address : Persons making: a change of address should send the old as well as the n4w address to THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN, Hampton, Virginia Entered as second-class matter August IS, 1908, in the Post Office at Hampton, Virginia, under the Act of July 16, 1894 Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 11 OS, Act of October I. 1917 authorized on July 8. 1918 ï»¿The Southern Workman VOL. LI SEPTEMBER 1922 NO. 9 EDITORIALS Dr. James Hardy Dillard of Charlottesville, Va., BetMinUt"tÂ»my President of the Jeanes and Slater Boards, has dUdfJJ!^ been trying, through the four annual ministers' vonicrcncc conferences at Bettis Academy, Trenton, S. C, **to reach the unreached and help the unhelped" among the Negro ministers of western South Carolina, according to Principal A. W. Nicholson. The Negro ministers believe that the annual conference at Bettis Academy is a "God-sent help" and that those who have made the conference possible are doing their duty to % Jesus Christ. These seekers after truth and light, many of whom have worked effectively for ten, twenty, thirty, forty, and even fifty years in their home communities, believe that the instruction and inspiration, which they have received at the Bettis Academy Conferences, have helped them bring, to needy people, peace out of confusion, a new hope, and a finer conception of Christian living. These leaders believe that the conferences have come in answer to their prayer that white men and women should practise Christian good will. Indeed, they believe that white people have a religion that is worth studying and following. The Negro ministers came to the recent conference without persuasion. They came eagerly to learn and to carry back to their congregations new ideas and fresh inspiration. They ï»¿BETTIS ACADEMY MINISTERS' CONFERENCE 399 came with expectancy: they returned with satisfaction. Dr. Dillard declared that he had often sung to himself a wonderful song which he had learned at Bettis Academy "Take your burden to the Lord and leave it there." He emphasized the importance of having men and women think of God as the God of Truth as well as the God of Love. The power of prayer in the lives of Negro leaders was clearly demonstrated. At six o'clock every morning the ministers met for a service of song and prayer. The petitions that were raised were for strength, for courage, and for confidence in white men. Some ministers poured out to God their longing for a release from constant misunderstanding and mistreatment, from the unending burden of struggling for bread with no outward sign of reward, and from the white man's contempt. Others gave thanks that through prayer they had won victories over selfishness. Still others gave, in quaint and picturesque language, an account of their earthly stewardship. All who prayed talked earnestly with God. That Negro ministers and teachers have learned to cooperate was clearly shown throughout the conference. Both groups of leaders showed an unflagging interest in learning what they could do to help their people, both in the special lines of their preparation and in the kindred fields of health and community improvement. Teachers and ministers worked early and late in the closest co-operation to discover new and better methods of making more useful Christian citizens of the men and women, boys and girls, who have been committed to their charge. These two groups also enjoyed the advantage of helpful contact with men and women, some white and others colored, who have been earnestly trying to carry out Christ's principle of loving and intelligent service. Doctor Dillard and his co-workers brought to more than two hundred earnest Negro ministers such help as they could within four days; namely, help in sermon-making, in keeping records and handling funds, in managing their correspondence, in relating the church to neighborhood needs, and in interpreting the Scriptures with good judgment. Associated with Dr. Dillard were Dr. James E. Gregg, principal of Hampton Institute; B. C. Caldwell and W. T. B. Williams, field secretaries of the Jeanes and Slater Boards; Jackson Davis, field agent of the General Education Board; L. C. Palmer, superintendent of Sunday-School work in South Carolina, an Ala-bamian who knows and loves colored people; and others who had first-hand knowledge of Southern conditions and problems. ï»¿400 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN As a wonderfully rich background for all the addresses at Bettis Academy, whether these addresses dealt with personal experiences or with good counsel for the young and inexperienced, there was the heart-music of a people emerging from darkness to light and from ignorance to knowledge. Again and again there came some soul-stirring chorus "Take your burden to the Lord and leave it there." The prayer for new light was constant "Let the light from the lighthouse shine on me." The good tidings of a new day had many heralds "Fin going to tell about Jesus wherever I go." The call to duty was constantly sounded "There's somebody knocking at your door." Prayer and aspiration were dominant motives "Every time I feel the spirit moving in my heart, I will pray." Bettis Academy has become, during the past forty-odd years, a center of education and religion. It is a beacon-light to which white and colored people alike look with hope, comfort, and satisfaction. The four-day ministers' conference of over two hundred and the four-week summer school of several hundred teachers are social forces for good that have won the respect and favorable consideration of white and colored people of all grades. Southern people, white and colored, men and inter-racial women urban and rural, regardless of denom- Co-operation . . . ination have been rapidly discovering new and profitable avenues of co-operation, during the past three or four years, in social-service work, agriculture, industry, community improvement, law enforcement, crime reduction, and education for better citizenship, including recreation and Under the leadership of the Commission on Inter-racial Co-operation (John J. Eagan, chairman, Will W. Alexander, director, R. H. King, associate director, and Mrs. Luke Johnson, director of woman's work), which has its headquarters in the Palmer Building at Atlanta, countless thousands of Southern citizens have learned the value of facing honestly and bravely the facts concerning inter-racial problems, of approaching their problems in the spirit of Christianity, of cooperating through Christians who are their local neighbors, of freeing themselves from all forms of egotism and self-consciousness, of casting fear aside and making more definite use of Christian principles, of building up an intelligent and Christian citizenship, and of working with as well as for one another in making the South what it should be in all departments of American life. ï»¿INTER-RACIAL CO-OPERATION 401 Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones, educational director of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, in a recent address to the members of the Commission and their guests, assembled at Blue Ridge, N. C, under conditions which brought to the front the finest human instincts, paid a warm tribute to the Southern white women who have been taking an active and fearless part in the development of the inter-racial co-operation program and who, by their unceasing activity for justice and good-will, have been winning many new champions for an unfailing Christian civilization] "The question today," said Dr. Jones, "is not the rising tide of color, but that of a world alliance for the establishment of the Kingdom of Love, which is alone our hope for the future." John J. Eagan, a successful Southern business man who is applying Christianity to the daily problems of his busy life, declared that the members of the Commission and all their associates should make a business of discovering those principles which can be carried into every-day living and should realize fully, as well as with new faith and assurance, that the teachings of Jesus Christ are sufficient for the solution of all human problems. "Let us be frank and honest," was his slogan throughout the recent and memorable meeting at Blue Ridge. The Commission on Inter-racial Co-operation realizes, along with other organizations which attempt to mould a sane public opinion on important national and international questions, the pressing and unescapable need of bringing before large groups of uninformed men and women, boys and girls, scattered through the entire South and, indeed, wherever there are appreciable numbers of so-called "colored peoples," the true and essential facts of all inter-racial problems. To do, then to report, and finally win new friends this appears to be the cycle which seems so simple to understand, but is nevertheless difficult to master, because those who do important, constructive inter-racial work, for example, are very often poor reporters; those who are good reporters may often fail as doers. - ^ L The Commission realizes its great and present need of telling effectively and widely the truth about its work. An investment in the right kind of news-distribution for this Commission based upon an extension of its excellent, far-reaching, statesman-like home and field programs, must yield large returns in Christian citizenship. "This Commission," according to Mrs. Henry Lane Schmelz, "is establishing points of contact between groups of ï»¿402 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN â€¢ the best white people and groups of the best colored people. Groups are meeting together to think out and talk out and work out plans for the betterment of all people. * * * In seven Southern States white women are giving their hearts and hands to this task. These are outstanding women of every religious denomination." Mrs. Thomas W. Bickett of North Carolina declared at Blue Ridge that white and colored people must stop to build a big bridge between the Negro of the plantation day and the aspiring, intelligent Negro of today. "We must not rush too fast. We must build for whites and Negroes alike. We must act like the children of one Father." (The details of the Blue Ridge meeting of the Commission on Inter-racial Co-operation are given in Dr. Gregg's article on page 406). Social service now has a professional organiza- S9CpalofSes^ne tion in the American Association of Social Work-ro ession ^ ^ East 22nd Street, New York. Since the National Conference of Social Work in Milwaukee last spring the members of this Association, formerly the National Social Workers' Exchange, have been developing a program similar in purpose to that of the American Medical Association, the American Bar Association, and the Engineering Societies. Between fifteen and thirty thousand people in the United States are engaged in some kind of professional social service. They represent a wide variety of fields, for social service in the modern sense has been developing with remarkable rapidity. In a draft of membership requirements recently prepared by the new Association's executive committee, nearly forty are enumerated in which men and women "trained in social science and technique are eligible for admission." To qualify for senior membership, according to the proposals of the executive committee, one would have to be at least twenty-five years of age, to have graduated from college "or to have demonstrated by his practical achievements an equivalent educational background," and to have had four years' experience in social organizations of recognized standing. If he or she has had one or two years in a training school for social work, that would be equivalent to an equal amount of practical experience. Graduate work in social science is also made equal to one year of practical experience. Provision is made for two other classes of members where the standards are less strict than for senior members. The junior membership is intended for the young man or woman, ï»¿SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR COLORED TEACHERS 403 with a year or more of experience, who is just beginning social work. The associate membership is intended for lay people who desire to co-operate in raising standards in social work. To become a member according to these recommendations, each social worker would have to fill out an application blank giving his education, special training, and professional experience. He would also give references to three members in good standing of the Association. These applications would then be passed on by a membership committee elected by the Central Council, and perhaps also by a local committee where a local council of the Association was organized. If the application was favorably passed, a social worker would become a full-fledged member, receive the Compass, and be entitled to all services. For some time the most striking evidence of im-ummer provement in Negro education in the South has bchools ror _ Colored Teachers^een the building of schoolhouses. It was necessary to provide suitable places for holding schools. Yet, however necessary, good schoolhouses do not make good schools. A good teacher is indispensable. But the Southern States lacked public facilities for the training of colored teachers, and the private schools were not equal to the task of training teachers in sufficient numbers. As a result there have been comparatively few properly trained teachers for the colored schools. But with such positive efforts at improving the colored schools at many points in most of the Southern States as now fortunately are being made, the training of teachers by the State has become a pressing necessity. The schools cannot wait for better trained teachers to be turned out. The teachers already in service must be improved. To this end the summer school for colored teachers has been called into service as never before in the South. Until quite recently the poorly paid but ambitious colored teacher had little opportunity in the South to improve herself. Only a few of the stronger private colored schools could afford to conduct summer schools. But now nearly every Southern State provides such schools for its colored teachers. In most cases they make use of the plants of private institutions. In order to secure good attendance the States are making attractive offers to the teachers. They renew or improve the teachers' certificates for stated amounts of substantial work and study rather than for the mere passing of an examination. Thus both the teacher and the State are benefitted. Definite, progressive courses of study have been worked out for these ï»¿404 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN State-supported summer schools in most of the Southern States. In several States it is now possible for colored teachers to do work up to junior-college grade. It is gratifying to note that the colored teachers are taking advantage of the opportunities afforded them. Literally thousands of them attend summer schools each year. In some cases more than half of the entire colored teaching force in a State have gone to summer school in a single season. Last year North Carolina had more than three thousand colored teachers in attendance in her summer schools. And the number is probably larger this year. The