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Article published in Opportunity (journal published by National Urban League), August, 1924, pp. 244-246. "A successful library experiment". American Liberty League. 400dpi TIFF G4 page images Digital Library Services, University of Kentucky Libraries Lexington, Kentucky LFP_rblue_2_04_01 These pages may freely searched and displayed. Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically. Article published in Opportunity (journal published by National Urban League), August, 1924, pp. 244-246. "A successful library experiment". American Liberty League. unknown unknown 1924-08-01 Is Part of the Reverend Thomas F. Blue Papers, ca. 1905-1935 housed at the Louisville Free Public Library, Louisville, KY. This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 1 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file. ï»¿L. hollingsworth WOOD Chairman 9 Eugene Kinckle Jones Executive Secretary Charles S. Johnson, Editor Vol. 2 OPPORTUNITY A JOURNAL OF NEGRO LIFE Published Monthly by The Department of Research and Investigations NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE 127 EAST 23rd STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. Telephone Gramercy 3978 August, 1924 Qontents William H. Baldwin Secretary A. S. Frissell Treasurer No. 20 COVER. "Toil" By Mahouri Young Courtesy of The Survey Graphic EDITORIALS 226 The Conference of Social Work at Toronto Another Vexation for the Psychologists The New Crusaders "The Jesus Way" Fisk's Million Dollar Endowment Fund Walls Opportunity Literary Contest Democracy and Education By William Pickens ARTICLES The Negro and the Community By William Pickens 229 The Effect of Health Education on Negro Mortality By Louis I. Dublin 23 2$ The Need of Health Education Among Negroes By Algernon B. Jackson The Negro's Psychology and His Health By C. V. Roman Discussion E. Franklin Frazier Rebecca Hull Walton Negro Workers in Buffalo By C. L. Peake Negro Women in Industry By Helen B. Sayre A Successful Library Experiment. Illustrated By Thomas F. Blue 235 237 239 240 242 244 A Sound Negro Business Institution. Illustrated 247 CORRESPONDENCE INTER-RACIAL FORUM POT POURRI BULLETIN BOARD 248 249 250 252 "OPPORTUNITY" desires the following contributions: drawings, paintings and photographs for covers; fiction, poetry, local news of interest with photographs; and authentic articles. These contributions should be accompanied by return postage. Single Copies, Fifteen Cents Yearly Subscription, One Dollar and a Half Copyright 1923 Entered as second-class matter October 30, 1923, at the Post Office at New York, New York, under the act of March 3, 1879. ï»¿OPPORTUNITY Vol. 2 August, 1924 ^o. 20 EDITORIALS The Conference of Social Work at Toronto T^WO years â– â– -ago in Providence, Rhode Island, the assembled social workers found no room for discussion of the special social difficulties of the Negro population. Last year, in Washington, there were three Negroes among the six speakers on this subject. At the recent meeting, in Toronto, there were nineteen places on the program devoted to this question, fourteen of which were filled by Negro speakers; Eugene Kinckle Jones, Executive Secretary of the National Urban League, was elected one of the five members of the Executive Committee of the Conference by a heavy vote, and one general evening session was given over entirely to the Negro migration. The sessions at which the difficulties of the Negroes were discussed were marked by an unusually high attendance and animated discussion. This is distinctly a step forward. The Conference seemed to have derived from its generous attitude on the question an exalted sense of spiritual freedom. This expressed itself in the spontaneous and genuine enthusiasm evoked when the name of Mr. Jones appeared among those elected to the Executive Board. These social workers, aided by the gentle fervor of such dominantly earnest characters as Mary McDowell, Jane Ad-dams, Grace Abbott, Edith Campbell, Mary Van Kleek, and a few others, actually convinced themselves of the universality of their social preach- "Segregation has solved no problem," shouted William Pickens. "It is a problem factory and will continue until the end of the system. . . . Warfare between the minority race and the majority race is like the world war: everybody loses. . . . Disease germs draw no color line." They knew he was right, and as a stamp of their interest a continuation meeting was held the following day and three hundred came. If in no other sense, the Conference triumphed in loosening its inhibitions on the race question. * * * An encouraging feature of the Conference was the support by Negro speakers themselves of the "urge to justice" manifested among the leaders. At last, it seems, a formidable group of Negro specialists in social work is emerging. With few exceptions the time-worn technique of emotional pleading and indignant air-beating was abandoned in favor of clear-cut and dispassionate analysis of particular situations. The question of Negro labor, for example, no longer figured in their speculations as some vaguely uncertain hope of merely providing an opening for Negro workers. They are already in industry and attention is now on the subtler problems of orienting them to jobs with a future; of selection on some stricter basis of physical and temperamental adaptation; of providing new and wholesome "wants" and sublimating profitless and sometimes criminal impulses as a cure for excessive turnover; of apprenticeship; of collective bargaining and meeting squarely the ambiguous behavior of certain white labor groups; of directly applying the principles of industrial democracy. The Negro population is no longer conceived as a tangent group, but in inter-acting relation with all which we know the community to be. Withholding privileges or the emoluments of service from them is vitally depriving all the individuals not merely in some negatively spiritual way but actually and measurably. If the level of Negro education is purposely low, the level of white education is held d o wnv â– 'â– 4Â§H^ # * * The addresses and a large part of the discussion on the Negro have been made available for Opportunity readers. They contain a wealth of information and constructive planning. Those which do not appear in this issue, because of space limitations, will follow in the next. Another Vexation for The Psychologists tt would not be sur- prising if the learned intelligence probers soon discovered different races within the Negro race, to account for the amazing discrepancies between present theories and fact. In comparative measurements of white and Negro children, the Negroes always trail behind in varying degrees of deficiency. But if the Negro children of California, for example, are compared with the white children of North Carolina, by the same standard tests, this relation threatens to be sharply reversed. While a perfectly obvious test of the test, not one of the proponents of innate difference has dared try it. The nearest approach to such a comparison is a study of the educational status of Los Angeles Negro children by Willis W. Clark, Assistant Supervisor of Schools of that city, published by the De- ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 227 partment of Psychology and Educational Research of Los Angeles City Schools. He sought the intelligence levels of Negro children as compared with the total population of fifteen elementary schools, basing this on the National intelligence tests. The median I. Q. for the Negroes was 104.7 aÂ°d fÂ°r the whites 106.0, a difference regarded as of no significance. But when the schools were divided it was found that seven of them ranked lower than the Negroes, in one case nine points lower. This is a difference, it can be easily calculated, about four and one-half times greater than the difference registered between the whites and the Negroes. The question is, naturally, are the Negroes superior to the white children of these seven schools below them as certainly as the whites are superior to the Negroes in the eight schools above them? More striking still, the Negro children measured an intelligence quotient 0.346 of a year above average chronological age or a median I. Q. of 104.7 as compared with but 0.18 or a median I. Q. of 1 Oi.8 for unselected white children in forty schools. Moreover, in the educational accomplishment tests these Negro children made their highest scores in arithmetic, an abstract subject which they are not expected to comprehend. What these results indicate, if anything at all, is that such differences as can be honestly found when the environment is about the same are even less important than can be found among the children of any ordinary family. We prophesy for this study, despite its scrupulous honesty, a speedy submergence. * * * The New Crusaders t T may be possible, but there is room for doubt, that the Almighty appreciates the swaggering, intolerant religiousness of His Ku Klux children with their blind and bigoted hates conceived in the name of a Protestant Jesus; their flaming, oakum-soaked mockery of the cross; their tar and feathers and sadistic lashings; their pathologically interesting "surveys" of "Red light districts"; and even their murders, to hasten His Kingdom on earth. It is indeed doubtful that He shares their enthusiasm to correct the errors of Creation by the Imperial Wizard's race purity chart. Already numbering millions, the growing strength of this group of white, Protestant Americans was revealed in its dark, menacing power at the Democratic Convention in New York. Like a crouching dragon goaded by the sound of its name, it snapped into sight and action, stung by the frank condemnation of Senator Oscar Underwood's platform, and through the eight days that followed, waged battle over the issue. Brave men they are and unafraid. They are on their confession "one hundred per cent Americans, trying to bring us back to the faith of our fathers who founded the Republic." The baseless affront to friendly Japan, the intolerant and discriminatory immigration bill bear the stamp of their prowess, first steps, as it were, in the redemption of the country. Other steps include a long list of services to the Republic which, under "unhooded" circumstances, are designated precisely and simply in the criminal statutes. And while these plenipotentiaries of the Empire maneuvered in Madison Square Garden for a firmer grip on the Nation's throat, their one hundred per cent American constituent with characteristic valor added another victory to the long list. The press reported it as follows: "Two truck loads of hooded men attack Negro boys' camp at Naylor's Run, upper Darby, near Philadelphia. After firing several shots and burning fiery cross, they disperse." * * * "The Jesus Way" t 7ASSAR College has just â–¼ held a profoundly significant meeting, an Institute for a Christian Basis of World Relations. It was significant both in its new interpretation of what they call "The Jesus Way" of life, and in its attitude toward races which are different. Northerners and Southerners, Negroes, Chinese and Indians met on a plane of exalted brotherhood, walked and talked together, and in the freedom inspired by their genuine faiths and ideals, came to know and understand each other. This, indeed, was a triumph founded more securely than the sneaking, religious intolerance of the hooded empire, or even the righteous exaltation of pious evangels of a Christianity which seals its lips and closes its eyes to the abuses of racial dominance, lvnchings and proscriptions and with gloved hands keeps God's dark children out of "white" churches. It was natural with this Vassar group, supported as it was by non-political scholars and scientists, that knowing one another they should conclude that fundamental differences between races are social and cultural rather than biological; that no race is justified in building a public policy of any kind on the supposed fact of biological differences; that racial purity is of little consequence; that the test of racial superiority is the response of the race to the best stimuli the world can provide. The success of this experiment reminds us that there are forces at work in the more tolerant-minded leaders of certain social and religious organizations which promise to prove more powerful and more enduring than the work of those supercilious protagonists of supremacy and dominance who have nothing to their credit but a history of wars and persecution. * * * Fisk's Million Dollar Endoivment Fund N E inspiriting evidence of the silent revolution of public sentiment on the question of higher education for Negroes is the announcement of Fisk University, that the million dollar mark set by the institution has been reached. We recall at the same time that the old wags oft repeated in a quiver of disgust about the black farm hand dawdling away good time trying to read French; about the obnoxious airs of "educated Negroes," their impudence and refusal to work, have somehow and somewhere lost their ï»¿228 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 point. There was a time not far back when only those schools which promised, specifically or by curriculum, to turn out manual workers could hope for any liberal support. To meet obdurate prejudice some of the colleges have been forced to attach meaningless manual training sections or conceal their college courses behind a less fearsome Theological Department in order to live. Fisk University is frankly an institution for the higher training pf Negroes, and in setting the ambitious goal of a million dollars, it both drew upon this changing sentiment and added to it an increased momentum and strength from which the whole movement for higher education for Negroes may profit. What Harvard University accomplished in 1919, when it inaugurated its campaign for fourteen million dollars and rescued the movement for education out of the welter of post-war distraction, Fisk University has taken a lead in accomplishing for Negro education, which was left conspicuously stranded by this same distraction. It is the first Negro college to enter the million dollar class. Thus, it seems, that from the bewildering confusion of racial bigotries in ferment, there has been distilled a measurable improvement of sentiment. A few months ago Howard University awakened a genuine alarm with its revelation that scarcely more than fifty Negro doctors were being graduated each year for the eleven million Negroes. The success of the Fisk campaign emphasizes the seriousness of this new recognition generally, of the need of increased and improved facilities for the training of professional Negroes and leaders, and for the elevation of culture levels within the group. Wall SOCIOLOGY class in one of the ,s A a. large universities was tested in an unique manner for its concepts and associations with reference to Negroes. The results explain how many of the impossible phantasies about this group survive, and why myriad misunderstandings, big and little, irrational and baseless, persist. The class was made up of normal white students averaging in age about twenty-two years, of sound minds and, presumably, of sufficient intellectual curiosity to warrant at least some measure of knowledge about their very immediate neighbors. Only one question was asked, intended to determine to what extent these students participated in the cultural heritage of the Negro and to what extent they were familiar with his present day achievements in the arts. The question was: "What associations have you with the phrase Negro art?" Here are some of the answers: "I think of posters for a circus." "Dialect songs and jigging." "Banjo music plantation melodies dancing." "Henry O. Tanner, Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Claude McKay, W. E. B. DuBois, Nathaniel Dett." "Lyric poetry Negro male quartet Dunbar-'Uncle Tom's Cabin'." "Superstition What is Negro art?" "Don't know much about it. Strikes me as something unfamiliar. I remember something about manufacture of dolls with Negro features advertised with Negro persons as illustrations." The naivete of these students can be matched by the comment of a little white boy in one of the northern public schools. A Negro boy tripped and fell in the corridor, injuring his arm so that it bled slightly. As a teacher lifted him to his feet, the little white boy exclaimed in astonishment, "Why, Miss-, he's got red blood!" * Opportunity Literary Contest TO STIMULATE creative expression among Negroes and to direct attention to the rich and unexploited sources of materials for literature in Negro life, Opportunity will offer prizes for short stories, poetry, plays, essays, and personal experience sketches to the amount of FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS There will be three awards for each division. Further particulars about this contest and an announcement of the judges will appear in the September issue of this magazine. If you can write, this is your Opportunity. * * * Democracy and Education THERE is a promise of practical usefulness in the concept of education as a dominant social force which may be utilized by the whole of the Negro population in orienting itself to its problems. This idea was presented at one of the sessions of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peo-pie in its Philadelphia meeting, by a spokesman of the Fleur de Lis Club, an organization of Negro working men, whose interests in programs of this nature have been greatly aided by the Barnes Foundation. . It amounts to a re-contenting of the whole system very much in line with the notion advanced by John Dewey in his relation of democracy to education. It is conceived that education is nothing more than a full and free development of all the capacities with which an individual is endowed, and that it is the function of educational systems, formal and informal, to point out the means of developing these capacities. The question of interests is involved inasmuch as they tend to determine the direction of this development. Negroes, whatever their status or degree of formal training, at least have a firm base.of interest in their own problems, and it is suggested that these very problems can be made the means of developing their minds, of enabling them to withdraw in large measure from the paralyzing slough of emotional futility, and eventually to put many of their difficulties into solution by this method. The idea has widespread application through its very simplicity. It proposes to make education suf ficiently interesting to be attractive and through this attraction productive of further interests 1 ï»¿â– August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 229 The Negro and the Community By William Pickens IN the United States the Negro population is re-distributing itself. It is to be no longer a factor of a "section" but a national factor in every sense. The "race problem" is not now, if indeed it ever was, solely a problem of the South; it is a problem, and the most vital problem, of the United States of America. I am a Southerner, and I want to confess that the chief thing the South has to teach the Nation in the matter of dealing with the Negro is what not to do. Now that the problem is moving out all over the Nation, a study of the southern method of dealing with the problem' for three hundred years will teach the rest of us what to avoid. The "race problem" has