number of summer schools for colored teachers conducted this year by the following States will give some idea of what is taking place annually among Negro teachers in the South. Virginia ran 6 summer schools; North Carolina had 9 State summer schools and 26 county schools for the more elementary teachers; Georgia conducted 4 summer schools; Alabama had 7 if the big school of 622 teachers at Tuskegee Institute is included in the list; Mississippi had 16; Kentucky had 10; and Louisiana, in order to accommodate as usual practically her whole colored teaching force, conducted 26 summer schools at convenient points in the State. The National Association of Teachers in Col-National As- ore(j Schools held its eighteenth annual session sociation o ^ Hampton Institute July 26-29. This same Teachers in ^ * Colored Schooisbody met at Hampton fifteen years ago. It was interesting to observe the changes that have taken place in the personnel of the body and to note the growing optimism that characterized the papers and addresses of this foremost group of Negro educators and their white co-laborers and friends. There were present at this meeting a few of the charter members who helped to reorganize this Association in 1907. Among them were such men as ex-President R. R. Wright of the State College, Savannah, Ga.; President N. B. Young of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Fla., and President J. B. Dudley of the Agricultural and Technical College, Greensboro, N. C. But a newer, well-trained, progressive group of men and women now predominate. Among the latter are those holding degrees of every grade from the leading Northern colleges and universities, to say nothing of the colored colleges of the South. This significant group of colored men and women held a very significant session. They had representatives from every ï»¿TEACHERS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 405 State from Delaware to Texas, with a few from the Middle West. The general sessions of the meeting were devoted mainly to various forms of reports upon the common topic of improvement in Negro education. It soon became evident that there is an almost concerted effort afoot among the Southern States to improve their colored schools. Reports by representatives from the several States, by Mr. W. T. B. Williams and Dr. James H. Dillard of the Slater and Jeanes Funds, and by such State officials as Mr. N. C. Newbold and Mr. J. B. Felton, State Agents for Colored Schools for North Carolina and South Carolina respectively, gave an encouraging idea of what is taking place. It means much and is suggestive of a great deal more for Negro education that Virginia, for instance, has built during the past year 23 Rosenwald schools and 52 other schools for colored children; that South Carolina within the last three years has built 89 Rosenwald schools for Negroes and in the same time has created 11 high schools for Negro youth; that North Carolina has built 102 Rosenwald schools for colored children this past year, that the State employs a capable colored man as director of high schools which the State is fostering; that Mississippi is just closing out a $500,000 program of school building for her colored children, and that practically all the Southern States are conducting summer schools for the ampler training of thousands of colored teachers already in service; while North Carolina is not only enlarging and improving her three normal schools for Negro teachers but is supplying nine special instructors for the training of teachers in as many private colored institutions. Most of the directly helpful, practical work of the meeting was carried on in the sectional groups. Here the smaller numbers gave greater opportunity for relating individual experiences and for the exchange of ideas. The Land Grant College section, with Dr. Lane of the Federal Department of Agriculture as a visitor, held a highly suggestive session. The high-school section, however, was more representative of recent, advanced movements in Negro education at public expense in the South. This section was appropriately presided over by Mr. W. A. Robinson, the colored director of high schools for North Carolina, a member of the Negro department of the State Board of Education. â– By far the most popular sectional meeting was that on rural schools, presided over by Mr. William W. Saunders, State Supervisor of Colored Schools, West Virginia. This group had back of them the consciousness of considerable real ï»¿406 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN accomplishment in every State, though a great deal yet remains to be done to make these schools anything like as effective as they ought to be. Their most marked progress lies so far, in the line of physical improvement. Hardly more than a beginning has been made in the proper training of teachers for rural Negro schools. The resolutions adopted by the Association give some idea of the ends sought. They call for a paid secretary to devote all his time to awakening interest in Negro education among Negro teachers and patrons; for provision for pensioning teachers; for more ethical practices on the part of schools and teachers in their relations with one another; for the adequate elementary and secondary education for Negro youth in order that they may be prepared at least to meet the legal requirements for many forms of service in their several States; and for the development of the Land Grant Colleges into institutions of real collegiate grade to meet the special needs of their respective States. THE COMMISSION ON INTER-RACIAL CO-OPERATION BY JAMES E. GREGG Principal of Hampton Institute /T\HE meeting of the Inter-racial Commission held at Blue Ridge, North Carolina, on July 20 and 21 will probably be remembered by those present as the most hopeful and generally satisfactory gathering of its kind since the organization of this body. The presence and active participation, for the first time, of the strong group of women who are carrying forward their share of the commission's task added much to the interest and value of the sessions. Mr. John J. Eagan of Atlanta, chairman of the Commission, again revealed the patience, sagacity, Christian boldness, and unshakable faith in man and in God which have made him an ideal leader for this enterprise. Dr. W. W. Alexander, director of the Commission, with his wide knowledge of persons and conditions and his quick comprehension of diverse situations, and Mrs. Luke Johnson, the eloquent and energetic director of woman's work, gave further capable guidance. Dr. Alexander's opening words emphasized the two main principles of the Commission's work: (1) that inter-racial ï»¿COMMISSION ON INTER-RACIAL CO-OPERATION 407 questions must be approached in the spirit of Christianity; (2) that the surest method is the co-operation of he best men of both races in each community, with the freest adaptation to local conditions. The first day was devoted chiefly to the reports of the State secretaries and other leaders. Dr. James Bond of Kentucky spoke of the friendly response of the State Board of Education, the Roman Catholic Church authorities, and the colleges to the State Committee's efforts. In Bowling Green the local inter-racial committee secured the admission of colored farmers to the Strawberrv Growers' Association. There have been no lynchings in Kentucky this year; and the Governor, who is chairman of the State Inter-racial committee, declares that there shall be none. Judge H. L. Anderton of Birmingham, Alabama, described the remarkable success of the "County Christian Institute," held in Talladega for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the Negro churches and Sunday schools, the speakers being equally divided between both races. Mr. W. W. Hadnott of Louisiana mentioned school improvement as a frequently preferred object of local committees' efforts, and reported that two additional night schools for the colored children of New Orleans have been secured. In this city the local committee is also trying to bring about some provision of parks and playgrounds for Negroes. Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones of the Phelps-Stokes Fund told the members of the Conference that he had found General Smuts of South Africa deeply interested in the Inter-racial Commission's enterprise, and in that country several committees for conference and co-operation, including representatives of both races, have now been formed. Encouraging reports of progress in Tennessee, Oklahoma, and Arkansas were given by Messrs. J. D. Burton, E. M. Cas-tleberry, and J. L. Hunter. In Texas, where it is said there have been fifteen lynchings since March 1, the division of the people on the issue of the Ku Klux Klan is held largely responsible. In Georgia, Dr. T. J. Woofter, Jr., reported that one lyncher has been sent to the penitentiary; the State Committee is engaged in an energetic "defensive" campaign aimed at the prevention of lynching and inter-racial conflicts, and in an "offensive" or "constructive" program for the promotion of better schools and better health. The opinion was expressed that recently more men have left the Ku Klux Klan than have joined it. ï»¿408 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN Mr. R. W. Miles reported that in Virginia the county councils fostered by the Co-operative Education Association now include the inter-racial county chairman, ex-officio. The situation in North Carolina was described as "brighter than anywhere else in the South." In South Carolina, Dr. J. T. Hodges reported all but one of the forty-six counties are organized. Better sanitation for the Negroes was mentioned as a general aim with which other needs can be effectively combined in an appeal to the intelligence of the community. On the second day, Friday, July 21, the women's work was reported. In this there are now represented the Southern Baptist Women's Missionary Union, the Federated Women's Clubs of Georgia, the Disciples of Christ, the Women's Auxiliary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, the Southern Presbyterian Church, and the Y. W. C. A. The attention of the women in all these bodies is being skilfully drawn to the urgency of the inter-racial problem, and the fact that the subject this year for the home-mission study classes is "The Negro in America" has led to the preparation of several new textbooks in the preparation of which representatives of the Commission have had an important part^^^^^^^fej^^^^^^^ ^ri^'^^W^^ The conferences for colored women, begun at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, under the auspices of the Presbyterians seven years ago, have led to similar gatherings at Christianburg, Virginia, and at Atlanta. At these conferences, white and colored women "study, sew, play, and cook" together for one week in Christian friendliness. The spiritual benefits have been marked; : - - ..- SSSS :' â€¢ "â– â– In such a summary as this the whole story cannot of course be told. Vacation Bible schools for colored children, the support of Negro public-health nurses, and the circulation of printed material describing the work of the Inter-racial Commission are among the other activities carried on by the women's organizations. In the words of Mrs. T. W. Bickett, "a bridge" of better understanding and good will is being built between the races. The public session with which the Conference closed was addressed by Dr. M. Ashby Jones, Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones, and Mr. Isaac Fisher. Messrs L. M. Favrot of Louisiana, Rev. W. Russell Bowie of Virginia, Bishop George C. Clement of the A. M. E. Zion Church, and Dr. J. W. Perry of the Home Missionary Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, were elected to membership on the Commission. ï»¿EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG COLORED PEOPLE BY W. T. B. WILLIAMS Field Director for the Jeanes and Slater Funds /T*HE following report of conditions in the colored schools for the year 1921-'22 is based upon a study of thirty-three private schools, including the leading colleges and universities, and upon reports from State agents for colored schools in the several Southern States. The private schools are located in eleven of the Southern States and in four Northern States and the District of Columbia. Eighteen of these schools are known as universities and fifteen as colleges. In the main, however, all of them do about the same grade of work below that of the professional schools connected with a few of these institutions. In 1913 only four of the twenty-two Negro universities then existing had more than 15 per cent of their enrollment in the college departments. These schools were Virginia Union, Biddle, Fisk, and Howard Universities. There were then ten universities only that had twenty or more college students each. Today there are five universities and three colleges with more than 100 college students each; Virginia Union with 135; Lincoln, Pa., 220; Wilberforce, 249; Fisk, 273; and Howard, 895; Talladega College, 121; Morehouse College, 135; and Wiley College, 177. The total enrollment in the college departments of the twenty-two universities studied in 1913 was 945. In the same group of schools in 1922 there are 2036 college students, a gain of 115 per cent. In the thirty-three colleges and universities studied this year there are 3264 students of college grade. The proportion of high-school students in these institutions is also on the increase. Nine years ago only thirty-three per cent of the students in these schools were in the high-school departments. This year the schools under consideration show 43 per cent in these departments. On the other hand, the number of students in the elementary grades in these schools is on the decrease. In 1913 elementary students formed 50 per cent of the enrollment in the twenty-two Negro universities; in the thirty-three schools studied this year there are only 4486 elementary students, or 30 per cent of the total nonprofessional enrollment. Considerable improvement in organization and management is noticeable this year. Nine years ago only two of the 22 universities ran for the minimum standard term of 36 weeks per year. This year 19 of the 33 institutions have terms of at least 36 weeks. ï»¿410 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN An encouraging number of these schools have added or are erecting new buildings. The schools under the direction of the Methodist Episcopal Church especially are gaining improvements of this kind as a result of the Centenary Fund raised by that Church. Such schools as Bennett College, Clark University, Rust College, and Wiley College are already en-joying the fine buildings being erected for the colored schools of this connection. Other schools have been helped to better buildings and equipment by the General Education Board and by public funds, as in the case of Alcorn College in Mississippi, Southern University in Louisiana, and Western University in Kansas, and the three State normal schools of North Carolina. In the matter of studies, a wider range of electives now obtains than formerly. Few of the schools are any longer confined to a narrow, single prescribed course of study. Less Latin than formerly is now required, and Greek is more rapidly disappearing. Modern foreign languages, especially French and Spanish, are appearing more frequently. But most marked of all is the gain made by the sciences in the programs of these schools. Nine years ago only two or three had laboratories worth considering. . Now considerable improvement may be seen in almost any of them, and some are getting buildings and equipment for science in keeping with the better schools of their class elsewhere. Morehouse College is using for the first time this year its new admirably equipped science building which cost $100,000. Clark University also has a new science department in her new building, and Wiley College has greatly improved its equipment and enlarged its space for science teaching. Biddle University, Lincoln University, Pa., and Talladega College will probably have their new science buildings ready for use before the close of the coming school year. A significant change in the teaching force is also taking place in these colored schools of the higher grades. In 1913 there were only 59 more colored than white teachers in the 22 Negro universities. In 1922 there are 269 white and 715 colored teachers in the 33 institutions considered in this study, or two and one-half times as many colored as white teachers. Of these 984 teachers, 193 hold A.B. degrees, 84 M.A. degrees, and 18 Ph.D. degrees from standard colleges, while 151 have A.B. degrees and 29 M.A. degrees from colored colleges only. The rather precarious existence of most of the schools of this serviceable group is indicated somewhat by their small endowments. Of these 33 schools 10 have no endowments at all; 10 have from $5,000 to $95,000 of endowment; 6 have ï»¿COLORED EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS 411 $100,000 to $257,997; and one only has as much as $612,992. What has been taking place in the way of improvement in the public schools during the year is perhaps best told from the reports of the State agents for colored schools of the Southern States, that most helpful and progressive group of young white school officials who are seriously trying to make the Negro public schools really effective. Alabama, for example, has built during the year 35 good school buildings for colored children. One of these is a five-teacher building, five are three-teacher buildings, seventeen are two-teacher buildings, and ten are one-teacher buildings. One of these structures is a four-room teachers' cottage, and one a dormitory for one of the County Training Schools. The city of Troy has recently voted a bond issue of $10,000 for the specific purpose or erecting a ten-teacher school for the colored children of the town. Alabama has also conducted seven summer schools for colored teachers with a record breaking attendance of 2,200 teachers. Florida reports for the year that "sentiment has generally favored a more equitable provision for the colored schools." She has built five schools with the aid of the Rosenwald Fund. In addition several good buildings have been erected without such aid a good school building at Pensacola at a cost of $35,000, an excellent building at Orlando for $35,000, and one going up at Gainesville to cost $50,000. Georgia has perfected plans for decided improvement in Negro education for the coming year. Among her achievements this year is a new school building for colored children at Monticello at a cost of $11,000, two Rosenwald schools in Newton County at a cost of $3,000 each, a new building at Carters-ville, and a new $40,000 building at Brunswick. Kentucky has increased her appropriation for both of her State schools for Negroes, one at Frankfort and the semi-state school at Paducha. She also appropriated $5,000 for the summer schools for colored teachers, the first appropriation of its kind in this State. She has increased the school term to seven months, and has added five high schools for colored youth to her list. Bond issues in which the colored people have shared have been voted in a number of the cities. In Louisville the colored people are reported to have received $150,000; in Paducah, $125,000; in Lexington, about $80,000; in Bowling Green, about $15,000; in Mayfield, about $20,000; and in Richmond about $5,000. ï»¿412 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN Louisiana built 27 Rosenwald schools with sixty-six classrooms during the year. She also has permitted fifteen elementary schools to do high-school work. The State has also just completed a building program at Southern University at a total cost of $225,000, and she has erected on the campus of this school at a cost of $55,000 a school for the blind that will begin to operate in the fall. Louisiana conducted 26 summer normal schools for colored teachers with about 2,000 teachers in attendance. Maryland increased her appropriation for colored teachers outside of Baltimore to the amount of $48,000. She raised the appropriation for the State Normal School from $14,000, to $44,000, and has built during the year 13 modern school-houses for colored children. The minimum school term for colored children is now 8 months all over the State. Two high schools were added to her group of six, whereas two years ago there was not a single high school for colored children in Maryland outside of the city of Baltimore. The State has increased the minimum salary of teachers for three years', five years', and eight years' service. Some teachers will get an increase of as much as $225. Mississippi reports an increase in the amount of salaries for colored teachers. She also reports "more good school-houses built for Negro children in Mississippi this year than ever before." The records show that 115 Negro schools were erected in the State at a cost of from $2,000 to $75,000 each. A counrse of study for the Ngro high schools in the State has just been finished that will be accepted by the colleges of the State as standard work. This work was done by Negro high-school principals appointed by the State Department of Education, and the course has been approved by a conference of high-school teachers in the State assembled at Jackson College. This is the first high-school course of study that has ever been built for Negroes in Mississippi. It will be issued in bulletin form. The State Legislature also appropriated "$20,000 for the education of Negroes for the biennium." This money is to be used to help pay the Jeanes teachers, and to do sanitary and other hygienic work among Negroes. What is given above is typical of the more advanced work in Negro education generally in the South. The improvements noted in the thirty-three leading colleges and universities mentioned above are similar in many respects to those being made in many of the other less pretentious, but effective, Negro schools. The year shows undoubtedly a marked advance in Negro education generally. ï»¿THE MESCALERO APACHES PRESENT CONDITIONS BY WILLIAM DORY HE name Mescalero is Spanish for "people who eat mescal," mescal being a species of agave, portions of which when well roasted make an important article of food. This must not be confounded with the distilled spirit known in Mexico under the same name, nor with the peyote, the "button" of which produces an effect something like morphine. Before national "prohibition" was anything but the dream of a few persons, it was against the law to sell intoxicants to Indians, and Indians themselves, of various tribes, seeing the disastrous effects of "fire water" upon their own people, have asked for the enforcement of such a law. "A sober Apache is a pleasant fellow, but a drunken Apache is the devil," is a saying which might have wider application. In General Crook's time he induced a number of Apaches to settle down to subsist by agriculture, and they raised excellent crops until their white neighbors turned off their supply of water, a precious substance in the dry West. They are now, to the number of 625, living in poverty, and tuberculosis is spreading among them, notwithstanding the many acres and the valuable timber they still own in the Sacramento Mountains. Some of these Indians farm, but much of the land is unsuitable for agriculture, though there is good grazing. Some of them work at government lumbering. When Apaches go off the reservation and work on construction works and the like, they are said to make excellent workmen. There is little on any reservation to call out enterprise, and the supervision of everything undertaken, however much needed, does not encourage initiative. These people still live for the most part in the tipi, the well known conical shelter of many poles, now covered with canvas instead of skins. These residences must be lacking in comfort in the cold of winter in that mountain climate, but at least there is involuntary ventilation through the smoke hole at the top and sunlight through the canvas. Sometimes there is the alternative of a little gloomy cabin, all they can afford, the one small window of which they may be unsanitary enough to nail shut. In ï»¿AN INDIAN SUN SHELTER either type of abode too many persons are often housed under one roof. Captain Ernest Stecker, the present superintendent of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, was instrumental in obtaining permission for them to cut and sell their mature timber up to $500,000 worth under the supervision of the forestry division of the Indian Bureau. There is a plan for Congress to advance as much money as the timber is to bring, the results of the sales being pledged in payment. Some of the educated members of the tribe, calling themselves 'The Mescalero Indian Business Committee," wrote to Mr. Matthew Sniffen of the Indian Rights Association on August 11, 1920: "We appeal direct to you because you have been with us and know from personal observation the trying conditions under which we are forced to live, although we are surrounded with natural reservation resources which, if properly developed, will provide all that is necessary to enable ï»¿THE MESCALERO APACHES 415 us to become an independent and producing class of people. It will require ten years to cut and remove the timber that has been sold, and a revenue of $500,000 will be derived therefrom. We desire that approximately one-half of this amount be invested in Hereford cattle which, with what we now have, will establish a breeding herd of at least 6000 cows. This regular income, with what we can earn by work on our small tracts of farm land, will give us a new life, protect us against the want and hunger which have hounded us so long, and provide for our old people who have suffered so much and so long. As security for this loan we offer the remaining stand of our timber, our cattle on the range, and the bond under which the lumber company is held by its contract. * * Captain Stecker's plan has the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, of the Board of Indian Commissioners, of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and also of each and every Indian on the Mescalero Reservation." "Reimbursable appropriations" in instances in other tribes have been made without the knowledge of the Indians concerned and are proving hard to meet. The Mescalero Apaches understand and approve the plan, but they are pledging everything they possess except the bare ground. There was a project lately to turn all their land into a National Park for the "use and enjoyment of the American people," without any compensation to the Indian owners; but the injustice of this was so strongly brought before Congress by the Indian Rights Association that the TEPEES OF THE APACHES ï»¿IN HIS NATIVE WOODS project was dropped. There is a superabundance of public land in the Sacremento Mountains outside the Mescalero Apache Reservation for all the parks that could be desired. There is a Government boarding school on this reservation. It was said at the school that the children are docile, truthful, and honest. Concerning the moral standard of the big boys some skepticism was expressed. Out on the range children may be seen with tangled hair, their clothing apparently worn day and night without change. Of the women it cannot be said that they have no idea of evening dress, though the dressing may consist in washing the face and hands and brushing the hair. One woman whose tipi we happened to be near, had brushed her long hair until it shown like a black satin mantle over her shoulders. She ignored our presence as she stirred the tiny fire on which Indians manage to cook, while the man of the little household came up the hill from work, a tall, slim, handsome man, who looked at us gravely out of serious black eyes, without speaking as he handed his civilized cowboy hat to the little boy who ran to meet him. Indians of all the tribes seem to have a superstition against ï»¿THE MESCALERO APACHES 417 portraiture, especially with the magic camera, the idea being, as far as observers outside their way of thinking could learn, that part of the soul was in the picture and to represent that was sacreligious, or that if anything happened to the picture something of the person's identity might be lost. The feeling is now generally a thing of the past, but it is said that the notion of ill luck in this matter still sometimes persists for young children. At one group of tepees a woman came forward to interpret whose English showed at once that she had been at schood. She liked it there, she said, then her face changed and she added that at the end of five years her father came and brought her back. Her husband was at work at the sawmill and a little girl nestled at her side. Under this woman's influence a young mother waited patiently with her infant in its cradle-board before the camera. The stoical Indian face of our early story-book impressions, unmoved under all circumstances, is a myth, although the Indian APACHE MOTHER AND BABY I ï»¿418 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN does know well how to hide himself behind a blank look in the presence of strangers. The grand manner of tradition is seen in reality in a quiet dignity, but the Indian answers in a low voice bluntly, not having the acquiescent suavity of the Negro. Like other Indians, Apaches commonly will not tell their Indian names, though readily giving their Spanish or English ones. By Indian etiquette in general it seems to be seldom permissible to address a person by his personal name or to ask it of APACHES AT THE TRADING POST him; it was therefore especially droll to hear a little brown maiden at the school say to white visitors, "How old are you? What is your name?" which the questions of tourists had led her to suppose the proper greeting in English. Observations such as the following may be heard from white people: "It is of no use to educate the Indian; there is an educated Indian woman at the sawmill who lives in a tipi and wears a blanket." In cotton print, faded to a general gray, though not soiled, her long hair well brushed but loose over her shoulders, her general appearance was hardly distinguishable from that of the unschooled squaws, and she probably put on a blanket ï»¿A HALF-CENTURY IN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY 419 when she was cold; the effect of education was shown in the countenance, however. The flowing hair, inconvenient as it must be, merely followed a dictate of Dame Fashion, no