not been solved in the South; it has been developed there. Verily, then, we should not hope to solve the problem by southern methods. We must seek other methods, in some cases the opposite methods. If the method used by the South could ever be reduced to one word, that word would be SEGREGATION. That involves for the Negro separate and inferior schools, "Jim Crow" cars, unconstitutional disfranchisement, lynch law for court - processes, refusal of admission to or inferior accommodations in all shows and cultural entertainments, in many places no public parks or public libraries, and a general denial of equal accommodations in public places and equal hu-manhood in the society of Man. This system has solved no problem. This system can never solve any problem. This system is the problem factory and will continue to be until the end of the system. We must substitute for this system "community interests" for the Negro. We must cease the abortive effort to encyst him; we cannot successfully encyst him; we must assimilate him. Blood assimilation is not necessary, not an end to be purposed, at any rate. But there must be full assimilation in civil culture and in civil processes: in industry, in economics, in education, in politics. The minority race and the majority, race occupying the same territory are indissolubly bound to the same destiny, and they have one set of interests, even if they are not friendly. Warfare between them is like the World War: everybody loses. The best interests of the ten or fifteen million Negroes in the United States will be found in the end of every effort to be identical with the best interests of the ninety or more millions of the white races there. I speak now from the standpoint of the ninety millions. Why should the colored people, the ten or fifteen millions, be free? Not merely for their own sakes. The failure to see the interest of all in the interest of each is a fundamental mistake and the cause of much blustering. The welfare of colored Americans cannot be separate .from the common lot. They must be free for the sake of all, themselves included. There is more freedom if they are free. We do not give them anything; we do not share with them what we have, in a way to diminish our possessions; we simply add their freedom to the sum of freedom, and we are all freer. When a man makes another man intelligent, he does not diminish his own intelligence, but fortifies and justifies it. Abraham Lincoln said: "In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free." He might have added also: "We increase the freedom of the free!' When the Negro was a slave in America, it is perfectly clear that the poor white man was not fully free; and if less clear, it is not less true that the rich white man was not free. Our conceptions of both altruism and selfishness need revision. In this little world we cannot live either absolutely for or against others. We ourselves are always included. That is the tragedy of ill-will and hate and crime. Every year we lynch many black men and a few white men. The lynching of the whites is absolutely consequential upon the lynching of the blacks. If the colored men were not lynched, the white men certainly would not be lynched. To cheapen the lives of any group of men cheapens the lives of all men. This is a law of human psychology, of human nature; and it will not be repealed by our wishes, nor will it be merciful to our blindness. Why should the Negro be educated? For the same reason. There will be more intelligence if the Negro is intelligent. If an intelligent man has an intelligent neighbor, each is more intelligent because the other is intelligent. How quickly our own grammar suffers deterioration when we live for a few weeks in ungrammatical circumstances. Wherever colored and white live in large numbers together, we find both groups on the same general intellectual plane. Every state today that has a large illiterate colored population has a more illiterate white population than have the states where the colored people are intelligent. Colored people's intelligence is a part of the common defense; colored people's ignorance a part of the common peril. Unselfishness is but a relative term; we are unselfish in proportion as we display a wiser selfishness, in proportion as we comprehend the relations of ourselves to other selves. From this viewpoint of the common good, we should have as good schools and as much education for our colored children as for our white children. It certainly should take as many dollars to fit a black child to live for the best interests of a white child as it takes to fit a white child to live for the best interests of a black child. Why should the colored population be physically well-off? For the selfsame reason. The laws of ï»¿â€¢ 230 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 disease and health, the conditions of life and death, are no respecters of persons or of races. The disease germ knows no color line. Sometimes the color line is confounded in our minds with certain other natural or artificial lines; with the economic line, the sanitation line, the pure food line, or the housing line. And because disease germs love weakness more than strength, we may force a certain color over on the side of weakness where the germ flourishes and then imagine, unless we think twice, that the germ has adopted our color line. Disease is the common enemy of all mankind; and the better the health of the ten or fifteen millions, the better the general health will be. Not for their own sakes alone, but also for the sake of the civilization of which they are a part, the colored population should have houses with sanitary plumbing, streets with sewers and lights, and regular visits by the garbage wagon. And with the same philosophy we might go right on through the whole list of human good and human evil. The more people share in the good, the greater is the good. The more people share in the evil, the greater is the evil. Why, for example, should our colored people be morally good? Why should the colored woman and the colored home be respected and protected? For their own sake, of course, but not solely for their sake. All women, all homes and all moral institutions will share whatever we measure out to these. Nobody knows better than the enlightened white woman of America that she is essentially one with the colored woman of her community. In the last analysis there is a STANDARD FOR WOMEN, and the consideration of every class of women enters into the determination of that standard. Motherhood, childhood and home are not racial; they are human. We cannot limit their interests to racial or to artificial lines. Race is but a date in history, while these human institutions antedate history. An attempt at two moral standards results in one moral condition. That is why colored womanhood has all the sacredness of any womanhood, and that is why colored women should have all the protection deemed best for their sex. And the operation of this moral law is too obvious to need further illustration. And why should colored people vote in the commonwealth? For their own benefit? Not exclusively. But if colored people vote, there is more democracy and truer democracy. No other man loses his vote because the Negro gains his own, and the body politic is also a gainer. When the colored man is denied the right to vote, there is a contradiction, an anomaly, which threatens the security of the right of any man to vote. For men must quibble and be mentally dishonest in their efforts to justify the exclusion of the Negro. That weakens their own case. They say: It is not necessary that black men should vote. which means, even to their own intellects and whether they will it or not, that it is not neces- sary that white men or any men should vote. They say: Voting is not a natural right but a privilege to be granted or withheld, and they fail to show by whom it is to be granted or from whom it is to be withheld, and they thereby undermine their own title to the privilege. When we cheapen the liberty of any man, we cheapen the liberty of all men, even our own. It is as much for the sake of the preservation of the ideal of democracy among us, as for any charitable reasons, that we want or should want all our neighbors to share it. It is but a reasonable regard for the laws of the land when we treat the most unworthy criminal according to due process of law, not for his sake and not because he deserves it, but that the law might be preserved and respected for the good of all of us who live now and for the good of those who will live in the great future. The criminal who has outraged law and annihilated law in so far as he was able may not of his own worth deserve the protection of the law. But we know that if we destroy law in his case, it is really destroj'ed in all cases. In such event it ceases to be law and becomes caprice or favoritism, and is thenceforth as likely to entrap the innocent as the guilty. It is the same with the high ideal of democracy: it cannot live if it does not live for all of us. If it be outraged, even those who outrage it lose respect for it and lose faith in it. They make it a mockery for others and it immediately becomes a mockery for them. Then there is the great undoubted limitation of human nature: that no man is fit to have absolute power over another man. That means that no race or group is fit to have absolute power over another race or group, for races are but men. The majority should never have unchecked power over the minority. The contention that one man should not have absolute control over another man is not merely for the good of the one who is the object of that control, but also for the good of the one who exercises that control. Irresponsible power will warp the soul and ruin the character of any man. Inordinate power and unjust advantage undermine and break down the ideals of a race. These ideals deserve consideration. This is not altogether altruism; it is self-interest of the most enlightened kind. The same reasoning which attacked the enslavement of the Negro attacks his disfranchisement. Slavery degrades master and slave. Disfranchisement degrades oppressor and oppressed. Those who think they have well-founded "convictions" that the Negro should be disfranchised must remember that their spiritual and political progenitors thought they had well-founded convictions that the Negro should be enslaved. Does this mean that the ballot should not be protected? It does not. The freedman's ballot is the highest expression of his freedom and should have every reasonable safeguard. ~But, mark you, the very first concern for its protection should be ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 231 to guard its purity, its impartiality, its honesty, and its reality; to see that it does not degrade into a mere trick for advantage, a mere tool of oppression, a mere cloak for the tyranny of the strong. Certain restrictions might not be unreasonable: such as education enough to read a ballot, bona fide residence and an interest in the material property of the community, and freedom from crime and other forms of insanity. But no restrictions at all would be better than restrictions that are dishonest or meant to be unjustly administered. Let the qualifications be simple or seveue, but if it be not impartially exacted or if the law be so administered as to entrap a certain group or party or race, the ballot ceases to be an expression of freedom and become a mere device of tyranny. In the United States there is another consideration for the ninety millions: that if the ten or fifteen millions were allowed the exercise of their liberty and their free ballot, it would remove much cause and temptation to strife and make for peace. This would preserve and dignify the proportionate weight and importance of the ninety millions. For under the most impar-tial administration fifteen could not outvote ninety. Only in a few localities could groups of the minority preponderate, but the colored people have shown no disposition that should justify a fear that ' they would monopolize even -local power. There would always be the restraining fact of the national power of the ninety millions. And there would be peace, much needed peace, for the simple price of being fair to a minority without any risk of the loss of real power on the part of the majority. It is now as if eight or ten men should prefer eternal social warfare with one man rather than to let him cast his vote and then simply outvote him; while if they chose to be fair, they could have the favorable opinion of mankind, the justification of their own consciences, internal peace, and a secure tenure of power. The American Negro has shown little disposition to try to secure his fundamental rights by violence, but he is always less patient today than he was ten years ago, and being simply human he is ultimately capable of any human expression. Many times in history contemporaries have discounted what to later generations seemed so plain and so inevitable. But why should this people, of all peoples, have to plead for such primary justice? A people who have had a longer average residence in America than any other group save the American Indian; a people who voted in five or more states when the Constitution of the United States was adopted; a people whom we have never discounted or doubted in the day of crisis and danger, and whose outstanding characteristic, whether they were slave or free, has â€¢ been loyalty. Individuals may ignore the record but history cannot delete the facts that they dared and shared all the greatest perils of the Indivisible Union from Bunker â€¢ Hill through Valley Forge to Yorktown on Lake Erie, under "the rocket's red glare" at Baltimore, and in New Orleans from Fort Wagner through Fort Pillow to Appomattox from Santiago de Cuba through the Philippine guerillas to the capture of Aguinaldo and from the munitions factories of 1917 on through the Argonne and Chateau Thierry to the last and most dangerous position of the whole war before the mighty fortress of Metz. Why should a people so trusted and so credited plead for what is given to foreigners and the children of foreigners, to rebels and the children of rebels, and even to the children of traitors? On a platform of justice and equality the two larger racial groups in this country, and all the minor groups, can afford to take their stand. Men speak volubly of maintaining racial superiority or hegemony, as if indeed it were wiser to pursue racial policy than to pursue human justice. Nothing in human history indicates that a race or a nation or an individual must fear to do justice or that justice was ever poor policy for a people. But history is full of lessons that teach the folly of abandoning those wise policies and sound principles that were born of the collective experience of man. Some reason thus: We have to maintain a certain race stock; to maintain that stock we must segregate; and when segregation is inconsistent with justice, we must do injustice. But we cannot prove the soundness of this chain of reasoning. Even the first proposition is a mere assumption. For how do we know that it is the final, the best, the last and the greatest thing to maintain any of the race stocks as we know them today? All the races, as we know them, are but the resultants of former unions, combinations and crosses. If former unions have produced something so excellent, how do we know that further union may not produce something more excellent still? But one thing we do know: that we of the present generation can combine our talents without uniting our blood. If we make civilization our common contribution, we will all have more civilization. God has endowed the Human Race with more talents than He gave to any one geographical race. Our talents vary: our powers may vary. The man of five talents has five talents and the fruits of five talents; the man of two talents has two talents and the fruits of two talents. But if these two men ever get wise and make a common cause, both will enjoy the fruits of seven talents. The white American and the black American can have more civilization through cooperation than either one could have alone, whatever their respective talents may be. Segregation in public and industrial activities and life implies and breeds contempt and makes injustice inevitable. The private right of any citizen in a free country to exclude other private persons from his private domain will always be maintained; but racial segregation in public and industrial estates is indefensible, politically and economically. ï»¿OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 The Effect of Health Education on Negro Mortality By Louis I. Dublin THE Negro in America. has proved himself thoroughly capable of profiting from the public health campaign which has developed in recent years. The pessimism which prevailed twenty-five or thirty years ago with regard to the future of the Negro is no longer even remotely justified. A race, still living in many areas under primitive conditions of sanitation and often from hand to mouth, is today enjoying a life expectancy just about that of the white people of America only thirty or forty years ago. In 1920, the average expectation at birth among insured Negro lives was well over forty-one years; it is now over forty-six years. These figures are about the same as for a number of European countries before the Great War. The Negroes are only a generation behind the achievement of the white people of the country not a serious handicap to overcome when we consider that they have had control of their destinies for only a little more than half a century and have been served by health conserving agencies for even a shorter period. The recent gains in longevity and general well-being hold out the greatest promise for the future of the Negro in America. The facts which I have been asked to present concern close to two million Negroes who are insured in the Industrial Department of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. They include men, women and children at all ages; they are engaged in every conceivable occupation. They live almost altogether in the towns and cities of the country. This is important to remember, because it is especially in the cities that the health conditions among Negroes have heretofore been found very unsatisfactory. In the Registration States of the United States for the last year available, 1921, the death rate among Negroes living in the rural part was 13.8 per 1000, as contrasted with 10.6 for whites, whereas the rate in the cities was 19.7 per 1000 as against 11.8 for the whites. In other words, while the mortality in the rural parts of the country was only 30 per cent higher for the colored than for the whites, it was 67 per cent higher in the cities. The experience of the Metropolitan is accordingly among a large group of people who have in the past lived under unfavorable conditions. The Negroes of the cities would appear to have been out of their element, where they were not as yet adapted to the climatic conditions, to the prevailing industries, or to the housing which was available to them. The record which I shall unfold to )'ou, therefore, is all the more remarkable in its continuous and measurable progress. The detailed mortality records of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company go back to 1911. In that year, the mortality rate was 17.5 per 1000 among insured Negroes. In 1923, the rate was 14.5, which represents a drop of 17.3 per cent, or more than one sixth. A very gratifying improvement also occurred among the colored people living in Registration cities of the United States. This amounted to 22.7 per cent between 1910 and 1921. The improvement, when translated in terms of longevity, means that the colored males insured in the Metropolitan have in the short interval of twelve years increased their life-span by nearly six years and that colored females have extended their expectation by nearly five years. Very much the same gains are found among the Negroes in the general population. That, of course, is an astounding improvement, in view of the short period in which it has occurred. Tuberculosis has been and still is the outstanding cause of death among the colored people. One out of every six colored persons ultimately dies of tuberculosis. There has been a' very remarkable improvement in this condition in recent years, however. In 1911, tuberculosis was responsible for 418 deaths for each 100,000 colored persons insured in the Metropolitan. In 1923, the rate was 246, or 41 per cent less. There was no improvement in 1923 over 1922, but before last year, the rate of decline was very rapid. Between 1918 and 1922, the rate dropped uninterruptedly from 391 per 100,-000 to 246. The mortality rate among the colored policyholders from tuberculosis is beginning to look like that among the whites, only twenty years agu, when the tuberculosis campaign was begun. Nothing indicates so well the general health condition of a race as the incidence of tuberculosis and nothing reflects so well an improvement in its mode of life as does a big drop in the tuberculosis death rate. There can be no question that this improvement in tuberculosis is the result of great advances in the economic and social condition of the colored people. There is still, however, much for them to do and there is every reason to believe that they will do it. The colored people have, as a race, good physiques and they are learning all the time how to take better care of themselves in relation to their changing environment. In their native habitat tuberculosis was either unknown or only slightly developed. There is no reason why they should not ultimately have as low a tuberculosis death rate as any group of the population of America of similar economic condition. Marked gains have been made by the colored people in conserving the lives of their young children. In 1911, the total mortality rate for Negro children under 15 years of age insured in the Metropolitan was 10.1 per 1000. In 1923, this figure was reduced to 5.5 which is an improvement of 45 per cent. The colored children show the greatest improvement in mortality of any age group. ï»¿- â– August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 233 Among the children under 15, tuberculosis has been reduced by about half. The four communicable diseases of childhood, namely, measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and diptheria, show together a decline of 33 per cent in the interval between 1911 and 1923. In connection with this, I should point out that the colored children enjoy a distinct advantage over white children in connection with respect to three of these conditions, namely, measles, scarlet fever and diptheria. The death rates for these are uniformly lower than are found among white children of the same ages. It is, therefore, gratifying to find that substantial declines in the figures are still occurring. It is entirely conceivable that as the newer therapy against diptheria, scarlet fever and measles is more widely spread over the country and affects the colored people in the same measure as it does the white, the mortality from these three conditions will be reduced to negligible proportions. There has also been a marked decline, more than 50 per cent, in the mortality rate from diarrhea and ontoritis among young colored children. The rates for the children of the two races are no longer very far apart, those for the colored children in 1923 being even a little lower than those for the white children in 1911. This shows that colored mothers have not been slow to learn how to care for and feed their babies in accordance with the best practice of the day. , There has undoubtedly been great improvement in the sanitary conditions which surround the colored people. This is evidenced by the decline in the mortality of such conditions as typhoid fever and pneumonia, both of which reflect the sanitary character of the environment. The improvement in typhoid fever is especially noteworthy. In 1923, the rate was only 10.4 per 100,000, which represents a decline Â°f 77*5 Per cent since 1911. The last rate from typhoid fever is identical with that for whites as late as 1917. Yet, the great number of colored policyholders live in the Southern States where typhoid fever is much more prevalent than in the Northern and Western States where the large majority of the white policyholders live. The reduction in the incidence of typhoid fever among the colored people is really an amazing achievement and is indicative, as nothing else can be, of the better conditions under which they live. The improvement in pneumonia is not quite so great and yet it is significant. In 1923, the death rate from all forms of pneumonia was 137.8 per 100,000 as against a rate of 160.8 in 1911, which is a decline of 14.3 per cent. But, these last few years have been "pneumonia" years," resulting from the extensive influenza epidemics which have raged in the late winters and early springs. The improvement in pneumonia would undoubtedly have been greater but for these occurrences. It, nevertheless, has been considerable and gratifying. If the above are encouraging items, there are those which are not quite so satisfactory. The still high mortality rate of the colored people at the present time results largely from the chronic degener- ative diseases, like cerebral hemorrhage, organic diseases of the heart, and chronic nephritis. The first two, cerebral hemorrhage and organic heart diseases, show substantial increases in their rates since 1911, and the last one, chronic nephritis, shows no improvement. Likewise, cancer and diabetes show substantial increases between 191 i and 1923. The five conditions mentioned above when combined account for 35 per cent of the total mortality of colored policyholders, and it is disconcerting that such important diseases are not on the mend but are actually getting worse. It is difficult, with our present knowledge, to say exactly what is leading to these increases, but it is generally assumed that with the exception of cancer, the death rates from the diseases mentioned reflect the type of personal hygiene which people practice. It is entirely possible also that the high rate of degenerative diseases reflects the very great prevalence of syphilitic infection among the colored people. This is really the outstanding fact in the negative side of the health picture among the colored people. Syphilis and its sequelae are not declining but are indeed becoming more widespread and are causing more and more deaths among the colored people each year. In 1923, the death rate from syphilis, locomotor ataxia and general paralysis of the insane (the last two of which conditions are syphilitic in origin) was 38.7 per 100.000. This is almost double the rate of 1911 (20.4). It is possible, of course, that some of the increase is the result of franker and better reporting of these diseases by physicians; but I doubt very much that that is sufficient to explain so marked an increase. The fact remains that the rate for colored persons is close to four times as high as for whites. This unsatisfactory situation, of course, is not limited to the insured, but is found very generally in the colored population. In New York City, there has been an increase of practically 50 per cent from this cause in the interval between 1910 and 1923. The disease is apparently working havoc among the colored people who are congregating in the cities of the country. Possibly, the worst effect is on the new generation. The disease takes its greatest toll among infants in the first month of life and is, in fact, the principal cause of stillbirths that occur so frequently among colored women. The disease also accounts for a great many deaths later in life which are ascribed by physicians to heart and arterial diseases, as well as to other conditions, including tuberculosis. The greatest service that could today be rendered to the colored people would be to help them check the spread of this condition. The campaign against the venereal diseases has apparently not begun to be felt by the colored communities. A very profitable field for service is waiting to be opened up. Possibly, much good may also come when more emphasis is placed on the importance of the annual physical examination among colored people. This should result in disclosing many cases of syphilitic diseases at a stage when they can still be cured. Prenatal work among colored women which insists \ ï»¿* 234 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 on a Wassermann test as a condition for the service should prove to be a powerful agency in disclosing syphilis and should lead to the treatment of large numbers of patients. The hope of the future among Negroes lies in their ability to bring the scourge of syphilis under control. No treatment of the health situation among the colored people would be complete without reference to the very high mortality which results from homicide. The homicide rate among the colored is eight times as high as among the whites, and among males at certain ages it is fully ten times as high. In a number of cities, such as Memphis, homicide is, next to tuberculosis, the most prevalent cause of death among colored men. This is obviously not a matter which can be considered as subject to health education, but it is expected, nevertheless, that those influences which favorably affect the rates for the preventable diseases will likewise help to raise the general level of conduct among the colored people. In bringing this discussion to a close, I must not forget to say that the last two years, 1922 and 1923, have shown significant increases in the mortality of the colored people. In 1923, the rate was actually 7.9 per cent higher than it was in 1921. We are not discouraged by this change in the tendency of the rate, because this is probably only a temporary condition. The progress of the race in increased longevity will soon be resumed. It is of interest, however, to find out what factors are operating to bring about a change in the general character of the mortality of the colored people. It has been generally assumed that the recent migration from the Southern States is an important item. In the Metropolitan's experience, there was a very marked increase in the number of colored policyholders in the States of Illinois and Michigan, largely concentrated to be sure, in the cities of Chicago and Detroit. In both these communities, the mortality rates increased very appreciably in Chicago, 27 per cent and in Detroit, 23 per cent, 1923 over 1921. On the other hand, very marked extensions of the business occurred on the Pacific Coast. This also represents a marked migration from the Southern States, but in this area there has been no increased mortality. There is, in fact, a slight decline. The migration which centered in New York City and environs likewise brought with it no appreciable increase in mortality. The picture, therefore, is somewhat confusing. The migration is obviously not responsible for the whole increase, in view of the fact that the mortality rate even in the Southern States showed pronounced increases. Forty per cent of the total number of colored policyholders of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company still live in the Southern and Southwestern States, and in these states, mortality in 1923 in- creased 12.1 per cent over 1921. In some communities, like Atlanta, Charleston, and Norfolk, the increases in the mortality rate were very marked indeed, and were even more striking than in Chicago and Detroit. It would seem, therefore, altogether more reasonable to account for these increases of the past two years on the score of other conditions than the movement northward. This is strongly suggested by the fact that the influenza mortality rate among the colored more than doubled between 1921 and 1923 and the pneumonia rate increased about a third. It is possible that the extensive outbreaks of influenza in 1922 and 1923, more especially in 1923, with their accompanying mortality from pneumonia, are sufficient to explain what happened. So far as 1924* there has been a pronounced decline in the total colored mortality from that of 1923 and the figures are back to where they were in 1922, but are still higher, a little, than those in 1921. The improvement in colored mortality, to which I have called attention, has not come about without very decided effort. In this insurance experience, the colored people have figured just as prominently as any other group of policyholders in the health campaign of the company so successfully organized under the direction of Second Vice President, Dr. Frankel. They have availed themselves of every advantage which has been offered to them. In periods of illness, they have received nursing care and have, in fact, taken advantage of public health nursing even to a greater degree than white policyholders. Public health nursing obtains its large results primarily through health teaching. In addition, they have received much help from the distribution of very simple but authoritative leaflets on personal hygiene and on the prevention of the communicable diseases. Millions of copies have been distributed among them. It is difficult to say just how much good such pamphlets have done, but there is evidence that the colored people read what is left with them, and also that they have a great deal of confidence in what the Metropolitan advises them to do. The important thing is that the colored people are showing remarkable capacity for reducing their mortality to reasonable limits. In my judgment, it is now largely a matter of extending the health and educational facilities to them in a greater measure. The colored people must learn to think more and more in terms of health as the key to their improvement in other respects. As they become more prosperous, they must learn to spend more money on facilities which bring about better health conditions. It will be very interesting to observe what the next ten years will bring about for the continued prosperity of the colored people in America. ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 235 The cjN[eed of Health Education Among Negroes By Algernon B. Jackson IHAVE a habit of saying that I should much prefer seeing my boy or girl the possessor of the C. B. H. degree clean bill of health than an A. B. degree without the C. B. H. One is essential in order to get most out of and put most into life. The other is not. You do not have to possess a college degree to be a regular human being, but you must have health. From what I so often see I am sometimes inclined to think a degree frequently stands between certain persons and that attribute of humanness which should always be the highest concept of true education. In the light of present day thought any scholastic process which neglects to inspire * the student with an apreciation and love for personal health and a regard for the health of his fellowman is nothing short of an absolute failure. There is indeed both a need of and a desire for health education among Negroes, which is so sincerely expressed by the efforts which Negroes are putting forth to increase their efficiency along all lines toward making them more valuable and acceptable citizens. But, on the other hand, there is a very vital and definite need to educate the whites to understand that the question of health is a national rather than a racial one, which demands national consideration and treatment, or our whole scheme for human betterment breaks down. When it is considered how closely the races are brought in daily touch, it must at once become apparent that any effort intended to conserve the health of a nation must include all. If it presumes to dictate who shall be benefited and who shall not it results in little or no benefit to any one. In short, the white man must be educated to realize that his health problem cannot be solved so long as he is careless or indifferent regarding the Negro's health problem. Up to the beginning of the World War very little care or study was given to the question of the Negro's health beyond a rather indifferent generalization which declared the race decadent and reeking with sickness and death. In face of this general notion the following note from the report of the provost marshal general must be considered at least interesting. "In the first draft, in June 1917, there were 737,628 colored registrants, or nearly eight per cent of the total registration of the country. Of the first group of 208,953 colored registrants examined under call of November 12, 1917, 36.23 per cent of them were accepted for service. Of 2,873,996 white men examined at approximately the same time, 24.75 per cent of them were accepted. In groups representing nearly an identical proportion it will be seen that in relative military fitness the Negro race outranked the whites by about twelve per cent." A still later report, Table 53, shows that for every 100 men examined physically, the ratio of colored men found qualified for general military service was substantially higher than the ratio for white men by just five per cent, viz., 74.60 per cent as against 69.71 per cent. These reports are interesting from two standpoints. First, they show that the American Negro is not altogether the unhealthy menace we had heretofore regarded him, and in the face of these facts we owe it to him and our nation to see that he gets a human chance for that education so necessary to preserve and stabilize his health integrity. For some time I have contended that physically the Negro is a better specimen than the white man, and now the latest anthropometric report from the Surgeon General of the United States Army proves the righteousness of this contention. In every measurement he excels except in breadth and depth of the chest. But in spite of these glowing reports the Negro still has both a higher morbidity and mortality rate than his white brother, due to no other reason than his general ignorance and indifference regarding the rules of health and self-preservation. In order to emphasize the need for a campaign of health education among Negroes, permit me to relate the following story. A dear old Negro woman called at the home of a white woman, for whom she regularly worked, to get the week's washing. The kind-hearted, intelligent white woman met her at the door and said, "No, Amanda, I shall not let you take my clothes to wash, for my children have the measles, and I don't want your children to get it." "Oh, that's all right," exclaimed the Negro washwoman, "my children's done had the measles two weeks ago!" This we can charge up to ignorance and nothing else! No amount of intelligence can possibly save the educated from the menacing effects of the uneducated unless that intelligence is wisely used to dethrone ignorance and