more unreasonable than some of the decrees of that despot to her Caucasian subjects. As for the blanket the experienced camper knows it is the warmest, lightest, and most comfortable of overcoats. Education is a large term, to be sure, and may mean a number of things. A HALF-CENTURY IN THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY BY EMMA L. SHIELDS* Of the staff of the Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor HERE and there, amid the hustling, bustling factory districts in the cities of the Southland, may be seen many old buildings which stand as industrial monuments to the numerous faithful workers who have been sheltered within their walls during a half-century of service and toil. Indeed, the history of the tobacco industry in the United States is no older than the history of the Negro women who have been engaged in it. During the first two centuries of colonization the processes in the preparation of tobacco for manufacturers were performed by Negro slaves. When the factory method of rehandling tobacco was evolved during the nineteenth century, there was a transfer of labor from the field to the factory, and Negro women continued their same occupations in this venerable industry. The rehandling processes assorting, picking, stemming, and hanging tobacco have ever since been conceded to be exclusively within the province of Negro women. Although these occupations cannot be classified as "skilled," yet they do involve dexterity and skill, and are essential in the development of the industry because they are initial operations which must be efficiently performed before tobacco products can be manufactured. This antiquity of service has had its reaction upon both employee and employer. Many old women, bent low with years of toil, have been employed by the same firm for so many, many years that they have a childlike sense of obedience, loyalty, and allegiance to their old employers. Not only do they feel that they * Author, in conjunction with the Division of Negro Economies, of "Negro Women in Industry." Bulletin No. 20 of the Women's Bureau. ï»¿420 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN belong to these firms, but their implicit faith and confidence, on the one hand, and their servile fear and suspicion, on the other, make both beautiful and pathetic that blind submission to authority, however kind or tyranical, which they display. Their attitude at work seems to breathe the hope and belief that some reward awaits those who do and give their best. The heart registers the alternations of sorrow and joy which come to them, and at intervals during the long working day they console themselves by singing "Oh, by an' by I'm goin' to lay down this heavy load," and other soulful chants. The typical tobacco employer in the Southland thinks of his Negro women workers as his "property." The reliance and trust, which years of service have strengthened, is inspiringly shown in the relation between some of these employers and their workers. There are others, however, who have had neither the inclination nor the patience to cultivate that relation which might evoke understanding, efficiency, and ultimately, the worker's best industrial "response." Even worse than this indifferent employer, has been the hostile official whose viewpoint is shown in the words of the one who said, "Negroes have no intelligence. Only brute treatment appeals to them. I rate them by their muscles. The stronger they are, the better they are." These different types of employers have exercised their "property rights" according to their individual viewpoints. It is indeed fortunate for STRIPPING TOBACCO BY HAND ï»¿SORTING TOBACCO IN A RICHMOND FACTORY Negro women and the tobacco industry that the considerate or indifferent employers have outnumbered the hostile, inhumane type. The employer who has grown old in his factory is also characteristic of the tobacco industry in the Southlands A few of these industrial veterans remain private owners of their establishments, but the majority have placed their plants under the control of those large tobacco corporations which are gradually monopolizing the industry. Many of these old employers, however, remain as managers and officials, and their management reflects their ignorance of modern industrial standards. Industrial lethargy seems to have surrounded these employers, and they are just beginning to awake, with naive surprise, to those standards which are necessary to stabilize their industry and safeguard the health and efficiency of their workers. "Well, I hadn't thought of that," their usual reply to any suggestion of standards, states not only a fact but indicates a state of mind. This is evinced in the deplorable working conditions which exist in the majority of tobacco factories. Negro women are separated from the other factory workers, either in different sections of the factory or else in a separate building. This separation fosters a discrimination in working conditions which is very marked, conditions for white women workers, although not ideal, being very much better than those for the Negro women workers. Because of the arrangement by ï»¿422 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN which the Negro women do the heavier, dirtier work in preparing the tobacco for manufacture, and white women manufacture the tobacco into cigars, cigarettes, and other tobacco products, a difference in working conditions is further facilitated. Negro women are not envied their employment in rehandling tobacco, for other groups would not submit to the working conditions which it entails. It would be very well worth while if officials in the tobacco industry could be brought to realize the importance of improving the rehandling plants, as a few progressive employers have done. The clean, bright factory, well ventilated and refreshed with a system of washed air, not only protects the health of its workers, but also reduces turnover and increases efficiency and production within the establishment. With the dawning consciousness of industrial standards among employers, many old factories have either been expanded and improved, or new buildings erected. It is not unusual now to find Negro women occupying the old buildings or sections which the managements considered beyond hope of any improvement, while the white women workers are occupying the new buildings. Negro women, especially in the tobacco industry, are greatly in need of these industrial incentives and rewards which have proven beneficial and inspiring to other groups in industry. Thousands of them are employed each day in old, unclean, malodorous buildings where the rays of sunlight are shut out by an apron or an old burlap bag, and where even the fresh air cannot be admitted lest it dry the tobacco. Either standing all day in some occupations, or seated, in others, upon makeshift stools or boxes with no back support, they toil incessantly throughout the long, tedious hours of the working day except for a half-hour lunch period at noon. They must spent this short period either on the street or in the work-room, for there is no rest room or cafeteria which might afford some relaxation, nourishment, or wholesome change of scene. The work-room itself is a perfect example of bad sanitation. So old are floors in some cases that managers consider it a joke to even suggest scrubbing them. The toilet room is often a small space partitioned off from the work-room which supplies its only ventilation. The air in this room is usually so heavily laden with fumes that it is nauseating. It is not uncommon to see the workers with handkerchiefs tied over their nostrils to prevent inhaling the stifling, strangling air. Nor is a cloak-room a usual provision in a tobacco factory; the outer garments are hung upon the walls of the work-room where they are exposed to the dust and fumes which accompany any employment in rehandling tobacco. A wash-room or dressing-room, in such an environment, ï»¿IN A TOBACCO FACTORY is a paramount necessity, yet this facility is almost entirely lacking. The barrel of water to which a common drinking cup is attached by a chain is also typical of tobacco rehandling plants, which offer the principal factory employment to Negro women in the Southland. This army of the Nation's workers is also confronted by the vital, serious problem of low, inadequate wages, existing simultaneously with seasonal work. The working season for rehandling tobacco extends from September to May, but even during this interim employment is very irregular. The woman who toils on rehandling processes ten hours each day, during a week of five and one-half working days, receives approximately ten dollars as her average, full-time, weekly earnings. Yet there are weeks when part-time employment may further reduce these low wages, ï»¿424 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN already far beneath the minimum which might provide the necessities of life at the present cost of living. The mal-effects of low, irregular wages not only react upon the woman worker herself, but upon the dependents for whom many of these women are responsible, upon the family, and ultimately upon the community. Concentrated so often in unhealthy, undesirable sections of our Southern cities, many thousands of Negro women, some of them heads of families, are forced by low wages to live beneath the average standard of health, comfort, and decency. The Negro woman in the tobacco industry is surrounded by other industrial deprivations. Race prejudice has held her bound STEMMING TOBACCO in the rehandling industry, denying her all opportunity for promotion to those more remunerative, skilled occupations in the actual manufacture of tobacco products. The employer who conceded that during an emergency when an experiment could be safely risked, "Negro women made the prettiest cigars you ever saw," supports the opinion of other employers who believe in the potentiality of the Negro woman in the manufacturing processes. Yet they refuse to extend this opportunity to her, frankly acknowledging that they thereby follow the path of least resistance. Most managers emphasize the efficiency and skill which Negro women display in rehandling tobacco. As a matter of fact this ï»¿DANISH PEOPLE'S HIGH SCHOOLS 425 conviction is so strong that employers seem to feel that this ability is inherent to Negro women. However, their factory "sense" is poorly cultivated, considering their years of service. The industry has not set for them the example of stability and regularity which might have its physical effect in inculcating those routine working habits which they lack. Tobacco employers are not annoyed with the usual problems of industry, such as turnover and irregular attendance, because they always have a surplus of labor in reserve. Indeed, so strongly fortified are they that the Negro woman who has awakened to her industrial possibilities and value will have many struggles before she realizes the returns which this industry owes her. A half-century of toil has evolved a new Negro woman worker in the tobacco industry, one who is seriously opposed to the subservience and subjection to which many of the previous workers were inured. This new woman worker yearns for her industrial emancipation. She is deeply cognizant of the modern standards of employment, and is desirous of those safeguards, incentives, and rewards in industry which are conducive to efficiency and increased production, and to better and more wholesome living. She is keenly aware of the conditions of industrial growth and betterment which are denied her, and she experiences a distinct reaction to the discriminations and deprivations which she has to endure. It is with this "Americanized" Negro woman, who has imbibed the national spirit of opportunity and freedom, that the future tobacco industry in the South must reckon. DANISH PEOPLE'S HIGH SCHOOLS AND AMERICA BY EDWIN FRANKLIN FRAZIER IN A former article I attempted to describe a typical Danish people's high school. My task in the present essay will be to describe the extended people's high school at Askov; and, after offering some criticisms on these schools, to discuss the possible value of similar ones in the Southern States. DESCRIPTION The school at Askov is open for young men and women for six months from November to April. The only entrance requirement is that the applicant has spent at least one year in an ï»¿426 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN ordinary people's high school. The following courses are offered: Church History, History of Literature, History of Culture, History of Religion, English, Swedish, Danish, World History, Natural Sciences, Sociology, Geography, Hygiene, and Physical Training. The students are recruited mostly from the gaardmsend class farmers owning on the average of sixty-five acres of land. Yet every class of rural society is represented, besides a few from the towns and foreign countries. The ages of the students range from eighteen to thirty. The elective method is used for all subjects except languages and mathematics. Every class begins by singing a song from the People's High School Song Book. Most of these songs are the creations of Grundtvig who was the originator and remains the inspiration of the schools. Although some subjects are elective, every first-year student is required to take arithmetic and Danish, while all the students are required to attend the lectures for the whole student body in history, biology, history of physics, world literature, sociology, church history, and world history. There is no system of examinations and promotions. Two years, however, are required to take all the courses. A few return for a third year, pursuing some special subject. The tuition, beginning with about $10 for the first month, is $8.50, $7.00, $7.00, and $3.50 for the succeeding four months. No tuition is charged for the sixth month. The charge for board is about $14 for the first five months and $6.50 for the last. Room rent amounts to $1.25 per month, besides a charge of $4.50 for light during the term. The men live in dormitories, while the women, in groups of from ten to thirty, live with the teachers, enjoying the benefits and pleasures of family life. If a young man or woman, desirous of attending the school, is without sufficient means, he or she, upon application to the county officials, can receive one-half of the expense from public funds. The school is owned and controlled by a self-perpetuating board of four teachers, one of whom is the principal. The members of the board are approved by the Minister of Education. The State reserves itself this right because of the small contribution it makes annually to the school. The present Minister was principal before his appointment; his wife has assumed his duties at the school. Since no certificate is given upon leaving the school, a student can at any time get references representing the general opinion of teachers. The students are expected to return to their homes prepared to live a richer life. Another contribution ï»¿DANISH PEOPLE'S HIGH SCHOOLS 427 the school feels it makes to the country is the large number of members of the Rigsdag who are its former students. # CRITICISMS The foregoing description of the Danish people's high school, together with that given