superstition, carrying the light of reason and well-being to all mankind, black and white alike. Just recently a book entitled "Public Health in the United States," by Dr. H. H. Moore of the United States Public Health Service, was issued by Harper and Brothers of New York. In the preface of this book, bearing the comprehensive title mentioned above, the author makes the following statement: "It is hoped that these data and facts thus compiled may be useful to members of the health committees of various civic organizations, to students in high schools, colleges and schools of social work, and to the administrative and legislative officers of local, State and Federal governments, as well as to those engaged professionally in public health activities." Of course I most naturally wanted to see what the book contained concerning the health of Negroes. Imagine my shock and surprise to find on page 20 not quite ï»¿236 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 twelve lines on the subject and they merely mentioned that the death rate of the Negro is higher than that of the whites! And this from a book which purports and presumes to serve as a guiding light to the many classes of persons mentioned in the author's preface. To thus dismiss such a subject so important to American interests is little short of criminal, and in my most charitable moment I find myself compelled to declare the author's judgment certainly a bit myopic. Y'et, except in a very few instances, this is a fair example of the attention civic, state and national organizations are giving to the education of themselves and to the education of Negroes upon this very vital matter concerning the health of 12,000,000 American citizens. Most certainly this is the moment for all of us to open our hearts and minds to a keener and finer understanding concerning the health of these our fellow-citizens, for in no way can any one who is not himself educated carry knowledge to that uneducated group hampered upon all sides by social, economic, and general living restrictions. Good health must be regarded as a national asset, equally important in time of peace or war, which is always purchasable. This is an investment which will yield perpetual dividends of comfort, happiness, protection, and safety. Many philanthropic persons have seen fit to devote large funds for preserving and protecting the health of white Americans but comparatively nothing to be spent in the preservation of the health of black Americans. Here lies a wonderful virgin field for the righteous immortalization of some good, unbiased American to establish a foundation for the study and improvement of health, social and economic conditions among Negroes. Such a fund could and would do immeasurable service to the Negro race and to the nation. For the past fifteen years I have been extending this invitation from press and rostrum, but up to this moment there has been no response and no organized, honest effort made to get at the bottom of the Negro's health problem. I am hoping that on this occasion my words will not again fall upon stony ground, but upon some soil rich in human love from which will spring the urge to do a real human service for God, man and nation. Booker T. Washington has said: "Without health, and until we reduce the high death rate, it will be impossible for us to have permanent success in business, in property getting, in acquiring education, or to show other evidences of progress. Without health and long life all else fails. We must reduce our high death rate, dethrone disease and enthrone health and long life. We may differ on other subjects, but there is no room for difference here. Let us make a strong, long, united pull together." When he said the above he was speaking to the Negro but these words should fall upon the ears of our whole nation. The whole-hearted methods adopted to pre- serve the health of white Americans when compared with the half-hearted methods to preserve the health of black Americans make a jest of the whole procedure. The Negro always receives the by-product of expended energy in this direction, yet he is expected to measure up to the same physical standards as those who enjoy every opportunity and privilege in the matter of' conserving health. This bi-racial tendency which prevails in America regarding all matters, great and small, is not consistent with our boasted intelligence and foresight in our attitude toward national health and its relation to national economics. ;i.A..: : â€¢:^." '":: However, in a great measure left to our own initiative, guided by the light of education, we are beating down our high morbidity and mortality rate. To Dr. Booker T. Washington and the National Negro Business League, of which he was founder and president up unto his death, we are indebted for the establishment of a National Negro Health Week. More than any other one factor, this movement has called the attention of Negroes throughout the nation to the value and importance of good health. Like most things this great man did, the Health Week was introduced to our race in a plain, practical way, calling to their attention the most elementary principles of good health and how to attain it. Negroes all over the land, both North and South, have caught the spirit and inspiration of that great teacher and they are making a practical application of the lessons he taught. Just recently I sent out a rather comprehensive health questionnaire to sixty-two* Negro colleges and universities. Thirty-one of these replied and the data obtained has been tremendously encouraging and enlightening. Fourteen require a physical examination of all students upon entering, twenty have compulsory physical education, and all are making some attempt to emphasize health teaching. In each, provision is made for giving medical care to sick students, and all express a desire to give a glad welcome to advice and financial help relative to establishing a working health and welfare service. Most of them are struggling along as best they can by doubling up their science teachers to give instruction in health and hygiene. The amounts estimated upon by all to place their health department on a working basis was in each instance all too low, for the average amount was set at $1000 a year. Suppose we could divide $50,000 next year among these thirty-one schools which are in dead earnest, and have that amount devoted to health teaching and student welfare service, can you not see how far reaching the results would be? If we are going to carry on health education among Negroes there must be a national awakening and national interest injected into the process. Our schools and colleges afford the finest possible opportunity to vitalize the health idea and make it profitable to both the individual and ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 237 â™¦ V the nation, but they must have help and support or they miss the mark. That the Negro has done much within the past ten years to improve his health condition is made manifest in recent reports issued by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and the United States Public Health Service. These two agencies are a unit in say-between 1912 and 1922 Negroes have their life span by more than five years, indicative of marked racial progression, from the United States Public Health Report of April 11, 1924, we read, "The colored show even more improvement than the white in expectation at birth in the past 10 years." Unquestionably this is due to education and better economic conditions; but still we have much more to do, for even our present day expectation of life is about that of whites 30 or 40 years ago. So you can see there is still much need for health education among Negroes, in fact, we are just ing that increased which is Quoting beginning what is bound to be a long but profitable campaign. If a thought, an incident or a truth strikes us as important to our welfare, it arouses our interest and takes a place in our mentality, and if we are just to ourselves and our God, we at once set out to translate our interest into the most practical terms of humanity. Let us have no longer an aristocracy of snobbishness, but an aristocracy of service. No man, whatever his motive may be, can help lift up his brother without lifting up himself. In the very act he must bend to the task, and when he arises therefrom he brings up two men, himself and his brother, and the close human touch has made both better men. All unconsciously, perhaps that altruism taught and practiced in the life of Christ has trickled down into the hearts of both, making one content and fit to save, and the other happy and fit to serve. The ^Nggro's Psychology and His Health By C. V. Roman PHYSICALLY, health connotes the ability to function without fainting to bear the stress of life without damaging strain. Its psychological connotations and spiritual implications are equally comprehensive; to will without wobbling, as well as to work without wearying to trust without trembling as well as to fight without failing. Biological continuity is also comprehended in the word HEALTH; for the healthy individual is not only able to live and function, but to reproduce individuals who can live and function, and in their turn reproduce individuals who can thus live, function and reproduce. THE NEGRO'S ABILITY TO THINK AND TO LIVE would be a fair explanatory amplification of our subject. . ' What is he thinking and how is he living? According to some critics, he thinks only of heaven atid is.' ^?|OfiBS^^ "Living at a poor dying rate." Let us see. I. The Negro is religious fearfully and wonderfully religious. His song "My Lord calls me, He calls me by the thunder, The trumpet sounds within my soul, I ain't got long to stay here" is as sincere and soulful as the Scotsman's litany- "From ghoulies and ghosties, And long-leggited beasties, And things that go Boomp! in the night-Good Lord, deliver us." Notwithstanding superstition and ignorance, religion is a potent factor in health as well as a determining influences in psychology. The mind and body react upon each other. Faith heals the hurts of the body as well as hallows the altars of the mind. Religion is the pole-star of the Negro's intellectual night, and the land-locked harbor in the sea of his physical weaknesses. This is the key to his cheerful serenity and long-suffering endurance. He finds sustenance in song "Jesus is a rock in. a weary land, A shelter in the time of storm." He will not "Learn to chant the cold dirges of the baffled The sullen hymns of defeat." "Through the clear apocalyptic air" he "Hears new songs of ages yet to be." The Negro is more devoted to personality to principle. He believes more in people in their professions. It is a peculiarity of Negro psychology that three centuries of injustice and oppression have not developed the hatred complex. For some unknown reason, which only God may ken, the colored man has faith in the white man. "The hexiology of the Negro is distinctive. He has an adaptability to circumstances unsurpassed by the children of men. . . . He has received the most magnificent reward that ever fell to the lot of an oppressed people the friendship of the world's best spirits."1 The Persian dream of truthfulness, the Grecian dream of knowledge, the Jewish dream of righteousness, the Roman dream of power, and the English-speaking people's dream of fairplay will all than than AMERICAN CIVILIZATION AND THE NEGRO C. V. Roman; Page 228. ï»¿238 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 fructify in the patient, persistent, kind-hearted good-nature of the American Negro. Lord Macaulay says, "Nine-tenths of all the calamities that have befallen the human race had their origin in the union of high intelligence and with low desires." The Negro's desires frequently rise above his intelligence. He is one of the few sons of men whom the frown of science has not made melancholy, whose soul has not been frozen by the chills of penury. The different emphasis placed by different people upon the same evidence is one of the most striking phases of popular psychology. The Negro concedes the white man's superiority in but one thing diabolism or dishonor the ability to be unjust. At his phychological worst the white man thinks the Negro a beast; the Negro at his psychological worst thinks the white man a devil. If either or both be right, our civilization is gone. III. The Negro often manifests that inferiority complex of oppressed peoples which forbids self-criticism. He thinks telling the truth an evi-dense of enmity. He ignores the law of causality and substitutes the WHINE of emotion for the WHY of reason. He dissociates himself from the confluence of things and becomes self-centered and irritable. He thinks not of humanity but of himself, forgetting that the whole includes the parts. Fear leads him to attempts at deception where frankness would be a winning policy. This psychology grows out of his unique position. Speaking the language of democracy and equality, he has been expected to graft the virtues of freedom upon the opportunities of slavery and to fulfill the responsibilities of citizenship while maintaining the bearing of a serf. That a confusing psychological complex should result is not strange. The condition cannot continue indefinitely. Education must progress or recede. Culture must triumph or die. The Negro must become a citizen or a serf. Western civilization must evaluate men upon their cultural worth or perish. Liberty and opportunity are for all or for none. This generation can decide upon the terms of civil life, equality of opportunity and peaceful progress, or inequality of opportunity and progressive disintegration to the elemental starting point. Even on this program colored people are listed to talk about themselves only. Personally, I would much rather have talked upon sex hygiene, illegitimacy or crowd psychology. Whatever the motive of the powers that be, the tendency is to promote ethnic egomania in the colored group. Moral health is the dynamic of life. Undue racial egotism means disaster. Unlimited self-determination, whether racial or individual, leads to destruction. The Negro being judged by e;roup, too often thinks that way, by group. "Christianity is the only religion in the world which regards each human individual as a child of God The Father."1 Yet in Christian America individual evolution of character is systematically denied the Negro. We speak English as a mother-tongue, not as an alien brogue, and are legitimate heirs to the conceptions of life embodied in that language. It is a noteworthy incident that the date of the Negro's mastery of English is co-incident with the most vicious and heartless attempt at his repression. But tyranny does not always suppress; it sometimes rebounds and explodes. The Negro mastered English by 1850 then Fugitive Slave Law then WAR then Emancipation. His mastery of English-speaking methods of thought means the appreciation of that conception of liberty and citizenship. Final possession is inevitable. IV. Nature has built no more effective physiological machine than the American Negro at his physical best. Why then is his vitality the sneer of actuaries and his mortuary statistics the despair of health officers? The excessively high death rate and morbidity incidence are due to SITUATION and not to any defect in the Negro's constitution or his psychology. The American Negro, individually and collectively, is immediately responsive to healthful surroundings. Patent medicines, garbage, bad water, sewerage defects, housing, dope-peddlers, and low dives are civic administrative sins against the Negro's health and social well-being over which he has little or no control. The systematic exclusion of colored nurses and physicians from health departments, public hospitals, penal and eleemosynary institutions, where race distinctions are emphasized, is not only a grave injustice to the Negro but a menace to the general welfare. It is not humanly possible to be fair to one regarded as an inferior. The assumption of superiority, whether individual, social, religious or racial, always connotes injustice and cruelty. From the divine right of kings to the divine right of democracy, the evolution of society furnishes no exception to this fundamental law of psychology. Comparative racial statistics from such sources are practically valueless. A prejudiced mind cannot know, much less tell, the truth. The Negro's mental reaction to these conditions is often one of bewilderment at the contradictory attitudes assumed by his white fellow-citizens. Charged with low aspirations and degenerative tendencies, he frequently finds his upward way deliberately barred and the downward way ostentatiously and flagrantly opened. One of the most serious phases of race contact is forcing Negro culture into comparison with 1 WORLD'S LIVING RELIGIONS Hume. ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 239 S Caucasian squalor. Negroes able and willing to build beautiful homes are too often compelled to place them where they contrast with white poverty and ignorance. The locations of practically all of our colored schools and colleges illustrate this point. This adds social jealousy to race prejudice a mixture that is brewing the sociological poison that is hampering the welfare of the nations. V. The Negro is as worthwhile as any racial entity in our modern civilization. He has more elements of compatibility and companionship in his psychology, and more units of strength and durability in his physical make-up than any other people. He is not going to die out and he is not going to be pushed out. By construction, he is an integral part in the constitution of things- FATE'S final factor in anthropology, the acid test of democracy and the residuary legatee of Providential dispensation. I believe in one God and in one humanity. The capacity for every emotion and every thought is in every people. The "will to believe" is the explanation of many of the conclusions of the doctrinaires of racial inequality. Creeds express thought and organizations incarnate purpose; but the human spirit seeking a meaning for things gives dignity and worthwhileness to life. Poets and hymnologists are often prophets and As I close, there rises before me the vision painted in Walt Whitman's interrogatory poem "Ethiopia Saluting the Colors," and I accept his prophetic words "Be not disheartened, affection shall solve the problems of freedom." discussion IT WOULD be as interesting to discuss the psychology of white people and Negro health as to discuss the psychology of the latter in relation to his own health. It has been well nigh impossible in the South to get communities tu adopt health programs when it was thought that the Negro would share the benefits. This has been part of the psychosis of the white South in which fear of the Negro has dominated. It has onlv been where the menace of unhealthy Negroes to white people has been shown that whites have been inclined to include the Negro in their health programs. Even in these cases they have seemingly hesitated between the evil of sharing the ill health of the Negro and giving him a better physical basis of propagation. Moreover, we must consider the question of the extent to which the Negro has been able to control his own health. In southern communities, as Atlanta for instance, where a group of Negro physicians would combat the spread of venereal diseases among Negroes exclusion from practice in hospital clinics has made them helpless in the situation. White physicians, regarding the Negroes simply as experimental material, have jealously prevented the Negro physician from participating in the fruits of their work. On the side of the Negroes themselves there are two psychological factors which affect their health. In adjusting themselves to the social system of the South, Negroes have developed a psychology difficult to describe. It may be called the psychology of negation, or the psychology of people in subjection. In not appearing to assert themselves in the face of the dominant white overlord, they have developed the psychology of the sick. For example, I have observed in tramping through the rural South that most Negroes when asked as to their health reply that they are "right poorly." Upon investigation physical ills are hardly ever found they appear simply psychologically sick. Seemingly the colored group expects pity at least if it is a sick people. Another psychological factor in Negro health is his conception of the cause o/f illness. Many Negroes in the South refer illness to purely "magical causes." In saying they show primitive habits of thought, I am not upholding the opinion of classical anthropologists who postulated a series of stages of mental and social evolution. These habits of thought are purely cultural and cannot be referred to any character in the germ plasm. At any rate, one could list a large number of magical causes of illness among Negroes. In fact, I have known personally of deaths resulting from a belief in magical causes of illness. The same applies to cures for illness. It would be an interesting study to collect the magical cures for diseases which Negroes use in the South. From what I have said, it is apparent that in order to improve Negro health generally the white people of the South must be taught, first, to valuate the Negro as any other human being, and Negroes themselves must be educated as other citizens. A step in this direction will be the refusal of the North to leave the race problem to the South; and to see that any Federal aid to education will not be dis-tributed between the whites and blacks of the South according to the present system of distribution of State funds. E. Franklin Frazier, Atlanta, Ga. In discussions of health conditions in the South and the inroads that venereal diseases are making among Negroes as reported by health experts there is an apparent disregard of all the sources of infection. ï»¿240 , OPPORTUNITY 1 August, 1924 The burden of correction has been repeatedl} placed upon Negroes. We are constantly being shown the gruesome situation and admonished tc use our untiring efforts to correct this evil. The utter helplessness of Negroes in the South tc change the moral status is frequently overlooked Negroes in many sections of the South are regarded as the legitimate prey of other race groups Who knows from what source disease germs spring, whether from palace or from hovel, under existing conditions? Little attention is given to Negro health in many sections of the South. Indeed, in many com munities, largely the rural ones, there is an entire lack of health help. Insurance companies do not employ Negro registered nurses nor do white insurance companies Negro UNTIL quite recently most of us considered that business had for its sole object the making of profits. Within the last year or two, however, we have increasingly heard of business for service. "He profits most who serves best" is the motto of the Great Luncheon Club which met in . Toronto, Canada, a week or two ago. Sinclair Lewis and a few of our weekly periodicals may be inclined to be amused at this constant preaching of service, yet I wonder if it is not in some . measure an indication of a real change which is gradually taking place in business. The fact must remain that no business enterprise can long exist which does not show a profit. Just as surely, those who come to be a part of any business enterprise or industry must be individually profitable. That is, they must stand the test of efficiency: Sooner or later, therefore, we must ask and receive a direct answer from the Negro. Is he an efficient worker in industry? Few concerns have seen fit to conduct a com plete and scientific investigation of the efficiency of the Negro as compared with the efficiency of the white man. In certain plants, however, where the majority of the workmen have long been Negroes they have stood well towards the top when ranked according to profitable performance. This and certain other facts have led us to believe that there is no considerable difference between the efficiency of the Negro and the white man taken man for man. Nevertheless there are several pretty definite , problems which the Negro still has to meet in industry. One of these problems is the question . of attendance. In certain plants, where an investigation has been made, it has been found that the absenteeism among Negroes runs 25% or 30% higher than absenteeism among white men. In one southern plant it has long been necessary to maintain a gang of 40 or 50 extra men to supply the places of those Negro workmen who are will- employ Negro physicians to make examinations and report cases. There are few clinics, and I make bold to say that very little attention is given Negroes in these clinics to better their condition substantially. In the majority of towns there are no clinics. As to migration, history shows that all races seek countries or sections of countries where problems economic, educational, spiritual and moral can be worked out to greatest advantage. The boll weevil in the South is a large contributory factor in the migration situation, but the great thought and hope of the Negroes who are leaving the South is that conditions might be made better for them. Rebecca Hull Walton, Columbia, S. C. ing to work only four or five days a week. The Negro cannot expect to hold his proper place in the industrial world until this situation has been corrected. "A Negro is only a good worker when he is broke" is a saying which has long been prevalent among a good many employers of Negro labor. I have even heard of a certain concern which makes it a practice to introduce an expert crapshooter or two into Negro camps on Saturday night to make sure that the Negro worker would be broke and on the job again Monday morning. The most of our enlightened employers can now well understand that such practice is only encouraging the very instability which they are trying to stamp out among the Negro employees, but I wonder if there is not a fundamental principle there to which it would be well to give attention. Mr. Whiting Williams points out that in certain southern mining camps where it was desirable that the men work their full six days a week it seemed impossible to persuade them to work more than half that time. At length it began to dawn upon some of those in touch with the situation that the miner was making more in the three days he worked than he could spend in the full seven days of the week. His grocery bill was small, he had no reason for more than one suit of clothes, and his house rent was almost negligible. Beyond these three items there was no inducement for him to spend money and certainly there was no reason for his saving it. Why then should he earn more than three days' pay? It has further been pointed out that when the Negro first started to come into our northern cities he had been accustomed to earn thirteen or fourteen dollars a week. In the North he earned eighteen or twenty dollars in three or four days. Why then should he earn more? It was not long, however, before he saw that the other' Negroes Workers in Buffalo By C. L. Peake ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 241 in his community were not willing to wear the same suit of clothes on the job as well as off the job. When he went into his neighbors' homes he found there that many of them were better furnished than were the homes of the white people in the South, a good many of them with their musical instruments and piano. It was not long before the Negro immigrant became interested in raising his own living standards to the standards of his fellows and he began to work several days more in the week than formerly. If then we can provide a place for our Negro immigrant to spend money, preferably in some place where it will net him something in the way of increased living standards, we have taken a step towards getting him to work a longer week. When an investigation was recently made of the Negroes working in one plant it was found that not a single one of the men working in that plant owned his own home, largely perhaps because he could not acquire a house at anything but an exorbitant price. This brings us to the second problem, that of Negro housing. I am free to confess that as I have sometimes gone into the places where Negroes have to live I have concluded that if I were compelled to go home at night to such a hovel or to such a dark room which I had to call home, I would probably go out and get drunk as frequently as possible myself and as a consequence would not be at work the next day. But the more specific problem with regard to housing is that of where we would locate the Negro community if it were possible to finance a housing plan. A decided objection goes up from every real estate man who is interested in property near a proposed site for Negro homes. Not only that but every home owner in that community is most concerned lest a group of houses for Negroes be placed in his vicinity. We may or may not agree with such an attitude but it is a problem to be dealt with just the same. The first problem which we have to meet in almost any group going into industry is the problem of SELECTION. Just the other day an employment man with a wide experience with Negroes observed, "Yes, the Negro is a good worker; but why do we have to have so many of them on the job before we find one who will stay and become a good workman?" We don't say, "A Pole is a Pole when we are hiring Polish labor." We know there are certain types of Polish work- men who will make good workmen and others who will not, just as there are certain types of Negroes who will make good workmen if we can make sure of the type. We have already found meager physical standards which are sometimes of value. We rarely find it profitable to hire a big burly Negro of the waiter type. We rather incline towards hiring the Negro with broad shoulders and thin hips. If we know about the man's home condition, that frequently helps. The church worker or a lodge member are usually pretty good industrial types. With care and study the standards can be worked out materially to reduce labor turnover among Negroes. A final problem which permeates every part of industry today, as well as that pertaining to the Negro alone, is the problem of supervision. Not long ago while going through a plant I casually inquired of the manager, "Well, how are you getting along with that night gang?" For all of you who have experience with foundries know the night gang is usually the most acute of foundry labor problems. "Got a bunch of Negroes and they are working fine," was the reply. "I thought you swore by that bunch of Poles you had." "No, I got rid of them several months ago they would not work steady, got a lot of Negroes instead." That was a man who a year ago would scarcely have a Negro in his plant but because he had given it his attention and conscientiously studied the problem of the Negro in his particular industry and worked it out with the foreman of that particular gang, he had found the solution of absenteeism on his night force. If we as social workers and industrial employers can find a way to get the man who handles the Negro to make an intelligent and conscientious study of the problem, the Negro will soon be the peer of any workman of the land. My understanding is that this is to be a round table discussion. I, therefore, want to leave with you these four problems First How can we set up a standard of selection for Negroes? Second How can we cut down his absenteeism? Third How can we arrange for proper location of Negro housing projects? Fourth How can we best educate the supervisor as to proper methods of handling the members of the Negro race? , ï»¿242 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 Neg ro Women in Indust By Helen B. Sayre ry THE Negro woman's sudden entrance into industry is a new adventure and a dramatic innovation. In the urgent quest for workers to "carry on" during the World War, she saw her longed-for opportunity, saw as she visioned it the end of the rainbow, and she came seeking it by thousands from her sunny, quiet southern home and plantation and placid housework and was at once swallowed up in the industrial centers in northern cities. Plucked so abruptly from the narrow spheres of such service as field hands, domestics and children's nurses, it is amazing to observe the transition and transformation of this same gentle, leisurely southern woman into the high-tension industrial worker in a large factory. Labor turnover, time clocks, piece work, output, maximum and minimum production, these words were unknown in her vocabulary a few years back. But today there are thousands of these girls and women, working tirelessly and patiently and steadily in our large industrial plants, and making good. At the close of the War and during the general depression in business which followed, many Negro girls were released and replaced with white help. It was a tragedy to the Negro girl, as she had not had time to lay aside anything for the rainy day, to gain needed experience and skill, and to overcome the impatience of the average employer and an antagonistic foreman. She was hired in a period of crisis, to fill the gap at the bottom of the scale, the most undesirable and unskilled jobs in the factory were assigned to her. The idea seemed very general that she could not be trusted to do the skilled work in any event usually she was not.given an opportunity if white help could be secured. Wet and sloppy work, heavy and tedious, with little chance for advancement, and if she did succeed, it was by sheer grit and determination, as many have told me. She had to be able to outdo her white competitor; sometimes she failed through lack of experience, and this would cause employers to say she was not capable, when in most cases it was simply due to poor selective instinct on his part or lack of intelligence or adaptability in her particular case. Left to the mercy of ignorant, prejudiced, intolerant foremen, what could be expected? However, the whole story is not so dark. Though her progress was retarded by the turn in events, still we know that she did retain some very worthwhile places and she has progressed in them where-ever possible to semi-skilled and skilled jobs. lÂ£ is worthy of note, that wherever an employer was humane and appreciative and gave his Negro help a chance to advance and a square deal in wages and working conditions, he had steady, cheerful workers which refutes a charge so prone to be made about their being undependable. Employers have found her amiable in disposition, intelligent and more adaptable than the unskilled foreign worker for whom white social agencies are engaged in season and out to aid them to adjust themselves, develop technique and become capable, highly skilled workers. For the Negro girl there.are no such agencies outside of a small work being done by the Y.W.C.A. in the City of Chicago. In my experience with both white and Negro girls, I have found no difference between them in capacity for work. Negro women are working today in the stockyards, nut factories, hat factories, lamp shade and mantel light industries, leather products, tobacco factories, paper box factories, mattress industry, as headers and embroiderers, and workers in the insulated wire factories; as power machine operators of all kinds, including cap, apron, bathrobe and dress-makers. Some of the best core-makers in the great McCormick harvester plant are Negro women. But it is unquestionably in the sewing field that the Negro girl finds her greatest opportunity. She has a natural aptitude for this work and has become a factor with which the trades union will have to consider. During the Garment Makers' strike in Chicago this spring, Negro women operators were employed in the strikers' places in large numbers. Many had had but little experience, and 1 heard of one firm that had employed three different sets of ninety operators in less than three months. Efforts were made to induce these girls to join the Union. I have been informed by a young Negro woman who belonged to the Union and who had organized the shop in which she worked, that the Union has always had an open door for Negro women. The Garment Makers are mostly recruited from the Jews and the Poles and as such they are designated on the books, but the Negro members are always classed as Americans. This is rather interesting, I think however, it is hard to get Negro girls into the Union. One reason is that they cannot join unless experienced. They argue that this is their chance to gain experience; joining the Union can come later. The value of collective bargaining is a matter of education, and industrial education is what is greatly needed to help the Negro girl stabilize her position in the labor world. The story of the Negro women employed at the Nachman Springfilled Cushion Company of Chicago, Illinois, may be of some value in understanding the whole situation. It will also show the splendid growth of a business whose enviable record for superior quality and excellence in manufactured products is the output of these same ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY women power machine operators, who make the durable covers for the softly resilient springs. In the beginning this company employed less than fifty persons. It was a simple matter for the heads of the firm to know each individual worker. Today there are between six and seven hundred on the pay-roll. The employment of such large numbers has tended to destroy any personal relation between employer and employees, and there is practically no contact with the workers. The making of these cushion covers was also a simple process in the beginning; they were used mostly for chair seats and a perfectly "green" girl who had never seen a power machine before could learn in a very few days to sew them. Today this firm manufactures cushions for all kinds of upholstered furniture, day-beds, mattresses, and automobile seats. Each unit-spring is enclosed in a separate pocket and these covers are made in two operations. When I tell you we have girls who can sew from five to seven thousand pockets in a day, you will realize that they have become "peppy" and mastered the speeding-up in industry. They are put on piece work in about three weeks and we have many girls making from twenty to thirty dollars per week. An average girl can make eighteen dollars per week. This is good pay for a year round job. There came a time when this large group of girls, with no previous factory experience and no one to encourage and reprove them or give them any personal attention whatever, were doing about as they pleased. They were very irregular in attendance, a very serious matter to the firm, in trying to give prompt service and keep up production. The cushion is an unfinished product and is delivered in large quantities to