in the former article, will afford a basis for some criticisms to be offered in this section. We shall first consider the educational value of these schools. They do not propose to test one's power of memory, or to train one in the methods of research, or to teach one the art of reasoning. They are devoted, primarily, to the diffusion of culture. They try to make it possible for all to share in the great social heritage of mankind. This heritage, they believe, will free men from prejudice, super-stitution, and evil, if it is made vital to the minds of expanding youth by personal contact with teachers of character and personality, who impart the culture. Is this efficacious? The answer to this question is found in the high culture and civilization of the rural population. Nevertheless, some, after contemplating such an extensive curriculum, will regard this form of education as superficial. But here again it must be recalled that these schools only propose to educate in the sense that, "Ye shall know the truth, and the truth will make you free." It is probable that many seeds of learning fall upon barren ground. It is likely that some go away with the sense of being possessed of encyclopedic learning. But, on the other hand, no one can doubt that they find a standard of values that dwarfs national, racial, and personal conceit, outlaws superstition, and belittles provincialism. It can be justly claimed that these schools are nationalistic. This would be a serious indictment against them if it meant that national conceit and swagger which men are casting off as the 1 world becomes more civilized. According to Grundtvig, whose songs still inspire the students, each nation has a mission to perform. This mission, according to him, is not achieved through conquest and exclusiveness. The mission of each nation, on the contrary, is complementary, enriching the variety of civilization. Thus, while not encouraging an objectionable national egoism, the schools help the students to focus their broader sentiments on a palpable ideal. From the point of view of the professional educationist, these schools show a vulnerable point for the shafts of criticism. This form of education requires much passivity on the part of the student. This is a necessary consequence of the lecture method and the absence of examinations. Impression is almost totally ï»¿428 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN relied on. Expression plays a minor part in the educational system. This criticism is partly answered by the necessities of the situation. The time for offering so much information is so short that one must rely on the expression in the activities they have left temporarily to catch a broader vision of life. This brings us to a final consideration. One unquestionable contribution of these schools is the development of the students for community leadership. When one goes into a Danish community he is struck by the numerous associations enriching the communal development. As a rule the leaders of these community activities have attended a people's high school. Attendance at one of these schools does not mean an escape from the old environment of the best and most energetic minds, thereby impoverishing the community; but it means a return to the community with a vision to develop and expand its activities. When a student at one of these schools is asked the usual question put to students, What are you going to do after leaving the school? he answers almost invariably that he is going back to the farm. This is not stagnation, as some may suppose, It is, in fact, a sign of progress; for the community to which he returns will be richer in activity and feeling. APPLICATION TO AMERICA After witnessing the high degree of culture and civilization in rural Denmark, which offers such a contrast to rural life in the South, one wonders if it is possible to introduce these schools, which are responsible for that development, into the Southern States. The presence of a few of such schools in Danish communities in the West will not answer the question; for they are an institution transplanted by the people who created it. On the other hand we must see what relation these schools would hold to our present educational system in the rural sections. In this discussion we are concerned, primarily, with schools provided for colored people. As is well known, elementary education, so far as colored people are concerned, is sorely neglected. A Danish people's high school does not propose to give elementary education. It presumes that all who apply for entrance have completed the elementary school in accordance with the compulsory education law. The negligible illiteracy of .003 per cent testifies to what extent the law is enforced. The people's high schools are not for children but for youths. They take the young man and young woman at the age when they are assuming an attitude towards life. Then, through the personal influence of teachers of character and personality, they would shape those who enter the ï»¿DANISH PEOPLE'S HIGH SCHOOLS 429 high school so that they will be free from racial and national prejudice, superstition, and everything that enslaves men's minds, by introducing them to the treasures of science, the noblest thoughts men have attained, and the histories of different races. Consequently, for these schools to have a place in the rural South, the States must first establish universal compulsory education to give the necessary basis for them. But another aspect of the rural educational system must be reckoned with. At the present time in America, we are developing the rural high school. If this ideal is attained it does not eliminate the value of the people's high school. Rural high schools are formal and rather technical in their education and training; and, while in many cases they prepare the students for advanced education, they leave them at the age when people's high schools want to take them and influence them. In communities where these rural high schools are found a people's high school similar to the "Extended" one at Askov could find a place; for the more, solid the preliminary education, the more firmly will the cultural elements take root. At any rate we are far from securing rural high schools. It is quite clear to what extent people's high schools would develop for the community broad and intelligent leadership; stem the tide of artificial migration to cities of youths seeking a more varied environment; and raise the general culture of the rural community. Not only would this type of school find a place among the colored people, but it would supply a need among the white rural population. The solution of the so-called Negro Problem involves a modification of the white man's attitude as well as raising the Negro to a higher level of culture and'civilization. It is the opinion of the writer that this type of school would possibly have the desired effect. Such has been the effect under somewhat different circumstances. The writer has been informed by many Danes that the people's high schools are largely responsible for wiping out the two-centuries-old prejudice the rural population has cherished against the Swedes, because of their conquest of Denmark. This forecast of the possible consequences of such schools is not hazarded without taking into account the historical difference between the two situations as well as the greater physical differences between the two races in the South. But as the present situation is, primarily, social, we can expect proper social agencies to produce the desired social effects. In the last section the writer has only attempted to indicate briefly the probable place of the Danish people's high school in our educational system and its possible effect upon race relations. ï»¿430 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN * But he is sure that if the message of the people's school is received by the two races in the South, the ideal of community based solely upon personality will be achieved. HAMPTON INCIDENTS THE TEACHERS' CONVENTION TTAMPTON was glad to welcome to its grounds at the end of July the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools, which came to liold its eighteenth annual meeting â– on July 26-29. Several of its members were already present at the Hampton Institute Summer School, which was just completing the last week of its first half, and all of the Summer-School students were invited to attend the meetings of the Association on the 27th and 28th, the time thus lost having been made up on previous Saturdays. An â€¢enjoyable lawn party was held on the lawn in front of the Mansion House on the afternoon of the opening day, and on another afternoon some of the visitors found an opportunity for a sail on Hampton Roads, through it was cut short by a heavy storm which forced them to return sooner than they had intended. In connection with the Convention an exhibit was held in Clarke Hall, which included copies of representative Negro newspapers, books by Negro authors and others suitable for use in schools, pictures and descriptive material from Negro schools, and sample leaflets and literature published by Hampton Institute. It was a great disappointment both to members of the Association and to Hampton workers that Dr. and Mrs. Moton were unable to be present, owing to Dr. Moton's illness at his summer home in Gloucester County. A pleasant incident of the closing session on Friday evening was the arrival of Dr. Dillard, after a series of delays caused by storms and strikes. His address on the increase of co-operation of numerous agencies for better educational opportunities in the South for colored children was most encouraging. He quoted figures showing the vast increase in the appropriation of public funds for this purpose during the past ten years. Among those in attendance not mentioned elsewhere were the following: Principal S. G. Atkins, Slater Normal School, Winston-Salem, N. C.; President G. A. Edwards, Kittreil College, N. C; President John Hope, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Ga. with Mrs. Hope; President Oliver L. Coleman, Coleman College, Gibsland, La.; President Z. T. Hubert, Jackson College, Miss.; Mr. Benjamin F. Hubert, Director Agricultural Department, Tuskegee Institute; Mr. Alfred Lawless, Jr., representative of the American Missionary Association; President John A. Gregg, Wilberforce University, Ohio; President L. J. Rowan, Alcorn College, Miss.; President J. C. Wright, Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla.; President John W. Davis, West Virginia Institute; President J. S. Clarke, Southern University, Baton Rouge, La.; Professor William H. Holloway of Talladega College, Ala.; Mr. R. S. Grossley, Secretary of the Association and Assistant State Agent for Colored Schools, Jackson, Miss.; Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune, Principal Daytona Institute, Fla.; Mrs. Judia Jackson Harris, Principal Model School, Athens, Ga.; President H. L. McCrorey, Johnston C. Smith University, Charlotte, N. C.; President William T. Holmes, Toug-aloo College, Miss.; Mr. W. H. A. Howard, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Fla.; ï»¿HAMPTON INCIDENTS 431 Mr. William Coleman, Principal Douglas High School, El Paso, Tex.; Mrs. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Principal Palmer Memorial Institute, Sedalia, N. C; Mr. Clinton J. Calloway, Director Extension Department, Tuskegee Institute; Miss Ethel M. Caution, executive secretary for colored student work, National Board Y. W. C. A.; President John M. Gandy, Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, Petersburg, Va.; Dr. George E. Haynes, Secretary Commission on the Church and Race Relations,Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America; Principal William H. Holtzclaw, Utica Institute, Miss.; Principal E. A. Long, Christiansburg Industrial Institute, Cambria, Va.; Mr. Edward D. Pierson, president Colored Teachers' Association of Texas, Houston ;President John 0. Spencer, Morgan College, Baltimore, Md.; President G. W. Trenholme, State Normal School, Montgomery, Ala.; and Professor Thomas W. Turner, Howard University, Washington, D. C. ^ CONCERT f\N the evening of July 13 a con- cert, held under the auspices of St. Cyprian's Church, Hampton, was given in Ogden Hall. Mrs. Florence Cole-Talbert, always a favorite with Hampton audiences, gave great pleasure again by her singing. Her voice, which grows each time in beauty and techinque, delighted her hearers, and she responded to their appreciation by giving several encores. The program was well chosen. Among the numbers especially pleasing were "On the Wings of Song," Mendelssohn; "II Bacio," Arditi; and Polonaise from Mignon, "Io Son Titania !", Thomas. The accompanying of Mrs. Dett was, as always, artistic and enjoyable. On the program with Mrs. Cole-Talbert was Mrs. Dora Cole Norman, danseuse. Mrs. Norman, who is a member of the Hampton Sum mer-School staff, is well known for the work she has done in New York in composing and directing dances for plays and pageants. Her two dances, one composed to "Magnolia Suite," one of Mr. Dett's compositions, and one to a waltz of Chopin's, showed Mrs. Norman's grace and her ability to artistically interpret the music. SUMNER LITERARY CLUB rpHE literature classes of the Summer School and their friends spent a very pleasant and instructive hour one evening listening to a program of the Sumner Literary Club, composed chiefly of graduates of the school. The subject was Africa and valuable papers were read by Mrs. William Gibson on Abyssinia and Mr. C. H. Williams on Sierre Leone. Miss Willie Jones of Tuskegee sang "Bobolink" so charmingly that she was enthusiastically encored. The object of the instructor in literature was to put before her pupils a concrete example of a successful literary club. ASSEMBLIES A LECTURE on "Mouth Hygiene" was given at the Assembly of July 13 by Dr. Ballou of the State Board of Health. Dr. Ballou stated that from investigations and statistics of recent years in different counties throughout the United States a large precentage of school children were found to be suffering from various defects and especially from defective teeth. The lack of attention paid to mouth hygiene is responsible for the appalling number of school children who are in great need of dental attention. Although this need is being gradually taken care of through clinics and child-welfare bureaus, there is still a great lack of money and available dentists. One interesting fact that Dr. Ballou mentioned was that there is a State law, which will go into effect in 1925, requiring teachers ï»¿432 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN to take a course in physical examinations, which will enable them to detect common physical defects in children, and thereby, by preventive measures and follow-up methods, aid very much in this campaign. The head of the Agricultural Department of Berea College, Kentucky, Mr. W. J. Baird, who is teaching in the Summer School, gave a very interesting talk on the work of Berea. Started in 1865 by John G. Fee, with one log cabin for its building, it has today five separate schools and an enrollment of 2600 pupils several hundred being turned away each year for lack of room. The school was originally started for both white and colored pupils, but in 1904 separate schools were organized. Berea, like Hampton Institute, believes in and emphasizes industrial education, and a large number of the boys and girls at Berea earn all their expenses. Mr. Baird spoke of the splendid Anglo-Saxon stock from which the mountain people in Kentucky come, and stated that they possess two very important things, religion and patriotism. Education is their greatest need. Mr. Baird drove home his points with amusing stories and anecdotes and is an interesting and inspiring speaker. A REPRESENTATIVE of the Junior Red Cross at Washington, Mrs. Helen S. Burton, spoke at one of the Assemblies on the organization and work of the Junior Red Cross. During the war $10,-000,000 worth of materials was sent overseas by the school children of the United States. This work, started during the war, has continued and is today a most important branch of the American Red Cross. "There is no greater factor in the development of world peace and understanding," said Mrs. Burton, "than to have our children know the children of other coun- At the same Assembly the Hamp- ton Quartet, which will go on tour later, gave several selections which were enthusiastically encored by the audience. A MONG other speakers at the As-semblies were Miss Mabel Jenkins, of Dana Hall, instructor in English, who gave a very interesting talk on Negro poets, dwelling particularly on Phillis Wheatley, Dunbar, Braithwaite, and James Weldon Johnson; Mr. Clyde M. Overby, instructor in penmanship, who spoke about the work in penmanship in the Richmond public schools, where he is assistant supervisor; and Mr. Lorenzo C. White, field secretary of the Negro Organization Society, who described the work of that Society. THE GEOGRAPHICAL PAGEANT (~XN the evening of July 21 a unique and enjoyable entertainment was given in Ogden Hall by the geography classes of the Summer School under the direction of Mrs. Carter, their instructor. The Prologue, personified by one of the student-teachers, referred to the importance of geography in one's daily life, and introduced the three groups forming the pageant students of home geography, who represented oysters, chickens, and children of other lands; students of Central Europe; and students of China. Visitors from Virginia to Phila-adelphia,New York, and Washington met in a hotel lobby and told of their travels, Samantha and Josiah creating much amusement by their account of New York life. Later scenes included San Francisco Park, Switzerland, and finally China,where old and new China met an American delegation which persuaded the conservatives to accept Western civilization. The last very effective tableau was composed of representatives of all nations in costume. After a fine rendition by Columbia ï»¿HAMPTON INCIDENTS 433 of "America for Me," "Love" met her and begged her to take all nation into her heart and "help them find in their own lands the ideals of America." The costuming of the Prologue, Columbia, the Chinese" dice players, and others in the Chinese scene was especially worthy of mention. PHYSICAL TRAINING DEMONSTRATION . A T the close of the first session of the Summer School, a very interesting physical training demonstration were members of the first-sium, on the evening of July 26, the large audience which crowded the building including members of the conference of the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools, which had convened at Hampton on that day. Those taking part in the demonstration were members of the first-, second-, and third-year classes in physical education of the Summer School. Playground games, schoolroom lessons, drills, folk dances, and aesthetic dances were included in the program, and it would be hard to say which were the most pleasing where all were so well done. The efficient way in which the schoolroom games and gymnastic exercises were conducted by various members of the class promised well for the physical development of the children they will teach next year. Perhaps the most outstanding numbers were the schoolroom exercise, "Trees in a Storm," the Russian and Swedish folk dances, the two very graceful interpretive dances composed by Mrs. Dora Cole Norman, portraying "Scenes from an Imaginary Ballet," by Coleridge-Taylor, and the spirited characteristic Negro folk dance, "Cotton Needs Pickin'," composed by Mr. C. H. Williams, the physical director. Much credit is due to him, to Mrs. Norman, and to the other instructors in physical education for the excellent work shown in this demonstration. AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL rjlHE boys belonging to the Farm- Makers Clubs of Surry, Southampton,. Sussex, Nansemond, and Greenville Counties, Virginia, held a successful two days outing and institute at Smallwood School, Claremont, under the direction of Mr. J. L. Charity. Mr. Doggett showed the Hampton motion pictures. Joseph E. Butcher, a first-year college agricultural student, attended also, as part of his training. SECOND-YEAR college students have been active in extension work recently. Burke M. Mathis in Lunenburg County with County Agent Smith, Harrison Jacobs in Greenvillle County with County Agent Randolph Ruffin, '21, and Thos. E. Johnson in Nottoway County with County Agent Oliver. Each gave a demonstration of the care and feeding of the family cow. D. C. Jones went to Keysville, Va., with County Agent Wilson and demonstrated the culling of the farm flock. All these students work in co-operation with the county agents as part of their training in the agricultural course. At the invitation of State Supervisor of Agricultural Education, T. D. Eason, Mr. Blodgett participated in the annual conference of the colored vocational agricultural teachers held at Petersburg Normal and Industrial Institute the last week in August. He spoke on methods of teaching farm machinery. Alarge delegation from the convention of the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools visited Shellbanks Farm and saw the dairy herd, Shellbanks school and dormitory, and the growing crops of corn, beans, and wheat. ï»¿THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN rpHE Annual State meeting of the Virginia Veterinary Association at Blacksburg, on July 13 and 14, was attended by Dr. George C. Faville; and. the State Farmers' Conference at Blacksburg, August 9, 10, 11, was attended by Mr. J. A. Vohringer, with the idea of keeping in touch with the latest information about new varieties of wheat and oats recently developed by the State Agricultural College. SEVENTEEN Farm Makers Club boys from Isle of Wight County, under the leadership of County Agent Frank A. Bowman, visited Hampton August 8. This trip was the annual outing of the club boys of the county. Inspection of the farm, poultry plant, dairy barn, and Trade School, and dinner in the main dining hall with the Hampton students gave the party a full and pleasurable day. Avisit was recently made to Goochland and Buckingham Counties by Mr. George J. Davis, where, accompanied by Mr. J. L. Charity, district demonstration agent, he visited many of the farms owned and managed by colored farmers. County agents J. W. Logan of Buckingham and L. W. Bradley of Goochland proved good hosts and Mr. Davis returned enthusiastic over the work being done in these counties, and encouraged with the satisfactory condition of the homes and farms he visited. OBITUARY rpHE school community was deeply moved and greatly saddened by the death at the Dixie Hospital on Saturday night, July 22, of Mrs. Warren K. Blodgett, wife of the Director of the Agricultural School. Mrs. Blodgett had given birth four days previously to a little daughter and had been reported as on the way to recovery, so that her death was a great shock to all her friends. The funeral services, unusually touching and impressive, were held in the late afternoon of the following Tuesday in Memorial Church, Mrs. Blodgett's father and mother, two sisters, and a brother being present from a distance. The spirituals so loved by Mrs. Blodgett "Steal Away to Jesus," and "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" were never more effective as they were sung very softly by the choir, the student body, and the many friends who had gathered for the service, which was marked by the utmost simplicity. The instructors of the Agricultural School acted as bearers and carried the flower-covered casket from the church to the school cemetery, being followed by the school battalion and a long line of friends. During the committal service the little daughter passed from earth also and her body was laid by loving hands in the arms of her mother. The husband and two children are left to mourn their loss. Dr. Gregg spoke of Mrs. Blodgett as "a woman of rare dignity and charm, whose strength and beauty of character shone out in her face. She gave herself to Hampton with an enthusiasm of devotion that it was a happiness to see. She gave herself also whole heartedly, un-stintingly, gladly, to her family, her friends, and her neighbors. Their welfare and happiness were hers. She served them and the school with a faith that never failed or faltered- ; r HAMPTON WORKERS ASOURCE of satisfaction to her old friends is the presence on the campus for the summer of Mrs. Edith Armstrong Talbot, who is keeping house in the Scoville home for her two daughters, Edith and Emily, the later, who is a Senior at Chicago University, being employed assistant in the Library. Mrs. Talbot held several pleasant "at homes" during July. ï»¿GRADUATES AND EX-STUDENTS 435 A marriage of interest to all in the Hampton community was that of Miss Stella Tessmann to Mr. Charles E. Perry on April 12. The young couple will make their home for the present with the bride's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Tessmann, on the school grounds. "IX/TEMBERS of the Hampton staff attending summer schools are Miss Bryant, Miss Ferris, and Mr. Charles F. Brown at Columbia; and Miss Buckman, Mr. Buck, Mr. Mo-bery, and Mr. Danial Scott at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Mr. Fenn and Mr. Doggett visited Ohio State University and Cornell in connection with the preparation of material for their courses for next year. Mr. Charles E. Perry, teacher of Spanish, is studying Spanish in Spain, and Miss Griffith, teacher of French, is pursuing her study of that language in France. AT the Preachers' Institute held at Bettis Academy, Trenton, S. C, July 10-14, Dr. Gregg gave a course of lectures on "The Background of Christian Preaching," and Mr. Aery, several talks on "The Price of Health." 1WTANY readers of the Southern 1YJ. Workman will be interested in the recent announcement of the engagement of two former workers Miss Dorothy Jones of New Hartford, Conn., and Mr. Fenno Heath of Newport News, Va. TOURING the program of the Conference of the Diocese of East Carolina, held in Beaufort, N. C, June 12-17, Mr. Aery conducted a course of lectures on "The Discussion Method of Study." He also attended the Publicity Conference of the Commission on Inter-racial Cooperation at Blue Ridge, N. C, July 20 and 21. GRADUATES AND EX-STUDENTS Aletter has been received from John M. Cunningham, '16, from Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, where he has gone to take charge of the Bricklaying Department. He writes that he is enjoying the work. A new reservoir is under construction which will increase the water supply, and a boys' dormitory will soon be erected. Acarpentry student of the Class of '16, J. Roy Scott, who was in a Construction Company during the war, is now taking a course in general construction at the New York City College. THE appointment of William M. Rich, '09, to the presidency of the Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company in Norfolk has recently been announced. Mr. Rich has been cashier of the bank for ten years during which time it has steadily grown and now enjoys the distinction of being the largest colored bank and trust company in the United States. FOR two years Frederick C. Kim-bo, '15, has been teaching at his home near Profit, Va. Through his efforts two rural schools have been consolidated and a Rosenwald school built, of which Mr. Kimbo is principal. This is the first Rosenwald school in Albermarle County and the dedication exercises occurred on May 27. TN August, 1922, W. F. Banks re-J- ceived his diploma in agriculture, and has already accepted the position of Smith-Hughes teacher of agriculture at the Gloucester County Training School at Roanes, Va. ï»¿436 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN ANOTHER graduate of this year's class of the Agricultural School, Walter Webb, who has been studying in the Hampton Summer School, is going to Southland, Ark., to organize the agricultural work at Southland Institute. Mr. F. Raymond Jenkins, a Hampton instructor during the past school year, is to be principal there. Aposition in the carpentry department at the Fort Valley High and Industrial School, Fort Valley, Ga., has recently been accepted by Frank W. Hamilton, '21. During the past winter he worked at carpentry in Montgomery, Alabama. FOR some time, Mrs. Boston T. Parsons, formerly Victoria Hargrove, 1895, was one of the supervisors of Norfolk County. A new school has recently been built in her community and she has been elected principal. The school is a social center for the community, and she is finding her work very interest- TN the June issue of the Agricul- tural Club Letter, published at Blacksburg, Va., appears the following account of a "Chicken Party," by Mrs. Youtha Black Flagg, '00, who is home-demonstration agent for Bedford County, Va.: "A Chicken Party was given by the Coleman Falls Community and Negro Homemakers' Clubs, Bedford County, on April 13. The members, as their names were read from the roll, responded with something on the subject of chickens. Appropriate games and songs were enjoyed and a demonstration and talk on poultry were given by the agent. Prizes were given to the winners of the games, and refreshments were sold by the girls, who realized $4.20." rpHE Colored State College at Orangeburg, S. C, at its Commencement exercises in June, conferred degrees on twenty prominent Negroes who have rendered service to the State by their work for the Negro race. One of the men thus honored was Isaac N. Leevy, '06, of Columbia, S. C, who received the degree of Master of Arts. After completing the tailoring and academic courses at Hampton, Mr. Leevy taught tailoring at Mayesville, S. C, and later went to Columbia and started a tailor shop. His business has grown considerably and he now owns two stores. He is always ready to devote his time and energy to any charitable enterprise. A GRADUATE of 1913, Maude M. Gamble, who has taught in the public school at Charlottesville, Va., since leaving Hampton, has been given the principalship. There are eleven teachers and about seven hundred pupils in the school. rpHE Chicago Defender announces that William H. Harrison, Jr., Class of '03, is now correspondent for that paper. For five years Mr. Harrison was secretary to the Commandant at Hampton, afterwards conducting a private business night school in Philadelphia, being employed during the daytime as a public stenographer. From 1917-1920 he was Government stenographer in the