factories to be upholstered. The girls would say, "If we stay out we are the only losers, being on piece work." So the week would go something like this: Monday bad; Tuesday a little better; Wednesday very good, being pay day; Thursday very poor; Friday somewhat better; Saturday a half-day and the worst day of the week. The company was about three months behind in delivery of orders due to the fact that girls were given a chance to learn to operate the machines with pay, and many stayed just long enough to learn. Continually employing new help, of course, was responsible for poor quality of work as well as a large labor turnover and financial loss. The girls were disposed to be late for work and quit anywhere from a half-hour to fifteen minutes before closing time. There was considerable lack of respect for authority when it came to the forelady and inspector, as there was more or less a division of authority; so the firm had almost decided to release all the colored help, which meant a terrible blow to future opportunities. It was at this juncture that the Chicago Urban League was 243 appealed to and they advised putting a Negro woman as Personnel Director in charge to save the situation if possible for these hundreds of girls. The work of this Director has been very interesting and to some considerable degree satisfactory to the firm. It must be acknowledged to the credit of the firm that they have done everything possible for the Director to carry out her Her first task was to establish confidence and good-will in the hearts of the workers for herself.. This was done by bringing about some very needed improvements for the physical welfare of the workers, such as individual towels, rest-room, installing a wholesome lunch service, ice-water coolers on each floor during the summer months, having the space between the rows of machines widened seventeen inches so that the girls could swing the large work more easily in sewing, installation of ventilators. There was a need to develop a spirit of respect for those in authority and this has been brought about gradually by the careful handling of individual cases needing adjustment. It was necessary to educate those in authority as to their duty and responsibility as well as to require respect from the girls toward them. The girls soon realized that if they had just cause for complaint, they were upheld; if they were in the wrong, their Director gave them a warning the first time that a second offense would mean dismissal, and it did mean just that. Misfits were gradually released; careless and poor operators were discharged; certain factory rules were established, such as for punctuality, attendance, general conduct. This was done after heart to heart talks with the girls and they were made to realize the necessity for these adjust- We have without doubt today, we believe, the best disciplined group of factory employees to be found. We have an average of 97% on time; 95%-98% on the job! Our production has increased steadily from about 250,000 pockets to an average of 400,000 per day and on special occasions when we have needed an increased production they have easily speeded up to 500,000. This is the output of about 170 operators. If, of course, we add to this the workers on both operations we could approximately sew about 1,000,000 pockets in one day with 300 operators. This would give us about 17,000 cushions per day. Eighteen months ago we were three months behind in filling orders; today we guarantee a twenty-four hour delivery. Posting an hourly production scale on the bulletin board stimulates interest and it is great sport to watch the figures mount. We issue from time to time a printed bulletin or news sheet containing instructions and matters of general interest and information foi the workers. We encourage the girls to larger earning effort by giving each girl a new dollar bill ï»¿p 244 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 for every five dollars increase in her pay check; we also issue stars to the girls to wear on theii caps, showing their rating, one star for fifteen dollars; two stars for twenty dollars. The necessary practice of computing wages on a piece work basis has often been the cause oi much dissatisfaction. It is not an easy thing to do with so many different rates and in a week this amounts to quite a task. Some of the girls can figure and some cannot; in some cases they dc not try but just take whatever is given them. It they suspected they were short they would often quit, but seldom contended for satisfaction. Mistakes are made sometimes by the bookkeeper, but. when you realize that all the process of manufacturing is on a piece work basis, such as cutting; loading, sewing, tying and baling, you can havt sympathy. However, I have never had the least cause to complain. The girls were gladly given all that was due them if a mistake was discovered, Of course, if the girl was not short, then the Director would help her find out her mistake. This has established a great deal of confidence in the good faith of the company. We have frequent meetings of the staff of fore-ladies and inspectors, and instructions are passed to the girls about the work through them to develop respect for their positions as supervisors. Mass-meetings are held and subjects such as business methods, personal responsibility, cooperation, loyalty, punctuality, attendance, factory ethics, health and morals, conduct in the factory as well as when going to and from work are discussed. The girls wear a neat uniform and cap of blue and white striped gingham made by the Angelica Uniform Factory in St. Louis. It makes a wonderful improvement in the general appearance and they like it. Many of our patrons come to visit the factory. These men are always surprised and agreeably impressed when they see these hundreds of neatly apparelled girls working so quietly and industriously and making such a high quality product. I wish to say right here, that this work requires skill and a good average of intelligence, as we daily receive orders requiring exclusive and special particulars. There are in the employ of our factory Jews, Italians, Slavokians, Poles, Bohemians and Americans, and when you realize that Negro men, women, boys and girls are employed in every department with absolutely no race friction, you must admit that it is a striking example of inter-racial industrial adjustment. A word of appreciation now for the girls in this story. It has been wonderful to see the gratitude of these workers as well as the great response we have had to our plans. The majority of the girls appreciate just what it means for them to make good and they are anxious to cooperate, now that they do understand and the whole process of costs and values has been explained. They realize that they are pioneers and to them is entrusted the future possibilities for greater opportunities for Negro girls in industry if they make good. They feel satisfied that the Director will take care of their complaints and give them a square deal. All this has raised the morale of Negro help at Nachman Springfilled Cushion Company and today these workers are assured of steady work and advancement when merited in this company. ft It may be interesting to you to hear of the experience of a young white college girl student of sociology and economics who worked in our factory as a power machine operator last summer for seven weeks. Unknown to all but the Director, she was under the guardianship of the Y.W.C.A. Students of Industry GroWp. In the report of her experiences she made this statement: "I expected to find a low moral status existing among these factory girls. On the contrary, it was just the reverse and I never felt the least bit out of place. I found them cheerful and helpful to each other, and I felt no different than I would in any other strange social group. There is absolutely no profanity or vulgarity in their conversation, as I expected to find." The Y.W.C.A. has again requested a placement for a student this summer! This speaks for itself. Until the Negro woman in industry has had a longer factory experience, until she has acquired the modern industry complex, where they are employed in large numbers, they must be guided. In a few years they will have established themselves without question as to their ability and capacity for routine factory work. Then they may be counted upon to make their contribution and become an integral part of the great industrial systems of America. Give her time, give her guidance most of all, give her opportunity. A Successful Library Experiment By Thomas F. Blue THE Colored Department of the Louisville Free Public Library consists of two branch libraries housed in Carnegie buildings, seventeen stations and fifty-nine classroom collections in twenty-six school buildings in Louisville and Jefferson County. It has a staff of nine workers and an annual circulation of over 100,00 volumes. \ The first branch, known as the Western Colored Branch, was opened in temporary quarters, September 23, 1905. Although this was a new experiment, it immediately became popular and was regarded by the library authorities as a success from the beginning. 1 ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 245 The new building located at Tenth and Chestnut Streets, the gift of Andrew Carnegie, was opened October 28, 1908. On that occasion, W. O. Head, the mayor of Louisville and president of the Board of Trustees, presided. The opening of its doors was a noteworthy event, for it was the first colored branch library to be housed in a Carnegie building. This building is 77 x 45 feet, with a main floor, the library room, and a Western Colored Branch Library basement containing two classrooms and an auditorium. It is built of brick, concrete and stone, with a tile roof. The Western Branch Library contains 16,839 volumes and receives ninety-two periodicals and newspapers. In the collection of books and newspapers there are more than two hundred books by Negro writers and twenty-two representative Negro newspapers. The first year, with 3000 volumes, the circulation was 17,838; the second year, 30,419; and the tenth year the circulation, including stations and classroom collections, was 78,791. The Library Board was so pleased with the success of the first branch that it opened a second colored branch in the eastern part of the city. This is known as the Eastern Colored Branch, and was opened in a Carnegie building with appropriate exercises, January 28, 19 H- John H. Buschemeyer, mayor of Louisville and president of the Board of Trustees, presided. The Eastern Colored Branch building is 60 x 80 feet, with a library room and an auditorium on the main floor, and three classrooms and a large playroom in the basement. The Eastern Branch Library contains 6,989 volumes and receives sixty-five periodicals and news^ .papers.â€¢'.-fV V.V '"^-IMBj?- . 7:^pB^^Mmv' â€¢*'sP The opening of the Eastern Colored Branch gave Louisville the distinction of being the only city having two colored branch libraries. Since the opening of the first branch, the total number of books borrowed for home use from both branch libraries is 918,983. This does not include the books borrowed from stations and classroom collections. The total circulation from the Colored Department, branches, stations and schools amounts to more than one million volumes. The question is often asked: What books are liked and mostly used by our readers? The records show that with the exception of fiction, which percentage is comparatively low, the classes of books most in demand are the same as those of any ordinary group of readers. The annual report for the year ending August 31, 1923, gives the four leading classes of adult books read in the order of their popularity: history, sociology, useful arts, and literature. Naturally, there is a wholesome desire to read books by Negro writers. Among such books most in demand are Dunbar's poems, Washington's "Up From Slavery," Du Bois' "Souls of Black Folk," Brawley's "Short History of the American Negro," Woodson's "Negro in Our History," and Chestnutt's "House Behind the Cedars." Eastern Colored Branch Library Another question frequently asked is: What books have you in the library by Negro authors? To meet this inquiry, the library has prepared a book list, Some Books and Pamphlets, Music, Magazines and Newspapers by Negro Writers, Composers and Editors, in the Colored Department of the Louisville Free. Public Library. This was recently followed by a supplementary list including the latest publications by Negro writers. ï»¿246 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 Through the adequate reference collection, the libraries furnish the teachers and pupils of the public schools and other educational institutions in the city information and supplementary matter on all kinds of subjects. When material for an essay or information on some topic is wanted, the slogan is "Go to the library." The records show that 96,267 persons have been assisted in reference work, with no account of those who find the information they desire for themselves. As a means of creating in the children an interest in books and reading, a story hour is held weekly at each library and the children are encouraged to retell the stories told by the story- An outstanding feature of this work is the children's annual Story Telling Contest between the Western and Eastern branch libraries, which, by request, is held annually before the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The names of the winners of the primary and intermediate departments are placed on a silver loving-cup. This cup was given to the Colored Department by the Louisville Free Public Library, and named the Cotter Story Telling Contest Cup in honor of Joseph S. Cotter, one of our public school principals, who first suggested the contest. The names of sixteen children appear on the cup. Another special feature of the work is an apprentice class for the training of those who desire to enter library service. As the work grew, trained assistants were needed. As they were not available, it was necessary to train them. An annual apprentice class is conducted and instruction given in library methods. All apprentices are scheduled for required practical work. This training has been taken by thirty-seven persons. Of this number, sixteen have served as assistants and substitutes in the Louisville colored branches, and thirteen as branch librarians and assistants in other cities. Of the latter number, eleven were sent to Louisville to prepare for library work in Atlanta, Birmingham, Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Houston, and Evansville. When the Colored Branch of the Roanoke Public Library was established in 1921, at the urgent request of the librarian of that city, Mrs. Rachel D. Harris, our senior assistant, was loaned to the library to help organize and open the branch. The Staff of the Colored Department This was repeated in 1923 when the Dunbar Branch of the Lynchburg Public Library was established. We are always called upon for suggested lists for purchase when colored branches are opened in other cities. With their auditoriums and classrooms, the colored branch buildings are especially adapted to library and social center uses and are the common meeting-places for gatherings of educational and social uplift. The two branch buildings are real social centers. Of trie large number of meetings held in the libraries from time to time, it is interesting to note the variety, as the following list will show: Louisville Ministerial Alliance, Louisville High School Alumni, Jefferson County Teachers' Institute, Louisville Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, Kentucky Negro Medical Society, Negro Business Men's League, Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Colored Men's Department of the Y. M. C. A., Boy Scouts, Urban League, Kentucky Negro Educational Association, Inter-Racial Committee, Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. Since their establishment, the colored branches have been in charge of Thomas F. Blue, Head of the Colored Department. Mrs. Rachel D. Harris. Mrs. Elnora Mclntyre, Mrs. Lillie S. Price, Mrs. Minnie McAffee, and Miss Vivian Glass are assistants at the Western Colored Branch, and Miss Elizabeth I. Finney, Mrs. Lizzie B. Pierce, and Mrs. Laura Brooks Eastern Colored Branch, colored branches is, in a the encouragement of the Library Board and the generous cooperation of ,the librarian, Mr. George T. Settle. The Louisville Leader says: "Our libraries Western Branch and Eastern Branch. Excellent, in truth. In having them we are blessed beyond many another city. Books, books! Papers and magazines without stint. Attractive and comfortable roms. An obliging staff. "Whatever else we get and we are getting many good things our libraries remain our pride." are assistants at the The success of the large measure, due to ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 247 A Sound ^Afegro Business Institution ASTATISTICAL story of the growth of an important financial organization is provided in the summary of the North Carolina Mutual Life Company following its examination by the joint Board of Auditors of the Insurance Departments of three states: North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. This examination marks the 25th anniversary of the company. The work of the examination included a test check of the income and disbursements of the company from the original vouchers to the Journal Cash Book, which contains the entire financial transactions of the company. The assets and liabilities were carefully checked. The claim records were investigated as was "the manner of settlement with policyholders. For the protection of the policyholders, on whose lives this insurance is placed, it maintains a reserve fund of over one million and a half dollars ($1,835,119.54). Its premium income during 1923 was nearly two million dollars ($1,710,091.11). It paid to policyholders during 1923 over a half million dollars in death and sick claims ($565,380.97). Its total admitted assets are close to two million dollars ($1,945,521.95), lacking two million dollars by only ($54,478.97). The growth of insurance in force since 1909 tells the life and strength of the institution. Report of the Examination of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company as of December 31, 1923, by the Insurance Departments of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. Insurance in Force â€¢ 1909 ....................$1,545,479 9l6 .................... 8,259.549 1910 .................1,510,492 1911 .................... 2,556,200 1912 .................... 3.239,244 1913 .................... 4.272,955 1914 .................... 4.986,344 1915 .................... 3.524.509 1917 ....................",156,972 1918 ....................16,096,722 1919 ....................26,534,549 1920 ....................33,444,396 1921 ....................33,763,816 1922 ....................38,399,996 1923 ....................4i,H8,747 Referring to the Company's stocks and bonds, the examiners said they "were verified by actual inspection of the bonds and stocks in the possession of the company and by certificates from the States of North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia Departments, and found to consist of Government, State and Municipal Bonds and Bank and Utilities stocks. There are no bonds in default and interest is collected promptly." In reference to the mortgage loans on real estate amounting to $665,804.90, the examiners comment: "This item was verified by actual inspection of the loan notes and found to be as reported. All papers in connection with these loans were inspected and it was found that this item represents first mortgage loans on real estate." North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Building This is a summary of their estimate of the company: "A company efficiently managed whose books and records are very accurately kept, which is the only mutual life organization in North Carolina of any size that is owned and managed for its policyholders." Wb (i) OS Dr. Louis I. Dublin is statistician for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Neiv York City. Dr. Algernon B. Jackson is the Director of the Public Health Department, Howard University, Washington. D. C. Dr. C. V. Roman is located at Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn. Mrs. Helen Sayre is Personnel Director of Colored Women Employees of the Nachman Springfilled Company, Chicago, III. Wh 0 C. L. Peake is connected with the Department of Industrial Relations, American Radiator Company, Buffalo, N. Y. William Pickens is Field Secretary Association for the Advancement of New York City. of the National Colored People, Thomas F. Blue is at the head of the Colored Department of the Louisville Free Public Library. ï»¿248 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 CORRESPONDENCE AN INCIDENT T HAD been reading Opportunity and was sitting down just thinking. My mind was far off with "The Negro of Peter the Great." I had forgotten everything about .me when the sharp ring of the door bell brought me back to earth, as it were. "Is your father home?" asked the white man who stood, dressed not too cleanly, at my door. "Yes," I answered, "but he is ill and I do not think you may see him." "That doesn't make any differenced I've got a little business I want to talk over with him." "Though he does not wish to see anyone, I will ask him if he will see you." My father said that I might show him in since he was so persistent. So I had to bring him to my father, even though he never removed his hat. After a short conference he went away, saying to me, "I see, he really was sick." I was furious. He seemed to think that I had lied to him about my father. I came back to my father and said, "Oh! I could have slapped that man's face. He was positively insulting." And he answered, "Child, you can't change the order of things." I was bewildered. One moment I was happy over our progress; the next I was told not to attempt to resist the old order. On the one side we have the younger generation pushing on, taking an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth; on the other, the older folk who accept the situation and only nod their heads at the way of things. Which way will the balance swing? Must the old order give place to the new, or must there never be a new order? I wonder. India DeLaine Amos. PHILADELPHIA, PA. I received the copies of Opportunity, which I am reading with much interest and profit. Thank you for the opportunity to see the good work your journal is doing. A. C. Barnes. * * * HACKENSACK, N. J. I commend Opportunity for what I have learned from the comprehensive articles that have been an education to me. â€¢-. . William Whitney Wright. # * * LINCOLN, NEB. Your magazine is the development of an idea: the giving to our group of a periodical that is devoted to art and filling a niche in our group life that has been vacant heretofore. J. B. Smith. â™¦ * * NEW YORK CITY May I add that Opportunity seems to me to be taking great strides and is a source of pleasure to me? Countee P. Cullen. * * * BOSTON, MASS. I would like two copies a month of your splendid magazine for a year. I want to do what I can to let my friends know about it. John Orth. SPRINGFIELD, OHIO Please send me your latest journal. I have an old one that I found, and I like it very much. Mrs. F. O. Morgan. FLINT, MICH. Of the many magazines and papers among our people, Opportunity appeals to me as the most informing and best edited. You are to be commended for giving us a high class, worth while monthly that really gets its message over. Norman A. Holmes. * * * WILLIAMETTE UNIVERSITY SALEM, OREGON I am enclosing $1.50 for Opportunity. It is certainly an able magazine. I think that I can put it in our library next fall. I hope I may be able to help in breaking down some of the racial and religious prejudice that exists in Oregon. S. B. Laughlin. * * * MOREHOUSE COLLEGE ATLANTA, GA. I have enjoyed every number of Opportunity and hope its subscription list is growing as it deserve*. Mr. Battey's wonderful pictures add immensely. Helen B. Pendleton. * * # WASHINGTON, D. C. The magazine has come and I have read it through. It is a splendid issue and I see that it strikes many choice people as being splendid. There is a continuity throughout the number from editorial on and the effect of the magazine is inspiring, heartening, and uplifting. Georgia Douglas Johnson. * * * WILKES BARRE, PA. I more than appreciate my copy of Opportunity and would have you send a subscription for one year to my friend.. ^rw^^^^^^^M^^^^^^ E. Annie Amison. ' * * * WICHITA, KAN. From time to time I have had the privilege of scanning the pages of your most interesting journal, ancl while I always found it very interesting I always felt that in the light of the large number of technical and semi-professional journals that I take, I could do without Opportunity. I used fifty copies in connection with my Race Relations Conference, and again tried to forget it. But the little posters that you have continued to send in, to be posted on our Bulletin Board, have been so very suggestive that I am forced to mail my check for a subscription, beginning with the April number. Personally, I feci that your magazine has a distinct place in the field of social work. Walter L. Hutchinson. * * * BROOKLYN, N. Y. I have read your valuable journal with lively interest and wish to express to you my compliments and thanks. â– . ? Stewart Culin, Curator, Brooklyn Institute Museum. * * * CHICAGO, ILL. I have never seen anything like the African Art issue of course because there has never been anything like it. It is authentic and dynamic comparable (not in size but surely in significance) to the Giant Power number of the Survey Graphic. These foreshadowings take one's breath away with their revelation of the untapped sources of creative energy all around us. I was glad to find this copy in the periodical room at the University of Chicago where a year ago it had not appeared. Enclosed please find check for my subscription. ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 249 INTER -RACIAL FORUM Compiled by Madeline G. Allison DR. David G. Downey in the Nashville, Tenn., BANNER: "A story is told of Charles Lamb, how that one day while walking with a friend he saw a certain man and exclaimed, 'I hate that man!' Whereupon his friend asked, 'Do you know that man?' 'No,' replied Lamb. 'I do not know him, and I do not want to know him, for if I knew him, I might like him.' " * # * H. G. Wells in the Toronto, Canada, STAR WEEKLY: "The general rule for peace between two races seems to be to mix or get away; the darkest tragedy comes when, as in the southern United States, they can neither mix nor disentangle. In the great, elaborately educated state of the future, to which human affairs are moving, every one, every community, will be most sedulously educated and trained in inter-racial good manners." * # * Gerald W. Johnson in the JOURNAL OF SOCIAL FORCES: "In the South, the Negroes are a dominated race; how can we release them? The Southerner is, quite honestly, unable to see in that any problem whatever. The Negro problem, as he understands it, is more on this order: In the South, the dominated race are Negroes; how dare we release them?" * * * Dr. Josiah H. Penniman in the Philadelphia, Pa., RECORD: "In practically every field of human endeavor, whether critical or creative, representatives of the colored people have attained distinction not only for themselves as individuals but also for the race of which they are members. In the arts, in science, in business, in the professions, colored men and women have demonstrated their ability by actual performance and present to the world the results of their endeavors, asking only that they be judged on their intrinsic merits." * * * President Coolidge, in a message to the convention of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, in the Philadelphia, Pa., EVENING PUBLIC LEDGER: "But for the strange and long inscrutable purpose which in the ordering of human affairs subjected a part of the black race to the ordeal of slavery, that race might have been assigned to the tragic fate which has befallen many aboriginal peoples when brought into conflict with more advanced communities. Instead, we are able now to be confident that thi^ race is to be preserved for a great and useful work." ' \ : V 'â– - ;â€¢ ' * William R. Hopkins in the Cleveland, Ohio, PLAIN DEALER: "America should begin to understand that there is no basis for distinction between men, except manhood." The Philadelphia, Pa., NORTH AMERICAN: "This question of race conflict is not to be settled by heated talk or prejudiced action. It must be worked out calmly and sanely along reasonable lines." ^MMm^i--:.} MnM^^M Judge Jayne in the Philadelphia, Pa., PUBLIC LEDGER: "The Negro is a man. He is a work-ingman, respected and respectable. I hope thi Negro stays until he learns all there is to know of this industrial system which is at once our salvation and our despair. I hope the Negro leavens its sordid dullness with that inextinguishable joy and rhythm which have brought him unscarred through the crucible of slavery and degradation. I hope the Negro leavens selfish greed with the innate lovaltv and faithfulness which have alwavs been his, even in his reputation among his enemies." Robert E. Speer in the FEDERAL COUNCIL BULLETIN: "I am part of all that I have met" is more true of a race even than of a person. All generations and the races which preceded us and the races which surround us have helped to make and endow us. To any race conscious of its privilege, St. Paul puts his ancient question, 'What hast thou that thou didst not receive?' " *T* The Rev. Mr. Ernest Tremont Tittle in the Indianapolis, Ind., STAR: "We men and women of the white race have treated the Negro badly enough, God knows. . . . Has not the time come for us to judge the Negro by his soul his demonstrated capacity for cultural achievement and give him a chance to reveal what his true 'place' is in the future of civilization?" POT POURRI Publicity tt HAPPENS unfortunately that the Negro comes in for publicity of an unpleasant description too often to please friends of his race. When there is an opportunity to show the better side of his activities, it ought not to be slighted. Who has thought of the colored man in the field of inventive genius, yet we are told on good authority that 5,000 patents are registered to his credit at Washington. Further, we learn that Granville Wood, a Negro, improved the telephone, and Dr. Williams, another Negro, performed the first successful operation on the human heart. A chemist, George W. Carver, is internationally famous. In mu- r * ï»¿250 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 sic, the former slave has been especially distinguished, giving America some of its finest melody. In sculpture, painting and literature he has also done his race credit. As a fitting postscript to the foregoing, let us finish with what Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University, said to the Negro National Educational Congress in Philadelphia: "Those who persist in manifesting intolerance toward men and women of another race or color, or toward a creed in which they themselves do not believe, are essentially uncivilized. Those who would advance civilization must labor in season and out of season to resist and check that persecuting tendency which is a mark of barbarism." Trenton, N. J., TIMES. * * * A Sign of Progress It has dawned at length upon the inhabitants of the southern part of the United States that while the South needs the Negro, the Negro does not need the South. . . . The march of progress has not wholly swept by the southern Negro. He has learned much about the North from his friends who have gone there to work and have not returned to their old homes, and he is beginning to be affected much like the Easterners in the days following the discovery of gold in California. The North has become the new Eldorado to the black man of the South, and just as in the days of the California gold fever, much that the southern Negro hears is untrue and he is certain to be disappointed about many things when he goes into new regions, enough of what he has learned about working conditions and education for his race is true to hold him as a permanent resident of the northern part of the country once he gets there. But the South is more in need of the Negro's labor than the North, and if the hegira should continue at too rapid rate- it might work to the serious disadvantage not only of the Southern States but also of the entire country. When the South becomes unable to put out and harvest its great cotton crops, if such a thing should happen, it would throw the entire country out of balance. â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ But badly as the South may need colored laborers, it cannot complain. If they are leaving for places where living conditions are better for them it is a sign of their progress. Muncie, Ind., PRESS. The Negro Migrant A survey of approximate accuracy, made under the direction of the St. Louis Election Board, discloses that the registration of men and women voters of the Negro race has increased from 30,378 in 1920 to 64,264 at the present time. From these figures a new estimate as to city population gains, in something less than four years, may be made. As this is a factor in population growth that is not reflected in housing gains, like divers other factors, its influence has been indefinite heretofore. The number of unregistered Negro adults and the children represented by those registered must also be considerable. Would these additional 33,786 Negro voters represent a total increase of 60,000 in the St. Louis Negro population, or even of 50,000? Either figure, and a count might show that they are exceeded, conveys an idea as to the new problems created by the coming of so many of this race to the community. Almost nothing has been done to understand the terms of those problems, even less to solve them. Investment capital has accomplished wonders in providing quarters for other newcomers, but virtually nothing for these newcomers. They are crowded in decaying, ill-appointed habitations, as human beings ought not to be crowded. One city ward alone has 11,104 new Negro voters. What changes in living conditions must have been caused in that ward? Four other wards have additions in excess of 3,000 each; one, in fact, of more than 5,000. On one street 160 families are said to reside in a single block. In a dozen small rooms, in the rear of business property, 67 Negroes are accommodated. /';'!'^V/;:."00-/L'.'.'.'V': â– S'x' These persons have become a permanent part of the life of St. Louis, a permanent influence in the community. What is being done to make that part a beneficial one, and that influence wholesome? On the one side is the effect on the census showing and on the labor market; on the other side are many urgent new needs. Presumably something is being done to prevent these swarming quarters from becoming sources from which disease may spread, but there are perils in that direction to be removed only by abating the congestion. The expansion over new streets of the districts assigned by common consent to the race is something to which realty interests seem keenly sensitive, but such expansion is inevitable unless areas in the districts now inhabited are utilized more intensively and with more homelike results. Here is not merely a duty. It is an investment opportunity promising reasonable returns. Fit" iS? * ^ Merely material needs are subordinated by the needs of another and higher kind. These increases are attributed to the Negro migration from rural areas of the South. Is their voting to be selective, individual voting, or indiscriminate, controlled, massed voting? What do they know about the issues of a large center? How many of them have even voted before? Are they to become mere interlocked, obedient, machine agents at the polls? Alien newcomers are the recipients of solicitous attention. "Americanization" activities reach amOng them in all directions. What is being done to Americanize these newcomers who are not aliens? St. Louis, Mo., GLOBE DEMOCRAT. ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 251 Fair Play Whatever conduces to the prosperity and contentment of the Negro is to the advantage of the whole community. As the Union could not exist half slave and half free, so we cannot have an ideal condition while any part of our population is politically oppressed and industrially submerged. The South must treat the Negro with consideration, or it will lose many more of its indispensable artisans. With a lure not merely of better wages but of fairer living conditions, the North will draw increasing numbers of those who, thoughtfully distributed and guided, are an asset, not a liability an element of strength, not of weakness or peril in our industrial establishments and in the community at large. But even in the- North there is a great deal to be done in the way of opening new fields to Negro initiative and labor. Some doors that should stand ajar are closed for no better cause than unreasoning prejudice. To give fair play to the Negro is to recognize and develop his best qualities and to secure for their exercise a proper recompense. He possesses attributes of good humor, of patience and fidelity, of creative and mimetic instinct, which should be utilized. Since the Civil War he has come up from slavery and progressed mentally, morally and materially at a rate which has confuted the pessimists. It is the universal office of civilization to give all men and women the satisfaction of fairly compensated labor as free agents in an environment, domestic and industrial, that conduces to health and happiness. Philadelphia, Pa., PUBLIC LEDGER. * * * â€¢ The Humble Philosopher "Why that fellow's our Assistant Superintendent of Service now," said a middle-aged gentleman to his traveling companion, as he unbottoned a handsome frock coat and drew forth a cigar of tremendously large proportions. "He made a job for himself and openings for his associates, so that our factory now has a fine group of colored mechanics." "Well, how came you to take him on?" asked the other gent, as he discarded his cigarette and sat up to take notice, while I decided to "listen in" and gather some real live information about such a seemingly impossible subject as a colored Assistant Superintendent of Service. " 'Twas almost a joke," replied the genial manufacturer, "and I guess if I'd thought Bob was dead in earnest, I wouldn't have made him the offer. I'm glad he was serious, though, as it helped him, gave some fine workmen a chance, and helped to put my company really on the map. "Here's the way it all happened," continued the manufacturer, as he lighted his huge perfecto: "Bob Hodges was the porter I always rode with out of Cleveland every Saturday night. And he was a porter, too one of the most careful fellows I've ever traveled with. One Saturday night, Bob complained about having to make the run, with his mother sick at home. I asked him why he didn't get a job in town, and as quick as a wink Bob asked me for one at the factory. Little thinking that he was in earnest, I told him to stop in the office the next time he was in Cleveland, and I'd try to fix him up. You can hardly imagine my surprise when on the first of the month Bob showed up, told me he had quit the road, and asked for a job. 