United States Navy Inspection Office of the Bethlehem Steel Company. He has recently compiled a history for colored boys and girls, and is planning to publish in the near future a volume of original poems. A FORMER worker in the Carpentry Shop at Hampton Institute, James G. Martin, has done successful work in carpentry since he left in 1920. He has been in business at Baltimore, Md., where he recently completed a large, fireproof garage with space for housing fifty cars at a time. A SON of N. B. Clark, Class of '77, principal of the Booker T. Washington School in Newport News, has been graduated from the Dunbar High School in Washington, D. C, with honorable mention for scholarship and athletics. Clark also won the Howard University scholarship. ï»¿WORK WITH THE NEGRO ROUND TABLE 437 HHHE Southern Workman is happy to quote the following appreciative words from a subscriber of several years' standing, LaFayette Shawnee, '12, of Kingfisher, Oklahoma: "The writer is very much pleased with the Southern Workman. Its subject matter is clear, truthful, inspiring, and without malice, prejudice, or anything that will cause friction or ill will." He adds, "Love is the only thing that is going to settle all difficulties between individuals, races, or nations, I believe." DEATHS rpHE death of George A. Mundy, '04, occurred on June 10 at his home in Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Mundy studied at Oberlin Academy and at Ohio State University. He later studied law which he was practicing in Cleveland at the time of his death. at his home at Union, S. C. Mr. Jones was engaged in school work most of his life, and at one time was connected with the State College at Orangeburg, S. C. He has been ill for some time and his death was not unexpected. MARRIAGES rpHE marriage of Marian Reid, -L '03, to Mr. James H. Willingham at her home in Los Angeles, California, was recently announced. Mrs. Willingham is a graduate nurse of the Freedmen's Hospital, Philadelphia, where she completed her course after leaving Hampton. W ORD has been received of the death of Charles H. Jones, 1878, A N ex-student of the Class of 1918, Fentress L. Dawkins, was married to Miss Suebert Richardson on June 23 at Durham, N. C. Mr. Dawkins is a teacher of manual training in the city schools of Philadelphia where the couple will make their home. WORK WITH THE NEGRO ROUND TABLE BY THOMAS F. BLUE Hampton, '88 ADISTINCTIVE feature of the Colored Department of the Louisville Free Public Library, and one that has been far-reaching, is the Training Class for those who desire to enter the service. The Training Class was a "child of necessity." In those days, a public library for colored people in the South was something "new under the sun." Naturally, a trained colored library assistant was a rarity. The Western Colored Branch Library of Louisville, tl^e first colored iranch library established in the countr.y. needed assistants, so it was cided to train thenT This business, like war-time training, required haste. Local applicants for the Training Class are required to have a good high-school education, or its equivalent, and to pass the annual examination. The class spends four to six months in the study of library methods and practice work. Instruction is given by the head and senior assistants of the Colored Department, and heads of the Departments at the Main Library. This training has been taken by thirty-four persons. In establishing the Colored Department and in organizing a Training Class, the authorities of the Louisville Free Public Library did "greater than they knew." They not only made it possible to train all the assistants in our two branches, housed in Carnegie buildings, doing school, station, and county work, with an annual circulation of over 100,000 volumes, but, in the language of the Good Book, they have caused our "fame to spread abroad." Our work is not only accepted at home but it is recognized away from home. ï»¿438 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN Aside from the training of our own assistants, we have trained most of the young women who are serving in Colored Branch libraries in the South. To be accurate, 11 young women from 8 other cities have taken the training course. They were sent to Louisville for library training by the librarians at Houston, Birmingham, Atlanta, Evansville, Memphis, Knox-ville, Nashville, and Chattanooga. All of these women have served in libraries throughout the South. At present seven are serving in colored branch libraries at Atlanta, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Birmingham, and Houston, and from all indications are "making good." * A paper read at the American Library Conference in Detroit, June 26 to July 1. Mr. Blue, head of the Colored Department, Louisville Free Public Library, was the only colored representative at the Association meeting. ALLAHABAD AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE A LETTER FROM SAM HIGGINBOTTOM ON April, twelfth we closed our scholastic year. Fifteen students were graduated, twelve from the English courses and three from the Hindustani seven were Christians and eight were Hindus. They came from the farthest west, the farthest east, and the farthest north of India, from Native States as well as British India. We hope and pray that they may wisely use the training they have received here. We open again June 29, and expect to have our dormitory full. All this year we have been pushing ahead with our buildings and next year we should be much better able to attend to our students. We have finished the dairy building and dairy barns, we have standings for 80 milch cows and buffaloes, and 72 work-oxen and young stock. We have finished our seed store which we needed very much. There is a great demand for pure-bred seed and heretofore we have had no proper place to store it. We have to build the store to protect the seed against weevil and bugs, white ants and fungus, rats and men, so it is a mixture of bricks and cement, iron bars and gates and locks, pitch and coal-tar, even now after all our trying some little pest or other may get in and spoil some of our good seed, but we have done our best. If it is not good enough we will have another try till we get it right. When we get it as it ought to be, it will be of great service to others in India, for many have tried and failed to get safe storage for seed. A well-known writer on Indian problems estimated that ten per cent of the food grains grown in India are annually destroyed by pests of one sort or another. We have also finished a students' workshop, for which we need fittings and equipment. We are building our laboratory or rather the section for which we have money in hand. Our faith leads us to believe that when this is up and in full use the good Lord will send us money to complete the job; we shall not go into debt in the matter. A bungalow for an American teacher is about half finished, and we are also building a power house. The city now has its own power and light from a central plant so we were able to buy cheap a very fine double set from the club. It is just what we need to give us light and fans for the houses and dormitories, and electric power for our pumps. Electric fans are not a luxury here. The last three days have been our first taste of real hot weather this season, about 110 degrees in the shade, a very hot, dry wind blowing which whistles through the cracks of the door and keyholes. If we can keep down to 100 degrees in the house we are happy. During this hot weather the punkha coolie who should pull the big, swinging fan falls asleep at his job. One can't blame him, but one wakes up all bathed in perspiration and feeling anything but rested. Therefore, if we can get electric fans it not only lessens our discomfort but greatly increases our efficiency. Our four, new American men all go for the long vacation to the mountains where there is a language school. This is necessary for them, for the sooner they get a good working knowledge of the language the more use they will be to India. It means, however, that I stay pretty close to the job all summer long. This part of India.has had the best agricultural year I have ever seen. India will have 3,000,000 long tons more wheat this year than last. The year has been a very happy, full, and busy one teaching students, looking ï»¿THE BOOK OF NEGRO POETRY 439 after the farm, seeing the buildings go up to stay, chasing from one person to another trying to get fifty different part-owners to agree to sell one small plot of ground; seeing that the lepers get their food on time and their other wants cared for. In addition, the mission has asked me to take over the Blind Asylum and turn it into a decent school for the blind. There are 105,000 people blind in both eyes in these provinces. There is an accommodation for less than 100 in three mission asylums. The blind beggar is second only to the leper in the unrelieved misery of his life. I know little of caring for the blind and I am counting on my friends helping and hope that somewhere God has a person prepared to take charge of this school. Government will help with about half the cost of the land and buildings and the running expenses. The political situation now seems easier. We have been surprised at some of the statements in the American papers about conditions here. Many are fine examples of a free-working imagination. We have had a very anxious year, and much of the time very little was needed to set things off, but God protected India from a blow-up. Mr. Gandhi is a thoroughly good man, a good lawyer. His trial was a remarkable spectacle; he pleaded guilty. He has been used by evil men to further their own ends, often destructive ends. Mr. Gandhi is also not up on economic law, and like some people and some governments, feels that if moral and spiritual law is observed, economic law will take care of itself. I believe the next great lesson the world has to learn is that economic law is as much God's law as moral or spiritual law, and that whoever breaks it will suffer for breaking it. The present international situation is a case in point. BOOK REVIEWS The Book of American Negro Poetry. Chosen and edited, with an essay on the Negro's Creative Genius, by James Weldon Johnson. Published by Harcourt Brace and Company, New York. Price $1.75 rpHE compiler of this book, who J- is also the author of "The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man" and the volume of poems called "Fifty Years," as well as of many of our most popular songs, brings to his task of gathering together the best poems he could find by Negro poets a peculiar fitness. From Dunbar to Braithwaite and McKay he has enjoyed a personal friendship with the writers of his race in the United States. As United States consul at Corinto, Nicaraugua, he had opportunity to become acquainted also with the literary efforts of Latin-American poets of Negro blood. Not the least valuable part of the book is the preface, an essay of forty pages, on "The Negro's Creative Genius." The Negro has a definite contribution to make to American literature and art. He has emotional endowment, originality, artistic conception, and the power of creating that which has universal appeal. He has proved the possession of these powers by being the creator of "the only things artistic that have yet sprung from American soil and been universally acknowledged as distinctive American products." These are the Uncle Remus stories, the "spirituals," the cake-walk, .ind ragtime. The power shown in these four directions is even now being applied to higher forms of art. This little book shows that the American Negro has accomplished something in pure literature. Mr. Johnson's comments on the thirty-one poets and the one hundred poems of his choice are very interesting. Some of the best poems in dialect are included, although we are reminded that the poets of today are using very little dialect. The trend is toward the writing of American poetry into which the Negro fuses his own artistic gifts. William Stanley Braithwaite's appeal is ï»¿440 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN not upon the basis of race at all. As critic, anthologist, and "friend of pocry and poets," he has a place in American literature. Just enough of his "lyrics of delicate and tenuous beauty" are included in the book to make one long for more. Their rich imagery and even the touch of mysticism are the gift of Mother Africa. Perhaps more clearly in the emotionalism of Georgia Douglas Johnson or in the sublime faith of the youthful Joseph S. Cotter, Jr., the reader will find evidences of the w Negro's gift to American literature of which Mr. Johnson is so sure. The majority of these writers strike the note of faith in God, the greatest gift the Negro has for America. How different would our schools be if every teacher could have for his own the poem, "The Teacher," by Leslie Pinckney Hill [printed in the Southern Workman for March]. Mr. Johnson's hope is that the poets of his race will eventually write poems which express our national spirit and have a universal appeal. His book shows that they have great possibilities. E. H. W. Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs. By Alice C. Fletcher. Published by C. C. Birchard and Co., Boston, Mass. Price $1.75 . TT IS difficult for the average white person who dances merely for pleasure to realize how fraught with meaning all Indian dances are. In speaking of Indian songs and dances in general Miss Fletcher says, "Every Indian dance has a meaning. The dance is either the acting out of some mythical story or the presentation of a personal experience. Every movement of the body, arms, hands, feet, and head is always in strict time with the songs that invariably accompany the dance. * * * With the Indian the words hold a secondary or unimportant place in a song. The music and accompanying action, ceremonial or otherwise, convey the meaning or purpose." To make the songs that accompany these games more intelligible to those who do not understand the Indian method of songs without words, Miss Fletcher has supplied words which, while not literal translations of the words used by the Indians, "express the thought or feeling that gave rise to the music," so that its meaning may be more understood and intelligently sung. The dance which takes first place is called "The Life of the Corn" (A drama in five dances). The history of the dance and its significance make it exceedingly interesting; the careful directions as to how it should be done make it very easy to follow. The book gives other dances and games, less complicated but quite as picturesque. The third division of the book is devoted to names and how they are bestowed. There are lists of names for boys and girls and a few for camps which are particularly useful in fulfilling the needs of camp-fire circles and similar organizations. The whole book is interesting, and makes one realize anew that in all his pleasures, as well as in his religion, the Indian is one with Nature and that Nature, the life-force, is sacred in all forms and expressions. C. W. A. The Stenquist Mechanical Aptitude Tests. By J. S. Stenquist. Published by the World Book Company. Yonkers, N. Y. Price Each Test,* $1.50 net; Manual of Directions, 20 cents net. HPHE past few years have seen rapid advancement in the development of tests of general intelli- 1 Specimen set: An envelope containing one of each of the tests, one Key for each test; one Manual, and one record sheet. Price 30 cents postpaid. 1 ï»¿HARLEM SHADOWS 441 gence and the standardization of educational tests of many different types. These tests have proved their value in the fields of general school ability and have greatly stimulated interest in tests of special ability. In this mechanical age the need of skilled mechanics is obvious. Any tests which can help to determine the innate mechanical ability of an individual would, therefore, be of great service in helping to determine the training and future occupation of many of our children. The Stenquist "Mechanical Aptitude Tests" are significant in that they make an attempt to test the mechanical aptitude of the school child. The author, in "Test I," presents a number of picture problems the solution of which requires the subject to analyze the mechanical relationship of common objects to one another. In "Tests II," questions are asked concerning the construction and operation of the simple machanisms pictured on the page. The clearness with which the questions are asked and the mechanical ease with which they can be answered, should make the tests available for use in the early grades. The author gives norms for grades above the fifth. For the child with an ordinary amount of contact with our mechanical environment, these tests should be of considerable value in determining both the interest in common devices and observation of them. How far they actually measure general mechanical aptitude, apart from possible experience, is questionable. However, the Stenquist Tests, if used intelligently, should serve as a valuable supplement to other measurements of the child's general ability, and might be used extensively as the basis for "trial" training in mechanical fields. The more such tests are used, if followed up and correlated with the child's later achievements, the sooner their faults can be corrected and the tests made to serve as a more reliable index on mechanical ability. 0. f. m. Harlem Shadows. By Claude McKay, with an introduction by Max Eastman. Published by Harcourt, Brace & Company, New York. Price $1.75. -[: rpHE poems in this book are characterized by wide range of subject and a distinct gift for poetic diction. The writer of them has a poet's soul. They have also the touch which marks them as the work of one of African descent. Love of the tropics and its life breathes through the lines of many: some refer wistfully to childhood memories, as in contrast to the stern realities of the North, and the city. Old loves, old ties, old scenes have strong hold on the writer; the hard facts of life as it must be lived by a Negro in an Anglo-Saxon civilization press hard on his sensitive soul. His eyes are open to all its artistic possibilities, however, and he voices truthfully what he sees. Nature has given to Mr. McKay the gift of a singer, so that whatever mode or rhythm he adopts, it is satisfying and melodious. No free verse is here, although classic rules are treated freely, and he knows instinctively how to use words in a way that shows both culture and melody. These poems seem to the writer marred by two faults, however, not of vision or of expression, but of the poet's mentality. Mr. McKay thinks, it appears, in terms both negative and garish. His subjects are of things past, things longed for, things absent, or things tragic. The positive, inspirational note, which we associate with poetry at its best, is conspicuous by its absence, so that one seems to be hearing too much music in the minor key. When he does touch a more positive note, he becomes lurid, not in word but in thought, touching his subject in strong, glaring colors; his work at such times lacks taste. His mind seems to be a dark place lit up by fitful rays of passion, not a clear, bright place where one loves to lin- ï»¿442 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN ger. The book is well named "Harlem Shadows." In Claude McKay another minor poet has spoken. e. a. t. "In the Land of the Head Hunters" and "Indian Days of Long Ago." By Edward S. Curtis. Published by the World Book Company, Yonkers, N. Y. Price $2.00 each. rpHESE two books by Mr. Curtis, whose pictures of Indians and Indian life are so remarkable, are not only exceedingly interesting reading, but are charmingly illustrated with photographs by the author and with pen and ink drawings by F. N. Wilson. "In the Land of the Head Hunters" is written after the style of the old-time Indian story teller, a story of fasting and vigil, of battle, capture, and revenge. The dramatic way in which it is written adds greatly to its interest, and the story carries one with it from the very beginning. The fact that there were head hunters among the North American Indians is not generally known, but Mr. Curtis vouches for it in his Foreword, and says that the practice was well known to all the early explorers of the north coast. "Indian Days of Long Ago" is the story of Kukusim, the son of a chief of one of the Rocky Mountain tribes the Salish. As a boy, hunting rabbits and making songs to lure them to his traps; in his father's lodge, learning the customs and folk lore of his people, as well as of other tribes; as a young man, scouting and learning the ways of the trail and camp, and even up to the time of the fast at the beginning of manhood the hero is described in the story. It is told with unusual charm, and it is evident that when Mr. Curtis's work led him to a study of Indian life, the life and the people found in him a sympathetic friend. c. w. a. Suggested Programs for Rural Communities. Published by the Webb Publishing Company, St. Paul, Minn. Price 15 cents. rpo the members of rural communi-ties who are looking for programs and material for their club meetings, this little book offers a great variety of excellent suggestions. Different types of clubs are suggested, with methods of starting and organizing them; and a model constitution is outlined. Clubs that include the entire family are recommended as the most successful kinds. The programs mostly require little preparation and are of a recreational nature, although some are profitable as well as pleasureable. A list of short plays and pageants, adapted to home talent and easily prepared, is given; also a list of motion pictures made especially with reference to rural life. Programs for special occasions, such as Christmas, Hallowe'en, Lincoln's Birthday, etc., are described; and also various kinds of suppers and recipes for such special occasions. Several amusing relay races and games, always useful as "ice-breakers," are given. With each program is a list of books or pamphlets that can be secured, many of these being published in an inexpensive form by Community Service, Incorporated, New York City. a. a. ï»¿WHAT OTHERS SAY MAGAZINES NOTES ALARGE part of the June issue of Missions is devoted to the Negro, and contained, among other things, "The Negro Challenge to the White Churches" by George E. Haynes, Ph.D.; a description and picture of the Booker Washington monument at Tuskegee; "Our Home Mission Schools for Negroes" by George R. Hovey, D.D.; and an advance notice of Dr. Haynes's book "The Trend of the Races." Among the illustrations are pictures of the students of two mission schools for Negroes and pictures showing the activities of the Cleveland Community Center. THE Review of Reviews for June contained a short but impressive article by Dr. Wallace But-trick on the unveiling of the Booker Washington monument. The article bore the title "Negro Progress Exemplified" and had two illustrations. The same magazine contained an illustrated paper called "Uncle Sam Pays a Debt to Indians," by C. J. Blanchard, on the new irrigation system for the Pimas. THE Playground for June contained most valuable suggestions for all kinds of community recreation, including directions for making inexpensive costumes for plays and pageants; lists of community plays for summer months; and games for evenings at home. CHEROKEE CORN GROWERS WHEN Ferdinand DeSoto took enough corn from the Cherokee Nation in 1540 to feed his horses, the Cherokees were obliged to double their yield. When he left them they found ways of utilizing their corn or maize in so many ways as food that they decided to grow more each year. Now the Cherokees have greater yields of corn than any other tribe participating in community farming. For the past two years they have won first prize at the State free fair at Muskogee. Daily Oklahoman A NEGRO PHILOSOPHER rpHE dean of the Liberal Arts Col-lege of Wilberforce University, Dr. Gilbert H. Jones, is the author of a new book now used at Harvard, and sought by other leading American universities. Dr. Jones holds a doctor's degree from the University of Jena, Germany, and his book, a thesis written at his graduation, is considered a masterpiece of psychological research. It is a treatise on the work of Lotze and Bowne, two great philosophers, and is now the recognized authority on those two . masters. Associated Negro Press PROGRESSIVE ALASKAN INDIANS "Jl/TANY young men of the Hydah tribe of southeastern Alaska are enrolled in the school fisheries of the University of Washington. The students belong to one of the most enterprising of the native tribes of Alaska, and they have left the Territory for the first time in their lives in order to gain practical knowledge of modern methods in the fishing industry. School Life PROGRESS IN EDUCATION PUBLIC schools of the South are making progress in eliminating illiteracy among Negroes. The 1920 census showed about 300,000 less colored illiterates than that of 1910. In 1910 the percentage of colored illiteracy in the South was 33.3, and in 1920 it had dropped to 26.3." The New York Age COLORED Negro schools in fourteen Southern States are to receive $574,530 from the Rosenwaid Fund for the coming year. Savannah Tribune iifTXKE Texas State Legislature -L has increased its public-school appropriation from $8.50 to $14.50 per capita, and has provided for this money to be equally available for both colored and white schools. The ï»¿444 THE SOUTHERN WORKMAN number of high schools for Negroes, already larger than in any other State, is being increased; and this year's appropriation for the State Colored Agricultural and Mechanical College is $250,000." NEGRO COURT STENOGRAPHER FOR the first time in the history of the United States, a colored man, James H. G. Green of New York City, has been appointed as a court stenographer. Mr. Green was educated in the Jersey City High School, and for the past twenty-five years has been employed as a confidential secretary with a business concern in New York. Dallas Express HONORS IN MEDICINE TO a Negro girl, Miss Alice Ball, belongs the honor of contributing to one of the most important medical discoveries of recent years the use of chaulmoogra oil in the treatment and cure of leprosy. When the laboratory experiments at the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, were carried on, Miss Ball was offered an appointment as chemist. She accepted the position, devoting herself to the work so earnestly that she later died as the result of a breakdown in health, without knowing that the work to which she had given herself had been successful. The American Missionary HOME-MISSION BOOKS rpHE Joint Committee on Home X Mission Literature of the Council of Women for Home Missions and Missionary Education Movement will publish, as the home-mission study books for the year 1922-23, a general book on American Neighbors (Negroes) by George E. Haynes and Dr. W. W. Alexander; a book of biographies of outstanding Negroes in the various fields of life by Mrs. L. H. Hammond; and a book for juniors by Anita L Ferris. NEGRO ACTORS IN speaking of the play "Taboo" by Mary Hoyt Wilborg, presented in the Sam H. Harris Theater in New York, in which the cast includes a number of colored people, C. Kamba Simango, Hampton '19, among others, Heyward Broun in the New York World makes the following comment: "It may be that the tradition of the so-called "golden days" of the American theater is best preserved today by Negro actors. In most scenes of violent emotion and florid expression it seems to us that they are incomparably better than but a handful of their white competitors. They have abandon. They can actually give the illusion of ecstacy. There are so many excellent actors even in the casually assembled company of Negroes that it seems possible that there must be some great ones somewhere or other among this race for which dramatic opportunities are still so rare." CANADIAN INDIANS CANADA has done much for its Indians. The old buffalo ranges have given way to towns and cities, fields and pastures. Tepee villages have given way to town and cities. Indian boys and girls are being given an education in the 339 schools throughout the domain." The Tomahawk THE SPINGARN MEDAL THE Spingarn Medal for 1921 was awarded to Mrs. Mary B. Tal-bert, former president of the National Association of Colored Women. ï»¿TRAVELING LIBRARIES Traveling Libraries, consisting of eighteen books each, in a neat box in which they may be kept, will be loaned for a school term (October 1 to June 1) to any teacher or superintendent in Virginia, Maryland, or North Carolina, on receipt of a nominal fee of one dollar in advance. A choice of five sets of books may be had on application. SAMPLE LIST OF BOOKS Birds of Village and Field Merriam Black Beauty Sewell Book of Games Bancroft Botany Bailey Essentials of Woodworking Griffith Good Health Jewett How to Tell Stories to Children Bryant In the Child's World Poulson Our Native Trees Keeler Our Vanishing Wild Life Hornaday Poems by Grades (Grammar) Harris & Gilbert Primer of Hygiene Ritchie Town and City Jewett The Work of the Rural School Eggleston & Bruire Hampton Leaflets, Volume I Hampton Leaflets, Volume II Hampton Leaflets, Volume HI Hampton Leaflets, Volume IV Alimited number of libraries suitable for schools are now for sale. Price $5.00. APPLY TO PUBLICATION OFFICE The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute HAMPTON, VIRGINIA All transportation charge* paid by the person ordering the library ï»¿SOME PUBLICATIONS OF The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute Annual Catalogue (llustrated) An Apostle of Good Will Robert R. Moton Armstrong's Contribution to World Peace Talcott Williams Building a Rural Civilization, Jackson Davis 10 cents Contemporary poetry of the Negro, Kerlin 10 cents Educational Ideals, Samuel Chapman Armstrong 10 cents The Failure of Cunningham 5 cents Flag Code Founder's Day Programs General Armstrong's Life and Work, Franklin Carter 10 centa A Hampton Girl's Training, C. A. Lyford 10 cents Hampton Men and Women 10 cents Human Improvabiility, Anson Phelps Stokes 10 cents Humanity of Armstrong, James H. Dillard 10 cents Hampton's Work for the Indians, Caroline W. Andrus 5 cents Lynching, a National Menace, J. E, Gregg Negro Farmers of Virginia, W. A. Aery Set of Twenty Hampton Pictures 25 cents Sketch of Hollis Burke Frissell, G. F. Peabody The Servant Question, Virginia Church Trade Courses, W. A. Aery 5 cents each APPLY TO PUBLICATION OFFICE HAMPTON INSTITUTE HAMPTON. VA