'All I can give you â€¢ at present is a janitor's job, Bob,' I told him, 'and $60.00 a month is all it pays.' 'Good!' he said, 'I'm ready to hit.' "So Bob went on as janitor, and pretty soon, as the business grew, he had risen to be Chief Janitor, and had the privilege of hiring his own men. In less than a year after we had put up our new buildings Bob had six assistants, all fine chaps, who worked hard and conscientiously. "One day, one of our best patternmakers was taken ill, and we were pushed for men and time with which to complete some contract work. We telephoned around town for patternmakers, but couldn't locate a single one. I was feeling mighty blue when Bob entered, with a quizzical smile on his face. " 'Understand you need an expert patternmaker,' he said quietly. 'I have a good one downstairs, if you'd like to try him.' " 'Where is the man ? Send him up to the Superintendent at once!' I exclaimed, scarcely able to believe Bob. "Well, sir, Bob brought up one of his colored janitors, and don't you know that fellow could make patterns as skillfully as any man whom I have ever seen? "After that, we were short of mechanics two or three times, and don't you know that Bob had a man on his force for practically every job in % our plant? That sure did teach me a lesson, and when the department managers had a meeting, I ordered them to take on colored men whenever they came prepared to deliver the goods. -Bob Hodges had created jobs for his people out of nothing. Every time he hired a man, he hired a man with a trade, and when the opportunity came, Bob was able to fill the gap, and fill it right. We've got about twenty-five colored mechanics out there now, and we don't have to worry about emergencies, for we've made Bob the Assistant Superintendent of Service, and, believe me, he's got a man, should we need one, for every job at the plant. I guess he could fill my place, if necessary," the genial employer concluded, with a hearty laugh. Lincoln News Service, Washington, D. C. ï»¿252 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 BULLETIN BOARD Roland W. Hayes HP HE ninth Spingarn Medal has been awarded to Roland W. Hayes, the internationally known tenor, for his achievements .in the field of music. This medal is awarded by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for the highest achievement of an American Negro during the year. Mr. Hayes appeared recently as soloist with the Philadelphia and the Boston Symphony Orchestra; he has given recitals in the States and in Europe, and sung before the King and Queen of England. His programs include works in French, Italian and German. In Mr. Hayes' absence from the States on a concert tour in Europe, the Medal was accepted for him by Harry T. Burleigh. Other recipients of the Spingarn Medal are: E. E. Just, for researches in biology; the late Major Charles Young, for services in organizing the Liberian constabulary and developing roads of the Republic of Liberia; Harry T. Burleigh, for excellence in the field of creative music; William Stanley Braithwaite, for distinguished achievement in literature; Archibald H. Grimke, for seventy years of distinguished service to his country and his race; W. E. B. Du Bois, for the founding and calling together of the Pan-African Congress; Charles S. Gilpin, for his achievement in the title role of Eugene O'Neill's play, "Emperor Jones"; the late Mrs. Mary B. Talbert, for service to the women of her race and for the restoration of the home of Frederick Douglass. Melville Charlton, upon whom Howard University has conferred the degree of Doctor of Music, has been for ten years the musical director and organist of a Jewish congregation, the Temple of Covenant, in New York City, and for fifteen years the organist of Union Theological Seminary. During his musical education Mr. Charlton won a scholarship at the National Conservatory of..Music of America, where he studied musical history, organ, and composition. * * * According to statistics compiled by the Department of Records and Research of Tuskegee Institute, there were five Negroes lynched in the United States during the first six months of this year, in Florida, 2; Georgia, 2; South Carolina, 1; the offenses charged were: rape, 3; attempted rape, 1; killing officer of the law, 1. A comparison of records shows for the first six months of 1924, 5 lynchings; 1923, 15; 1922, 30; 1921, 36. The present record is the lowest during the past forty years. * * * De Hart Hubbard, from the University of Michigan, won the broad jump at the Olympic contest in Paris, France. He made a leap of 24 feet, 6 inches. The Garrett Settlement in Wilmington, Del., has reached its fifteenth year of successful operation and become a permanent social agency. According to the annual report of Mrs. Blanche W. Stubbs, the Director, the program of the Settlement included 28 various activities and groups, with an attendance of 25,000. Mrs. Stubbs says: "There is much of good being accomplished through the instrumentality of the Settlement and it is contributing, in at least a small degree, to the solution of some of the problems confronting the colored people of Wilmington. It is filling a unique place in the life of the community, and there must be no standing still." \ â™¦ * * In 1922 there were 80,000 Negroes gainfully employed in Missouri; this number has increased to 125,-000 a gain of 45,000 in two years. According to Mr. Robert S. Cobb, executive secretary of the Missouri Negro Industrial Commission: "The migration of Negroes to Missouri is not a menace but a blessing. The majority of the newcomers are thrifty and industrious and are proving to be an asset to Missouri. In southeast Missouri, where cotton is the chief industry, the Negro migrant is an important factor and will doubtless be instrumental in helping Missouri to rank high in cotton production." Figures show that in agricultural pursuits there are 9,654 colored men and 739 colored women; manufacturing and mechanical industries, 24,519 men and 2,506 women; transportation, brakesmen and chauffeurs, 9,671 men and 96 women; trades, offices, real estate, 4,789 men and 325 De Hart Hubbard ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 253 women; public service, laborers, detectives, 744 men and 15 women; professions, 1,406 men and 1,094 wo" men; domestic and personal service, 13,508 men and 25,684 women; clerical occupations, 29,713 men and 252 women. ; Connected with the Frederick Douglass Community Center in Toledo, Ohio, there are the following activities, Girl Reserves Corps, Junior and Senior Glee Clubs, Friendship Club, Dramatic Arts Club, Hi-School Club, Basketball Squads, Boys' Band, Scout Troop. Since October there has been an aggregate attendance of 6,800 people at the Sunday meetings; 62 persons, 48 colored and 14 white, and 19 organizations joined in giving programs for these meetings. Work in connection with juvenile delinquency has become an important phase of the organization's efforts, not because of an increase in the number of delinquents but through an increasing confidence in, and dependency upon, this agency by the courts in solving the problems connected with colored delinquents. In the past four months 31 cases, involving 44 boys, were handled and only one of these boys has been returned for a second offense. The activities of this center are carried on by two full time and three part time employees and fifteen volunteer workers. â™¦ * # The American Tennis Association, which Has made rapid progress during the few years of its existence, will hold its Annual Tournament in Baltimore, Md., August 18-23. Men's singles and doubles, women's singles and doubles, mixed doubles and junior singles, will comprise the program. The finals of these events will be held on Saturday, August 23. The officers of the Association are: Harry S. McCard, M.D., President; James T. Howard, D.D.S., and O. B. Williams, M.D., Vice-Presidents; Gerald F. Norman, Secretary; Eugene Kinckle Jones, Treasurer. The present champions are: Edgar G. Brown, men's singles; Dr. J. L. McGriff and Dr. E. D. Downing, men's doubles; Miss I. Channels, ladies' singles; Mrs. Wade and Mrs. E. Leonard, ladies' doubles. The official referee will be Dr. D. I. Hoage, and the Chief-of-Umpires, Dr. W. H. Wright. SURVEY GRAPHIC announces a Prize of Fifty Dollars for the best original interpretation in pointing, sculpture, etching, or black and white drawing submitted on or before NOVEMBER 1st, 1924 by a Negro artist, interpreting NEGRO LIFE in HARLEM. The prize award will be reproduced as an art feature of the special HARLEM NUMBER of SURVEY GRAPHIC, now in preparation, which will express the progressive spirit of contemporary Negro life in its new aspects and setting, using Harlem as its stage. Entries of merit other than the prize-winner may be accepted for publication in the special issue. All competing work should be sent to SURVEY GRAPHIC, 112 East 19th Street, New York City, marked HARLEM SURVEY ART CONTEST. Work submitted may be claimed by the artists after January 1, 1925. The Jury of Award are: Winold Reiss, Mrs. Victor David Brenner, Charles S. Johnson, Editor of Opportunity, W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, Editor of The Crisis, and Albert C. Barnes. ASBURY PARK 50 miles from New York LAKE CITY BY THE SEA 90 miles from Philadelphia RESORT of recreation, rest, and enjoyment. Come down this summer where the elite, the wealth, and the beauty of the race meet and while away the languorous summer days. Hotel and cottage accommodation at rates to suit any vacationist's pocket-book. SEND FOR BOOKLET. Address ASBURY PARK COLORED BOARD OF TRADE 1106 Springwood Avenue, Asbury Park, N. J. ï»¿254 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 HAMPTON INSTITUTE JAMES E. GREGG GEORGE P. PHENIX FRANK K. ROGERS WILLIAM H. SCOVILLE Principal Vice Principal Treasurer Secretary HAMPTON, VIRGINIA Founded in 1868 by General Armstrong to train selected colored youths who should go out to teach and lead their people. Hampton stands for "a sound body, a trained capacity, and an unselfish outlook on life." Hampton is an industrial village: 1,000 acres; 149 buildings; 901 boarding students, including 75 college students; 385 day pupils in practice-school; 854 summer-school students; 250 teachers and workers. Hampton has over 2512 graduates and over 8800 former students; also numerous out-, growths, including Tuskegee, founded by Booker T. Washington. COLLEGIATE DIVISION I THE TEACHERS' COLLEGE 1. School of Agriculture offering a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science; aims to develop teachers of agriculture, farm-demonstration agents, and farmers. New chemical and biological laboratories have recently been fitted with modern equipment. The Whipple Farm of 70 acres is located at the Institute and is equipped with a modern dairy barn, creamery, three greenhouses, horse barn, poultry plant, and poultry-breeding station. The Shellbanks Farm of 850 acres is located four miles from the institute and is easily accessible for agricultural classes. The four-year course offers liberal-arts studies, courses in professional teacher-training work, and intensive work in science and agriculture. Warren K. Blodgett, Director. 2. School of Education offering a four-year high-school teachers' course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science and two two-year courses leading to appropriate diplomas; aims to train teachers for high schools, for grammar grades, and for primary grades. In the four-year course for high-school teachers, two majors must be taken by each student. These majors may be selected from the following fields of work: English, French, Industrial Arts, Latin, Mathematics, Music, Physical Education, Science, and Social Studies. Two majors, however, may be taken in industrial arts, or music, or in physical education. The four-year course includes 16 liberal-arts units and professional work in teacher-training. Wm. Anthony Aery, Director. 3. School of Home Economics offering a two-year course leading to a diploma; aims to train young women to be home makers and teachers of home economics. The equipment is excellent. The home-economics library consists of well-selected books and much illustrative material. A lecture room is so arranged that exhibits and demonstrations can be given. The Practice House, recently given to Hampton by Mrs. Henry A. Strong of Rochester, N. Y., is a simple house of two and a half stories. It has a living-room, dining-room, kitchen, and utility room on the first floor; bedrooms, bath and sleeping-porch on the second; and a storeroom in the half story. It is simply and artistically furnished. It is intended to furnish an ideal home-making experience for the young women. Mrs. Blanche W. Purcell, Director. 4. Summer School for Teachers aims to meet the needs of teachers in service principals, supervisors, high school teachers, elementary teachers, teachers of home economics, and teachers of physical education. It is conducted under the joint auspices of the Virginia State Board of Education and Hampton Institute. It is organized with special reference to the needs of teachers in service principals, supervisors, high-school teachers, elementary teachers, teachers of home economics, and teachers of physical education. George P. Phenix, Director. II THE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS offering a two-year course leading to a diploma; aims to give young men and young women such training in business principles and practice as to prepare them for business positions or to teach business subjects. It offers two two-year collegiate courses General Business Course and Secretarial Course. Practical work is. so planned as to give students the widest possible knowledge of modern business procedure. This school conducts evening classes for the benefit of high-school graduates who are in the Trade School and who wish to secure a knowledge of the fundamental principles of business. These classes are also open to students in the work-year class who- are graduates of high schools. Miss Ethel C. Buckman, Assistant Director. III THE TRADE SCHOOL offering a two-year contractors' and builders' course leading to a diploma and a four-year course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science; aims to train skilled builders by thorough instruction in business methods, field management, building materials, trade practice, structural design, and principles of architecture. A recent and extensive field study made clear the demand for well-trained colored builders. Hampton offers for the first time a four-year builders' course, open to graduates of standard high schools for which the degree of Bachelor of Science will be given. Students without trade experience may enter this eourse, provided they take extra work in a building trade during the first and second years and work at this trade for three summers. Hampton alumni have agreed to see that every graduate of the builders' courses receives adequate financial backing when he starts out in business. The B.S. course of standard grade will train teachers for high schools and colleges. Harry J. DeYar-mett, Director; H. Whittemore Brown, in charge of Builders' Courses. ï»¿August, 1924 OPPORTUNITY 255 Ow n Your Own Home Like This At SPRAIN RIDGE PARK, YONKERS, N.Y. YOU BUY THE LOT WE WILL BUILD FOR YOU LOTS SOLD ON EASY MONTHLY TERMS $25 Will Start You to Own the Land to Build $25 I AC J ,IT\- At Nepperhan Station on the Putnam Division of the New York Central R. R. 45 Minutes from downtown, New York. 25 Minutes from Harlem. Street Car passes property, connecting with New York City Subways and all points. Stores, Churches and Schools close by, including the New Million Dollar High School, ten minutes walk from SPRAIN RIDGE PARK IMPROVEMENTS Water Main, Gas, Electric Lighted Streets and Sidewalks included in your purchase price. YOURSELF Visit the property Note its beauty THE LAWYERS' TITLE & TRUST CO GUARANTEES OUR TITLE For Full Particulars, Write, Telephone or Call Nepperhan Home Building Corporation HARLEM OFFICE New York Age Building 230 West 185th St., N. Y. City Phone Bradhurst 6943 Office Open Daily 9 A. M. to 6 P. M. Wednesday and Friday Evenings until 10 P. M OFFICE Morris Avenue and Tuckahoe Road YONKERS, N. Y. Wanted Reliable Agents Write or call to Harlem Office ï»¿256 OPPORTUNITY August, 1924 NEW JERSEY Manual Training and Industrial School A boarding school for boys and girls over fourteen years of age desiring trades CARPENTRY AUTO MECHANICS DRESSMAKING AGRICULTURE PRINTING PLUMBING. HOME ECONOMICS Junior High School Academic Work Summer School and Camp for Boys and Girls July 7, 1924, to August 15, 1924 Annual Chautauqua, August 7 Opening of Fall Term, September 15 . 'f&j*L*&-s;osfcv[Ad'dress . '*"[ :-AV.Vi^f'â€¢. W. R. VALENTINE, Principal BORDENTOWN, N. J. MORGAN COLLEGE AND BRANCHES John O. Spencer, President SUMMER SCHOOL June 23 August 1, 1924 COLLEGE: Lee M. McCoy, A.D., Litt.D., Dean LOCATION: Great college town between North and South COURSES: Four years on Credit System; Degrees; Pre-Medical; Advanced Education; Certificates for high school teaching FACULTY: University trained. Specialists in Departments SITE: Eighty-five acres, beautiful scenery, stream, hill, forest, athletic fields, Fraternity House DORMITORIES: Equipped and supervised. Can care for 100 boarders and 100 day students ACADEMY: (On the grounds) John W. Haywood, A.M., S.T.D., Principal COURSES: College Preparatory and general INFORMATION: Address Edward N. Wilson, Registrar, Morgan College, Baltimore, Md. PRINCESS ANNE ACADEMY Junior College Grade (Eastern Branch of University of Maryland) COURSES: Preparatory, Normal, Agricultural, Industrial, Domestic, Music INFORMATION: Address the Principal, Thomas H. Kiah, Ped.D., Princess Anne, Md. DORMITORIES OPEN Septmber 20 ALL SCHOOLS OPEN September 22, 1924 With a year's subscription to OPPORTUNITY #1.50 You may procure "THE-NEGRO YEAR BOOK" Edited by Monroe N. Work A standard reference volume on matters relating to the Negro; a compendium of dependable and useful information. Price 50c. With Opportunity $1.60 Address: OPPORTUNITY 127 East 23rd Street, New York City. Tel.: Morningside 4346 T. A. FRENCH, Prop. Emergency Employment Agency HIGH CLASS HELP SUPPLIED male and female of every occupation city or country 2295 SEVENTH AVENUE New York City Phone Audubon 2368 Mail Orders Filled Iris Beauty Shoppe Miss Iris Hall, Prop. KEEP BEAUTIFUL Scalp Treatment. Marcelling, and BobbingfA Specialty-Preparations on Sale 2288 Seventh Avenue new york Phone Morningside 5825 Oratorios Ethyl Oughton-Clarke COLORATURO SOPRANO AND SOLOIST available for concerts and recitals a limited number of pupils 120 West 134th Street, new york Rene Maran Author of 1 c Batouala" in the September issue of Opportunity